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Italy
c.150 Jan. CONSULS:  T.(3) Quinctius FLAMININUS and Manius Acilius BALBUS 150 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-455, 2-166, csm, wikCon
c.150 Pontifex maximus, a vacant office from 152, P.(9) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA CORCULUM is elected until 141. 149
DGRBM 3-751, wikPM
c.150 Senate orders Carthaginians to abandon Carthage and move inland. 149 CAH 8
c.150  Leges Aelia et Fufia  2 laws probably regulating auspices.  Extends a right (until now restricted to augurs) to magistrates.  Any curule magistrate or tribune can prevent or disband assemblies of the comitia by declaring various omens as unfavorable, thus ending public business until the next lawful day.  (Repealed 58) 156 SORH 150 unrv, wikLAF, wikLRL 149 atl2
c.150  Lex Aebutia de formulis  authorizes praetor's discretion into the court of the praetor urbanus.  Praetor can remodel private law of Rome. 150 wikLRL
c.150 Carthage sends 2 embassies to Rome to defend their action against Masinissa.  One embassy includes Gisco.  Both say the failed generals had been condemned to death and that Carthage is once more docile.  Senate gives evasive replies.  Carthaginians ask how can Carthage make amends?  The first mission is told, "If you satisfy the Romans", the second is told that the Carthaginians knew well what they must do. 150
CAH 8-151 149 DGRBM 2-269, atl2
c.150 Domestic CATS, common in Egypt from 4,000, Greece from 1000, brought to Rome. 5-400 plfkt
c.150 SILVER is so rare in Rome that a Carthaginian embassy entertained by all the richest families encounters the same set of silver dinnerware each night. no date: TTT 59
c.150 Temple of PIETAS (personification of faithful attachment, love, and veneration) is built on the location of a prison in which a daughter had breast fed her own mother. 150 DGRBM 2-166
c.150 M.(1) Porcius Cato persuades to senate to go to war against Carthage, despite opposition of P.(9) Scipio Nasica Corculum. 149 atl2
c.150 Roman army sent to Africa. 150 LEWH 102
c.150 EPICUREANISM establishes itself in Rome. 150 KPHP 92
c.150 POLYBIUS publishes  Histories volumes 1-6 .  "Nothing can happen without a cause."  "Monarchy degenerates to tyranny, aristocracy to oligarchy, democracy into violence and anarchy."  "That form of government is best which includes monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy"  Polybius draws a parallel between Roman and Spartan constitutions, and speaks of religion as merely a tool of government, which might not be necessary if people were smarter. 150
B76 14-763, CAH 9-66, Dur 3-93
125 MNDQ 147, 480
c.149 Jan. CONSULS:  Manius MANLIUS (Manilius) and L. MARCIUS CENSORINUS, both sent to Africa, Manlius commands army; Marcius commands fleet. 149 CAH 8, DGRA 683, DGRBM 1-664, 2-918, LdHR 2-119, OCD 643, csm, wikCon
c.149 Senate votes to declare war on Carthage, because Carthage had violated the treaty of 201 by attacking Masinissa in 151.  Senate starts to raise an army. 150 Dur 3-20, bk     149 B76 15-280, CAH 8-152, CDCC 456, CHJ 2, GHH, HRR, OCD 696, SHWC 110, SORH, atl2, bk, wikHR, wikTAR
c.149 4th MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 148.  Andriscus, pretended son of Perseus, supported by Thracians, raises rebellion. 149 B76 VI-442, 8-385, 15-1095, LEWH 92, OCD 1065, frH, vrb, wikTAR
c.149 Senate decides in principle to annex Carthage and Macedonia. 149
B76 15-1099
c.149 5 Carthaginian envoys sent to Rome to try to avert war.  Envoys include Hamilcar, Mago.  On arrival they find that the senate had already passed a decree for war, and would not negotiate  Envoys offer unqualified submission.  300 highborn hostages are required, as a proof of sincerity.  The envoys return to Carthage. 149
CAH 8-152, DGRBM 2-331, 904, atl2
c.149 The forum is altered by removing the Tribunal Praetoris from the comitium to the east end of the forum by tribune L. Scribonius Libo. 149 DGRG 2-788
c.149  Lex de Pecunia Repetundis  by tribune L.(2) Calpurnius Piso Frugi designates a praetor to preside at trials formerly judged by quaestiones from 508. 149
DGRA 648
149  Lex Calpurnia de Repetundis , by tribune L.(2) Calpurnius Piso Frugi:  (Long overdue.  See 171.)  Establishes 1st permanent criminal court in Rome, an extortion court overseen by an appointed praetor to monitor acquisition of money by provincials, governors, and magistrates abroad.  A praetor peregrinus must preside at all extortion trials during his year of office, but juries are all senators.  Provincials may impeach Roman officials.  In all known cases, except D. Silanus 140, the accused goes free. 149 B76 15-1095, 1097, CAH 8-182, 9-77, 499, CDGRA 522, DGRA 986, DGRBM 3-935, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-105, 207, LEWH 102, OCD 601, SORH, atl2, bk, unrv, wikLRL, wikTAR
c.149 A Spartan embassy appeals to the senate about a disputed territory, but they are told to accept Achaean jurisdiction. 149 atl2
c.149 ANDRONICUS, envoy of Attalus-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome. 149 DGRBM 1-174
c.149 Tribune L. Scribonius LIBO tries to condemn Ser.(3) Sulpicius GALBA for his massacre and enslavement of the Lusitani in Farther Spain 150.  M.(1) Porcius Cato joins in accusation in behalf of Lusitania.  L. Cornelius Cethegus supports Libo.  Galba is tried publicly and acquitted. 149
B76 15-1095, CAH 8-182, DGRBM 1-675, OCD 215, atl2
c.149 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus asks for Ti. Gracchus as his judge. 149 atl2
c.149 MENAS, envoy of Prusias-II of Bithynia is sent to Rome to join Nicomedes (son of Prusias) in an application to the senate to remit the remainder of the sum which they had compelled him to engage to pay to Attalus-II of Pergamum by the treaty of 154.  Menas has secret orders assassinate Nicomedes.  Menas, on finding the favor which Nicomedes enjoys at Rome, tells Nicomedes of Prusias' order.  In conjunction with Andronicus, ambassador of Attalus, Menas urges Nicomedes to dethrone his father. 149 CAH 8-374, DGRBM 2-1034, 1196
c.149  Lex Scantinia  a poorly attested law regulating some aspects of homosexual behavior among citizens, primarily protecting freeborn male minors. 149 wikLRL
c.149  Lex Atinia : Tribunes of the plebs automatically promoted to the senate. 149 wikLRL
c.149 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia in Rome from 163, secretly sails to Epirus enroute to Bithynia.  Menas and Andronicus, envoy of Attalus, are with him. 149 DGRBM 2-1196
no date:
CAH 8-374
c.149 MENALCIDAS, a Lacedaemonian adventurer, supports at Rome, against Diaeus, the cause of the Lacedaemonian exiles. 149 DGRBM 2-1030
c.149 M.(1) Porcius CATO learns Greek language in his old age. 149 atl2
c.149 PRUSIAS-II, king of Bithynia, sends an envoy with a letter to the senate saying his son Nicomedes had betrayed him, and Attalus had invaded.  The moral Cato is enraged, but the pragmatic senate couldn't care less. 149
CAH 8-375
