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123 Jan. CONSULS:  T.(4) Quinctius FLAMININUS and Q.(3) Caecilius METELLUS 123 DGRBM 2-166, 1058, OCD 678, csm, wikCon
c.123 Consul Q.(3) Caecilius METELLUS sent to clear Balearic islands of pirates until 121. 123 DGRBM 2-1058
c.123 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS is curule aedile, but is prevented by poverty from giving great games. 123 DGRBM 3-736
c.123 Tribune C. GRACCHUS proposes liberal reforms more radical than those of his bro Tiberius.  They include land reforms, full citizenship outside the city, Equites alone can be jurors.  He is opposed by C.(2) Laelius Sapiens.  Equite jurors last until 81. 123
B76 8-263, CAH 9, bk 122 HRE 42,
c.123 Tribune C. GRACCHUS proposes a law to bar reappointment of magistrates deposed by the people, but withdraws it at request of his mother Cornelia. 123 atl2
no date: CAH 9-77
c.123 Q. Aelius TUBERO is praetor. 123 DGRBM 3-1180
c.123 Sextus(4) Julius CAESAR is praetor urbanus. 123 DGRBM 1-537
c.123 LICINA, vestal virgin dau of C. Licinius Crassus, dedicates a chapel in a public place.  The college of pontiffs declare, when the matter is laid before them by order of the senate, that the dedication is invalid, as it had been made in a public place, without the command of the people.  The chapel is removed. 123 DGRBM 2-781
c.123  Lex Acilia repetundarum  by tribune M'(3) Acilius Glabrio:  reforms quaestio de repetundis (court for recovery of property) enacted in Lex Calpurnia 149.  Oversees senatorial class to prevent corruption abroad.  Makes it more severe on extortion. 125 CDGRA 522 123 EDRL 546, OCD 467, SORH, wikLRL
c.123  Lex Sempronia de Capite Civium  by C. Gracchus:  extends Lex Porcia 184, prohibits execution of Roman citizens without trial by the people's assembly. 123 CDGRA 382, DGRA 699, SORH, atl2, unrv
c.123  Lex Militaris  by C. Gracchus requires state to clothe and equip Roman soldiers without deductions from their pay, shorten the term of military service, forbids draft of boys under age 17. 124
DGRBM 2-823 123 SORH, atl2, unrv, wikGG
c.123  Lex Sempronia Agraria  by C. GRACCHUS incorporates all Italians as citizens and distributes public land on a grander scale than that of Tiberius' Lex Agraria 133, which had been blocked by a senatus consultum.  Nullified 111. 123 CDGRA 382, DGRA 698, EDRL 559, GHH, atl2, unrv
no date: LEWH 104
c.123  Lex Sempronia Judicia  by C. Gracchus:  Transfers authority of judges in criminal courts from senate to equites between age 30 and 60.  Repealed 106. 124 DGRBM 2-823
123 CDGRA 279, DGRA 649, EDRL 560, SORH, unrv
122 CDGRA 383, DGRBM 1-1079, atl2
New branch of EQUITES:  ORDO EQUESTRIA formed by Lex Sempronia Judicia.  All judices must be chosen from those who have an equestrian fortune.  Equites become a counter power to senators.  Equites now collect provincial taxes, especially Asia, undertake state contracts, become bankers, userers, and merchants. 123
c.123 P. Rupilius and P.(2) Popillius Laenas, consuls of 132, are condemned for illegal and cruel acts in the prosecution of the friends of Ti.(6) Gracchus. 123 DGRBM 3-679, atl2
c.123 SCYLACIUM on east coast of Bruttium is colonized by instigation of C. Gracchus.  It is fortified and renamed MINERVIUM. 124 DGRG 2-935 123 DGRG 1-564, 2-251, SORH, atl2
c.123 TARENTUM, under Rome from 209, becomes a Roman colony under the name Colonia Neptunia. 123 DGRG 2-251, 1098, SORH, atl2
c.123 Tribune C. GRACCHUS oversees construction of new roads in Italy. 123 atl2
c.123 Tribune C. GRACCHUS encourages foundation of Roman colonies. 123 atl2
c.123 Praetor Sextus(4) Julius Caesar refuses to allow an action to proceed against an heir for breach of contract. 123 atl2
c.123 P.(2) Mucius SCAEVOLA, pontifex maximus 131-15, rules that a shrine dedicated by vestal Licinia is not properly consecrated. 123 atl2
c.123 M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus receives a tiny inheritance from his father. 123 atl2
c.123 C. Fannius is elected consul, with help of support from C. Gracchus. 123 atl2
c.123 Tribune M.(3) Acilius GLABRIO supports C. Gracchus. 122 OCD 467
c.123 P.(2) Popilius LAENAS exiled until 120 by law of C. Gracchus.  Goes into voluntary exile. 123 CAH 9, atl2
no date: OCD 861
c.123  Lex Sempronia de Abactis  by C. Gracchus:  A magistrate forced to resign by a decision of the people cannot obtain another office. 123 EDRL 559
c.123  Lex Sempronia de Provocatione  by C. Gracchus:  Strengthens rules regarding appeal to the people. 123 EDRL 559
c.123  Lex Sempronia de Frumentaria  by C. Gracchus: requires state to buy grain from North Africa and Sicily, store them in bulk to allow distribution of a monthly ration to the poor at below market price.  Passes despite opposition of L.(2) Piso, who says it will set a precedent permitting demagogues to gain popular support by distributing free grain.   Modified 119. 123 CDCC 353, DGRA 548, Dur 3-110, EDRL 559, SORH, TTPC, atl2, unrv     122 Dur III-110, wikGG
no date: LEWH 104
c.123  Lex Sempronia de Provinciis Consularibus  by C. Gracchus: in every year, before the comitia for electing consuls, the senate should determine the 2 provinces which the consuls should have; and the consuls are to settle between themselves by lot. 123 CDGRA 382, 521,
DGRA 699, unrv
122 atl2
123 Dec Tribunes C. GRACCHUS, M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus, M.(1) Livius Drusus re-elected tribune for 122, though Gracchus did not ask for it.  This is accomplished by efforts of M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus. 123 CAH 9, CDCC 402, DGRBM 2-297, GHH, MCAW, OCD 440, SORH, atl2
122 Jan CONSULS:  Gn.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS and C. FANNIUS 122 DGRBM 1-84, 3-922, OCD 361, 356, 429, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.122 Consul Gn.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS sent to Transalpine Gaul to fight Allobroges until 121. 122 B76 7-960, DGRBM 1-84, 3-33
c.122 Consul C. FANNIUS and pleb tribune M.(1) Livius DRUSUS combine to exploit peoples reluctance to extend citizenship as a weapon against C. Gracchus. 122 DGRBM 1-1077, OCD 356, 429
c.122 L. Aurelius ORESTES, in Sardinia from 126, returns to Rome, has triumph. 122 DGRBM 3-43
c.122 Tribune M.(1) Livius DRUSUS opposes some of Gracchus' laws by veto without stated reason. 122 DGRBM 1-1077
c.122 Tribune M.(1) Livius DRUSUS undermines Gracchus' 134 reform program by proposing even more appealing reforms without intending to carry them out.  e.g. large citizen colonies, no corporal punishment for Latins. 122 B76 III-677, DGRBM 1-1077, OCD 365
c.122 Tribune C. GRACCHUS proposes 3 more colonies:  Capua, Tarentum, Carthage, to handle veterans and eastern freedmen, and citizenship for Italian allies, but is opposed by consul Fannius. 122 atl2
no date LEWH 104
c.122  Lex Fania  by consul C. Fannius:  Same as Junia de Peregrinis 126.  Expells Latini and Italici from Rome.  Essentially an attempt to negate the vote for proposed Gracchan legislation. 122 DGRA 693, unrv
c.122 Tribune M.(1) Livius DRUSUS, a tool of the senate, proposes some popular laws, in opposition to C. Gracchus. 122 SORH atl2
c.122  Lex Sempronia de Provincii Asiatica  by C. Gracchus regulates taxation of provinces, specifically Asia, to prevent corruption.  The duty of collecting taxes is removed from provincial governors, and auctioned off to the highest bidder. 123 SORH unrv
122 GHH, atl2
c.122  Lex Rubria  by C. Gracchus authorizes a colony (called Junonia) on the ruins of Carthage.  Repealed 121. 123 CAH 9-28, atl2 122 wikLRL
c.122  Leges Liviae  by tribune M.(1) Livius Drusus, remits rent on new lands allotted by Gracchan laws, proposes 12 Italian colonies of 3,000 men each (soon shelved), forbids Roman officers to flog Latin soldiers (probably not carried). 122 SORH
c.122 Tribune C. GRACCHUS passes legislation that requires juries for criminal cases to be drawn from the 300 senators and 300 equites. 122 wikGG
c.122 EQUITES become jurors in extortion courts which investigate activities of provincial governors. 122 B76 VIII-284
c.122  Franchise Bill  proposed by tribune C. GRACCHUS would have granted citizenship to all Latin citizens and extension of Latin citizenship to all Italian allies.  Opposed by consul Fannius.  Rejected because plebs don't want to share benefits of citizenship, including cheap grain and entertainment. 122 GHH, SORH, wikGG
c.122 Superstitious objections arise against Gracchus' Carthaginian colonization project.  e.g.  P.(6) Scipio Africanus has cursed the site. 122 MCAW
