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Italy
c.171 Mar. CONSULS:  C.(1) CASSIUS LONGINUS and P. Licinius CRASSUS 171 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-873, 799, csm, wikCon, wikCg
c.171 After senate declares war, 5 Roman envoys are sent to Corcyra.  They include Q. Marcius, A. Atilius, P.(4) and Servius(2) Cornelius Lentulus. 171 DGRBM 2-732, 845, LdHR 2-83
c.171 L. DECIMUS is sent to Gentius, king of Illyrians, to try to get alliance with Romans against Macedonia.  He fails, returns to Rome, and is suspected of taking a bribe. 171 DGRBM 1-947
c.171  Lex Licinia et Cassia  by consuls P. Licinius Crassus, C.(1) Cassius Longinus, permits consuls and praetors to appoint their own military tribunes despite Lex Atilia 311.  Same arrangement is probably continued in 170.  Revoked 169. 171 DGRA 503, unrv
c.171 Latin Festival is celebrated earlier than usual. 171 atl2
c.171 Opposition to conscription at Rome is curbed by a speech from veteran Sp. Ligustinus. 171 atl2
c.171 C. Caninius REBILUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 171 DGRBM 3-641
c.171 M.(2) Fulvius NOBILIOR is pleb tribune. 171 DGRBM 2-1206
c.171 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS, is appointed to command against Perseus.  Q.(2) Mucius Scaevola is his tribune. 171 DGRBM 1-873, 3-732, LdHR 2-83
c.171 C.(2) Sulpicius GALBA is appointed praetor urbanus. 171 DGRBM 2-205
c.171 M. Claudius MARCELLUS, son of ?, is pleb tribune. 171 DGRBM 2-936
c.171 C. Caninus Rebilus is praetor. 171 DGRBM 1-594
c.171 C. Lucretius GALLUS is made praetor until 170 and fleet commander until later 171. 171 DGRBM 2-828
c.171 Consul C.(1) Cassius LONGINUS, disappointed at receiving Cisalpine Gaul as his province, marches for Macedonia with no authority from senate and 30 days grain supply. 171 CAH 8-264
c.171 Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS returns from Boeotia to Rome, reports back to senate on his mission.  He boasts of his successful fraud to gain time in front of the embassy of Perseus, which is now dismissed.  Philippus is sent back to Greece with unlimited power to do whatever he thinks in the best interest of Rome. 171 DGRBM 3-286, LdHR 2-83, atl2
c.171 Consul P. Licinius Crassus sets out for Brundisium, then crosses to GreeceL. Pompeius is military tribune under him. 171 DGRBM 3-474, atl2
c.171 L. HORTENSIUS is made praetor and assigned to succeed C. Lucretius Gallus in command of the fleet. 171 DGRBM 2-525
c.171 L. Canuleius DIVES is appointed praetor and appointed to Spain.  But before he leaves, Spanish envoys arrive in Rome complaining about extortion by proconsuls Matienus, Philus, and M. Titinius Curvus (proconsul 178-4).  Dives is ordered to appoint 5 senators as judges.  The accused are allowed to choose their own investigators.  M.(1) Porcius Cato and P.(7) Scipio Nasica are chosen to represent the envoys of Nearer Spain.  Aemilius Paulus and C.(2) Sulpicius Gallus are chosen to represent the envoys of Farther Spain.  Though Cato is successful, 3 of the accused including Titinius Curvus are acquitted (probably by bribes).  The advocates say they will apply for new trials, and the accused take refuge in voluntary exile.  The advocates advise their clients to accept it.
When the case is over, the Senate issues 3 prohibitions concerning Spain:  Roman magistrates may not set their own prices for requisitioned grain, or compel Spaniards to sell the contracts for gathering the grain levy at their own prices, or impose praejecti in Spanish towns to collect money.  But the law to recover extorted money from provincial governors does not pass until 149.
171 CAH 8-131, 182, DGRBM 1-641, 1057, 3-751, 1158, LdHR 2-104     170 DGRBM 2-228
c.171 Praetor L. Canuleius DIVES, his investigation completed, goes to Spain. 171 DGRBM 1-1057
c.171 Praetor M. MATIENUS, in Farther Spain from 173, returns to Rome.  He is accused by the provincials of extortion, convicted, and exiled at Tibur. 171 CAH 8-131, DGRBM 1-641, 1057, SORH, atl2 no date: DGRBM 2-973
c.171 P. Furius PHILUS prosecuted by M.(1) Porcius CATO, for extortion in Nearer Spain 174.  He is exiled to Praeneste. 171 CAH 8-131, DGRBM 1-641, 3-335, 1057, MCAW, OCD 214, atl2
c.171 L. Furius PHILUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia, where he dies in 170. 171 DGRBM 3-335
c.171 3rd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 168.  Praetor C. Lucretius GALLUS sails for Greece, where he remains until 170. 172 B76 8-384, CAH 8-115, CDCC 456
171 B76 VI-442, DGRBM 2-828, DGRG 2-1188, Dur 2-556, 3-20, GHH, HRR, LEWH 92, OCD 456, OHG, SORH, frH, wikTAR
c.171 Macedonians living in Italy are ordered out. 171 CAH 8-436
c.171 Gn. SICINIUS, praetor from 172, continues in office until ?, sent to Macedonia. 171 DGRBM 3-816
c.171 The people of Oria (Hyria) Apulia, "Urites" of Livy, are among the allied cities that furnish ships to praetor C. Lucretius Gallus. 171 DGRG 1-1106
c.171 Roman enyoys including M. Junius Brutus are sent to Ionia to get allies to help in war against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-508
c.171 Temporary court de repetundis set up to try cases of extortion in the provinces. 171 CAH 8-182
c.171 C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is made military tribune under Crassus and sent to Greece. 171 DGRBM 1-769, OCD 247
c.171 Commissioners are sent to Cisalpine Gaul, to find out why consul C.(1) Cassius had left his procince.  Commissioners include P. Cornelius Cethegus, 171 DGRBM 1-675
c.171 GULUSSA, 2nd son of Masinissa, sent to Rome.  He and a Carthaginian embassy make more accusations against each other before the senate.  Gulussa promises Numidian troops to help Romans in Macedonia. 172 DGRBM 2-315
171 DGRBM 2-315, atl2
c.171 An embassy including Aulus Postumius Albinus & C. Decimus is sent to Crete to ask for Cretan help against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-91, 947
c.171 LUDI ROMANI an annual religious festival in honor of Jupiter in Sept. (10 days from 191), increased to ?? days until ?. 171 wikLR
c.170 Mar. CONSULS:  Aulus Atilius SERRANUS and Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS 170 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-914, 3-788, OCD 143, csm, wikCon
c.170 Consul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS is sent to Macedonia until 169.  Ap.(10) Claudius Cento is his legate. 170 DGRBM 1-769, 2-914
c.170 Consul Aulus Atilius SERRANUS is ordered to stay in Italy. 170 DGRBM 3-788
c.170 C.(1) CASSIUS LONGINUS, proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul, abuses power, invades the country of the Alpine people and enslaves many thousands. 170 DGRG 1-944
c.170 T.(3) Manlius Torquatus elected pontiff. 171 DGRBM 3-1164
c.170 Praetor C. Lucretius GALLUS in Greece from 171, now loaded with loot, returns to Rome. 170 DGRBM 2-828
c.170 Embassies appear before senate, from Carthage and Masinissa, from Alpine states complaining about C.(1) Cassius Longinus, from Athens, Chalcis, and from many other Greek states complaining about C. Lucretius Gallus. 170 DGRBM 2-828, atl2