c.149 L. Scribonius LIBO, is pleb tribune.  He accuses Ser.(3) Sulpicius Galba on account of the outrages which he had committed against the Lusitani 150.  This accusation is supported in a powerful speech by M.(1) Porcius Cato, who is then 85 years old ; but, notwithstanding the eloquence of the accusers and the guilt of the accused, Galba escapes punishment. 149 DGRBM 2-779, GHH
c.149 M.(1) Porcius CATO publishes  Origines , begun 168, 1st Latin history of Rome in 7 books. 149 B76 II-645, OCD 215, OHG
c.149 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus, conservative moralist statesman, age 85, dies.  Sons are Licinianus (dead) and Salonianus. 149 B76 II-645, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-636, 779, Dur 3-107, GHH, HRR, OCD 215, SORH, TTPC, atl2
c.149 P. JUVENTIUS THALNA is made praetor and sent to Thessaly to counter Andriscus. 149 DGRBM 2-691
c.149 L.(2) Calpurnius PISO FRUGI is pleb tribune. 149 DGRBM 3-373
c.149 Ludi Saeculares are celebrated. 149 atl2     146 CDGRA 395
c.149 3rd PUNIC WAR begins until 146. 150 Dur 3-20, bk     149 B76 15-280, CAH 8, CDCC 734, MWΦ 130, OCD 696, OHG, atl2, bk, wikHR, wikTAR
c.149 Consul L. Marcius CENSORINUS returns from Africa to Rome to hold the comitia. 149 LdHR 2-124, atl2
c.149 Q.(8) FABIUS MAXIMUS AEMILIANUS made praetor and sent to Sicily until 148. 149 DGRBM 2-994, OCD 427
c.148 Jan. CONSULS:  Sp. Postumius ALBINUS Magnus and L.(1) Calpurnius PISO CAESONIUS 148 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-92, 3-372, csm, wikCon
c.148 Consul L.(1) Calpurnius PISO CAESONIUS is sent to Africa to conduct war against Carthage.  His legate L. Hostilius Mancinus is fleet commander. 148 DGRBM 2-914, 3-372
c.148 Via Postumia VIA POSTUMIA from Genoa thru Placentia, Cremona, Verona and Opitergium to Aquileia built. 148
B76 15-1096, CAH 8-114, 9-23, Dur 3-78, SORH, wikVPs
c.148 ANDRISCUS, pretended son of Perseus, rebel in Macedonia from 148, sent to Rome, executed. 148 B76 8-385 147 B76 I-364
c.148 Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS (later Macedonicus), is made praetor and sent to Macedonia Province until 146. 148 DGRBM 2-1057 147 LdHR 2-111
c.148 Achaeans send Diaeus as envoy to Rome. 148 atl2
c.148 C.(2) Sulpicius Gallus explains Archimedes' globe. 148 atl2
c.148 M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS puts up statues of his family, and dies this year. 148 atl2
c.148 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS returns from Africa with African cavalry commander Phameas to run for curule aedile.  Many soldiers in Africa write to their friends at Rome, saying that Scipio alone could conquer Carthage. 148
B76 16-395, DGRBM 2-475 3-749, atl2
c.148 POLYBIUS speaks of "the present day when progress of the arts and sciences has been so rapid". Poly IX:2
148 Dur 2-600
c.148 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS, a candidate for aedile, is overruled by the Comitia Centuriata, which decides that he should be elected consul for 147 and sent back to Africa.  P.(10) Scipio is 37 (5 years under age for consulship), and had never been praetor, but is elected by popular acclaim. 148
B76 15-1097, 16-395, CDCC 795, DGRBM 3-749, SORH
c.148 FIRE burns Rome, destroys the Regia. 148 DGRBM 1-92, atl2
c.148 Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS, son of Publius, discovers two snakes on his bed, dies soon after. 148 atl2
c.148 4th MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 149, ends. 149 GHH     148 B76 VI-442 146 wikTAR
c.148 C. or M. VETILIUS, is made praetor and sent with 10,000 inf and 1300 cav to Spain. Appian: Hisp 64-a 149 LdHR 2-131 147 DGRBM 3-1249
c.148 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is given command of war in Africa, and carefully chooses officers to serve with him. 148 atl2
c.147 Jan. CONSULS:  P.(10) Cornelius Scipio AEMILIANUS and C.(1) Livius DRUSUS 147 CAH 8, 9-46, DGRBM 1-1077, csm, wikCon
c.147 CENSORS:  patrician L.(7) Cornelius Lentulus Lupus and pleb L. Marcius Censorinus 147 DGRA 986, DGRBM 2-730, wikCon, wikLC
c.147 CENSUS completed by censors L.(7) Lentulus and Censorinus:  322,000 free adult males. 147 Dur 3-81, GHH, HRR     146 atl2
147 Consul P.(10) Scipio AEMILIANUS made commander of Africa and returns with army.  Friends Polybius and C.(2) Laelius accompany. 147 B76 15-280, 16-395, CAH 9-91, DGRBM 2-359, 3-749
c.147 P.(9) Scipio NASICA Corculum becomes princeps senatus. 147 SORH
c.147 PORTICUS METELLUS built by Quintus Metellus Macedonicus. 148-46 avwnct
c.147 Sextus(3) Julius Caesar returns from Achaea, and tells the senate the Achaeans will give them an answer in 6 months. 147 LdHR 2-112
c.147 L. Aurelius ORESTES heads envoys sent by senate to Achaea. 147 B76 8-385, 15-1095, CAH 8
c.147 Sextus(2) Julius Caesar, under orders to speak softly, leads another Roman embassy to Achaea. 147 CAH 8-322, DGRG 1-16, LdHR 2-112, atl2
c.147 TRIBUTUM (property tax), abolished in Rome 167, is now abolished in Italy until 43. 147 Dur 3-81, DGRA 1157
146 Jan. CONSULS:  Gn.(2) Cornelius LENTULUS and L. MUMMIUS ACHAICUS 146 B76 15-1095, CAH 8-323, DGRBM 2-1119, csm, wikCon
146 Senate declares war on Achaean League.  The reason alleged is the treatment of L. Aurelius Orestes and his fellow ambassadors at Corinth. 146 early CAH 8-322, LdHR 2-112, atl2
c.146 Consul L. MUMMIUS ACHAICUS is sent to command in Macedonia.  His bro Spurius and Aulus(2) Postumius Albinus are his legates. 146 DGRBM 1-92, 2-1118
c.146 D. Junius Silanus is commissioned by the senate to translate the 28 books of Mago on Agriculture from Punic into Latin. 146 DGRBM 3-819
c.146 P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus destroys Punic capital Carthage and Achean capital CorinthMacedonia and Africa provinces are annexed. 146 wikTAR
c.146  Leges provinciae  a set of laws designed to regulate and organize the administration of Roman provinces. 146 wikLRL
c.146 POLYBIUS acts as mediator between Rome and Greece thru 145 in reconstruction of Macedonia/Greece. 146 OCD 853
c.146 Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS, commander in Greece from 148, returns, brings back some statues by Lysippus from Macedonia to grace his triumph.  Only now is he surnamed Macedonicus. 146 DGRBM 2-1057, 3-294, atl2
c.146 Porticus Metelli begun by Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus. 146 CAH 8-507
c.146 A paved floor is laid in temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. 146 atl2
c.146 P.(11) Scipio Nasica Serapio fails to be elected aedile. 146 atl2
c.146 3rd PUNIC WAR from 149 ends.  Senate receives letter from P.(10) Scipio, "Carthage was taken, and the army awaits further orders".  All classes exult.  Senate decrees that the walls be destroyed, and all houses be leveled. 146 B76 15-280, 1095, CAH 8, CDCC 456, 734, CHJ 2, Dur 3-20, LEWH 102, OCD 853, bk, wikHR 138 wikTAR
c.146 C.(2) LAELIUS Sapiens, legate of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, returns to Rome to announce capture of Carthage. 146 atl2
c.146 L. Mancinus exhibits paintings of capture of Carthage, to help his campaign for consul. 146 atl2
c.146 Several writers say destruction of Carthage, and lack of a powerful rival, are prime causes of moral degeneration at Rome. 146 atl2 cites several references.