c.122 More omens:  3 moons are visible in the sky at the same time.  (Suns 174, 118) 122 atl2
c.122 C. Fannius Strabo expels all aliens from Rome. 122 atl2
c.122 Q. Aelius Tubero opposes reforms of Gracchus. 122 atl2
c.122 Aedile M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS concentrates on administering law. 122 atl2
c.122 Tribune C. Sempronius GRACCHUS goes to Carthage to organize its refounding.  M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus accompanies. 122 DGRBM 2-155, LEWH 104, MCAW, atl2
c.122 Tribune M.(1) Livius DRUSUS attacks M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus while Gracchus is absent in Carthage. 122 atl2
c.122 C.(2) Papirius CARBO, with Gracchans from ?, defects to Optimates. 122 B76 II-548
c.122 CASTRA HANNIBALIS, the seaport of Minervium in Bruttium, started from 300 settlers in 199, receives a larger Roman colony. 122 DGRG 1-563
c.122 Staunch aristocrat L. Opimius is elected consul, at 2nd try. 122 SORH, atl2
122 Dec C. GRACCHUS, tribune from 123, defeated for re-election. 122 B76 8-264, CAH 9, MCAW, atl2
121 Jan CONSULS:  Q.(10) Fabius Maximus ALLOBROGICUS and L. OPIMIUS, a staunch aristocrat 121 CDCC 626, DGRBM 2-995, 3-33, LdHR 2-215, OCD 427, 753, csm, wikCon
c.121 4th TRIUMPHAL ARCH built in the Via Sacra by Q.(10) Fabius Maximus, the 1st one in the Forum area.  None of the 4 first arches survive. 121
B76 X-133, DGRA 125
c.121 M.(3) Minucius RUFUS becomes pleb tribune. 121 DGRBM 3-675
c.121 Tribune M.(3) Minucius Rufus and consul L. Opimius repeal some Gracchan laws. 121 CAH 9-83, DGRBM 3-675, atl2
c.121 Orator C. Scribonius CURIO is praetor. 121 DGRBM 1-901
c.121 C. Gracchus' Carthaginian colonization bill, Lex Rubria 122, repealed.  Gracchus protests in the Forum.  Causes riot. 121 CAH 9-28, LEWH 104, MCAW, SORH
c.121 Q. ANTYLLIUS is killed by supporters of C. Gracchus. 121 atl2
c.121 Senate declares state of emergency, blames riot on C. Gracchus, declares him a public enemy, calls on consuls and magistrates to use force, passes the 1st senatus consultum de re publica defenda (aka senatus consultum ultimum) granting consul Opimius the right to defend the state and rid it of tyrants.  This is interpreted by the senate as license to murder C. Gracchus. 121
CAH 9-494, CDCC 807, atl2, wikSCU, wikTAR
no date: CAH 9, LEWH 104
c.121 M.(4) Fulvius FLACCUS keeps a mob ready to fight the senatorial party.  Spends the night feasting with friends.  At daybreak he and his band go to sieze the Aventine Hill.  C. Gracchus joins them, advises against violence, persuades Flaccus to send his younger son to the forum to reconcile with the senatorial party.  Opimius refuses, and sends the envoy back with demands to surrender Gracchus and Flaccus prior to negotiations.  Flaccus again sends his son, and Opimius imprisons him.  The senatorials advance against the Gracchan band, which disperses. 121 DGRBM 2-155
c.121 Consul Q.(3) Caecilius METELLUS, in Balearic islands from 123, returns to Rome.  Triumphs.  Surnamed BALIARICUS. 121 DGRBM 2-1058
c.121 Tribune M.(4) Fulvius FLACCUS, pro-Gracchan, and his elder son flee to a public bath.  They are discovered and killed.  2 daus and son M. F. C. Bambalio survive. 121 B76 15-1101, CAH 9, DGRBM 2-155, atl2
c.121 C. GRACCHUS, despairing of his life, retires to the temple of Diana, and is going to kill himself.  His friends M. Pomponius and Licinius take his sword, and induce him to flee.  As they flee across the Sublician bridge, hotly pursued, Pomponius and Licinius turn round, and allow no one to pass until they are killed. 121 DGRBM 3-493
c.121 Son of Ti.(5) Gracchus, C. GRACCHUS dies.  Has himself killed by a servant to avoid public execution.  Someone cuts off his head, and is later rewarded by Opimius with its weight in gold. 121 B76 15-1101, CAH 9, Dur 3-110, MCAW, SORH, atl2, bk
c.121 P.(5) Cornelius Lentulus is sent on an embassy to Sicily. 121 atl2
c.121 Consul L. OPIMIUS abuses the senatus consultum ultimum to execute Gracchan followers, and rid Rome of Gracchan supporters.  3,000 Gracchans are killed. 121 CAH 9, CDCC 626, DGRBM 1-610, MCAW, SORH, atl2
c.121 Fate of the Gracchan laws:  Laws left in place include grain dole, taxation of Asia Province, jury courts, lands already assigned by the 3 commissioners.  Laws annulled: Colony at Carthage, Italian colonies except Neptunia, extension of citizenship to allies. 121 SORH
c.121 Temple of Concord Temple of CONCORD west of the Vulcanal, restored in 211 on the Capitoline, restored again by consul L. Opimius on instruction of senate, to celebrate the deaths of the Gracchi.  Lasts until 55. model: L.VII.C

121 DGRG 2-788, GHH, SORH, atl2, wikTC
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 2 temples of Concord on the Capitoline.   Sources rarely say which one they are talking about.
c.121 BITUITUS king of the Arverni, is imprisoned at Alba Fucens, then paraded in triumph. 121 atl2
c.121 Omens include the shape of a bow around the sun. 121 atl2
c.121 Λ Italian WINE has an exceptionally good year. 121 DGRA 1206, SHT 1-34, atl2
Italian WINE of 1st cen. BCE can compete with Greek. SHT 1-34
120 Jan CONSULS:  Optimate C.(2) Papirius CARBO and P. MANILIUS 120 B76 II-548, DGRBM 1-610, OCD 204, csm, wikCon
c.120 Λ CENSORS V Q.(3) Caecilius Metellus Balearicus and L.(2) Calpurnius Piso Frugi, both plebs 120 DGRBM 2-917, 1058, 3-373, OCD 678, 836, wikCon, wikLC
c.120 Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA is made praetor and sent to Asia Province until 120. 121 DGRBM 3-733 120 B76 VIII-940, wikLRGA
c.120 L. OPIMIUS accused of putting Gracchans to death 121 without trial, prosecuted by tribune P. Decius Subulo and consul C.(2) Papirius Carbo (a former Gracchan).  Carbo then reverses and defends Opimius, who is acquitted. 120 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-610, 947, 3-33, GHH, OCD 316, SORH, atl2
c.120 C. MARIUS, age 37, of equestrian family, backed by the Caecilii Metelli family, elected pleb tribune for 119, with help of the Metelli. 120 atl2     119 DGRBM 2-952, Dur 3110, LdHR 2-229, MCAW, OCD 648, wikGM
c.120 Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA, praetor in Asia Province from 121, returns and is prosecuted for extortion by T. Albucius, probably on mere personal grounds.  Acquitted. 120 DGRBM 3-733
c.120 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS becomes praetor, and is nominated princeps senatus and confirmed by the Senate, an office which he holds until death 89. 120 wikMAS
c.120 C.(3) Sulpicius GALBA is quaestor. 120 DGRBM 2-205
c.120 P.(2) Popilius LAENAS, exiled by a Gracchan law from 123, recalled thru a law passed by pleb tribune L. Calpurnius Bestia. 121 DGRBM 1-485 120 OCD 166, atl2 no date: OCD 861
Fortuna Primigenia
Temple & Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia     Drawing from HR2CE v1.2, p271
c.120 Fortuna PrimigeniaTEMPLE of FORTUNA PRIMAGENIA (original) built at top of Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia at Praeneste.  A series of 4 terraces and porticos on a hillside.  Dedicated to goddess Fortuna (fate).   Renovated 80. photo:
Camelia boban

more photos

120 wikPls
Temple of Apollo
plan: {{PD-US}}                       photo of ruins with Mt. Vesuvius on left: General Cucombre      
c.120 Temple of APOLLO at Pompeii from 6th cen., rebuilt in the forum (market place) facing the north side of the town.  Built on a high podium with 48 Ionic columns.  Will be damaged by earthquake in 62CE with repairs incomplete at the time of the eruption. 120 MCAW, wikTAP
Pompeii theaters
Large theater left 120BCE,   small (Odeon) theater right 80BCE       photo: Brooklyn Museum
c.120 Earliest STONE THEATER in Italy built into a hill at Pompeii.  5,000 seats in tiers.  Lowest section is reserved for senators, magistrates, and other nobles.  Middle section sat the middle class and the top is reserved for plebs.  The smaller theater on the right will be built c.80. 120 CDCC 71 199-100 wikθAP
119 Jan CONSULS:  L.(3) Aurelius COTTA and L.(5) Caecilius METELLUS DELMATICUS 119 CAH 9-88, DGRBM 1-867, 1058, OCD 678, csm, wikCon
CONFUSION ALERT!  L.(5) Caecilius METELLUS DELMATICUS, son of L.(4) Metellus Calvus, is often confused with L.(6) Caecilius METELLUS DIADEMATUS, son of Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus. DGRBM 2-1058
c.119 Land Comission of 133 abolished. 119 CAH 9-99     118 Dur 3-118