c.170 MICTIO, a pro-Roman leader in Chalcis Euboea appears before the senate as chief of a deputation sent from Chalcis to complain of cruelty and extortions of successive praetors, C. Lucretius and L. Hortensius. 70 DGRBM 2-1083
c.170 Envoys report back to senate on conduct of war in Macedonia. 170 atl2
c.170 Embassies from Antiochus-IV and Ptolemy-VI arrive at Rome. 170 atl2
c.170 P. Cornelius BLASIO and 2 others are sent as ambassadors to the Carni, Istri, and Iapydes. 170 DGRBM 1-492
c.170 L. AQUILIUS GALLUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 170 DGRBM 2-225
c.170 Q. MAENIUS is made praetor and sent to Macedonia. 170 DGRBM 2-897
c.170 TITINIUS, Roman dramatist, flourishes.  Names of over 14 plays plus short fragments have been preserved by grammarians. 170 DGRBM 3-1158
c.170 Envoys from Abdera Thrace appear before senate, complain of praetor L. Hortensius sacking Abdera without provocation.  Senate grants Abdera freedom, and sends envoys C. Sempronius Blaesus and Sextus(2) Julius Caesar deliver the message, and inform the consul and Hortensius that the attack on Abdera had been unjust 170 CAH 8-311
c.170 C. Sempronius BLAESUS and Sextus(2) Julius CAESAR are ambassadors to Abdera Thrace to grant it independence. 170 DGRBM 1-491, 537, atl2
c.170 M. Caninius Rebilus and M. Fulvius Flaccus are sent to investigate the lack of success in Macedonia.  They remain until 169. 170 CAH 8-312, DGRBM 3-641
c.170 C.(1) LAELIUS and C. SICINIUS are despatched by senate to inquire into charges by some Gaulish tribes of the Grisons against former consul C.(1) Cassius. 170 DGRBM 2-706, 3-816
c.170 L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININUS, bro of T.(1), currently a pontif, dies. 170 DGRBM 2-162
c.170 M' Juventius THALNA is pleb tribune. 170 DGRBM 3-1020
c.170 C. Livius SALINATOR dies. 170 DGRBM 3-695
c.170 Pleb tribunes Gn. AUFIDIUS and M' Juventius Thalna acuse C. Lucretius GALLUS of oppressing Chalcidian allies.  He is given a large fine. 170 CAH 8-182, DGRBM 1-418, 2-828, 3-1020
c.170 C. FURIUS is legate on Issa island with 2 ships owned by the locals.  8 more ships are sent to him from Brundisium. 170 DGRBM 2-190
c.170 1st professional BAKERS, MILLERS, and COOKS appear in Italy, but most households continue to grind their own flour. 174 GHH     172 CDGRA 485 170 SHT II-121, TTPC, TTT 171-168 CDCC 119     168 atl2
c.169 M. Caninius Rebilus and M. Fulvius Flaccus who were sent in 170 to investigate the lack of success in Macedonia return to Rome.  They report doubt among the allies and lax discipline in the Roman army.  Their report is discussed upon entry of the new consuls into office.  Reinforcements of Roman and Latin troops are agreed.  New legions formed are to have their military tribunes elected by the people and not appointed by consuls. 169 CAH 8-312
c.169  Lex Licinia et Cassia  of 171 permiting consuls and praetors to appoint their own military tribunes is repealed.  The people name tribunes of 4 legions which are kept in reserve.  (see 168) 169 DGRA 503
c.169 Mar. CONSULS:  Gn.(3) Servilius CAEPIO and Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS (2nd) 169 CAH 8-337, DGRBM 1-534 3-286, csm, wikCon
c.169 CENSORS:  patrician C.(4) Claudius Pulcher and pleb Ti.(5) Sempronius Gracchus BUBULCUS 169 DGRBM 1-769, 2-289, OCD 247, 473, wikCon, wikLC
c.169 Censors have at their disposal half of all regular revenues received by the state in one year.  (See 179) 169 CAH 8-187
c.169 Censors Claudius and Gracchus forbid any publican (tax collecting contractor) who had gotten a contract under the previous censors to make new offers.  The publicani induce tribune P. Rutilius to oppose this edict by bringing the censors to trial, but both are acquitted by popular vote. 169 DGRBM 3-681, LdHR 2-72, atl2
c.169 Consul Q. Marcius PHILIPPUS is put in charge of the Greek campaign.  He quickly crosses to Greece. 169 DGRBM 2-828, 3-207, 286, atl2
c.169 Censors Claudius and Gracchus help consuls overcome opposition to conscription. 169 atl2
c.169 Proconsul Aulus HOSTILIUS MANCINUS in Balkan area from 170, returns to Rome. 169 DGRBM 2-914
c.169 Freedmen with a son, allowed to register in any of the 4 urban tribes from 174, disallowed by censor Ti. Gracchus.  They are now allowed only 1 tribe. 169
CAH 8-451, LdHR 2-102
c.169 Censors Claudius and Gracchus eject several men from the senate, and deprive many equites of their horses.  The tribunes therefore accuse the censors before the people. 169 DGRBM 2-289
c.169 Censors Claudius and Gracchus review equites again, and punish tribune P. Rutilius by removing him from his tribe, and reducing him to an aerarian. 169 DGRBM 3-681, atl2
c.169 BALANUS, a Gallic chief north of the Alps, sends envoys to Rome offering to help against any enemies in the Balkan peninsula. 169 DGRBM 1-454
c.169 Servius(2) Cornelius LENTULUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 169 DGRBM 2-732, wikCrn
c.169 P. Fonteius CAPITO is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 169 DGRBM 1-602
c.169 Q. VOCONIUS SAXA is pleb Tribune. 169 DGRBM 3-731
c.169 C. DECIMUS is praetor peregrinus. 169 DGRBM 1-947
c.169  Lex Voconia  by tribune Q. Voconius Saxa forbids women to be the main heir to a dead man's estate, even if there are no male relatives alive.  Restricts individual legacies to less than the portion of the heirs instituted in the last will.  It is supported by M.(1) Porcius Cato, and is generally avoidable thru various loopholes. 169 B76 II-645, CAH 9-539, CDCC 510, CDGRA 383, DGRA 701, DGRBM 1-641, 2-918, 3-731, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-62, OCD 215, 605, atl2, unrv, wikLRL
c.169 P.(9) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA Corculum jokingly rebukes poet Q. Ennius after being refused entry to his house, near sanctuary of Tutilina at Rome. 169 atl2
c.169 Rhodian envoys, Agesilochus, Nicagoras, and Nicander, sent by Philophoron and Theaetetus to Rome to clear Rhodians of charges and renew friendly relations. 169 CAH 8-314, DGRBM 1-70, 2-1173-4, 3-317, atl2
c.169 AQUILEIA colony on north Adriatic from 181, receives 1,500 more families, under supervision of 3 men: M. Cornelius Cethegus, T. Annius Luscus, P. Decius Subulo. 169 DGRBM 1-675, 2-842, 3-930, DGRG 1-170
c.169 PRUSIAS-II Cynegus, king of Bithynia 180-49, sends an embassy to Rome, to interpose his good offices in favor of Perseus, and to get the senate to grant him a favorable peace.  His intervention is haughtily rejected. 169 DGRBM 3-560
c.169 Censor C.(4) Claudius Pulcher passes a law to prevent serving of delicacies such as dormice at banquets. 169 atl2
c.169 C.(2) Sulpicius GALLUS is made praetor in charge of Rome.  During the levy made for the war against Macedonia, he protects the plebs against the severity of the consuls. 169 DGRBM 2-228
c.169 Censor Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS enrols freedmen into one of the urban tribes, attempts to restrict the registration of most freedmen. 169 CAH 8, SORH, atl2
c.169 LIBERTINI, aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves, are again classed among the 4 urban tribes by Ti.(5) Gracchus.  This time it is determined by lot.  It doesn't last, because it is done again in 116. 169 DGRA 731, GHH, HRR