c.146 Senate sends 10 commissioners to L. Mummius to organize Achaea into a province.  They include C. Sempronius Tuditanus. 146 DGRBM 3-1182, SORH, atl2
c.146 Direct taxation abolished in Italy. 146 Dur 3-91
c.146 MARBLE, used in Greece from 580, introduced to Roman architecture with temple of Jupiter Sator at the Circus Flaminius. 146 CDCC, GHH 868
c.145 Jan. CONSULS:  Q.(8) Fabius Maximus AEMILIANUS and L. Hostilius MANCINUS 145 CAH 8-133, DGRBM 2-914, 994, OCD 427, csm, wikCon
c.145 Consul Q.(8) Fabius Maximus AEMILIANUS is given command of Roman army in Spain until 144. 145 DGRBM 2-994, LdHR 2-131, OCD 427
c.145 C.(2) LAELIUS SAPIENS, friend of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, made praetor and successfully opposes C. Crassus' proposal for election of priests.  He writes  De Collegiis . 145 CAH 9-59, DGRBM 2-706 atl2
145 L. MUMMIUS, commander in Greece from 146, returns to Rome with many paintings and statues to grace his triumph.  These are the 1st good paintings Rome has seen. 146 GHH, HRR 145 DGRBM 2-1120, atl2
c.145 C. Licinius CRASSUS(2) is pleb tribune.  He is opposed by praetor C.(2) Laelius Sapiens. 145 DGRBM 1-873, 706
c.145 1st THEATER in Rome, built in Greek semi-circular style.  Made of wood, no roof.  Has seats in semi-circle.  No admission charge.  Women in rear.  Slaves admitted but not seated. 145 Dur 3-98-9
145  Lex Licinia de Sacerdotis  by tribune C. Licinius Crassus, a proposal that vacancies in priestly colleges be filled by popular election instead of co-option.  Yet the main opposer, C.(2) Laelius, appeals to tradition to win the independent judgment and religious emotions of the voters, while Crassus symbolizes the 'popular' nature of his proposal by turning around on the rostra to address the mass of the people, instead of conventionally facing the more restricted space of the comitium.  Proposal fails, but succeeds 104. 145 CAH 8-193, 9-59, DGRA 940, SORH
c.145 Praetor C.(2) LAELIUS Sapiens, friend of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, is sent to Nearer Spain. 145 B76 V-984, LdHR 2-131, OCD 576
c.145 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is sent east to settle the distractions which ensued upon the murder of Ptolemy Eupator in Cyprus 152. 145 DGRG 1-100
c.145 Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS Macedonicus fails to be elected consul, for 2nd time. 145 atl2
c.145 C. Plautius is brought to trial for his conduct in Spain 146, and goes into exile. 145 atl2
c.144 Jan. CONSULS:  Ser.(3) Sulpicius GALBA and L. Aurelius COTTA 144 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-867, 2-205, OCD 56, csm, wikCon
c.144 Consuls GALBA and COTTA argue in the senate over which of them gets command in Spain against Viriathus.  P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus persuades senate that neither of the consuls is fit to be sent as commander to Spain.  Senate gives it to neither of them, but lets Q.(8) Fabius Maximus Aemilianus continue. 144 DGRBM 1-867, 2-205, atl2
c.144 A special arrangement to repair existing aqueducts and construct a new one puts vast additional funds into circulation, but it is also a reflection of the growing problems of the large urban population. 144 CAH 8-193
c.144 Aqua Marcia AQUA MARCIA storied bridge aqueduct, begun on order of senate by praetor peregrinus Q. Marcius Rex.  Longest and 1st high level aqueduct in Rome, bringing clean water from 3 springs at the upper Anio.  Finished 4 years later.  Carries 194,500,000 liters per day for over 11 km. photo Lalupa

144 B76 1-1036, CAH 8-505, CDCC 552, CDGRA 44, DGRA 110, 956, DGRBM 3-646, DGRG 2-850, OCD 89, SORH, TTT, atl2, wikLA
c.144 PANAETIUS, Stoic of Rhodes, goes to Rome, joins the circle around P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus until Scipio's death 129. 144 IDB 4-444, OCD 774, OHG
c.144 C.(2) LAELIUS Sapiens in Nearer Spain from 145, returns to Rome. 144 LdHR 2-132
c.144 Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus constructs temples to Jupiter and Juno within portico of Octavius. 146 GHH 144 atl2
c.144 POLYBIUS goes as Achaean envoy to Rome. 144 atl2
c.144 Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS is elected consul at 3rd try. 144 atl2
c.144/3 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, sends letters of friendship via envoy Numenius (Jew with Roman name) to Rome, Sparta, etc. 1Mac 12:1     143 atl2 no date: IDB 3-572
c.143 Jan. CONSULS:  Ap.(11) Claudius PULCHER and Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS 143 B76 VI-836, CAH 8, 9-65, 88, DGRBM 1-769, DGRBM 2-1057, OCD 247, csm, wikCon
c.143 Consul Ap.(11) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is sent to reconcile the Salassi in Cisalpine Gaul with their neighbors who quarrelled about water necessary for the gold mines.  Hungry for a triumph, Claudius overruns Salassi country without provocation.  He is first defeated, then by following the Sibylline Books, gains a small victory, for which he assumes the right to a triumph. 143 DGRBM 1-769, DGRG 2-880, atl2, OCD 247
c.143 Consul Ap.(11) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is refused a triumph by the senate.  He holds an unauthorized triumph.  A tribune vetos it.  Crowd threatens physical intervention to enforce the veto.  Pulcher takes his daughter Claudia, a Vestal virgin with him in his triumphal chariot.  Tribunes don't dare mess with Vestals. 143
CAH 8-192, DGRA 1165, atl2
c.143 Senator C.(2) Julius CAESAR writes a history of Rome in Greek. 143 DGRBM 1-539
c.143 A. Licinius NERVA is made praetor and sent to Macedonia. 143 DGRBM 2-1168
c.143 T. DIDIUS becomes pleb tribune. 143 DGRBM 1-1004
c.143  Lex Didia  by tribune T. Didius curbs excessive expenditure on luxuries, extends Lex Fania 161 to all Italy, and also punishes those who attend the festivals of offenders. 143 CAH 8-184, 227, 9-59, CDGRA 600, DGRBM 1-1004, OCD 602, atl2
c.143 Senate debates Roman water supply. 143 atl2
c.143 Judea / Rome treaty of 161 renewed with Jonathan Maccabee. 143 CHJ 2
c.143 EQUITES PUBLICANI (knights who collect taxes) established in the provinces. 143 HRR
c.143 Consul Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS is sent to Nearer Spain. 143 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1057, LdHR 2-132, OCD 677
c.143 While canvassing for censorship of 142 P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus is criticized by his main rival, Ap.(11) Claudius, for being escorted by "men who frequented the Forum and were able to gather a crowd and to force all issues by shouting and inciting passions". 143 CAH 8-192
c.142 Jan. CONSULS:  Q.(9) Fabius Maximus SERVILIANUS and L.(4) Caecilius METELLUS CALVUS 142 CAH 8-133, 9-88, DGRBM 1-534, 2-995, 1058, 3-793, csm, wikCon
c.142 P.(10) Cornelius SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is elected censor despite criticism from rival candidate Ap.(11) Claudius Pulcher. 142 DGRBM 1-769, atl2
c.142 CENSORS:  patrician P.(10) Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus and pleb L. Mummius Achaicus  Scipio proves to be a traditional moralist in a liberalizing age.  Mummius is culpably lenient.  They clash. 142 B76 16-395, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1120, 3-749, LdHR 2-137, MCAW, OCD 963, wikCon, wikLC
c.142 Consul Q.(9) Fabius Maximus SERVILIANUS is sent to Farther Spain until 141/0. 142 DGRBM 2-995
c.142 Envoy NUMENIUS (Jew with Roman name) sent by Simon Maccabee with a 1,000 lb gold shield as a gift to Rome. 141 IDB 3-571
c.142 Consul "Lucius" (L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus?) makes pact with high priest Simon Maccabee:  no country under Roman dominance shall harm their Jews.  The integrity of Jewish territory is guaranteed.  A letter to this effect is sent to Judea by envoy Numenius. 1Mac 14:6
142 Jud 5-170 142-39 CHJ 2 141 CAH 8-368 139 IDB 3-571
c.142 CENSUS:  328,440 free adult males. 142 GHH, HRR
c.142 D. Junius SILANUS MANLIANUS is made praetor and sent to Macedonia until 140. 142 DGRBM 3-819
c.142 L. HOSTILIUS TUBULUS is made urban praetor.  He takes bribes indiscriminately while presiding at a murder trial. 142 DGRBM 3-1181
c.142 Equestrian Ti. CLAUDIUS ASELLUS is stripped of rank by censor P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus. 142 DGRBM 1-385
c.142 AEMILIAN BRIDGE, 1st STONE BRIDGE over Tiber, begun 179, completed. 142 B76 15-1068, CAH 8-505, CDGRA 494, MCAW, TAWH 18
c.142 Diodotus TRYPHO, usurper of Syria, rebuked by senate. 142 CAH 8
c.142 Equite C. LICINIUS SACERDOS appears with his horse before the censors.  Censor P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus says that he knew that Sacerdos had committed perjury, but as no one accuses him, Scipio allows him to pass on, as he would not act as accuser, witness, and judge. 142 DGRBM 3-692
c.142 Censor L. MUMMIUS Achaicus donates many statues and paintings, stolen from Corinth, to cities of Italy. 142 atl2
c.142 Censor P.(10) Cornelius SCIPIO AEMILIANUS speaks out against C. Licinius, but does not condemn him. 142 atl2
c.142 Censor P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS dedicates a temple to Hercules. 142 atl2
c.142 M.(2) Licinius LUCULLUS dedicates a temple to Felicitas, goddess of good luck. 142 atl2
c.142 GUILDED CEILINGS first introduced to Rome by censors, who install some on Capitoline hill. 142 atl2
c.142 C. Fannius STRABO is pleb tribune.
He is confused with a C.F.S. who is tribune in Spain in 142.