c.119 Consul L.(5) Caecilius METELLUS declares war on the Dalmatians, who had committed no offence against Rome.  He goes to Illyria. 119 DGRBM 2-1058, DGRG 1-747
c.119  Lex Tabellaria  by tribune C. MARIUS:  checks undue influence by optimates on voters.  Senate and consuls Cotta and L.(5) Metellus oppose. 119 CAH 9-86, OCD 648, SORH, atl2
c.119 C.(2) Papirius CARBO prosecuted for maiestas (extortion?) by L. Licinius Crassus, and brought to trial by M.(3) Antonius.  City praetor Q.(11) Fabius Maximus EBURNUS presides at the impeachment.  Carbo suicides by poison.  Crassus launches a political career. 119 B76 II-548, III-222, CAH 9-506, DGRBM 1-610, GHH, OCD 204, SORH, atl2
118 DGRBM 2-995 111 atl2
c.119  Lex Maria  By tribune C. Marius:  restricts the size of bridges across which voters cross to fill and deposit their ballots.  Therefore there is no room on those bridges for aristocrats to stand and intimidate voters.  Checks undue influence by optimates on voters.  Consuls Cotta and L.(5) Metellus oppose. 119 B76 11-504, CAH 9, DGRA 695, 1091, EDRL 556, OCD 648, atl2, unrv
c.119 Consul COTTA proposes that tribune C. MARIUS should be called to account for  Lex Maria  relative to voting.  Marius is summoned to senate, but instead of defending himself, he threatens Cotta with imprisonment, unless he backs off. 119 DGRBM 1-867
c.119 Tribune C. MARIUS opposes extension of grain dole, and M.(2) Octavius passes a law to reduce the grain dole. 119 atl2
c.119 Tribune Sp. Thorius passes an agrarian law. 119 atl2
c.119 Consuls Cotta and L.(5) Metellus defeat the Illyrian Segestani around Segestica. 119 atl2
c.119  Lex Octavia Frumentaria  by tribune M.(2) Octavius:  Modifies the 123 frumentaria law of C. Gracchus regarding grain dole to ease the burden on the treasury.  He probably either raises the price of grain, or reduces the size of the distribution to each citizen. 119 unrv
c.119 P. Decius SUBULO, former Gracchan, accused repetundarum.  Acquitted. 119 OCD 316
118 Jan CONSULS:  Q. MARCIUS REX and M.(3) Porcius CATO (grandson of Censorinus).  Q. Aelius TUBERO is suffect. 118 DGRBM 1-644, 3-646, 1180, csm, wikCon
c.118 Consul M.(3) Porcius CATO is sent to Tunisia.  In Africa until death 116. 118 rcNA
c.118 POLYBIUS, Greek historian of Roman history, dies.  His work covers 221-144.  Only part is extant. 122 MCAW     118 B76 8-388, 10-1094, 14-762
c.118 Consul Q. Marcius Rex, to secure some passage over the Alps, attacks the Stoeni, an Alpine Ligurian people at the foot of the Alps, all of whom die, either by sword or suicide. 118 DGRBM 3-646, DGRG 1-954, SORH
c.118 L. Licinius CRASSUS defends proposal for a new colony at Narbo in Gaul.  Senate opposes. 118 DGRBM 1-875
c.118 Q. Marcius Rex defeats the Styni, an Alpine tribe. 118 atl2
c.118 Domitius Ahenobarbus joins young orator, L. Licinius Crassus, in legislating in defiance of senatorial authority for the foundation of Narbo Martius (Narbonne). 118 CAH 9-24, 86
c.118 Q.(3) Mucius Scaevola is accused of extortion by T. Albucius. 118 atl2
c.118 Praetor P. Rutilius, introduces a new procedure in cases of bankruptcy. 118 atl2
c.118 Omens include appearance of 3 different suns in sky at same time.  (Same 174, moons 122) 118 atl2
c.118 Decimus BRUTUS offers sacrifices to the dead in December, instead of usual date in February. 118 atl2
c.118 CALENDAR:  Decimus BRUTUS makes December the last month of Roman year. 118 atl2
117 Jan CONSULS:  L.(6) Caecilius Metellus DIADEMATUS and Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA 117 B76 VIII-940, DGRBM 2-1058, 3-733, OCD 622, 957, csm, wikCon
CONFUSION ALERT!  L.(5) Caecilius METELLUS DELMATICUS, son of L.(4) Metellus Calvus, is often confused with L.(6) Caecilius METELLUS DIADEMATUS, son of Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus. DGRBM 2-1058
c.117 A bronze tablet, written in early Latin, says a boundary dispute arose between Genoa and Veiturii just west of it.  The question is referred to the senate, which appoints 2 bros of the Minucius Rufus family to decide it. 117 DGRG 1-987
c.117 Elections at Rome:  C. Marius, no longer supported by the Metelli, fails to be elected aedile.  M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus fails to be elected consul. 117 atl2
c.117 Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum from 484 is enlarged and rebuilt by L.(5) Metellus Delmaticus.  Lasts until 73. 117 atl2, wikTCP
c.117 Via CaeciliaVIA CAECILIA, a spur off the Via Salaria (probably from Interocrium) to Amiternum and Interamna, completed to the Adriatic coast by L. Caecilius Metellus Diadematus.  It is disputed whether it went to Castrum Novum or thru Hadria. 117 wikVC
117-15 wikVC
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is another Castrum Novum directly opposite on the west coast.
116 Jan CONSULS:  Q.(11) Fabius Maximus EBURNUS and C. Licinius GETA 116 DGRBM 2-266, 995, csm, wikCon
c.116 ADHERBAL, co-king of Numidia with Jugurtha from 118, politically trumped, flees to Rome for aid. 117 DGRBM 3-736, GHH     116 CAH 9, OCD 566     no date: DGRBM 2-638
c.116 JUGURTHA sends envoys with much money for bribes to Rome to counter Adherbal. 117 DGRBM 3-736
no date: DGRBM 2-638
c.116 ADHERBAL, complains to senate about Jugurtha's aggression; Jugurtha's envoys bribe senators to win support.  Among those who refuse are M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus. 117 DGRBM 3-736
116 atl2
c.116 Senate decrees division of the kingdom of Numidia between Jugurtha and Adherbal. 117 DGRBM 2-638
116 atl2     no date OCD 566
c.116 10 senators led by L. OPIMIUS are sent to restore order in Numidia. 117 DGRBM 2-638, GHH     116 CAH 9-29, SORH, atl2,     112 DGRBM 3-33     no date OCD 566
c.116 Consul Q.(11) Fabius Maximus EBURNUS condemns one of his sons to death for immorality.  Being subsequently accused by Gn. Pompeius Strabo of exceeding the limits of the "patria potestas" he goes into exile, probably to Nuceria. 116 DGRBM 2-995
c.116 C. Marius bribes his way to barely win election as praetor for 115, and is accused of ambitus (electoral corruption). 116 Dur 3-110, atl2, wikGM
c.116 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS, an unsuccessful candidate for consul of 116, prosecutes P. Rutilius after consular elections, also unsuccessfully. 116 DGRBM 3-736, atl2
115 Jan CONSULS:  M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS and M.(4) Caecilius METELLUS 115 B76 VIII-949, CAH 9-88, DGRBM 2-1058, 3-736, OCD 601, 958, csm, wikCon, wikMAS
c.115 Λ CENSORS V L.(6) Caecilius Metellus Diadematus and Gn.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus, both plebs, usually severe 115 DGRBM 1-84, 2-1058, OCD 361, wikCon, wikLC
c.115 Praetor urbanus P. DECIUS SUBULO offends consul M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS by remaining seated as Scaurus passes by.  Scaurus orders him to rise.  Decius refuses.  Scaurus rips Decius clothes, breaks his chair, and commands that nobody patronize Decius. 115 DGRBM 1-948, OCD 316, 958, atl2
c.115 Consul M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus proposes a sumptuary law, which is ooposed by M.(7) Aemilius Lepidus Porcina. 115 DGRBM 2-764, 3-736, atl2
c.115 M. Tullius CICERO at Arpinum aggitates for voting by ballot.  Bro-in-law M. Gratidius, also at Arpinum, opposes it, and proposes a  Lex Tabellaria .  Cicero is married to Gratidia, sis of M. Gratidius.  The lex tabellaria is referred to consul M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus, who finds in favor of Cicero, and says his talents are wasted in a country town. 115 DGRBM 1-708, 2-303
c.115  Lex Aemilia Sumtuaria  possibly by consul M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus (or by M.(9) Aemilius Lepidus in 78, but there are possibly 2 related laws passed in both years):  Limits the kind and quantity of food to be used in festivals / entertaining. 116 GHH 115 DGRA 1077, EDRL 547, unrv
c.115 LIBERTINI, aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves, are again (See 169) classed among the 4 urban tribes by  Lex Aemilia Sumtuaria .  They remain so until the end of the Republic. 116 DGRA 731, GHH
c.115 Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS Macedonicus, anti-Gracchan, dies while his son M.(4) is consul.  He is regarded as an example of good fortune to end of his life. 115 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1057, 3-64, atl2
c.115 Consul M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS defeats Ligurians.  Scaurus' army shows restraint by not damaging the countryside thru which it is marching. 115 B76 VIII-949, atl2