c.169 BASILICA SEMPRONIA built between the vicus Tuscus and the Velabrum by censor Ti.(5) Sempronius Gracchus Bubulcus.  For land he buys the house of Scipio Africanus and some butcher shops behind the Tabernae Veteres, and near the statue of Vertumnus.  This is the 1st basilica on the south side of the forum. 171
DGRA 198 170/69
CAH 8-509 169 DGRG 2-787
c.169 It is resolved that legions to Spain will have 5,000 inf and 330 cav. 169 DGRA 494
c.169 Legislation concerning Λ CALENDAR intercallation introduced by former consul M'(1) Glabrio.  Roman Calendar adds an intercalary month. 170 atl2
169 DGRA 230 167 atl2
c.169 DECEMVIRI SACRORUM elected.  They include Gn.(3) Octavius. 169 DGRBM 3-6
c.169 Census:  312,805 adult males. 169 GHH, HRR
c.169 P.9) SCIPIO NASICA Corculum and P. Cornelius LENTULUS are curule aediles.  In their ludi Circenses (Circensian games) they exhibit elephants, 63 panthers, and 40 bears. 169
DGRBM 2-730
169 DGRA 1186
c.169 M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS is made praetor and sent to Spain until 168. 169 DGRBM 2-932, OCD 646
c.169 P. Quintilius VARUS, flamen Martialis, dies. 169 DGRBM 3-1222
c.169 M.(5) Claudius MARCELLUS, son of M.(3)C.M., decemvir sacrorum, dies. 169 DGRBM 2-931
c.169 SENATE receives 3 envoys from Antiochus-IV, including Heracleides and ? from Ptolemy-VI each supporting their claims in Coele-Syria, and accusing the other of starting the 6th Syro / Egypt War.  Senate delays judgment because of their present war with Perseus of Macedonia. 170/69
B76 8-383 169 1&2BM 23, DGRBM 2-389
c.169 Quintus ENNIUS, Brundisian playwright, creator of Latin poetry, first Roman satirist, in Rome from 204, age 70, dies of gout.  Known for translating Euhemerus and use of Greek literary models.  "The strength of Rome is founded on her ancient customs as much as on the strength of her sons."  "To think philosophically is good, but in little doses." 169 B76 III-904, 10-1095, 15-1098, CAH 8-444, CDCC 286, 315, 788, Dur 3-98, GHH, OCD 364, OHG, SORH, atl2, wikEn 167 GHH, HRR
c.169 L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS is elected consul, and immediately assigned Macedonia as his province. 169 atl2
c.168 3 Roman commissioners, including L. Baebius, P.(5) Cornelius Lentulus, are dispatched to ascertain situations of Roman armies in Macedonia and Illyria.  In Macedonia they negotiate with Perseus, and evaluate affairs prior to arrival of Paulus.  They return to Rome shortly after new consuls enter office.  Arrangements for the coming campaign are decided by their report. 168 CAH 8-315, DGRBM 1-452, 730
c.168 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS (2nd) and C. Licinius CRASSUS 168 CAH 8-315, CDCC 15, DGRBM 1-873, 3-154, csm, wikCon
c.168 C. Licinius CRASSUS is assigned to Cisalpine Gaul, and resents not being assigned Macedonia. 168 DGRBM 1-873
c.168 Gn.(2) Octavius is made praetor and put in command of fleet against Perseus. 168
DGRBM 3-6
c.168 Embassy from Alexandria appeals to senate for help against Antiochus-IV. 168 atl2
c.168 L. STERTINIUS is quaestor. 168 DGRBM 3-908
c.168 Legates from Macedonia return to Rome, appear before senate.  L.(2) Aemilius Paulus makes a speech to the people. 168 atl2
c.168 Senate resolves that tribunes for 4 of the 8 legions be named by the people, and the other 4 by L.(2) Aemilius Paulus. 168 DGRA 503
c.168 L.(2) Aemilius Paulus celebrates the Latin Festival, leaves for Macedonia, sets sail from Brundisium for Corcyra.  Aulus and Lucius Postumius Albinus, P.(9) Scipio Nasica Corculum, C. Cluvius, and Gn. Anicius are on his staff. 168 DGRBM 1-92, 178, 3-155, 751, atl2
c.168 C.(1) Papirius CARBO is made praetor and assigned to Sardinia, but senate makes him stay in Rome and judge cases between citizens and peregrini. 168 DGRBM 1-610
c.168 MIRACLE:  P. Vatinius tells the senate that while returning from Reate to Rome he was met by 2 youths on white horses (the Dioscuri), who announced that Perseus was defeated on that day.  Vatinius is first thrown into prison for such rash words, but when the news comes of L.(2) Aemilius Paulus victory, the senate bestows on Vatinius a land grant and exemption from military service. 168 DGRBM 3-1233, atl2
c.168 An unsubstantiated rumor about victory in Macedonia spreads at Rome. 168 atl2
c.168 C.(2) Sulpicius GALLUS is military tribune under L.(2) Aemilius Paulus. 168 DGRBM 2-228
c.168 Rhodian envoys under Agesipolis are sent to Rome to mediate between Rome and Perseus.  They are kept waiting, and are introduced to the Senate-house only after the news of the victory at Pydna had arrived.  The Senate choses to interpret their mission as motivated by the interests of Perseus.  The envoys are told that with this action the friendship between Rome and Rhodes is ended. 168
CAH 8-228, 337, DGRBM 1-68, atl2
c.168 Official news of victory at Pydna reaches Rome. 168 atl2
c.168 3 envoys from L.(2) Aemilius Paulus arrive at Rome, and report his defeat of the Illyrian army, capture of Gentius, and conquest of Illyricum.  Envoys are:  P. Decius, L.(8) Lentulus, Q.(2) Caecilius Metellus (later Macedonicus). 168 DGRBM 1-947, 2-732, 1057, atl2
C. Licinius NERVA is one of the envoys. 168 DGRBM 2-1168
c.168 Temple to JUNO MONETA on Mt. Alban is dedicated by C. CICEREIUS in fulfillment of a vow 173. 168 DGRBM 1-707
c.168 PERSEUS, last Antigonid king of Macedonia from 179 taken captive to Rome, in Italy at Alba until death 166. 168 B76 VII-889, CDCC 541, Dur 2-556, IDB 3-739 , MRDK frH     167 DGRBM 3-208, bk
c.168 M. AEBUTIUS ELVA is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 168 DGRBM 2-11
c.168 L. Manlius (Acidinus) is quaestor. 168 DGRBM 1-13
c.168 L.(1) ANICIUS GALLUS is made praetor and sent to Illyria. 168 DGRBM 2-223
c.168 Gn. Baebius TAMPHILUS is made praetor urbanus. 168 DGRBM 3-974
c.168 MISAGENES, son of Masinissa, returning from Greece with his troops, shipwrecked, lands at Brundusium.  He is received with distinction.  Quaestor L. Stertinius, is despatched by the senate to bear him magnificent gifts, and provide him and his troops with all that they require. 168 DGRBM 2-1093
168 Jun 21-2 LUNAR ECLIPSE mentioned by Livy (xliv 37). 168 DGRA 230
c.168 3rd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 171 ends.  C. Lucretius GALLUS sails for Greece. 168 B76 VI-442, Dur 2-556, 3-20, LEWH 92     167 CDCC 456, frH
c.168 C. Popilius LAENUS, envoy to Greece from 170, returns to Rome loaded with so much loot that citizens are relieved of direct taxation.  Macedonians captured at Pydna are sold as slaves, females fetching 50 times the price of a male. 168 GHH, HRR, TTPC, mrt
167 OHG, SORH
c.168 Consul C. Licinius CRASSUS takes charge of an army in Cisalpine Gaul, but remains inactive. 168 atl2
c.168 Embassies from Antiochus-IV, Ptolemy-VI, Eumenes-II of Pergamum, and Masinissa, appear before senate. 168 atl2
c.168 Rhodian envoys, led by Agepolis, address senate, and are accused of supporting Perseus. 168 atl2
c.168 C. Popilius LAENUS leads embassy including C. Decius to Egypt. 168 DGRBM 1-947, OCD 861