142 DGRBM 3-922
c.142 Q. POMPEIUS, a novus homo, until now a supporter of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, is elected consul in opposition to C.(2) Laelius Sapiens by assuring Scipio that he does not intend to run for the office, and then vigorously canvassing after he had thrown the friends of Laelius off guard.  Scipio now renounces all further connection with Pompeius. 142
CAH 9-51, DGRBM 3-474, SORH, atl2
c.141 Jan. CONSULS:  Gn.(4) Servilius CAEPIO and Q. POMPEIUS, a novus homo 141 CAH 8-134, DGRBM 1-534, 3-474, OCD 857, csm, wikCon
c.141 Consul Q. POMPEIUS sent to Nearer Spain. 141 DGRBM 3-474, LdHR 2-132, OCD 857
c.141 P.(2) Mucius SCAEVOLA is pleb tribune.  He proposes and carries a plebiscite for inquiry into conduct of L. Hostilius Tubulus, urban praetor 142 for taking bribes. 141
DGRA 986, DGRBM 3-732
c.141 L. HOSTILIUS TUBULUS is accused of accepting bribes while urban praetor 142, and goes into exile. 141 DGRBM 3-1181, atl2
c.141 C. ACILIUS composes a history of Rome in Greek. 141 atl2
c.141 P.(9) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA CORCULUM, pontifex maximus from 150, dies.  Son P.(11) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA SERAPIO succeeds until 132. 141 wikPM
c.140 Jan. CONSULS:  Q.(1) Servilius CAEPIO and C.(2) LAELIUS SAPIENS, friend of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus 140 B76 V-984, CAH 8-134, OCD 576, csm, wikCon
Gn. Caepio: DGRBM 1-534, 2-706
c.140 Senate repudiates Servilianus' 141  treaty  with Viriathus. 140 early CAH 8-134
c.140 Senate, prompted by Ap.(11) Claudius Pulcher, decrees that there should not be more than one levy in the year. 140 CAH 8-194
c.140 Recruiting for the unpopular war in Spain is difficult. 140 early CAH 8-134
c.140 D. Junius SILANUS MANLIANUS in Macedonia from 142, returns to Rome.  He is guilty of so many acts of robbery and oppression, that the Greeks follow him and accuse him before the senate.  The senate refers the investigation to his own biological father T.(4) Manlius Torquatus at the request of Torquatus. 140 DGRBM 3-819
c.140 T.(4) Manlius TORQUATUS judges his (biological but adopted) son Silanus Manlianus guilty of extortion in Macedonia.  Silanus Manlianus hangs himself.  His father does not attend the funeral. 141 SORH 140 DGRBM 3-819, atl2
c.140 L.(9) Cornelius Servius LENTULUS is praetor. 140 DGRBM 2-732
c.140 Consul C.(2) LAELIUS SAPIENS tries and fails to effect land reform. 140 CAH 8-195
c.140 C.(2) Laelius Sapiens proposes agrarian law to deal with monopolization of the public land by the rich, only to withdraw it in face of their opposition. 140 CAH 8, 9-60, atl2
c.140 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is accused of majestas for misconduct in his censorship, and prosecuted by pleb tribune Ti. Claudius ASELLUS, who attacked him because Scipio in his censorship 142 had demoted him from equite to aerarian.  Scipio is acquitted. 140
CAH 8-178, 9-60, atl2
139 DGRBM 3-749
c.140 MONEY:  A silver DENARIUS, until now worth 10 copper asses, is re-evaluated to 16 asses. 140 CAH 9-58, wikAs
c.140 Tribune Ti. Claudius ASELLUS tries to stop consul Q.(1) Servilius Caepio from leaving for his province. 140 atl2
c.140 Ap.(11) CLAUDIUS PULCHER prevents extra military conscription. 140 atl2
c.140 Senate discusses religious objections to bringing water from river Anio into Rome. 140 atl2
c.140 L. Mummius is unable to afford a dowry for his daughter. 140 atl2
c.140 L. Accius and M. Pacuvius both produce plays during this year, though Pacuvius is now 80 years old. 140 atl2
c.140 Crates globeGLOBE created by Crates of Mallus. 140 TToH
c.140/39 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus to east Mediterranean, visits Attalus-II of PergamumPhilosopher Panaetius accompanies. 140 B76 16-395, OCD 774, 963
140/39 CAH 8-381 139 atl2, wikPn
c.140/39 Rome distributes a circular to the Aegean and Anatolia declaring friendship toward Jews and advising that fugitive Hellenistic Jews be handed over to high priest Simon. 142 or 139 CHJ 2-207 141 CAH 8
140/39 Jud 4-37
c.139 Jan. CONSULS:  Gn.(1) Calpurnius PISO and M.(4) Popillius LAENAS 139 CAH 8-134-5, DGRBM 2-708, 3-374, csm, wikCon
c.139 Jews expelled from Rome by praetor Cornelius Hispalus for overzealous missionary work, attempting to corrupt Roman morals by introducing the cult of Jovis Sabazius (God of the Sabbath?). Valerius Maximus I-3-3
139 B76 10-311, CAH 8, 9-290, 10-491, CHJ 2-209, 645, E2LM 83, IDB 3-925, atl2, bk
c.139 Senate authorizes renewal of war against Viriathus, leader of the Lusitanians. 139 atl2
c.139 Gn.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO HISPALLUS(2) is praetor peregrinus.  He passes an edict that all Chaldeans (astrologers) should leave Rome and Italy within 10 days.  They are expelled from Rome. 139 CAH 8-220, DGRA 144, DGRBM 3-752, OCD 139, SORH, atl2, bk
c.139 A. GABINIUS is pleb tribune. 139 DGRBM 2-192
c.139  Lex Gabinia Tabelaria  by tribune A. Gabinius:  Introduces voting by secretly writing names on tablets (ballots) in election of magistrates.  The danger of secrecy gets it opposed by conservatives.  But P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus breaks with them on this occasion and supports it. 139 B76 15-1097, CAH 8, 193, 9-38, 45, 60, CDGRA 608, DGRA 136, 1091, DGRBM 2-192, 3-750, GHH, HRR, SORH, atl2, unrv, wikLRL
c.139 Pleb tribune Ti. CLAUDIUS ASELLUS accuses P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus of unjustly depriving him of equestrian rank in 142. 139 DGRBM 1-385
c.139 Consul M.(4) Popillius Laenas refers the 140 Numantine  treaty  to the senate.  Numantine legates also appear.  Q. Pompeius persists in the same lie.  Senate declares the treaty invalid.  Pompeius skates. 139 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-474, HRR, atl2
c.139 Consul M.(4) POPILLIUS LAENAS is sent to Nearer Spain until 138. 139 CDCC 617,
DGRBM 3-474, HRR, SORH
c.139 Senate prevents praetor Gn.(4) Scipio Hispalis from going to Spain. 139 atl2
c.139 Decemviri Stlitibus Judicandis: judges who decide if a man is slave or free, first definitely attested in a document. 139 OCD 316
c.138 Jan. CONSULS:  P.(11) Cornelius Scipio NASICA (later Serapio) and Decimus Junius BRUTUS (later Gallaicus) 138 B76 X-334, CAH 8-135, 513, DGRBM 1-508, 3-751, OCD 183, 963, csm, wikCon
c.138 Consuls order C. Matienius and other deserters from Spain scourged. 138 CAH 8-194, atl2
c.138 C. CURIATIUS is tribune. 138 CAH 8
c.138 T. DIDIUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 138 DGRBM 1-1004
c.138 Consuls try to levy troops for war in Spain.  Tribunes Curiatius and S. Licinius demand the right to exempt 10 men each by name from the levies.  Consuls refuse.  Licinius and Curiatius imprison both consuls.  See 151. 138 B76 15-1096, CAH 8-194-5, DGRBM 1-509, LdHR 2-137, atl2
c.138 Famine in Rome. 138 LdHR 2-137
c.138 Consul P.(11) Scipio Nasica Serapio rejects a plan under which the state would have purchased grain thru special legati. 138 CAH 8-193
c.138 Difficulty with the grain supply inspires agitation by tribune, C. Curiatius, and a popular outcry against consul P.(11) Scipio Nasica Serapio.  Curiatius disputes with Nasica. 138 CAH 8-193, atl2
c.138 Consul D. JUNIUS BRUTUS is sent to Farther Spain. 138 DGRBM 1-509, LdHR 2-136
c.138 Tribune C. Curiatius gives P.(11) Cornelius Scipio Nasica the nickname Serapio, because of his likeness to a certain slave. 138 atl2
c.138 Cornelia, mother of Ti. and C. Gracchus, educates her sons carefully, and employs eminent teachers including Diophanes of Mytilene. 138 atl2
c.138 C. GRACCHUS joins Roman army. 138 atl2
c.138 L. Aurelius Cotta is accused by P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus of taking bribes, but acquitted. 138 atl2
c.138 Several notable Romans are murdered in the Silva Scantia (Silan Forest).  A senatus consultum orders both consuls to investigate.  Some servants, and sons, of a tax guild, are charged. 138 DGRA 687, DGRBM 2-205, atl2
Consuls P.(11) Scipio Nasica Serapio and Brutus are ordered to try the case in person.  Defense attorney C.(2) Laelius Sapiens argues well.  Consuls, hear both sides, and refer the matter to a 2nd trial, then a 3rd.  Laelius is worn out, and refers the defendants to Ser.(3) Sulpicius Galba, who undertakes it and gets them acquitted.