c.115 Ligurians submit to Rome. 115 GHH
c.115 Consul M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS pushes east across Julian Alps into Gaul, campaigns against the Taurisci, Karni, and others, establishes Roman influence. 115 CAH 9-108, DGRBM 3-736, SORH
c.115 Censors L.(6) Metellus and Domitius review the senate, expell 22 or 32 senators including C. Licinius Geta. 115 DGRBM 1-84, 2-266, 1058, LdHR 2-254, atl2
c.115 Censors L.(6) Metellus and Domitius redistribute public land in Italy and Africa. 115 atl2
c.115 Temple of Juno is struck by lightning. 115 atl2
c.115 Consul M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS tries to introduce worship of god Alburnus. 115 atl2
c.115 Praetor urbanus M.(1) Livius Drusus allows an action on breach of contract against an heir. 115 atl2
c.115 P.(2) Mucius SCAEVOLA pontifex maximus, publishes official Roman historical records, called  Annales Maximi . 115 atl2
c.115 L.(2) Calpurnius PISO is surnamed Frugi (thrifty, virtuous) because of his integrity. 115 atl2
c.115 P.(2) Mucius SCAEVOLA, pontifex maximus from 131, dies.  L.(5) Caecilius METELLUS DALMATICUS succeeds until 103. 115 atl2, wikPM
c.115 C. MARIUS is made urban praetor, president of the extortion court. 116 Dur 3-110     115 DGRBM 2-953, OCD 648, SORH, wikGM
c.115 C. Marius, having bribed his way to election as praetor, is impeached for bribery.  His patron C. Herennius refuses to testify against him, alleging that it is unlawful for a patron to injure his client.  Marius is acquitted. 115 DGRBM 2-407, Dur 3-110, atl2
114 Jan CONSULS:  Manius Acilius BALBUS and C. Porcius CATO 114 DGRBM 1-455, 645, OCD 215, csm, wikCon
c.114 Consul C. Porcius CATO is sent to Macedonia. 114 DGRBM 1-645
c.114 M.(4) Caecilius METELLUS, consul of 115, is sent as proconsul to Sardinia. 114 DGRBM 1-1058
c.114 HELVIA, dau of equite L. Helvius, traveling from Rome to Apulia, is killed by lightning.  From this "omen" the Haruspices (Etruscan diviners specializing in reading sheep and poultry entrails) predict impending disgrace to the vestal priesthood and to the equestrian order. 114 DGRBM 2-380, atl2
c.114 Vestal virgin AEMILIA is seduced by Roman knight L. Veturius.  Wanting to spread the guilt, she induces vestals Marcia and Licinia to submit to the friends of her seducer. 114 DGRBM 2-781
c.114 5 VESTALS, including Licinia, Marcia, Aemilia, accused of unchastity.  2 acquitted until 113 by pontifex maximus L.(5) Metellus Dalmaticus. 114 DGRBM 1-879, 2-1058, OCD 678
c.114 Vestal virgin Licinia CRASSUS defended by kinsman L. Licinius Crassus and C. Curio.  She is acquitted. 114 DGRBM 1-879, 2-781, atl2
c.114 Vestal virgin Aemilia is found guilty of breaking her chastity vow. 114 atl2
c.114  Lex Peducaea  sets up a special tribunal to judge unchaste Vestal Virgins and their seducers, thus replacing the jurisdiction of the pontifex maximus. 114 CAH 9-86 113 DGRA 695
c.114 Praetor C. MARIUS is made governor of Farther Spain until 113. 114 B76 11-504, wikGM
c.114 Last official religious human sacrifice in Rome.   But see 101. 114 bk
c.114 Λ CENSUS V records 394,336 Roman citizens. 115 GHH, MCAW     114 atl2
c.114 SULPICIA, dau of Ser. Sulpicius Paterculus, and wife of Q. Fulvius Flaccus, is chosen, as chastest woman in Rome, to dedicate the statue and temple of Venus Verticordia, believed to turn the minds of women from vice to virtue. 114 DGRBM 1-1005, 3-935
c.114 Omens include appearance of a circle around the sun, and a rain shower of milk and blood. 114 atl2
113 Jan CONSULS:  Gn.(1) Papirius CARBO and C. Caecilius METELLUS CAPRARIUS 113 DGRBM 1-606, 611, 2-1058, csm, wikCon
c.113 L.(1) Cassius LONGINUS RAVILLA, having a reputation for justice and severity, is appointed by the people special investigator in the 5 vestals case of 114, because the pontiffs are thought to have improperly acquitted 2 of them, Marcia and Licinia.  He convicts Marcia and Licinia, and other people involved. 113 DGRBM 2-798, 939, OCD 212, atl2
c.113 Consul C. Caecilius Metellus CAPRARIUS is sent to Macedonia Province. 113 CAH 9-108, DGRBM 2-1058
c.113 Quaestor M.(3) Antonius (the orator) is summoned before L.(1) Cassius Longinus' enquiry, but is soon cleared of guilt. 113 CAH 9-108, DGRBM 1-213
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS WAR with Rome begins until 101. 113 Dur 3-110, GHH
c.113 Gn.(1) Papirius CARBO defeated by Cimbri and Teutons at Noreia (unknown location in Noricum), loses much of his army, and narrowly escapes. 113 DGRBM 1-655, DGRG 1-955, 2-447, Dur 3-118, GHH, LdHR 2-240, LEWH 105, MCAW, SORH     112 wikTrs
c.113 A "night sun" appears in the Roman sky. 113 atl2
112 Jan CONSULS:  L.(3) Calpurnius PISO CAESONIUS and M.(1) Livius DRUSUS 112 B76 III-677, DGRBM 1-1078, 3-372, OCD 166, 365, csm, wikCon
c.112 Consul M.(1) Livius DRUSUS is sent to Macedonia Province until 110. 112 B76 III-677, CAH 9-108
c.112 C. Porcius CATO is tried and convicted of extortion. 113 SORH     112 atl2
c.112 CUI BONO? "to whose benefit?" is made a popular legal maxim by judge and jurist L.(1) Cassius Longinus Ravilla. 112 atl2
c.112 Pleb tribune Gn. Aufidius passes a law to allow elephants to be imported for display in circuses. 112 atl2
c.112 Romans grant allies some rights on public land. 112 atl2
c.112 MASSIVA, son of Gulussa, flees to Rome. 112 DGRBM 2-971
c.112 Senate is told that JUGURTHA of Numidia bribed some Roman generals. 112 DGRBM 2-638
c.112 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS sent as envoy to Numidia. 112 B76 VIII-949, DGRBM 3-736, atl2
c.112 By influence of the merchant class and a senate minority, tribune Memmius proposes war on Numidia's Jugurtha.  Rome declares JUGURTHINE WAR. 112 B76 15-1101, SORH, atl2, SORH, bk     111 Dur 3-118
111 Jan CONSULS:  P.(12) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA and L. Calpurnius BESTIA 111 B76 I-1027, DGRA 699, DGRBM 1-485, 3-752, csm, wikCon
c.111 Consuls P.(12) SCIPIO NASICA and BESTIA suspend all public business, that the levies for the war with Jugurtha might proceed without interruption. 111 CAH 9-88, DGRBM 2-299
c.111 A son of JUGURTHA loaded with bribing gold arrives at Rome.  Senate learns of it and orders him to leave within 10 days. 111 LdHR 2-226
c.111 C. MEMMIUS, ardent opponent of the oligarchic party at Rome, is pleb tribune. 111 DGRBM 2-1026
c.111 Tribune C. MEMMIUS, passes a bill requiring praetor L.(2) Cassius, Longinus to bring Jugurtha to Rome for questioning. 111 CAH 9-88, SORH
c.111 L.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS is made praetor and sent to Numidia to bring Jugurtha to Rome. 111 DGRBM 2-799
c.111 C. LUSIUS, neph of C. Marius, is military tribune in the Cimbri war until 106. 111 DGRBM 2-843
c.111 Consul L. Calpurnius BESTIA rejects an embassy from Jugurtha and sails to Numidia. 111 atl2
c.111 JUGURTHINE WAR begins officially until later 111, ends 105. 112 B76, CAH 9, CDCC 477, Dur 3-110, OCD 566, SORH, bk     111 Dur 3-118, MCAW, OCD 166 no date OCD 958
c.111  Lex Thoria Agraria  by tribune Sp. Thorius:  Nullifies Leges Agraria 133 & 123.  Discontinues land distributions and tax on land, but allows those who had already taken possession to keep said land.  Allows lands to be sold.  Rents due the state for such land was to be distributed to the poor.  All Gracchan land reform has now been nullified. 119/8 CDGRA 15, 383, EDRL 560
111 B76 I-143, CAH 9-5, 74, 87, 587, CDGRA 383, DGRA 41, 700, EDRL 547, GHH, LEWH 104
c.111 JUGURTHA king of west Numidia 115-05, is brought to Rome by L.(2) Cassius Longinus.  Jugurtha bribes tribune C. Baebius.  Tribune C. Memmius attacks the men bribed, but is prevented from interrogating Jugurtha by veto of tribune C. Baebius.  The investigation collapses. 112/1 CDCC 477 111 DGRBM 1-452, LdHR 2-227, OCD 668, SORH, atl2
110 MCAW
108 DGRBM 2-971
c.111 When Jugurtha, comes to Rome, MASSIVA son of Gulussa, who has been there since 112, is induced by the unfavorable disposition of the senate towards Jugurtha, and by instigations of consul Sp. Albinus, to bid for the kingdom of Numidia.  Jugurtha has Massiva murdered. 108 DGRBM 2-971
c.111 JUGURTHA of Numidia, in Rome on bribery charges, his parting comment, "In Rome all things are for sale." 111 OCD 668, SORH 110 GHH, atl2
c.111 Consul P.(12) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA dies. 111 DGRBM 3-752, atl2
c.111 FIRE destroys parts of Rome. 111 atl2
c.111 Temple of CYBELE (Magna Mater) on west slope of the Palatine Hill from 194, destroyed by fire until 109. 111 atl2, wikTCP