c.168 LUNA and PISA quarrel over boundaries.  Their envoys appear before the senate.  Pisa complains about incursions by Roman colonists at Luna. 169 DGRG 2-215 168 OCD 625, atl2
c.168 5 men including P. Cornelius Blasio, Q.(2) Fabius Buteo, T. Sempronius Musca and C. Appuleius Saturninus are sent to settle the boundary dispute between Luna and Pisa. 168
DGRBM 1-492, 519, 2-1127, 3-723
c.168 Caecilius Statius, comic dramatist, dies. 168 DGRBM 1-528, GHH, HRR, atl2
c.168 GENTIUS, king of Illyria from ?, and his sons, are shipped to Rome in custody of military tribune C. Cassius, then confined at Spoletium. 168 DGRBM 1-625, DGRG 2-1033
c.168 Gn.(3) OCTAVIUS, fleet commander in east 168, returns to Rome with the loot that had been gained in the war.  He is granted a triumph in Dec. 167
DGRBM 3-6
c.168 PORTICUS OCTAVIUS built on Circus Flaminius at the southwest foot of the Capitoline by Gn. Octavius as a monument to his naval victory over Perseus.  A double portico with bronze Corinthian capitals. 179 qndm
168 OCD 200, wikPO
162 atl2
c.168 Stoic philosopher CRATES of Mallus, head of the library at Pergamum, comes to Rome as ambassador of Eumenes-II. 170 B76 III-223 168 CAH 8, atl2
c.167 Mar. CONSULS:  Q. Aelius PAETUS and M. Junius PENNUS 167 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-84, 184, csm, wikCon
c.167 Consul Q. Aelius PAETUS is sent to Cisalpine Gaul, does nothing but ravage Ligurian territory. 167 DGRBM 3-84
c.167 Consul M. Junius PENNUS is sent to Pisa, does nothing but ravage Ligurian territory. 167 DGRBM 3-84, 184
c.167 M.(2) ANTONIUS is pleb tribune. 167 DGRBM 1-213
c.167 Q.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS is praetor urbanus. 167 DGRBM 2-798
c.167 P. Quintilius VARUS is praetor. 167 DGRBM 3-1222
c.167 A.(2) Manlius TORQUATUS is made praetor and assigned to Sardinia, but is retained by the senate to investigate some capital offences. 167 DGRBM 3-1164
c.167 10 Roman commissioners are sent to settle affairs in MacedoniaThey include Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus(2),  Aulus Postumius Albinus,  C. Claudius Pulcher,  P. Manilius,  Ser. Cornelius Sulla,  Gn. Baebius Tamphilus, A. Terentius Varro 168 DGRBM 1-91 167 DGRBM 1-84, 769, 917, 3-974, 1222, LdHR 2-90, SORH, atl2
c.167 C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, augur from 195, conservative on commission of 10 for settling Macedonia, dies. 167 DGRBM 1-213, 769, OCD 247
c.167 C. Licinius CRASSUS is goes to Macedonia instead of Cisalpine Gaul. 167 DGRBM 1-873
c.167 TRIBUTUM (property tax) abolished in Rome.  (see 147) 167 CAH 8-223
c.167 1st public LIBRARY in Rome stocked with books stolen from Macedonia. 167 GHH, HRR
c.167 Temple of CONCORD on the Clivus Capitolinus, ruined from ?, finally restored. 167 wikTC
c.167 M' Juventius THALNA is made praetor and obtains jurisdictio inter peregrinos. 167 DGRBM 3-1020
c.167 Praetor Juventius THALNA, without consulting the senate, urges Roman people to declare war on Rhodes for their position during the 3rd Macedonian War.  Thalna hopes to be commander.  M.(1) Porcius Cato opposes, says Rhodes has done nothing worthy of attack. 167
B76 15-1094, CAH 8, DGRBM 3-1020, atl2
c.167 Rhodian envoys, including Philocrates, Astymedes, Theaetetus, Philophron, Polyaratus, and Rhodophon address senate to avert the anger of the Romans; they are supported by M.(1) Porcius Cato. 167 DGRBM 3-303, 652, atl2
c.167 L.(2) Aemilius Paulus, commanding in Balkan peninsula from 168, arrives at Rome loaded with trophies. 167 DGRBM 2-205, 3-155, LdHR 2-93, atl2
c.167 A motion to grant a triumph to L.(2) Aemilius Paulus is passed, despite strong opposition of Ser.(3) Sulpicius Galba.  M. Servilius Palex Geminus addresses the people in favor of Paulus. 167 DGRBM 2-205, 239, atl2
c.167 L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS' triumphs for Macedonia:  First day:  a display of statues and pictures.  2nd day:  Perseus' treasury, of more than 6,000 talents of gold and silver, is produced.  Last day:  Perseus and his children are led before chariot of Paulus.  Bitis of Thrace is also paraded, but is spared, and sent to Carseoli.  Illyrian king Gentius is also paraded.
Paulus' 2 younger sons die within 5 days of his triumph, leaving only Quintus and Publius, who had already been adopted into other families.
167 DGRBM 1-490, 2-245, 3-155, DGRG 2-753, atl2
c.167 Perseus and son Alexander are escorted to Alba Fucens by praetor urbanus Q.(2) Cassius Longinus and imprisoned. 167 DGRBM 1-124, 789, 3-271, atl2
c.167 PROPERTY TAX for citizens in Rome abolished by senate.  (see 147) 167 B76 15-1095, CAH 8, CDGRA 569
c.167 FLUTE PLAYERS at a Roman triumph attempt a concert.  A fight errupts. 167 Dur 3-90
c.167 Macedonia divided into 4 client republics. 167 wikTAR
c.167 1,000 ACHAEANS including Stratius and all leading citizens taken to Italy for political investigation, but, instead of being tried, they are distributed among Etruscan towns.  POLYBIUS is among them.  He remains in Italy until 151. 168 1&2BM 12     167 CAH 8, CDCC 703, DGRBM 3-444, 748, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, LEWH 92, OCD 853, OHG, atl2, bk     165 SORH
no date: B76 14-762
c.167 Historian POLYBIUS had probably become acquainted in Macedonia with L.(2) Aemilius Paulus, or his sons Fabius and Scipio, and the two young men now obtained permission from the praetor for Polybius to reside at Rome, where he becomes mentor to P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus, age 18. 167 DGRBM 3-748, atl2
c.167 An embassy from Cotys of Thrace persuades senate to release his son Bithys and other Thracian hostages. 167 atl2
c.167 Senate agrees to Athenian control of Haliartos Boeotia, Lemnos and Delos islands.  Delos city becomes a free port. 167 atl2
c.167 Rhodian envoy Theaetetus dies at Rome, while waiting for senate to make a decision about alliance with Rhodes. 167 atl2
c.167  History  of Livy ends here. 167 CAH 8-319, DGRG 2-185
c.167 ATTALUS, bro of Eumenes-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome, to congratulate them on victory over Perseus, and to appeal for help against GalatiansEumenes' physician Stratius is also sent to watch and restrain Attalus.  Since Eumenes-II is out of favor at this time, Attalus considers bidding on the crown himself, but is disuaded by Stratius. 167
B76 15-1094, CAH 8-286-7, DGRBM 1-411 DGRG 1-930, 3-923, atl2
c.167 Gn. Fulvius GILLO is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain. 167 DGRBM 2-268
c.167 PRUSIAS-II CYNEGUS, king of Bithynia 180-49 and young son Nicomedes, visit Rome.  Prusias congratulates senate on victory in Macedonia, sucks up to senate, calls them "savior gods".  His alliance with Rome is renewed, plus an extension of territory. 167 B76 15-1094, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1196, 3-560, 748, atl2
no date: OCD 893
c.167 EUMENES-II, king of Pergamum 197-60, lands at Brundisium expecting to be received at Rome.  A quaestor informs him that the senate will receive no kings at Rome. 167 B76 15-1094, CAH 8, atl2
166 DGRBM 1-641
c.167 C. Licinius NERVA is one of the commissioners appointed to carry back the Thracian hostages. 167 late DGRBM 2-1168