c.138 Consul "Lucius" in accordance with treaty of 142, instructs Ptolemy Euergetes-II and other allies in the east to deliver all Jewish fugitive outlaws to high priest Simon Maccabee.  Reversed 47BCE. 1Mac 15:15
138 Bruce Acts 193
c.137 Jan. CONSULS:  M.(7) Aemilius LEPIDUS PORCINA and C. HOSTILIUS MANCINUS   Suffect: D. Drusus 137 CAH 8-134-5, DGRBM 1-1088, 2-764, 914, OCD 642, csm, wikCon
c.137 Consul C. HOSTILIUS MANCINUS is sent to Spain until later 137. 137 DGRBM 2-914
c.137 Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS, 1st son of Ti.(5) Gracchus, becomes quaestor under Mancinus in Spain. 137 DGRBM 2-290-1, LdHR 2-133, OCD 473
no date: OCD 642
c.137 Inauspicious omens as consul Mancinus leaves for Spain. 137 LdHR 2-133, atl2
c.137 Consul C. HOSTILIUS MANCINUS, having failed miserably in Spain, is forced to abdicate.  Suffect D. DRUSUS replaces him. 137 DGRBM 1-1088, 2-764
c.137 P.? MANLIUS (Manilius) is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 137 DGRBM 2-917
c.137 L.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS Ravilla is pleb tribune. 137 DGRBM 2-798
c.137 Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS marries CLAUDIA, dau of Ap.(11) Claudius Pulcher. 137 atl2     no date: DGRBM 1-769
c.137 M. Claudius MARCELLUS, son of ?, is made praetor and is killed by lightning. 137 DGRBM 2-936, wikCg
c.137 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS supports Lex Tabellaria.  This gains him popularity with the people, but not the senate. 137 B76 16-395
c.137 Consul M.(7) Aemilius LEPIDUS PORCINA opposes Lex Tabellaria. 137 DGRBM 2-764
c.137  Lex Cassia Tabellaria  by pleb tribune L.(2) Cassius Longinus Ravilla, supported and perhaps instigated by P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus:  Extends lex Gabinia 139 to enforce secret ballot in all popular trials except where the charge is perduellio (treason).  It is carried despite opposition of tribune M. Antius Briso, who is disuaded from vetoing it by Scipio. 139 CDGRA 199, 608 137 CAH 8-193, 9-45, 61, DGRA 336, 1091, DGRBM 2-798, LdHR 2-137, OCD 212, 602, SORH, atl2, unrv, wikLRL     131 CAH 9-38, OCD 204
c.137 Senate, on advice of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus and C. Hostilius Mancinus, rejects Gracchan peace in Spain.  Mancinus, with his own consent, is sent back to Spain as hostage, but Numantines refuse him. no date: OCD 642
c.137 Allocation of provinces to quaestors is regulated by a senatus consultum. 137 atl2
c.137 Q. POMPEIUS is brought to trial for his scandalous 140 treaty with the Celtiberi of Numantia by Q.(2) Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, his bro L.(4) Caecilius Metellus Calvus, and others, but acquitted. 137 atl2 no date: DGRBM 2-1058
c.136 Jan. CONSULS:  L. Furius PHILUS and Sextus Atilius SERRANUS 136 CAH 8, 9-61, DGRBM 3-335, 788, OCD 13, 450, csm, wikCon
c.136 P.(2) Mucius SCAEVOLA is praetor urbanus. 136 DGRBM 3-732
c.136 CENSORS:  patrician Ap.(11) Claudius Pulcher and pleb Q. Fulvius Nobilior   Fulvius dissuades Claudius from handing out harsh punishments. 136 DGRBM 1-769, 2-1207, atl2, wikCon, wikLC
c.136 CENSUS:  323,923 adult males. 136 GHH, HRR
c.136 Senate refuses to endorse Mancinus' treaty. 136 atl2
c.136 P.(2) Mucius Scaevola condemns a mime for abusing poet L. Accius by name on stage. 136 atl2
c.136 Consul L. Furius PHILUS is sent to Spain.  2 of his greatest enemies, Q.(2) Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus and Q. Pompeius are made his legates that they might bear witness to his uprightness. 136 DGRBM 3-335, OCD 857, atl2
c.136 M.(7) Aemilius Lepidus Porcina is fined for his conduct in Spain. 136 CAH 9-67, atl2
c.136 P. RUTILIUS is pleb tribune.  He commands Hostilius Mancinus to leave the senate, on grounds that he had lost his citizenship by surrendering to the Numantines 137. 136 DGRBM 3-681
c.136 Tribune P. Rutilius tries to prevent C. Hostilius Mancinus from entering senate after his return from Spain. 136 atl2
c.136 D. Junius BRUTUS (now called Gallaecus in Spain from 138, returns to Rome.  Triumphs over the Gallaeci and Lusitani. 136 DGRBM 1-509
c.135 Jan. CONSULS:  Q. Calpurnius PISO and Servius Fulvius FLACCUS 135 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-374, csm, wikCon
c.135 M. PERPERNA is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 135 DGRBM 3-202
c.135 Consul Q. Calpurnius PISO is sent to Numantia Spain. 135 DGRBM 3-374
c.135 Consul Servius Fulvius FLACCUS is sent to Illyria. 135 DGRBM 2-155
c.135 M. Cosconius is made praetor. 135 DGRBM 1-863
c.135  Lex Porcia  prohibits summary execution. 135 atl2
c.135 Decree of the Senate upholds an earlier decision made by Rhodian arbitrators in a quarrel between Priene and Samos. 135 CAH 8-381
c.135 CENSUS:  317,933 adult males. 135 CAH 9-57
c.134 Jan. CONSULS:  C. Fulvius FLACCUS and P.(10) Cornelius Scipio AEMILIANUS (2nd) age 51. 134 B76 16-395, CAH 8-136, 192, 9-61, DGRBM 2-155, LdHR 2-137, OCD 963csm, wikCon
c.134 Consul C. Fulvius FLACCUS is sent to Sicily. 134 DGRBM 2-95, 155, DGRG 2-983, atl2
c.134 The treasury is so depleted that the senate proposes to raise a loan from the publicani on credit of next years taxes to pay troops.  Consul P.(10) Scipio declines the offer, and uses his own money. 134 LdHR 2-138
c.134 Consul P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS, assigned to Nearer Spain, decides that he needs more than the customary 2 legions.  Senate denies Scipio money and permission to levy reinforcements, saying that otherwise Italy would have been stripped of men.  Scipio recruits 4,000 additional volunteers from all over the Roman world, thus avoiding the anti-draft riots of previous levies.  He also recruits 500 friends and relatives as a bodyguard. 134
B76 15-1099, CAH 8-136, 192, 194, DGRBM 3-749, LdHR 2-137, atl2
c.134 Cornelius LENTULUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 134 DGRBM 2-730
c.134 Quaestor Q.(3) Fabius BUTEO is entrusted by uncle P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus with command of the 4,000 volunteers enlisted at Rome for service in Spain. 134 DGRBM 1-519
c.134 Consul P.(10) Scipio AEMILIANUS, with 60,000 men, goes to Nearer Spain as commander until 132. 134 CAH 8-136, SORH
c.134 COHORS PRAETORIA (cohor = military unit, praetorium = general's hqs.) bodyguard of 500 men established by P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, possibly in Spain. no date: LEWH 104, OCD 258
c.134 C. Marius spends his early life in countryside near Arpinum. 134 atl2
c.134 An eagle's brood foretells the number of Marius' consulships. 134 atl2
c.134 Slave revolt in Italy is crushed. 134 atl2
c.134 P. Rutilius Rufus improves his knowledge of law by regularly listening to P.(2) Mucius Scaevola. 134 atl2
c.134 Ser.(3) Sulpicius GALBA is outstanding orator of his time. 134 atl2
c.134 Jews appeal to Rome.  Senate issues decree.  ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes ignores it. 134
CHJ 2
134 Dec. REFORM MOVEMENT led by the Gracchi, begins until 122, to halt the spread of Latifundia (great estates) at expense of peasants.  This causes large towns (particularly Rome) to swell by immigration of dispossessed small farmers. 134
TAWH 18
no date:
B76 15-1098
134 Dec. Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS, 1st son of Ti.(5), campaigns on social reform and is elected one of 10 tribunes for 133. 134 B76 15-1100, CAH 9-62
Tribune 133 CDCC 402, DGRBM 2-291, MCAW, TTPC
c.133 Jan. CONSULS:  L.(2) Calpurnius PISO FRUGI and P.(2) MUCIUS SCAEVOLA, bro of Crassus 133 B76 VIII-940, CAH 8, DGRBM 3-373, 732, OCD 836, 957, csm, wikCon
by 133. The senate and oligarchs are so accustomed to unquestioned authority that they assume the right to direct policy unchallenged. by 133 SHWC 114
133. Ti.(6) GRACCHUS elected tribune 1st time. Jan 133 LdHR 2-174, SHWC 115
133. Consul L.(2) Calpurnius PISO FRUGI is kept in Italy to deal with a slave rebellion.  He gains a victory over them, but does not subdue them. 133 DGRBM 3-373
133. Tribune Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS, on advice of Ap.(11) Claudius Pulcher, Crassus Mucianus, gets together with consul P.(2) Scaevola and writes an agrarian law.  It proposes to revive agrarian Lex Licinia Sextia 367 restricting amount of land an individual may own to 500 iugera (320 acres).  This helps independent yeoman farmers (and benefits themselves).  Law is also supported by Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus. 134 CAH 9
133 B76 I-143, 8-262, CDGRA 382, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-174, LEWH 103, MCAW, OCD 473, SORH, TTPC, atl2
c.133  Leges Sempronia Agrariae  by Ti.(6) Gracchus establishes a 3 man Land commission to confiscate surplus land, judge boundary disputes, distribute land in inalienable lots of 30 iugera on permanent lease with moderate rent to the poor.  3 new commissioners to be chosen annulally by the tribal assembly.