110 DGRG 2-803
110 Jan CONSULS:  Sp.(2) Postumius ALBINUS and M.(4) Minucius RUFUS 110 CDCC 584, DGRBM 1-92, 3-675, csm, wikCon
110 Consul Sp.(2) Postumius ALBINUS is sent to Numidia to fight Jugurtha. 110 DGRBM 1-92, LdHR 2-227
110 Consul M.(4) Minucius RUFUS is sent to Macedonia Province. 110 DGRBM 3-675
c.110 L. ANNIUS is pleb tribune. 110 DGRBM 1-181
c.110 P. Licinius LUCULLUS, is pleb tribune.  He combines with colleague, L. Annius, to procure their joint reelection, but this is opposed by the rest of the tribunes.  Their dissensions prevent elections of magistrates from taking place during the remainder of the year. 111 SORH 110 DGRBM 2-839
c.110 C. MAMILIUS LIMETANUS is pleb tribune.  He proposes a bill by which inquiry is to be made against all accused of taking bribes from Jugurtha, or had in any way favored his designs.  Because of popular indignation, the senate dares not resist.  M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus contrives to be appointed one of the 3 quaesitores, elected under the bill, to prosecute the criminals.  Though Scaurus saves himself, he is unable to save any of his accomplices. 110 DGRBM 2-787, 3-736     109 B76 VIII-949
c.110 L. Bestia, C.(3) Sulpicius GALBA, Sp. Albinus, L. Opimius, and others are condemned for taking bribes from Jugurtha.  Pinishment is not mentioned. 110 DGRBM 1-486, 2-782, SORH
c.110 C. Porcius CATO is accused of accepting bribe from Jugurtha, and goes to Tarraco Spain. 110 DGRBM 1-645
c.110 M.(1) Livius DRUSUS, proconsul of Macedonia from 112, returns to Rome and triumph. 110 B76 III-677, OCD 365
c.110 Pleb C. MARIUS marries patrician JULIA Caesar, dau of C.(2) Julius Caesar & Marcia (dau of praetor Q. Marcius Rex).  According to Plutarch, this launches his political career. 118 MCAW
110 lvJ1, wikJCwM
no date: wikGJC
c.110 Q. Aelius TUBERO, renowned law expert, strictly observes the luxury restrictions of Lex Fannia 161. 110 atl2
c.110 EQUITES press for continuance of Jugurthine War, seeing Numidia as a new real estate opportunity. 110 MCAW
c.110 M.(1) Licinius Crassus is called Agelastus "Unsmiling" by poet C. Lucilius because he only laughed once in his whole life. 110 atl2
c.110 Temple to Spes (See 254), Fides, and Fortuna built at Capua. 110 wikSp
c.110 OYSTERS cultivated near Baiae on northwest shore of Gulf of Naples by Sergius Orata, who makes a fortune off them.  1st western effort to domesticate marine animals.  (pearls 105) 110 TTPC
c.110 Favorinus is tribune. 110 DGRBM 2-139
c.110  Lex Mamilia  by tribune C. Mamilius Limetanus:  sets up equestrian commission to investigate mishandling of Jugurtha affair. 110 DGRBM 2-205
Appoints arbiters to clarify disputes between landlords. 109 unrv
c.110 Tribunes P. Lucullus and L. Annius try to continue in office for 109, but are thwarted by other tribunes. 110 DGRBM 1-181
c.110 Tribunes P. Lucullus and L. Annius prevent consular elections from being held. 110 atl2
109 Jan CONSULS:  Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS NUMIDICUS and M. Junius SILANUS 109 B76 VI-836, 15-1101, DGRBM 2-1059, 3-819, OCD 678, csm, wikCon
c.109 Λ CENSORS V patrician M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS and pleb M.(1) Livius DRUSUS, who dies next year. 109 DGRBM 1-1078, 3-736, SORH, wikCon, wikLC, wikMAS
c.109 Via Aemilia ScauraVIA AEMILIA SCAURA (not to be confused with Via Aemilia), continues Via Postumia from Genoa south thru Luna to Pisa by censor M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus, who also restores several bridges. 109 B76 VIII-949,
DGRBM 3-736, DGRG 1-944, 2-185, 1288, SORH wikMAS
c.109 PO VALLEY drained to make new land for veterans.  The canals are also used to connect the Po to Parma for boat passage. 109 TTT
c.109 Censor M.(1) Livius DRUSUS dies.  Colleague M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS is pressed by custom to resign, but continues in office till the tribunes threaten him with imprisonment. 109 B76 III-677, DGRBM 3-736, OCD 365, 958, atl2
c.109 Senate rejects Aulus(3) Albinus' treaty with Jugurtha.  Sp.(2) Albinus returns to Africa. 109 atl2
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS is obstructed by tribunes, when he tries to take new forces to Africa after Aulus(3) Albinus' defeat. 109 CAH 9-89
c.109 Censor M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS organises building works, including temples of Fides and Mens. 109 atl2
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS appointed to command in Numidia Africa, recruits extra soldiers, sails.  Son Q.(5) Caecilius Metellus Pius accompanies. 109 B76 15-1101, DGRBM 2-1059, atl2
c.109 C. MARIUS, age 48, chosen as legate to consul Q.(4) Metellus. 109 B76 11-504, DGRBM 2-953, wikGM
c.109 Consul M. Junius SILANUS is sent to Transalpine Gaul to fight the Cimbri. 109 CAH 9-24, DGRBM 1-655, 2-955, 3-819, DGRG 1-954, GHH, LdHR 2-240, MCAW, SORH, atl2     no date: OCD 240
c.109 Laws which hinder preparations for war are repealed. 109 CAH 9-37, atl2
c.109 Temple of CYBELE (Magna Mater) on Palatine Hill, burnt from 111, restored by Q.(4) Caecilius Metellus.  Stands until burnt c.30. 110 DGRG 2-803 109 atl2
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS is sent to Numidia until 108.  C. Marius is senior legate. 109 B76 VI-836, OCD 648, atl2
c.109 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 110 DGRBM 1-534 109 OCD 188
c.109 Pleb tribune C. MAMILIUS LIMETANUS sets up equestrian 3 man commission under M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus (of all people) to investigate mishandling of Jugurtha affair.  Condemns L. Calpurnius Bestia, C. Porcius Cato, C.(3) Sulpicius Galba, L. Opimius, Postumius Albinus.  Apparently Cato, Galba, and Albinus are executed. 109 LdHR 2-228, OCD 642, atl2
c.109 L. Calpurnius BESTIA flees into exile. 109 B76 I-1027
c.109 L. OPIMIUS is exiled to Dyrrhachium where he lives several years hated by the people, and dies in poverty. 109 DGRBM 3-33
c.109 Milvian BridgeMILVIAN BRIDGE, where Via Flaminia crosses the Tiber north of Rome, made of wood from 206, rebuilt in stone by censor M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus. 115 wikPM 109 CDGRA 495, DGRBM 3-736, MCAW, wikVF
108 Jan CONSULS:  Ser.(4) Sulpicius GALBA and L. HORTENSIUS 108 DGRBM 2-205, csm, wikCon
c.108 Λ CENSORS V patrician Q.(11) Fabius Maximus Eburnus and pleb C. Licinius Geta 108 DGRBM 2-266, atl2, wikCon, wikLC
c.108 Consul HORTENSIUS is found guilty of some offense and forced to resign.  Suffect M.(1) Aurelius Scaurus replaces him. 108 DGRBM 3-738, atl2
c.108 Consul M.(1) Aurelius Scaurus is defeated by the Cimbri. 108 SORH
c.108 Λ JEWS appeal to Rome.  Senate issues consultum directing ANTIOCHUS-IX to cease action against Jews. 108 CHJ 2
c.108 C. MARIUS, in Africa from 109, returns to Rome, runs for consul promising to relieve Q.(4) Metellus, and finish off Jugurtha in one year.  Circumvents hostile senate.  Wins by popular vote, but senate refuses to give him an army. 108 B76 11-504, Dur 3-118, LdHR 2-232, LEWH 104, MCAW, atl2, wikGM
107 B76 15-1101, DGRBM 2-954, Dur 3-110, MCAW, atl2, wikTAR
c.108 Manlius MANCINUS is pleb tribune.  He proposes the bill by which the province of Numidia and conduct of the war against Jugurtha are given to C. Marius.  The senate rejects it, but the Assembly passes it. 108 DGRBM 2-915, wikGM
107 Jan CONSULS:  L.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS and C. MARIUS 107 DGRBM 2-799, 954, csm, wikCon, bk
c.107 Consul L.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS is assigned to Narbonese Gaul, to oppose the Cimbii and their alliesL.(3) Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus is his legate.  They cross into Transalpine Gaul. 107 DGRBM 2-784, 3-372, 736, SORH
c.107 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS, in Africa from 109, returns to Rome, and is well received.  He refuses to see Marius, and claims the title NUMIDICUS. 108 LdHR 2-234, wikGM
c.107 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS is elected consul to replace L.(2) Cassius Longinus.  P. Rutilius Rufus, also a candidate, accuses Scaurus of winning by bribery.  Scaurus is acquitted by the judices, and then accuses Rutilius of the same offence.  This charge too fails. 107 DGRBM 3-736
no date: wikPRR
c.107 High unemployment and manpower shortage in the army, cause Marius to reorganize the army, and allow men with no property to enlist. 107 wikCA
c.107 Marian reforms of Roman Legions are put into effect.