c.167 Q. Fabius PICTOR (praetor 189) dies. 167 DGRBM 3-365
c.166 Mar. CONSULS:  C.(2) Sulpicius GALLUS (or Galba?) and M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS, both sent to Liguria. 166 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-229, OCD 456, 646, csm, wikCon
c.166 Consuls campaign against Gauls and Ligurians, but no details are available, except somebody triumphs over the Eleiates Ligurians. 166 CAH 8-117, SORH, atl2
c.166 Consul M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS defeats the Alpine Gauls. 166 DGRBM 2-932
c.166 Consuls C.(2) GALLUS (Galba) and M.(7) Marcellus cross southwest Alps into Transalpine Gaul.  On the west slopes they subdue Gauls and Ligurians.. 166 DGRBM 2-229, LdHR 2-101
c.166 Debate in the Senate because elections had been marked by much bribery. 166 CAH 8-178
c.166 A. Licinius NERVA is made praetor and sent to Spain. 166 DGRBM 2-1168
c.166 M.(2) Fulvius NOBILIOR is curule aedile. 166 DGRBM 2-1206
c.166 P. RUTILIUS CALVUS is praetor. 166 DGRBM 3-681
c.166 L?. APPULEIUS SATURNINUS is praetor. 166 DGRBM 3-723
c.166 L.(2) Julius CAESAR is praetor. 166 DGRBM 1-537
c.166 TERENCE play  Andria  "Women of Andros" first played at the Megalesian Games.  "All of us when well give good advice to the sick."   "The quarrels of lovers are the renewal of their love."   "One lie treads on another's heels."   "Obsequiousness makes friends; truth breeds hate.". 166 B76 18-143, CDCC 868, DGRBM 3-998, OCD 1044, SORH, TTPC, atl2, bk     160 MNDQ 17, 723, 729
c.166 Rhodians send an embassy led by Aristoteles, but senate again refuses to agree to an alliance. 166 atl2
c.166 A. BAEBIUS, who caused 500 Aetolian anti-Romans to be massacred 167, is condemned for it. no date: DGRBM 1-452
c.166 PERSEUS, last Antigonid king of Macedonia 179-68 prisoner at Alba Fucens Italy from 168, dies. 166 B76 VII-889, atl2
c.165 Mar. CONSULS:  T.(4) Manlius TORQUATUS and Gn.(3) OCTAVIUS (elected after a hard-fought contest) 165 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-6, 1164, atl2, csm, wikCon
c.165 Senate promises a Galatian embassy that their country will remain autonomous. 165 atl2
c.165 Praetor P.(5) Cornelius Lentulus prepares a  bronze map  of state lands following an exercise in land recovery and complex surveying and administrative operations. 165 CAH 8-199
c.165 M'(2) Acilius GLABRIO is curule aedile. 165 DGRBM 2-271
c.165 Praetor P.(5) Cornelius Lentulus buys up public land in Campania.  Occupants are compensated and ejected.  New allotments are inalienable heritable leaseholds. 165 SORH, atl2
c.165 TERENCE play  Hecyra  "Mother-In-Law". 165 B76 18-143, CDCC 868, DGRBM 3-999, OCD 1044, TTPC, atl2, bk
c.165 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS leads an ambassadorial tour east to Rhodes, Anatolia, and Syria to inspect the affairs of Roman allies.  It brings back favorable reports about everyone. 166 atl2
165 CAH 8-319, LdHR 2-99
164 DGRBM 2-289
c.165 Ti.(2) CLAUDIUS NERO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 165 DGRBM 2-1161
c.165 Gn. Cornelius DOLABELLA and Sextus(3) Julius CAESAR are curule aediles.  They produce Terence's  Hecyra  at the Megalesian Games. 165 DGRBM 1-537, 1058
c.165 Embassies from Prusias, Rhodes, and Achaeans appear before senate. 165 atl2
c.165 Senate, after 2 years of sulking, consents to renew alliance with Rhodes. 165 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-226, atl2
c.164 Mar. CONSULS:  Aulus(2) Manlius TORQUATUS and Q.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS 164 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-798, 3-1164, csm, wikCon
c.164 CENSORS:  patrician L.(2) Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus and pleb Q. Marcius Philippus 164 CDCC 15, DGRBM 3-155, 286, OCD 816, wikCon, wikLC
c.164 ΛSUNDIAL, in Rome from 263 but misunderstood, properly oriented for Roman latitude by censor Q. Marcius Philippus. 164 BD 31, DGRBM 3-286, atl2
c.164 Q.(2) CASSIUS LONGINUS, consul, dies in office. 164 DGRBM 2-798
c.164 Achaean ambassadors ANAXIDAMOS and SATYRUS are sent to Rome to intercede for liberation of Achaean hostages who had been sent to Rome in 167.  They are dismissed with haughty refusal. 164 CAH 8-466, DGRBM 1-164, 3-727
c.164 T.(4) Manlius TORQUATUS in Egypt mediating between the 2 Ptolemies, returns to Rome, speaks to senate in favor of P-VIII Physcon. 164
DGRBM 3-1164, IDB 3-259
c.164 ATTALUS, bro of Eumenes-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome. 164 DGRBM 1-411
c.164 PYTHON, envoy of Prusias-II king of Bithynia is sent to Rome to complain against Eumenes-II king of Pergamum. 164 DGRBM 3-629
c.164 C.(2) Sulpicius GALLUS sent as envoy to Pergamum.  He stops first in Greece. 164 CAH 8-318, 320, OCD 456     163 atl2
c.164 Censor Q. Marcius Philippus sets up a statue of Concordia. 164 atl2
c.164 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, expelled by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon from AlexandriaP-VI goes in person to Rome until 163. 164 B76 , CAH 8-284, DGRBM 3-592, LEWH 97, MCAW     163 atl2
c.164 RESURRECTION:  A Roman lady called Aemilia dies, and is placed on a pyre as her family wails.  She is miraculously brought back to life by the sound of the trumpets. 164 atl2
c.164 Rapid decline in Roman morals. 164 GHH
c.163 Mar. CONSULS:  Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS (2nd) and M' Juventius THALNA   Both plebs. 163 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-289, 691, 3-1020, OCD 473, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.163 Consul M' Juventius THALNA is sent to Corsica. 163 DGRBM 3-1020
c.163 L.(7) Cornelius Lentulus Lupus is curule aedile. 163 DGRBM 2-730
c.163 TERENCE play  Heauton Timoroumenos  "Self-Tormentor"  "I am a man, and nothing human is foreign to me.". 163 B76 18-143, CDCC 868, DGRBM 3-999, OCD 1044, TTPC, MNDQ 738, atl2, bk
c.163 Attalus appears before senate to defend his bro Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum against accusations of Prusias of Bithynia. 163 atl2
c.163 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia is voluntarily sent to Rome, ostensibly a guest, practically a hostage until 149. no date: DGRBM 2-1196
c.163 An embassy from Ariarathes-V king of Cappadocia 163-30 obtains renewal of alliance with Rome. 163 atl2
c.163 CENSUS completed by Paulus and Philippus.  Rome contains 337,022 adult males. 163 CAH 9-57, atl2
327,032 adult males 164 GHH, HRR
c.163 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt 181-64, in Rome from 164, escourted back to Alexandria. 163 CAH 8-284, Jud 5-603
c.163 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon persuades senate to award him a larger share of Ptolemaic territories. 163 atl2
c.163 Ti. Gracchus makes a small technical error while taking auspices during elections for new consuls. 163 atl2
c.163 PHILIP, son of Perseus dies in Italy. 163 atl2
c.162 Mar. CONSULS:  P.(9) Cornelius Scipio Nasica CORCULUM and C. Marcius FIGULUS, who both resign because of religious blunders in the election
Suffects:  P.(5) Cornelius Lentulus and Gn.(2) Domitius Ahenobarbus replace them.