1.  No citizen may hold over 500 iugera (333 acres) bought or leased from the state; plus 250 iugera, for each of 2 sons, but in no case to exceed 1,000 iugera.
2.  All land sold by the state must be sold back to the state.
3.  Returned lands divided into 20 acre lots for the poor, who must pay annual tax, and may not sell it.  Repealed after his assassination.
133 CDGRA 14, 382, DGRA 41, 698, DGRBM 1-769, Dur 3-113, MCAW, bk, unrv, wikLRL
c.133 Compensation to present occupants of confiscated land is included in the law, but later withdrawn. 133 SORH
c.133 M.(1) OCTAVIUS is pleb tribune. 133 DGRBM 3-8
c.133 Q. Aelius TUBERO is pleb tribune. 133 DGRBM 3-1180
133. Tribune M.(1) OCTAVIUS, on advice of senate, vetos Lex Agraria. 134 CAH 9     133 B76 VII-478, 8-262, LEWH 103, OCD 473, SORH, atl2
133. Tribune Ti.(6) GRACCHUS shuts down the government by vetoing all business. 133 MCAW
c.133 Manius MANLIUS (Manilius) urges Ti.(6) Gracchus to submit dispute with tribune M.(1) Octavius to senate. 133 OCD 643
133. Tribune Ti.(6) GRACCHUS, proposes that any tribune who acts contrary to the other 9 be immediately deposed.  Passed by the Assembly.  M.(1) Octavius is deposed, forced from tribunes' bench by lictors. 133 CAH 9, Dur 3-114, SORH, atl2
c.133  Lex Sempronia Agraria  passed again by Tribal Assembly.  3 commissioners are appointed to supervise distribution of land.  They are: Ap.(11) Claudius Pulcher, Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. 133 CAH 9-67, Dur 3-114, SORH, atl2
c.133 Large land owners in Etruria and Campania block efforts to recover land held in violation of Gracchan land law. 133 TTPC
c.133 EQUITES (cavalry composed of nobles) abolished by P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus at siege of Numantia. no date: LEWH 103-4
133 ATTALUS-III Philometor king of Pergamum from 139, dies bequeathing Pergamum to Rome. 133 B76 VII-873, 1-825, 8-380, 385, 15-1095, CAH 8, 9-102, CDCC 659, DGRBM 1-411, DGRG 1-238, 2-576, Dur 3-114, GHH, HRR, IDB 1-258, 3-734, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 333, OCD 145, OHG, SORH, anan, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcT
133. Tribune Ti.(6) GRACCHUS, proposes that property of Attalus-III of Pergamum be sold, and the money given to recipients of state lands to finance stock and equipment for their farms (i.e. for his agrarian program).  Gracchus also declares that the Senate had no right to deal with something bequeathed to the Roman people. 133 CAH 8-378, CAH 9, Dur 3-114, MCAW, SORH, atl2
133. T. Annius Luscus challenges Ti.(6) Gracchus. 133 DGRBM 2-842, atl2
c.133 Senate refuses funds for Agrarian Commission to thwart Gracchan reform. 133 Dur 3-114
c.133 Senate formally decrees that all of Attalus-III's acts, down to the day before he died, should remain in effect, and not be changed by Roman envoys soon to be sent to Anatolia. 133 CAH 8-377-8
c.133 Opponents of tribune Ti.(6) Gracchus include Q.(2) Cecilius METELLUS, Q. Pompeius, P.(11) Scipio Nasica Serapio, C.(2) Laelius Sapiens.  They say they will impeach him at the end of his term on the charge of illegally overruling a tribune veto. 133
B76 V-984, Dur 3-114
c.133 Tribune Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS seeks re-election for 132.  Tribune re-election had not been practiced for 300 years, and is believed illegal by an ambiguous statute. 133
B76 8-262, Dur 3-114
c.133 Tribune Ti.(6) GRACCHUS turns to the plebs for support, promises shorter military service terms, non-senators as jurors, citizenship to Italian allies. 133 Dur 3-114
c.133 Supporters of Ti.(6) Gracchus in the senate, including Aemilianus Laelius, withdraw support.  Senate, led by Nasica, tries to get consul P.(2) Scaevola to stop the election by force.  Scaevola dodges the issue. 133
B76 8-262, CAH 9-494, Dur 3-114
133 Elections for new tribunes end in deadlock. 133 atl2
c.133 When the tribes meet to re-elect Ti.(6) Gracchus tribune, and confusion prevails in the forum, P.(11) Scipio Nasica Serapio asks the consuls to save the republic.  Consuls refuse to resort to violence.  Nasica says, "The consul betrays the state.  You who wish to obey the laws follow me." He charges from the temple of Fides, where the senate is sitting, followed by most of the senators, and arm themselves with sticks.  The people give way before them.  A riot ensues.  Many are clubbed to death.  300 killed. 133
B76 8-262, DGRBM 3-751-2, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.133 1st son of Ti.(5) Gracchus, Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS dies, clubbed to death in riot by opponents led by P.(10) Scipio Nasica Serapio.  Bro Caius is in Spain. 133 B76 III-223, 8-262, DGRBM 2-290, 3-752, Dur 3-110, GHH, MCAW, TTPC, atl2, bk, wikTAR
c.133 Aedile LUCRETIUS throws the corpse of Ti.(6) Gracchus into the Tiber, and is thus surnamed Vespillo (one who carries out dead bodies of the poor at night for burial). 133 DGRBM 3-1248
c.133 Gracchans tortured and executed include: C. Villius sealed in a vessel with snakes. 133 DGRBM 3-1260
c.133 SLAVE REVOLTS in Italy result in executions: 150 in Rome, 450 in Minturnae (between Formiae & Sinuessa), 4,000 in Sinuessa. 133 Dur 3-112-3
c.133 P. CRASSUS is chosen to succeed Ti.(6) Gracchus on agrarian commission. 133 atl2 132 SORH
c.133 Ti.(6) Gracchus' supporters try to bring P.(10) Scipio Nasica Serapio to trial, but consul P.(2) Scaevola defends him.  Though Serapio is pontifex maximus 141-32, and therefore restricted to Italy, the senate sends him to Asia Province (partly to escape popular fury) to arbitrate against Aristonicus.  He never returns to Rome. 133 DGRBM 3-751, atl2 132 OCD 963
c.132 Jan. CONSULS:  P.(2) Popillius LAENAS and P. RUPILIUS 132 DGRBM 2-708, 3-679, OCD 861, 940, csm, wikCon
c.132 P.(10) Scipio AEMILIANUS commander in Spain from 134, returns to Rome and triumphs.  Becomes leader of anti-Gracchans.  His legate C. Gracchus also returns. 132 B76 16-395, DGRBM 2-294, GHH, MCAW, OCD 963
c.132 Senate sets up a special court under presidency of consuls P. Popilius Laenus and Rupilius to try and punish and execute former Gracchan supporters.  They do so cruelly. 132 B76 8-262,
CAH 9-73, 494, DGRBM 2-708, 3-679, SORH, atl2
c.132 C.(2) Laelius Sapiens helps consuls examine C. Blossius of Cumae and other partizans of Ti.(6) Gracchus. 132 DGRBM 2-706
c.132 C.(3) Sempronius TUDITANUS is made praetor. 132 DGRBM 3-1182
c.132 CAIUS GRACCHUS, age 22, joins opponents of Nasica, acts as a land commissioner to carry out Tiberius' land law. 132 B76 8-262
c.132 DIOPHANES of Mytilene, one of the teachers of Ti.(6) Gracchus, dies. 132 atl2
c.132 Consul P. RUPILIUS is sent to Sicily. 132 DGRBM 3-679
c.132 C. BLOSSIUS of Cumae, philosopher and associate of Ti.(6) Gracchus is accused of helping Gracchus by consuls, questioned, freed, and escapes to Aristonicus of Pergamum. 132 DGRBM 1-492, atl2
c.132 Romans send 5 envoys to help suppress Aristonicus' revolt in Pergamum. 132 atl2
c.132 Valuable personal effects of Attalus-III of Pergamum are auctioned at Rome. 132 atl2
c.132 Boundary stones are put up by Gracchan agrarian commision, led by P. Crassus.  Some of them have been found in Campania, northern Lucania and in ager Gallicus near Pisaurum. 132 CAH 9-73, atl2
c.132 Senate sends 10 commissioners to organize new territories in Spain. 132 atl2
c.132 1st SLAVE WAR in Sicily from 135 ends.  Leader EUNUS is sent to Rome, put in a dungeon, and starved to death. 132 B76 III-994, CAH 9,