LEGION:  From 2nd year of 2nd Punic War (217) to consulship of Marius 107, a legion is usually 5,000 to 5,200 men.  After this, numbers vary from 4,000 to 6,200, usually approaching 6,200.  Poorest classes are now admitted.  Reformed again 105.
107 DGRA 493-4, ISBE 1-296, wikTAR
c.107 Consul C. MARIUS recruits volunteers and proletari without land - even some slaves, promises good pay and release after campaign with land grants.  Attracts mostly city proletariat.  Inadvertently creates a professional army bound to its patron rather than the senate.  Establishes precedent of military appointment by the people instead of the senate. 107 CAH 9, CDCC 554, LEWH 104, MCAW, OCD 648, SORH
104 CAH 9
102 Dur 3-119
c.107 L. Licinius CRASSUS is pleb tribune. 107 DGRBM 1-880
c.107 M.(2) Licinius CRASSUS is praetor. 107 DGRBM 1-874, wikMLC
c.107 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS has triumph, and is surnamed NUMIDICUS. 107 DGRBM 2-1059, wikGM
c.107 Aristocrat L. Cornelius SULLA begins his political career, appointed quaestor.  He is ordered to sail the cavalry to consul C. Marius in Africa. 107 B76 11-504, 17-793, DGRBM 3-934, MCAW
c.107 Consul C. MARIUS, in Rome from 108, returns to Africa until 104.  L. Cornelius Sulla is his quaestor. 107 wikGM
c.107 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO triumphs over Iberian rebels. 107 OCD 188
c.107 Gn.(5) Octavius Rufus is quaestor.  He is sent into Africa with pay for the army of Marius. 107 DGRBM 3-9
c.107 P. RUTILIUS RUFUS, orator, delivers speeches Adversus Scaurum and Pro se contra Scaurum. 107 DGRBM 3-681
c.107 Tribune C. COELIUS CALDUS charges C. POPILLIUS LAENAS with perduellio (treason) for his part in consul L.(2) Cassius Longinus' defeat. 107 DGRBM 1-561, SORH, atl2
c.107 P. Rutilius RUFUS is accused by M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS, and defended by C. CANIUS. 107 DGRBM 1-595
c.107  Lex Caelia Tabellaria  by tribune C. Caelius Caldus:  Modifies Lex Cassia 137.  Extends secret ballot to cases of perduellio (treason). 107 CAH 9-45, CDGRA 608, DGRA 1091, DGRBM 1-561, SORH, atl2, unrv
107 Dec OPTIMATES have gained favor in consular elections because of failure of C. Marius to finish off Jugurtha. 107 OCD 188
106 Jan CONSULS:  Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO and C. Atilius SERRANUS 106 CAH 9-88, DGRBM 1-534, 3-788, OCD 188, csm, wikCon
c.106 L. Licinius CRASSUS defends Lex Servilia Caepio. 106 DGRBM 1-880
c.106 Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA is pleb tribune. 106 DGRBM 3-733
c.106  Lex Servilia Judiciaria  sometimes called  Lex de repetundis  by Q.(2) Servilius Caepio repeals part of Lex Sempronia Judicia 123.  Requires jurors for criminal cases to be drawn from a mixed panel of senators and equites.  Some control of the court de rebus repentundis is handed back to senators from the equites.  Repealed by Lex Servilia 104.  Control of the courts becomes the subject of political controversy until Leges Aurelia 70. 111 CDGRA 522, EDRL 560
106 CAH 9-93, 510, CDGRA 383, DGRA 699, DGRBM 1-880, GHH, SORH, atl2, wikLRL
c.106 Tribune P. Licinius Cassius passes sumptuary laws against display of luxuries. 106 CDCC 519, OCD 295
c.106 Consul Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO enters Gaul until 105/4. 106 wikGM
c.106 PORTICUS MINUCIA built near the Circus Flaminius by M.(4) Minucius Rufus to commemorate his triumph over the Scordisci.  It will be called Old Porticus Minucia when another one is built in the same area. 109 DGRBM 3-675, qndm
CDCC 584
c.106 Gn.(1) Munatius Plancus, is accused by M. Brutus, and defended by orator L. Crassus. 106 DGRBM 3-382
c.106 Marius' quaestor L. Cornelius SULLA, comes from Africa, gets reinforcements, returns to Africa. 106 atl2
c.106 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS Numidicus is accused of extortion, but is acquitted. 106 atl2
c.106 Q. Catulus loses consular election to Gn. Mallius. 106 atl2
105 Jan CONSULS:  Gn. MALLIUS MAXIMUS and P. RUTILIUS RUFUS 105 DGRBM 3-681, OCD 188, 940, csm, wikCon, wikPRR
105 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, made proconsul in Transalpine Gaul. Cisalpine 105 wikQSC
c.105 An embassy from Bocchus of Mauretania receives a favorable response at Rome. 105 atl2
c.105 Omens and emergency measures following battle of Arausio. 105 atl2
c. 105 Roman ARMY, after innovations of Marius 107, overhauled by consul P. Rutilius Rufus.
LEGION, originally 6,000, by now 4,500, is commanded by a legate of the general.  Divided into 10 cohorts, each divided into 3 maniples.  A centurion commands a maniple.
EQUITES are replaced by 300 professional CAVALRY.
AUXILIARY TROOPS are levied from subject people, attached to legions in equal numbers, organized according to their own customs.
MILITARY TRIBUNES lose importance.  Rufus also improves training.
Again reformed by Marius 104.
105 LEWH 104, atl2
c.105 PEARLS appear in Roman jewelry. (See 110) 105 atl2
c.105 Roman CAVALRY ends with Marius' reform.  Henceforth mostly allied cavalry is used in Roman armies. 105 CDGRA 291, wikRC
c.105 T. ALBUCIUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 105 DGRBM 1-94
c.105 C. Marius, now in Africa, re-elected consul in absentia, to continue Jugurthine War. 106 wikTAR
105 SORH, atl2, wikGM
c.105 JUGURTHINE WAR from 111 ends.  Jugurtha is sent to Rome. 107 LdHR 2-237     106 DGRBM 1-494, 2-640, Dur 3-119, GHH, OCD 743, SORH, bk, rcNA     106/5 MCAW     105 B76 V-629, VII-441, 11-504, CAH 9, Dur 3-110, atl2, wikTAR
104 CDCC 477
c.105 P. RUTILIUS RUFUS, orator and consul, delivers speech Pro lege sua de tribunis militum. 105 DGRBM 3-682
c.105 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS Numidicus is dictator to hold elections. 105 wikTAR
105/4 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, in Transalpine Gaul from 106, proconsul from 105, fired from command, returns to Rome, accused of many things. 105 atl2
winter 105/4 OCD 188
105/4 EQUITES, in opposition to senate, nearly lose control of the law court panel of jurors.  In retaliation they interfere with the College of Augurs. 105/4 MCAW
104 Jan 1 C. MARIUS, in Numidia as governor of Africa province from 107, returns to Rome. 105 rcNA
104 LdHR 2-237, by Jan 1 wikGM
104 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. Flavius FIMBRIA (elected while in Narbonensis) and C. MARIUS (2nd) 104 B76 11-504, 1101, DGRBM 2-150, Dur 3-119, csm, wikCon, wikGM, wikTAR
104 Jan 1 Consul MARIUS has a triumph the same day he enters office. 104 CAH 9, DGRBM 2-955, LdHR 2-237, OCD 648, atl2, wikGM
104 Jan. Consul C. MARIUS arrogantly enters the senate-house in his triumphal military garb.  Senate refuses to hear him until he puts on the conventional toga. 104
DGRBM 2-955, LdHR 2-241
104 Jan. JUGURTHA dies.  Chief of Numidia 112-05, executed after triumph of Marius.  His 2 sons Oxyntas and ???, also led in chains before the car of Marius, are afterwards allowed to live in captivity at Venusia. 104 DGRBM 2-955, 3-75, OCD 566, atl2, bk, wikGM, wikNm
Jugurtha is starved to death. 104 DGRBM 2-640, GHH
c.104 L.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS is pleb tribune.  He proposes a controversial agrarian law, details of which are lost, but memorable for his statement, that there were not 2,000 men in the state who owned property. 104 DGRA 695, DGRBM 3-286, atl2
c.104 C. Marius appointed by senate to fight the Cimbri, with permission to recruit from the countries beyond the seas; to which end, Marius sends envoys to Nicomedes of Bithynia requesting auxiliaries. 104 atl2
c.104 C. MARIUS asks allies to furnish troops for campaign against the Germanic Cimbri and Teutoni. 104 atl2
c.104  Λ Lex Cassia (2)  by tribune L.(3) Cassius Longinus:  expells any senator who has been condemned by the people or deprived of power (imperium) by popular vote while serving as a magistrate. 104 DGRBM 2-799, EDRL 548, OCD 602, unrv, wikLRL
c.104 Gn.(4) DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS is pleb tribune. 104 DGRBM 1-84
c.104  Lex Domitia de Sacerdotis  by tribune Gn.(4) Domitius Ahenobarbus:  revives Lex Licinia 145, transfers election of the 4 colleges of priests from the priests themselves directly to the minor pars populi (17 out of 35 tribes drawn by lot).  Repealed 81. 104 CDGRA 496, DGRA 332, 940, GHH, LEWH 105, OCD 272, 361, 602, SORH, atl2, unrv, wikLRL