162 CAH 8-190, DGRBM 1-84, 2-150, 730, 3-751, OCD 361, 963, atl2, csm, wikCon
Magistrates who resign because of irregular election are nevertheless deemed to have held office, so Corculum and Figulus appear in the consular lists under this year.  When they appear again later they are each designated consul for the 2nd time.  Legally 10 years must elapse between consulships.  Yet Figulus is re-elected consul for 156, Corculum for 155. CAH 8-191
c.162 C. Marcius FIGULUS, technically not a consul, is sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 162 DGRBM 2-150
c.162 MENYLLUS of Alabanda is ambassador of Ptolemy-VI Philometor to Rome to plead his cause against his younger bro Physcon.  The senate, however, espouses the cause of Physcon.  During his stay at Rome, Menyllus and historian Polybius, effect the escape of Demetrius, the young king of Syria, who is detained at Rome as a hostage. 162 DGRBM 2-1045
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, age 25, 1st son of Seleucus-IV, hostage in Rome from 178, begs senate for permission to return to Syria and take the throne.  Refused.  Escapes (possibly a set up) aided by Polybius, goes to Lycia. 162 B76 III-456, CAH 8-518, IDB 1-816, 3-200, atl2 161 1&2BM 12, 92
c.162 Senate learns that there are many more elephants and ships in Syria than had been allowed by the treaty of Apamea 188, sends commissioners under Gn.(3) Octavius to burn ships and kill elephants.  Octavius will be murdered at Laodicaea. 162 CAH 8-285, 355, 518, DGRBM 2-772, SORH, atl2, wikOct
c.162 Comanus, Sympetesis, and Ptolemaeus, rhetorician of Alexandria, envoys of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, sent to Rome to complain that Ptolemy-VI Philometor refused to grant Cyprus to Physcon. 162 DGRBM 1-815, 3-566
c.162 Senate erects a statue in honor of Gn.(3) Octavius (consul 165). 162 atl2
c.162 Gn. MERULA, appointed legate by senate to adjust the disputes between brothers Ptolemy Philometor and Physcon respecting the sovereignty of Cyprus. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.162 Gn. MERULA accompanies Ptolemy Physcon to Crete and Anatolia. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.162 Gn. MERULA after negotiating unsuccessfully with Ptolemy-VI Philometor at Alexandria, returns to Rome, recommends canceling the existing treaty with P-VI.  Senate agrees. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.161 Mar. CONSULS:  M. Valerius MESSALLA and C. Fannius STRABO 161 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-136, 1050, 3-921, csm, wikCon
c.161 M.(1) Porcius Cato criticizes Roman extravagance. 161 atl2
c.161 A senatorial decree requires leading citizens who are to entertain each other during the Megalesian games to take an oath before the consuls that they would not exceed specified expenditure limits.  e.g. The amount of silver table-ware to be used at any one banquet cannot exceed 100 lbs (See 275).  This is prior to Lex Fannia. 161 CAH 8-184, 465, DGRA 749
c.161  Lex Fannia Sumptuaria  by consul C. Fannius Strabo with consent of all orders, which means it was recommended by the Senate.  It strengthens and elaborates on provisions of Lex Orchia 182, limits private expenditure on common entertainments to 120 asses, and to 100 silver denarii on certain named festival banquets, specifically Ludi Megalenses. 164-60 DGRG 2-776 161 CAH 8-184, 227, 9-59, CDGRA 600, DGRA 1077, GHH, LdHR 2-102, OCD 602, SORH, atl2, unrv
160 HRR
c.161 Senate refuses to recognize DEMETRIUS-I, king of Syria 162-50,.  Recognizes rebel satrap Timarchus as independent king of Media & Babylonia, but gives no material support. 161
CAH 519
DEMETRIUS-I recognized as king by Rome 162 SORH
c.161 MENYLLUS of Alabanda is ambassador of Ptolemy-VI Philometor to Rome to excuse Ptolemy-VI for non-compliance with the orders of the senate.  But they refuse to listen to him, and order the embassy to leave Rome within 5 days. 161 DGRBM 2-1045
c.161 Senate confirms its support for Ptolemy-VIII Physcon 161 atl2
c.161 Diogenes and Timothy, envoys of Orophernes, rival king of Cappadocia, sent with a gold crown to Rome to renew friendship and alliance, and to support allegations against Ariarathes. 161 DGRBM 1-1019
160 atl2
c.161 L.(2) Postumius ALBINUS is curule aedile.  He supervises the Games in which Terence' play  Eunuchus  is performed at the Megalesian Games. 161 DGRBM 1-92
c.161 TERENCE' play  Eunuchus    "Without good eating and drinking, love grows cold."  "I know the nature of women - when you want to, they don't want to; and when you don't want to, they desire exceedingly." 162 DGRBM 3-1000 161 B76 18-143, CDCC 868, OCD 1044, TTPC, MNDQ 713, bk
c.161 TERENCE' play  Phormio    "Old Age is itself a disease."   "There is a demand today for men who can make wrong appear right."   "So many men, so many opinions" 161 B76 18-143, CDCC 868, MNDQ 22, 145, TTPC, bk
c.161 Senate makes  defense treaty  with Judas Maccabee of Judea:  No trade with enemy of either.  Jews may be judged by their own laws.  Tells Demetrius-I to lay off.  But gives no material support. 1 Mac 8-23
161 CAH 8-519, CHJ 2
160 atl2
c.161 Senate, on advice of M.(1) Porcius Cato, issues a senatus consultum authorizing praetor M. Pomponius to expell Greek (and even Latin) philosophers & teachers from Rome.  "No philosophers or rhetors shall be permitted in Rome."  It may not have been strictly enforced against those living with a patron.  The grammatici, who taught Greek language and some literature, seem to have been exempted. 161 CAH 8-465, DGRBM 2-1050, Dur 3-95, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-103, 169, SORH, acdm, atl2
c.160 Mar. CONSULS:  M. Cornelius CETHEGUS and L.(2) ANICIUS GALLUS 160 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-675, 2-223, OCD 200, csm, wikCon
c.160 Charops of Epirus appears before senate, but fails to win their approval. 160 atl2
c.160 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, again bids for recognition as king by Rome.  Sends Menochares and other envoys to deliver Leptines, murderer of Gn.(3) Octavius 162 and a gold crown.  Senate concedes and recognizes him. 160 CAH 8-520, DGRBM 2-1042, 159 CAH 8-358
c.160 ATTALUS, bro of Eumenes-II king of Pergamum, is sent to Rome, and is well received. 160 DGRBM 1-411, 2-90
c.160 C. TREMELLIUS is pleb tribune.  He is fined for having insulted pontifex maximus M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus. 160 DGRBM 3-1172
c.160 Good year for Italian wines. 160 atl2
c.160 Consul M. Cornelius Cethegus temporarily drains the Pontine marshes, but they gradually refill. 160 DGRBM 1-675,
DGRG 2-655, GHH, HRR, atl2
c.160 L.(2) AEMILIUS PAULUS Macedonicus, last of the Paulii, dies.  At his funeral Terence's comedy  Adelphoi  "Brothers" is performed.  They want to produce  Hecyra  too, but it is bumped by a gladiator match.
His surviving sons Quintus and Publius have already been adopted 182.