LEWH 102, OCD 996, TTPC 29, atl2, bk,     131 Dur 3-112
Via Popilia
c.132 VIA POPILIA forks off Via Appia at Calatia to connect Capua to Rhegium.  Built by praetor P. Popilius Lenate. 134 DGRG 2-706
132 Dur 3-78, wikVCR, wikVP
c.132 C. Atinius Labeo becomes tribune. 132 DGRA 1151, ScDGRA 330
c.132 Temple to Mars is built by Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. 132 atl2
c.132 C. Figulus is rejected in elections for new consuls. 132 atl2
c.131 Jan. CONSULS:  L.(6) Valerius FLACCUS and P. Licinius CRASSUS MUCIANUS 131 B76 III-223, CAH 9-65, DGRBM 1-873, 2-158, LdHR 2-190, OCD 294, csm, wikCon
c.131 P.(11) SCIPIO NASICA Serapio, pontifex maximus from 141, in Asia Province from 133, is killed in battle at Pergamum. 131 DGRA 654, atl2 130 OCD 65
no date: wikPM
P. MUCIUS SCAEVOLA succeeds his bro Mucianus as pontifex maximus until 115. 131 DGRBM 3-732
c.131 Consul CRASSUS MUCIANUS and army sent to Asia Province to counter Aristonicus, claimed heir of Pergamum.  Dies there 130. 131 CAH 9-105, atl2
c.131  Edictum Rupilia de Sicilia?  by proconsul P. Rupilius (consul 132) and 10 legati made in response to senatus consultum:  Reorganizes administration of Sicily after 1st slave war. 131 DGRA 698, unrv
c.131 80,000 Roman citizens are settled on land won by Ti.(6) Gracchus' land reform. 131 MCAW
c.131 CENSORS:  Q.(2) Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus and Q. Pompeius, 1st time both censors are plebs. 131 CDGRA 154, DGRA 261, DGRBM 2-1057, 3-474, OCD 219, 857, SORH, atl2, wikCon, wikLC
c.131 Censor Q.(2) Caecilius Metellus advocates compulsory marriage to produce more soldiers.  Begs men to marry regardless of how much nuisance a wife may be. 131 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1057, Dur 3-134, OCD 677, atl2
c.131  Lex Papiria Tabellaria  passed by tribune C.(2) Papirius Carbo, extends secret ballot to voting for new laws and repeal of old laws. 131 B76 15-1097, CAH 9-45, CDGRA 608, DGRA 1091, DGRBM 1-610, SORH, atl2, unrv
c.131 C.(2) Papirius CARBO, friend of the Gracchi, is made tribune, and introduces 2 laws.  He is opposed by C.(2) Laelius Sapiens. 131 DGRBM 1-610, 2-294, 706
c.131  Rogatio Papiria de Tribunis Plebis Reficiendis  by tribune C.(2) Papirius Carbo, a bill to legalize re-election of tribunes.  This is supported by C. Gracchus and opposed by Laelius Sapiens and more so by P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, who adds that killing of Ti.(6) Gracchus was justified.  Bill is rejected. 131 B76 V-984, CAH 9-68, DGRBM 1-610, 2-294, 706, SORH, atl2, unrv
c.131  Lex Atinia :  by tribune C. Atinius (131BC) or C. Atinius Labeo (102BC), admits pleb tribunes to the senate. 131 or 102 unrv 130 DGRA 685
c.131 C. GRACCHUS advocates popular rights. 131 GHH, HRR
c.131 Tribune C. Atinius Labeo attacks Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus, and threatens to throw him off the Tarpeian rock. 131 atl2
c.131 Decimus Brutus adorns temples with his spoils from Spain, and inscribes verses of Accius on their walls. 131 atl2
c.131 P. Licinius Crassus Mucianus is a leading orator and respected jurist. 131 atl2
c.130 Jan. CONSULS:  L.(?) Cornelius LENTULUS and M. PERPERNA
Suffect:  Ap. Claudius Nero
130 DGRBM 3-202, OCD 802, csm, wikCon
c.130 Consul M. PERPERNA rushed to Asia Province to succeed Mucianus against Aristonicus. 130 CAH 9-105, DGRBM 3-202, OCD 295, atl2
c.130 Q.(8) Fabius Maximus Aemilianus, son of L.(2) Aemilius Paulus, adopted by the Fabii, bro of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, dies.  Son Q.(10) F. M. Allobrogicus. 130 OCD 427
130 Consul L.(?) Cornelius LENTULUS dies.  Ap.(11?) Claudius (the younger) is elected suffect consul. 130 atl2
c.130 CENSUS by Q. Pompeius and Q.(2) Metellus Macedonicus.  317,823 adult males. 131 GHH, HRR 130 atl2
c.130 Ap.(11) CLAUDIUS PULCHER dies.  The 2 vacant places on the agrarian commission are filled by C.(2) Papirius Carbo and M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus. 130 atl2, wikACP
c.130 Division of land by agrarian commission causes many legal disputes over ownership. 130 atl2
c.130 Death of P. Rupilius, allegedly caused by disappointment at his brother's failure to be elected consul. 130 atl2
c.130  Anales Maximi , a collection of annual notices displayed on a white board by the priests containing notes of food prices, eclipses, etc. 130 B76 4-579
c.130 A praetor is killed by lightning. 130 atl2
c.130 Omens include 4 days of weeping by statue of Apollo at Cumae. 130 atl2
c.130 L. Accius reads one of his tragedies to M. Pacuvius at Tarentum. 130 atl2
c.130 ARISTONICUS, former claimant of Pergamum, is shipped to Rome and executed in prison. 130 SORH, atl2 129 CDCC 660
c.130 TRIBUNES elevated to the senate. 130 GHH, HRR
c.130 M. PACUVIUS, nephew and pupil of Ennius, greatest tragic poet of Rome prior to L. Accius, age almost 90, dies. 130 CDCC 286, DGRBM 3-81, GHH, wikPc
c.130  Lex Licinia , a sumptuary law to reassert lex Fannia 161, because Fannia was not being enforced, sets limits on amounts to be spent on banquets. 131 or later CAH 9-77 130 atl2
c.130 POLYBIUS publishes  Histories  volumes 7 to end. no date B76 14-763
c.130 M. PACHUVIUS, neph of Ennius, tragedian from Brundisium, dies. 139 LdHR 2-165     130 B76 VII-668, 15-1098, HRR     129 CDGRA 642
c.130/29 Latin and Italians allies who had been harmed by the Gracchan laws appeal to P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, even invoking the treaties originally made with Rome. 130/29 CAH 8-240
c.129 Jan. CONSULS:  C.(3) Sempronius TUDITANUS and Manius AQUILLIUS 129 DGRBM 1-253, 3-1182, OCD 90, 1098, csm, wikCon
c.129 The LAND COMMISSION (M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus, C. Gracchus, C.(2) Carbo), possibly running out of available land, begins applying the Gracchan law to public land held by Italian persons or communities. 129 B76 15-1100, SORH
c.129 early P.(10) Scipio AEMILIANUS is now acknowledged leader of the aristocracy, which uses him to neutralize the agrarian law of Ti.(6) Gracchus.  The socii (Italian allies) are likely to lose lands because of this law.  P.(10) Scipio proposes that all disputes over lands of allies should be taken from the 3 commissioners, appointed under the agrarian law, and committed to consul C.(3) Tuditanus; but Tuditanus, perceiving the difficulty of the cases brought before him, avoids any decision by pleading that the Illyrian war compels him to leave the city. 129 DGRBM 3-750, 1182, early OCD 963, SORH, atl2
c.129  Lex Licinia Sextia  of 367 is suspended.  It limited each person's ownership of public land to 500 iugera (312 acres) of land of the Ager Publicus, curtailing economic power of patricians. 129 GHH, HRR
c.129 The 3 man LAND COMMISSION, now includes M.(4) Fulvius Flaccus, C.(2) Papirius Carbo, and C. Sempronius Gracchus to divide up the land.  They oppose P.(10) Scipio's proposal.  Provokes political storm.  In the forum, Carbo calls Scipio an enemy of the people.  Scipio again expresses his approval of the death of Ti.(6) Gracchus.  The people shout "Down with the tyrant". 129 DGRBM 2-155, 3-750
c.129 Consul C.(3) Sempronius TUDITANUS is sent to fight the Iapydes of north Illyria.  D. Junius Brutus Gallaecus serves under him. 129 DGRBM 1-509, 3-1182, SORH
c.129 Consul Manius AQUILLIUS is sent to Asia Province until 126 to replace late M. Perperna. 129 CAH 9-105, OCD 90