103 DGRA 179, EDRL 551
c.104 Roman Λ ARMY again reformed by C. MARIUS.  Legion is increased from 5,000 to 6,000; each given a name, a number, and a distinctive eagle standard.  The 120 man maniple is changed to a 600 man cohort.  The heavy hasta is dropped for the lighter pilum, which bends on impact so as not to be thrown back.  Back packs are lightened.  Cavalry, until now reserved for rich Romans, is recruited from allies. 104 MCAW, atl2, 102 GHH
c.104 Roman STANDARDS, until now crowned by one of 5 animals:  eagle, horse, minotaur, wolf, and boar, restricted to the EAGLE alone.  It has expanded wings, and is made of silver or bronze, but is probably less than a foot wide. 104 DGRA 1044
103 GHH
c.104 Minor slave uprisings at Nuceria and Capua. 104 atl2
c.104 M. Junius SILANUS is accused by Gn. Domitius of some injury done to his friend Egritomarus in Transalpine country.  Silanus is prosecuted by Gn. Domitius, but is acquitted. 104 atl2
c.104 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS is prosecuted by Gn. Domitius, but is acquitted. 104 atl2
c.104 Pleb tribune L.(2) Cassius Longinus passes a law to remove Q.(2) Servilius Caepio from the senate. 104 atl2
c.104 L. Accius produces play  Tereus . 104 atl2
c.104 M. Junius SILANUS is accused by tribune Gn.(4) Domitius Ahenobarbus, out of revenge, because Silanus had injured a hereditary friend of Ahenobarbus, who charges him with having fought without any commission from the people, incompetence for his defeat (as consul) by the Cimbri, and with causing calamities which the Romans had experienced in this war.  Silanus is acquitted almost unanimously.  Only 2 tribes out of 35 vote for condemnation. 104 DGRBM 3-819, wikRGG
c.104 M.(3) ANTONIUS (the orator) is made praetor and proconsul of Cilicia to fight pirates until 102.  Friend L. Tullius Cicero accompanies. 104 DGRBM 1-213
103 DGRBM 1-708
102 CAH 9-351
c.104 Favorinus is praetor. 104 DGRBM 2-139
c.104 Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA is curule aedile. 104 DGRBM 3-733
c.104 L. Appuleius SATURNINUS is quaestor.  He is stationed at Ostia controling grain supply.  As Rome has a grain shortage, and the senate thinks Saturninus is not doing a sufficient job, they replace him with M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus.  Saturninus joins the radical party under C. Marius. 104 B76 VIII-949, DGRBM 3-724, 736, GHH, atl2, wikMAS
no date: Dur 3-120
c.104 Quaestor L. Appuleius SATURNINUS and C. Servilius GLAUCIA join to oppose the senate in favor of Marius until 100. 104 B76 VIII-917, CDCC 554
no date: Dur III-120
c.104 C. Marius with new army enters Gaul and remains defensive. 104 SORH
c.104 L.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS is pleb tribune.  He proposes many laws to diminish aristocratic power. 104 DGRBM 2-799
c.104 Appian says moderate democrat Julius Philippus estimates that only about 2,000 Roman citizens own land.  The poor get poorer, and the number of citizen soldiers continues declining. Civil Wars 1-3
104 Dur 3-118
c.104 Senate, needing an army, declares freedom to all males enslaved for unpaid taxes. no date: Dur III-120
c.104  Lex Marcia  protects debtors who had paid moneylenders interest at a rate higher than legally permitted by granting them the privilege of recovering the sum unduly paid. 104 EDRL 556
c.104  Lex Servilia Glaucia de Repetundis  by tribune C. Servilius Glaucia:  repeals Lex Servilia 106.  Restores control of property courts to equites.  Introduces comperindinatio which allows for a 2 day adjournment of procedures.  Exile was a penalty for conviction and monetary fines were increased.  Any non citizen who successfully brought charges against a defendant would be given citizenship. 104 DGRA 649
104 or 101 unrv
c.104 Omens include appearance of armies fighting in the sky near Ameria and Tuder, and miraculous restoration of an elm tree at Nuceria. 104 atl2
c.104 Interpretation of omens, the duty of the College of Augurs, is recognized as a means of political obstruction.  Augurs have always been appointed by the senate.  The equites try to take the right of appointment away from the senate.  They succeed in getting augurs elected, but still by the senate. 104 MCAW
c.104 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS, in consequence of refusing to elect Gn.(4) Domitius Ahenobarbus into the college of augurs, of which he is a member, Ahenobarbus accuses him of majestas, on the ground that the sacra publica at Lavinium had, thru his fault, not been properly observed.  33 of the 35 tribes vote for his acquittal. 104 DGRBM 3-736
103 Jan CONSULS:  L. Aurelius ORESTES and C. MARIUS (3rd) 103 DGRBM 2-955, 3-43, Dur 3-119, SORH, csm, wikCon, wikGM, wikTAR
c.103 TRIBUNES:  C. Norbanus and praetorian orator L. Appulieus Saturninus. 103 B76 VIII-917, CAH 9-109, Dur 3-110, OCD 955
c.103 Consul C. MARIUS marches army to Transalpine GaulL. Sulla is with him until 102. 103 CAH 9
c.103 Marisi Ligurians persuaded to stay allied to Rome by L. Cornelius Sulla. 103 atl2
c.103 Senate investigates disappearance of gold from Tolosa Gaul 106. 103 OCD 955
c.103 T. ALBUCIUS, who had been praetor in Sicily, is accused of repetundae (extortion) by then young C.(1) Julius Caesar, and convicted.  He retires to Athens and studies philosophy. 103 DGRBM 1-94, 538
c.103 Λ 2nd SICILIAN SLAVE WAR begins until 100. 103 Dur 3-121
c.103 Consul L. Aurelius ORESTES dies in office, so C. Marius has to return to Rome to oversee elections. 103 DGRBM 3-43, wikGM
c.103 Tribune C. NORBANUS prosecutes optimate Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, using force against the intercession of pleb tribunes T. Didius and L. Cotta.  Q.(2) Caepio is convicted, and exiled to Smyrna. 103 OCD 188, 737, wikTD, wikRGG
c.103 L.(3) Licinius LUCULLUS is made praetor and sent with 17,000 men to Sicily. 103 DGRBM 2-831, LdHR 2-251
c.103 Tribune L. Appulieus Saturninus sides with C. Marius, gets land grants in Africa for Marius' verterans, in return for Marius support for his law.  Passes Lex Appuleia. 103 B76 15-1101, CAH 9, Dur III-110, OCD 955
c.103 Tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus passes a law to provide 100 iugera (over 60 acres) per man in Africa for veterans of Marius' Jugurthine war. 103 B76 VIII-917, 11-504, CAH 9-30, 110, atl2
c.103 T. ALBUCIUS is condemned for extortion while in Sardinia. 103 OCD 35, atl2
c.103 Tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus proposes a law to drastically reduce the price of the monthly grain ration. 103 B76 VIII-917
c.103  Lex Apuleia AgrariaV et Frumentaria  by tribune L. Apuleius Saturninus:  Assigns land in Africa to veterans of Marius. 103 B76 VIII-917, OCD 955, atl2, wikLRL     100 unrv
no date: LEWH 105
c.103  Lex Apuleia de Maiestate  by tribune L. Apuleius Saturninus:    Replaces the 449 law against perduelio.  Treason, until now defined as internal revolt (perduelio), is vaguely redefined as Maiestas, imparing the majesty of the Roman people.  Establishes 1st permanent court to try treason cases.  Used against unpopular aristocrats.  Includes a clause that requires the senate to swear an oath to uphold this law prior to it being put to the people for vote.  This is contested (Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus in particular). 103 EDRL 547, OCD 641, 955, atl2, wikLRL
c.103  Lex Licinia Sumptuaria  against luxury, repeats provisions of earlier sumptuary laws 103 EDRL 556
c.103 P. Licinius CRASSUS Dives and Q.(4) Scaevola become curule aediles.  They present good games in which pillars of foreign marble are exhibited, and lion fights are introduced. 103 DGRBM 1-880
c.103 Tribunes L. Appuleius Saturninus and C. Norbanus propose a special commission on treason of commanders in Gaul 105.  Q.(2) Caepio and Mallius are convicted. 103 SORH
c.103 Q.(2) Servilius Caepio is tried before the people by tribune C. Norbanus for his loss at the Battle of Arausio. 103 wikQSCY
c.103 Q.(2) Servilius Caepio and Cn. Mallius Maximus are both exiled, following riots instigated by tribune C. Norbanus. 103 atl2
c.103 Consul C. MARIUS starts to wear a gold ring, instead of the traditional iron ring. 103 atl2
c.103 C. Caelius acquits a man accused of slandering political satyrist C. Lucilius. 103 atl2
c.103 Poet Turpilius dies. 103 atl2
c.103 Q.(11) Fabius Maximus Eburnus is convicted of murdering his young son. 103 atl2