160 CDCC 15, 285, DGRBM 3-155, 999, SORH, atl2
c.160 P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus makes over his inheritance to his brother Quintus. 160 atl2
c.160 Achaeans send Telecles and Xenon to Rome to try to get Stratius and Polybius, 2 of their exiles, released.  Unsuccessful. 160 DGRBM 3-923, 988
c.160 M.(1) Porcius CATO writes  De Agri Cultura  "On Agriculture":  On growing vines, olives, fruit, and grazing in Latium and Campania.  "Farming has become more amusement than a source of income.  Pasturage is more profitable."  "Plant grapes and olives rather than grain, which is subject to drought." 160
B76 II-645, OCD 215
no date: TTPC 28
c.160 TERENCE (P. Terentius Afer) play  Adelphi   "There is nothing so advantageous to a man as a forgiving disposition."  "It is better to bind your children to you by respect and gentleness than by fear." 160 B76 18-143, Dur 3-20, MNDQ 417, OCD 1044, SORH, TTPC 28, atl2, bk
c.160 TERENCE 2nd & 3rd production of  Hecyra  "Mother-In-Law" 165 . 160 B76 18-143, OCD 1044
c.160 TERENCE (P. Terentius Afer) leaves for Greece. 160 atl2
c.160 Donkey driven CERIAL MILL described in De Agri Cultura:  On growing vines, olives, fruit, and grazing in Latium and Campania.  "A farm must have 3 mills worked by asses and 1 hand mill." 160 SHT 3-110
c.160 BEAM PRESS described in De Agri Cultura:  A wooden wine presses using large beams, capstans and windlasses to press grapes. 160 SHT 2-114
c.160 ART revives in the 155th Olympiad according to Pliny, and extends to the time of the Antonines. 160 DGRBM 3-294
c.159 Mar. CONSULS:  Gn. Cornelius DOLABELLA and M.(2) Fulvius NOBILIOR 159 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-1058, 2-1206, OCD 736, csm, wikCon
c.159 CENSORS:  patrician P.(9) Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum and pleb M. Popillius Laenas 159 DGRBM 2-708, 3-751, wikCon, wikLC
c.159 A bronze statue of Sp. Cassius Vicellinus, who was beheaded 485 for aspiring to kingship, and which was erected later on the site of his house by one of his descendants, is melted down. 159 DGRBM 3-1272
c.159 Censors remove unauthorized statues from the forum, including some statues of P.(7) Scipio Nasica.  Order that no statues of public men be erected in the forum without express sanction of the senate or people. 161 DGRA 1068 159 DGRBM 3-751, OCD 963, atl2
c.159 Consul M.(2) Fulvius Nobilior is sent to Liguria. 159 DGRBM 2-1206
c.159 The ELEATES (Ilvates?) of Liguria are defeated by consul M.(2) Fulvius Nobilior. 159 DGRG 2-40
c.159 Consular law against bribery. 159 CAH 8-178
c.159 Embassy from Demetrius-I king of Syria 161-50 appears before senate. 159 CAH 8, atl2
c.159 Achaean embassy including Thearidas visits Rome, fails to win release of exiles. 159 DGRBM 3-1022, atl2
c.159 CHAROPS of Epirus appears before senate, then dies at Brundisium. 159 atl2 157 wikCE
c.159 Before the clepsydra, a subordinate officer of the praetor urbanus proclaims the 3rd, 6th, and 9th hours of the day, which shows that their day was divided into 12 hours. 159 DGRA 409
c.159 1st CLEPSYDRA (water clock) set up in Rome by censor P.(9) Scipio Nasica Corculum.  Better than a sundial, because it works at night. 159 CDGRA 235, DGRA 409, 616, DGRBM 3-751, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-547, LdHR 1-467, TToH, atl2,     158 Dur 3-66
159 CRATES of Mallus, Stoic philosopher, head of library at Pergamum, visits Rome on official business, breaks a leg, has to stay, lectures on grammar, literature, and philosophy.  He gets Romans interested in accurate texts of earlier writers. 159 CDCC 225, CDGRA 338, Dur 3-95, SORH
157 DGRBM 1-884
c.159 TERENCE:  P. Terentius Afer, a Carthaginian playwright, dies of illness in Arcadia Greece. after 160 Dur 3-101, CDCC 868, OCD 1043, TTPC 28     159 B76 15-1098, CDGRA 203, DGRBM 3-998, HRR
c.158 Mar. CONSULS:  M.(6) Aemilius LEPIDUS and C.(1) Popillius LAENAS (2nd) 158 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-763, csm, wikCon
c.158 M.(2) Fulvius Nobilior has triumph for victory over the Eleiates Ligurians. 158 CAH 8-117
c.158 CENSUS by P.(9) Scipio Nasica Corculum and M. Popillius.  338,314 adult males. 159 GHH, HRR 158 atl2
c.158 Athenians and Delians send embassies to Rome about a legal dispute. 158 atl2
c.158 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, recently expelled, arrives in Rome to ask for help.  He is kept waiting a long time, during which he courts individual senators with little success.  In Rome until 157. 159/8 CAH 8-359 158 CAH 8-359, DGRBM 1-284, atl2, wikA5
c.157 Mar. CONSULS:  Sextus(2) Julius CAESAR and L. Aurelius ORESTES 157 CAH 8-322, DGRBM 1-537, 3-43, csm, wikCon
c.157 ARIARATHES-V king of Cappadocia 163-30, and his opponents compete for support of Romans. 157 atl2
c.157 OROPHERNES, rival king of Cappadocia sends 2 unscrupulous ambassadors Timothy and Diogenes to Rome to join emissaries of Demetrius-I of Syria in opposing his (so called) brother. 157 DGRBM 3-21
c.157 Senate decrees that Cappadocia be divided between Ariarathes-V and Orophernes. 157 CAH 8-359
c.157 ARIARATHES-V, king of Cappadocia 163-30, in Rome from 158, sails for home. 157 atl2
c.157 Senate sends a commission under C. Fannius to Dalmatia. 157 atl2
c.157 Roman treasury contains over (?) 17,000 pounds of gold and 22,000 pounds of silver. 157 atl2
c.157 Senate sends an embassy including M.(1) Porcius Cato to arbitrate between Africa to arbitrate between Masinissa and Carthage. 157 TTPC, atl2
c.157 AUXIMUM in Picenum becomes Roman citizen colony. 157 SORH, atl2
128 OCD 155
c.156 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(7) Cornelius Lentulus LUPUS and C. Marcius FIGULUS (2nd)  Figulus is the first exception to the 10 year rule in more than half a century.  The next exception is 155, then 152. 156 CAH 8-191, DGRBM 2-150, 730, csm, wikCon
c.156 Consul, C. Marcius FIGULUS is sent to Dalmatia. 156 DGRBM 2-150
c.156 Envoys from Epirus appear before senate. 156 atl2
c.156 Beginning of dispute about Oropus and Athens. 156 CAH 8
c.156 Senate reacts cautiously to an appeal for help from ANDRONICUS, envoy of Attalus-II of Pergamum. 156 DGRBM 1-173, atl2
c.155 Mar. CONSULS:  P.(9) Cornelius Scipio NASICA CORCULUM (2nd) and M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS (2nd) 155 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-932, 3-751, OCD 963, csm, wikCon
c.155 CARNEADES, head of New Platonic Academy 160-37/6, CRITOLAOS, head of Aristotelian Lyceum, DIOGENES, Stoic of Seleucia, with other Athenian biggies, go to Rome to ask for depreciation of the 500 talent fine imposed on Athens for destruction of Oropus, and to appeal against decision of Sicyonians.  The philosophers hold public lectures and discussions which are well attended, and therefore dangerous. 156 B76 III-558, 15-1099, EoΦ 2-33
155 BNTH 49, CAH 8, CDCC 42, DGRBM 1-614, 894, 1020, Dur 2-556, 3-20, 95-6, GHH, HRR, LdHR 2-103, OCD 206, OHG, SORH, atl2
c.155 C. ACILIUS GLABRIO, senator, historian, interprets for Athenians Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus. 155 DGRBM 2-270, OCD 6
c.155 Conquest of Cisalpine Liguria completed. 156 CAH 8-114
c.155 Somebody triumphs over the Apuani Ligurians. 155 CAH 8-117
c.155 CARNEADES, head of New Platonic Academy 160-37/6, , lectures in Rome, questions existence of gods, argues against existence of good & evil. 156 Dur 3-20, 96
c.155 CARNEADES confuses the senate by first praising justice, then next day dismissing it as an impractical dream.  With paradoxical sophistry he disgusts Polybius and annoys M.(1) Porcius Cato. 155 MCAW
c.155 M.(1) Porcius CATO opposes presence of Athenian embassy because of their liberal philosophers, gets them, including Carneades, sent home 3 days after they arrive. 155 B76 15-1099, Dur 3-96, MCAW, OCD 215, acdm, bk