c.129 Omens include doubling of the sun and a weeping statue of Apollo. 129 atl2
c.129 P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus dedicates a temple to Virtue. 129 atl2
c.129 Tribune Q. TUBERO rules against Scipio in a procedural dispute concerning the augurs. 129 atl2
c.129 P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus sharply criticizes P. Sulpicius Gallus for effeminacy. 129 atl2
c.129 SHAVING made a daily habit by P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus. 129 atl2
c.129 People of Massilia send ambassadors to Rome to intercede for Phocaea, which the senate had ordered destroyed, because they had taken up arms against the Romans.  The senate pardons Phocaea. 129 atl2
c.129 1st ROME / ILLYRIA WAR begins until 228. early 129 OCD 963
c.129 P.(10) Cornelius Scipio AEMILIANUS, 2nd son of L.(2) Aemilius Paulus, adopted by P.(8) Scipio, due to make a speech on the Italian question, is found murdered in his bedroom.  Widow Sempronia Gracchus and C.(2) Papirius Carbo are among many suspected of complicity.  His political foe Q.(2) Metellus acknowledges his greatness.  Scipio was 56. 129 B76 16-395, CAH 9, CDCC 795, DGRBM 3-750, Dur 3-115, GHH, HRR, MCAW, OCD 963, SORH, TTPC, atl2
c.129 Q.(10) Fabius Maximus gives a public banquet in memory of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, and delivers a funeral oration. 129 DGRBM 2-995, atl2
c.129 Stoic PANAETIUS of Rhodes, a regular companion of P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus from 144, returns to Athens. 129 atl2, wikPn
c.128 Jan. CONSULS:  T. Annius RUFUS and Gn.(4) OCTAVIUS 128 DGRBM 2-842, 3-6, OCD 861, csm, wikCon
c.128 Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA is pleb tribune. 128 DGRBM 3-733
c.128 Q. Aelius Tubero fails to be elected as praetor. 128 atl2
c.127 Jan. CONSULS:  L. Cornelius CINNA and L.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS Ravilla 127 DGRBM 2-798, 3-641, OCD 212, csm, wikCon
c.127 C. Gracchus speaks in defence of his friend Vettius so eloquently that the nobles are even more frightened of him. 127 atl2
c.126 Jan. CONSULS:  M.(8) Aemilius LEPIDUS and L. Aurelius ORESTES 126 DGRBM 2-763, 764, 3-43, csm, wikCon
c.126 C. GRACCHUS becomes quaestor. 126 B76 8-262, DGRBM 2-294
c.126 Consul L. Aurelius ORESTES is sent to Sardinia.  M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus and quaestor C. GRACCHUS are under him. 126 DGRBM 2-294, 3-43, 736, GHH, HRR
c.126 Manius AQUILLIUS, governor of Asia Province from 129, returns to Rome and has triumph. 126 CAH 9-34, 77, OCD 91
c.126 M. Junius PENNUS is pleb tribune. 126 DGRBM 3-184
c.126  Lex Junia de Peregrinis  by pleb tribune M. Junius Pennus forbids Italian allies to migrate to Rome, and expels all peregrini (non citizens).  Law is opposed by C. Gracchus, because the peregrini are helpful to him in his struggle with the aristocracy. 126 CAH 8-240, 9-45, 76, DGRA 693, 986, DGRBM 3-119, 184, Dur 3-121, GHH, HRR, SORH, unrv
c.126 M. Plautius Hypsaeus and Gn.(4) Octavius have a ridiculous procedural dispute in a case heard by praetor M. Crassus. 126
OCD 91
c.125 Jan. CONSULS:  M.(4) Fulvius FLACCUS and M. Plautius HYPSAEUS 125 B76 15-1100, DGRBM 2-155, 540-1, LdHR 2-200csm, wikCon
c.125 CENSORS:  patrician Gn.(4) Servilius CAEPIO and pleb L.(1) CASSIUS LONGINUS Ravilla 125 DGRBM 2-798,
OCD 212, wikCon, wikLC
c.125 AQUA TEPULA an inferior aqueduct begun and finished by censors Gn.(4) Servilius Caepio and Cassius Longinus Ravilla.  Carries 18,000,000 liters per day for 20 km.  Named for its tepid water brought from the foot of the Alban hills. 127 B76 1-1036, CDGRA 44, DGRA 110 125 CAH 8-505, TTT, OCD 212, atl2, wikLA
c.125 Consuls are joint land commissioners for resuming and re-apportioning such demesnes of the state as were held contrary to the provisions of the Licinian and Sempronian laws. 125 DGRBM 2-541, CAH 9-75
c.125 Consul M.(4) Fulvius FLACCUS, one of the land commissioners, tries to remove objections of the Italian upper classes to redistribution of land by offering citizenship to all Latin and Italian allies.  Or, if they prefer, physical protection against Roman magistrates in the form of provocatio.  Senate balks, sends him to Transalpine Gaul. 125 B76 7-960, CAH 9-24, 75, DGRBM 1-534, 2-155, LdHR 2-200, LEWH 103, MCAW, OCD 440, SORH, atl2, bk
c.125 Consul M.(4) Fulvius FLACCUS is sent to help Massilia against the Salluvii. 125 CAH 9-24, DGRBM 2-155, DGRG 1-954, 2-887, LEWH 103, MCAW, OCD 440, SORH, atl2
c.125 Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA is pleb aedile. 125 DGRBM 3-733
c.125 M.(7) Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina is augur.  He is summoned by the censors to account for having built a house in too magnificent a style. 125 DGRBM 2-764
c.125 FREGELLAE, Latin colony from 328, under Rome from 326, rebels because citizenship to Italian allies is rejected. 125 B76 15-1100, CAH 8-242, 9-5, CDCC 626, GHH, OCD 448, MCAW, SORH, atl2
c.125 L. OPIMIUS is made praetor and sent against Fregellae. 125 DGRBM 3-33
c.125 FREGELLAE is betrayed to praetor L. Opimius by one of its citizens, Q. Numitorius Pullus, taken and destroyed. 125 B76 15-1100, CAH 9, CDCC 626, CDGRA 654, DGRBM 3-33, GHH, OCD 448, MCAW, SORH, atl2
c.125 CENSUS:  390,736 adult males recorded by censors Gn.(4) Servilius Caepio and L.(1) Cassius Longinus, who also bring Aqua Tepula into Rome. 125 GHH, atl2
c.125 Censor L.(1) Cassius punishes M. Aemilius with a heavy fine for building an ostentatious house. 125 atl2
c.125 Senate refuses to grant a triumph to L. Opimius. 125 atl2
c.125 M'. Manilius is regularly consulted as an expert on law and other topics. 125 atl2
c.125 C. LUCILIUS, political satirist, flourishes.  His commentaries on social life are called "satura", which will become satire.  "Knowledge is not knowledge until someone else knows that one knows." 125 MNDQ 637 120 MCAW
dies 103/2 B76 VI-373, 15-1098
c.125/4 M.(7) Aemilius Lepidus Porcina is charged before censors for renting a house for 6,000 sestertii a year. 125/4
CAH 9-77
c.124 Jan. CONSULS:  C.(2) Cassius LONGINUS and C. Sextius CALVINUS 124 DGRBM 1-585, 2-799, OCD 197, csm, wikCon
c.124 Quaestor C. Gracchus, now in Sardinia, is accused of complicity in the Fregellae rebellion.  Anti-Gracchan intrigue delays C. Gracchus return from Sardinia to Rome. 124 B76 8-262, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.124 Quaestor C. Gracchus defends his conduct before censors.  He asserts that the censors have no right to call him to account, because he is an equite and a quaestor.  He then demolishes all charges against him, and is acquitted. 124 B76 8-262, HRR, LdHR 2-201, SORH, atl2
c.124 M'. Aquillius is tried for extortion in Asia Province, but is defended by M.(3) Antonius, bribes judges, and is acquitted. 126 SORH     124 atl2
no date: DGRBM 1-253
c.124 Consul Sextius Calvinus advances west over Alps into Gaul land.  War with the Arverni and Allobroges until 121.  Begins ground work for Transalpine Gaul. 124 CAH 9
121 DGRG 1-229
c.124  Lex Aufeia : settlement of Asia Province. 124 wikLRL
c.124 FABRATERIA NOVA 3 miles south of Fregellae founded by displaced inhabitants of Fregellae 125. 124 CAH 9, OCD 448, SORH, atl2
c.124 Dec. C. GRACCHUS, bro of late Ti.(6) Gracchus, elected one of Rome's 10 tribunes for 123 and continues until 122. Dec 124 B76 15-1100, CAH 9-34, Dur 3-110, 115
Tribune 123 CDCC 402, DGRA 41, DGRBM 2-295, GHH, HRR, MCAW, SORH, TTPC

Italy 123-100
V