c.103 L. Caecilius METELLUS DALMATICUS, pontifex maximus from 115, deposed.  Gn.(4) DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS is elected until 89. 103 atl2, wikPM
no date: DGRBM 1-84
c.103 C. LUCILIUS, political satirist, age 46, dies in Neapolis.  If not the inventor of Roman satire, he is first to mold it into that form which will receive full developement by Horace, Persius, and Juvenal. 103 CDCC 788, DGRBM 2-823, GHH, LdHR 2-168 103/2 B76 VI-373
102 MCAW     101 atl2
c.103 C. MARIUS, in Gaul 103, has to return to Rome to manage elections, because consul Orestes has died. 103 wikGM
c.103 C. Marius claims to not want a 4th consulship.  Tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus says Marius refusal would be a treachery to the state.  Collusion is suspected, but Marius wins election. 103 LdHR 2-242, atl2
102 Jan CONSULS:  Q.(1) Lutatius CATULUS and C. MARIUS (4th) 102 B76 II-648, DGRBM 1-654, 2-955, Dur 3-119, OCD 217, SORH, csm, wikCon, wikTAR
c.102 Λ CENSORS V C. Caecilius Metellus CAPARIUS and Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS NUMIDICUS, both plebs. 102 B76 VI-836, 11-504, DGRBM 2-1058-9, wikCon, wikLC
c.102 Consul C. MARIUS returns to Gaul until 102/1. 102 implied
c.102 A. POMPEIUS is elected pleb tribune. 102 DGRBM 3-476
c.102 L. Apuleius SATURNINUS is elected pleb tribune.  He soon earns the hatred of the aristocracy. 102 DGRBM 3-724, GHH
c.102 Censor Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS NUMIDICUS, tries to expel L. Apuleius Saturninus and C. Servilius Glaucia from the senate on grounds of immorality.  He is prevented by censor C. Metellus Caprarius. 102 B76 VI-836, VIII-917, 11-504, DGRBM 2-1059, 3-724, LdHR 2-254,
c.102  Lex Atinia  concerned with admission of pleb tribunes to senate. 102 EDRL 548
c.102 Censor Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus is attacked by armed supporters of L. Appuleius Saturninus and C. Servilius Glaucia, when he tries to remove them from senate. 102 atl2
c.102 M.(3) Antonius (the orator) proconsul of Cilicia from 104, and friend L. Tullius Cicero, return to Rome and triumph. 102 DGRBM 1-213
c.102 Consul Q. Lutatius CATULUS goes to north Italy hold Brenner Pass in the Alps from the Cimbri. 102 B76 II-648, SORH, wikGM
c.102 L. Cornelius SULLA, now at odds with Marius, gets himself transferred to the staff of consul Q. Catulus and manages his supplies.  Catulus is not much of a general, and entrusts much of the war to Sulla. 102 DGRBM 1-487, 3-935, MCAW, atl2
c.102 Germanic Cimbri cross eastern Alps by Brenner Pass, some sliding down the slopes on their shields, into Venetia. 101 DGRBM 2-956,
DGRG 1-945, LdHR 2-247
no date: OCD 240
c.102 Consul Q. Lutatius CATULUS retreats from Alps as Cimbri advance. 102 GHH, atl2
c.102 Consul Q. Lutatius CATULUS defeated by Germanic Cimbri at Adige River, retreats to south? of the PoCimbri now control Po valley until 101. 102 OCD 217, wikRGG
101 DGRG 1-309
c. 102 BATACES, priest of Magna Mater in Pessinus, visits Rome, announces that the goddess had declared to him from her shrine that the Romans would be victorious in war.  Senate buys the story and votes a temple to be built for the goddess in commemoration of the victory.  But when Bataces comes before the assembly to repeat the story, pleb tribune Aulus Pompeius calls him an impostor, and drives him from the rostra.  Pompeius dies of a fever a week later. 102 atl2
c.102 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS accuses C. MEMMIUS and C. Flavius FIMBRIA of extortion. 102 atl2
c.102 Son of M. Aemilius Scaurus suicides after being disowned by his father M.(1) because he had retreated from Tridentine pass. 102 atl2
c.102 Gn. Petreius of Atina is awarded a crown of grass, for rescuing his legion from the Cimbri. 102 atl2
c.102 Aedile P. Licinius CRASSUS DIVES presents magnificent games. 102 atl2
c.102 Censor Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus refuses to accept L. Equitius as 'son' of Ti. Gracchus. 102 atl2
c.102 Censor Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus punishes P. Furius. 102 atl2
c.102 GENOA, under Liguirians from ?, falls to Romans as province Gallia Cisalpinis. 102 pcfg
c.102 Poet A. Licinius ARCHIAS of Antioch comes to Rome, under protection of Lucullus, composes a poem on war against the Cimbri. 102 DGRBM 1-708, atl2
c.101 C. MARIUS with 30,000 men, in Gaul 102, crosses back into Italy because the Cimbri are there. 101 DGRBM 2-956, LdHR 2-247
c.101 Consul C. MARIUS with 30,000 joins Catulus with 20,000 after his defeat by Cimbri. 102 B76 11-504, wikHR 101 DGRBM 2-956, atl2
101 CONSULS:  Manius(2) AQUILIUS and C. MARIUS (5th) 101 Dur 3-119, 121, OCD 90, SORH, csm, wikCon, wikM2Aq
c.101 Consul Manius(2) AQUILIUS is sent to Sicily. 101 Dur 3-121, OCD 90 99 TTPC 29, wikM2Aq
c.101 T. Didius is elected Praetor, and sent to Macedon until 100. 101 wikTD
c.101 L. Cornelius Sulla is quaestor of C. Marius. 101 LEWH 105
c.101 Germanic CIMBRI develop a taste for Italian luxuries. 101 atl2
c.101 Omens include spontaneous movement of sacred shields. 101 atl2
c.101 Λ HUMAN SACRIFICE:  C. Marius sacrifices his dau Calpurnia to ensure victory against the Cimbri. 101 atl2
c.101 Publicius Malleolus kills his mother, and is therefore sewn up in a sack, and cast into the sea. 101 DGRBM 2-909
c.101 Proconsul C. MARIUS and consul Q. Lutatius CATULUS defeat Germanic Cimbri in a plain called the Campi Raudii near Vercellae in west Po valley.  120,000 Cimbri are killed, 60,000 taken prisoner, their women suicide. 102 B76 7-960     101 B76 II-648, X-394, 8-40, 11-504, CAH 9, DGRBM 2-956, 3-935, DGRG 1-497, 955, Dur 3-120, GHH, LdHR 2-248, LEWH 105, MCAW, OCD 648, SORH, TTPC, atl2. hifiBo, hifiHlv, ooctA, wikBV, wikGM, wikTAR, wikRGG
c.101 MIRACLE:  News of battle of Campi Raudii miraculously reaches Rome on same day. 101 atl2
c.101 CIMBRI and TEUTONES WAR with Rome from 113 ends.  Germans will not threaten Rome for 5 centuries. 101 Dur 3-110
c.101 Germanic CIMBRI and TIGURINI withdraw north of Alps to Gaul.  The destruction of these invaders keeps Northern Gallia quiet for a time, and there will be no great movement of barbarians until the Helveti migration 58. 101 wikGM
c.101 C. Marius grants Roman citizenship to soldiers from Camerinum Umbria. 101 atl2
c.101 1,000 rebel Sicilian slaves under Satyrus are shipped to Rome, and condemned to fight wild beasts in the amphitheater.  They prefer to kill each other.  Satyrus suicides. 101 DGRBM 3-727
c.101 Envoys of Mithridates-VI of Pontus, appear at Rome, bringing money for bribing senators.  When L. Apuleius Saturninus knows this, he attacks the senators, and insults the envoys. 101 CAH 9-142, DGRBM 3-724, GHH
c.101 Tribune L. Appuleius SATURNINUS is prosecuted for insulting envoys of Mithridates-VI of Pontus, a capital offense.  As the judices are all senators, his condemnation appears certain.  Saturninus puts on the dress of a suppliant, and plays to the people, who regard him as a martyr to their cause.  That and equite support gets him acquitted. 101 B76 VIII-917, DGRBM 3-724, atl2
c.101 WATER POWER used by Romans for milling flour. 101 TTPC
c.101 Aediles L. Crassus and Q.(4) Scaevola hold magnificent games. 101 atl2
c.101 Publicius Malleolus is convicted of matricide. 101 atl2
c.101 C. Servilius Glaucia passes a law on extortion. 101 atl2
c.101 Q. Lutatius Catulus dedicates a temple to Fortuna Huiusce Diei, and uses loot from the Cimbri war to build a portico. 101 atl2
c.101 C. Servilius Glaucia, the greatest demagogue next to Saturninus, runs for praetor, and Marius for consul.  If they all 3 are elected, they might easily ruin Q.(4) Metellus, and crush the aristocracy. 101 DGRBM 3-724
c.101 In tribune elections for 100 candidate A. NONIUS is murdered by supporters of Glaucia and Saturninus, because he opposes their party. 101
DGRBM 3-724, atl2 no date: DGRBM 2-1208
101 /00 C. MARIUS and Q. CATULUS have joint triumph for Campi Raudii battle 101.  Marius claims credit for the whole thing.  Catulus and Sulla say otherwise.  Popular opinion favors Marius. 101/00
B76 11-504
101 /00 C. MARIUS has no excuse to violate the law for a 6th consulship.  His chances of election are doubtful.  He buys votes and brings in disbanded soldiers to intimidate those who would not sell their votes. 101/00 GHH, LdHR 2-258

Italy 100-88