c.155 Achaeans send Telecles, Anaxidamos and Xenon to Rome to try to get Stratius and Polybius, 2 of their exiles, released.  A majority of the senate would have granted their request, but for manoeuvring of praetor A. Postumius, who presides. 155 DGRBM 1-164, 3-923, 988, atl2
c.155 Senate votes to remit the fine on Athens, but against releasing Achaean exiles. 155 LdHR 2-104, atl2
c.155 Polybius the historian persuades Romans not to demand troops from Locri during Dalmatian War. 155 atl2
c.155 Aulus(2) Postumius ALBINUS is praetor. 155 DGRBM 1-92
c.155 NICOMEDES, son of Prusias-II, king of Bithynia hostage in Rome 163-49, supports ambassadors of Prusias, sent to defend Prusias against complanits of Attalus-II, king of Pergamum. 155 DGRBM 2-1196
c.155 P.(9) Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum refuses to celebrate a triumph, despite approval of senate. 155 atl2
c.155 A fig-tree grows on the altar of Jupiter on the Capitoline. 155 atl2
c.154 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(2) Postumius ALBINUS and Q. OPIMIIUS 154 DGRBM 3-33, csm, wikCon
c.154 Consul L.(2) Postumius ALBINUS leaves for his province and dies 7 days later.  His wife Publicia is accused of poisoning him, and arrested.  She gives bail to the praetor for her appearance, but is executed by order of her relations, by judicium domesticum.  M' Albinus is replaced as consul by M'(2) Acilius GLABRIO. 154 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-92, 2-271, 3-599, atl2
c.154 At request of Massilia, Consul Q. OPIMIIUS is sent to Gaul.  He fights the Oxybii and Deciatae, Ligurian tribes north of the Alps, who had attacked Massilia. 154 B76 7-960, DGRBM 3-33, OCD 609
c.154 War with Gauls resumes. 154 GHH, HRR
c.154 L. Aurelius Cotta is pleb tribune, and refuses to pay his creditors.  Other tribunes threaten to support creditors unless he pays up. 154 DGRBM 1-867, atl2
c.154 Ligurians assault Roman envoy Flaminius. 154 atl2
c.154 CENSORS:  patrician M. Valerius Messalla and pleb C.(1) Cassius Longinus 154 DGRBM 2-799, 1050, wikCon, wikLC
c.154 L.(1) Calpurnius PISO Caesoninus is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 154 DGRBM 3-372
c.154 L. MUMMIUS is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 154 DGRBM 2-1119
c.154 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCUS, son of Publius, dies, leaving highly educated widow Cornelia and 12 children, only 3 of whom survive to adulthood.  Cornelia refuses offers to remarry, including Ptolemy-VIII. 154
OCD 473 153
CDCC 237
c.154 Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene, goes to Rome, accuses Ptolemy-VI Philometor of attempted murder.  Despite opposition from M.(1) Porcius Cato (ally of Philometor), P-VIII receives Senate's support and further resources for another attempt on Cyprus.  While in Rome he meets Cornelia Africana (recent widow of Ti.(5) Gracchus), and proposes marriage, which she refuses. 156/5 wikP8     155/4 lvPt6     154 CAH 8-284, DGRBM 3-593, DGRG 1-731
c.154 Senate supports claim of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon to rule Cyprus. 154 atl2
c.154 Senate sends Ptolemy-VIII Physcon home with 5 legates charged to establish him in Cyprus, but no Roman army.  P-VI Philometor, anticipating him, had already occupied Cyprus with a large force. 154 DGRBM 3-593, DGRG 1-731
c.154 Senate refuses to hear answer of Andromachus, ambassador of Ptolemy-VI Philometor to charges of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon.  Orders allies to take Cyprus from P-VI and give it to P-VIII.  Allies do little or nothing. 154
CAH 8-284, DGRBM 1-173
c.154  Lex Aebutia de magistratibus extraordinariis  forbids the proposer of an extraordinary magistracy to hold it. 154 wikLRL 150 unrv
c.154 Censor C.(1) Cassius Longinus begins building 1st permanent stone theater.  Construction is blocked by the senate on insistence of censor P.(9) Scipio Nasica Corculum on grounds of immorality.  What was built is demolished.  Theaters continue to be temporary booths, removed at festival's end until 145. 156 GHH
155 DGRA 1123, LdHR 2-166
154 CAH 8-470, 510, CDCC 876, SORH, atl2
c.154 Censor C.(1) Cassius Longinus consults pontifices about moving a statue of Concordia into the senate-house. 154 atl2
c.154 M. PACHUVIUS, neph of Ennius, tragedian, flourishes. 155 HRR     154 SORH, atl2
dies 130 B76 VII-668, 15-1098, HRR
c.154 LUSITANIAN WAR with Rome begins until 138. 155 Dur 3-20     154 CAH 8, Dur 3-87, atl2, bk, wikTAR
c.154 Senate quits supporting Ptolemy-VIII Physcon. 154 CAH 8-284
c.154 Dec. Consuls, entering office on the ides (15th) of March from 223, now take office on the kalends (1st) of January, because of Lusitani rebellion.  JANUARY 1 becomes beginning of civil year. B76 15-1096, CAH 8, CDGRA 162, 206, DGRA 281, 353, OCD 286, LEWH 101, SORH, TTPC 28
c.154/3 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretender to Syrian throne taken to Rome by Milesian Heracleides, who bribes some senators to get him accepted as king of Syria. 154 CAH 8-362 153 CAH 8, TTPC, atl2
c.154/3 Senate, wanting a weak king in Syria, recognizes ALEXANDER BALAS as son of Antiochus-IV and legitimate king of Syria.  Senate even promises Roman support. 153 MCAW
winter 153/2 CAH 8 152 CAH 8-362, atl2
c.154/3 M.(1) Porcius Cato accuses another Minucius Thermus of outrageous and deceitful conduct inspired by greed. 154 or 3 CAH 8-182
c.153 Jan 1 CONSULS:  T. Annius LUSCUS and Q. Fulvius NOBILIOR 153 CAH 8, 9-67, DGRBM 2-842, 1206, OCD 646, csm, wikCon
c.153 Consul Q. Fulvius NOBILIOR is sent to Nearer Spain. 153 CAH 8-132
c.153 CENSUS by M. Valerius and C.(1) Cassius.  324,000 adult males. 154 GHH, HRR 153 atl2
c.153 A Rhodian embassy, led by Astymedes, appeals for Roman intervention in war against Crete. 153 atl2
c.153 Senate decides not to release the Achaean detainees. 153 atl2
c.153 L.(7) Cornelius Lentulus Lupus is convicted of treason. 153 atl2
c.153 M.(1) Porcius CATO is accused of some capital crime by C.(1) Cassius.  He defends himself in court, for the last time.   "How hard it is for one whose life has been passed in a preceding generation to plead his cause before men of the present." 153 DGRBM 1-642, GHH, HRR, atl2
c.153 Several praetors are convicted of extortion in the provinces.  About the same date Ser.(3) Sulpicius Galba (governor of Farther Spain, 151/50) is found guilty of a similar offence. 153 CAH 8-131, atl2
c.153 Publicia and Licinia are executed on suspicion of having murdered their husbands. 153 atl2
c.153 M.(1) Porcius CATO becomes ambassador to Carthage. 153 B76 II-645, MCAW, OCD 215
c.153 M.(1) Porcius CATO returns from Carthage, begins preaching "Carthage must be destroyed.". 153 MCAW, OCD 215 149 GHH, HRR
c.152 Jan. CONSULS:  L.(5) Valerius FLACCUS and M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS (3rd) 152 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-158, 932, csm, wikCon
c.152 Consul L.(5) Valerius FLACCUS dies. 152 DGRBM 2-158, atl2
c.152 M.(1) Porcius CATO urges destruction of Carthage, and illustrates their threat by showing fresh figs from the city.  "These figs grow but 3 days sail from Rome."   P.(9) Scipio Nasica Corculum opposes destruction of Carthage. 152 atl2 151 LdHR 2-117-8
c.152 ATTALUS, neph of childless Attalus-II king of Pergamum, sent to Rome to get him acquainted. 152 DGRBM 1-411
c.152 M.(2) Porcius CATO Licinianus, son of M.(1), dies 3 years before his father, who gives him a frugal funeral. 152 DGRBM 1-644
c.152 M. ATILIUS SERRANUS is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain until ?. 152 CAH 8-133, DGRBM 3-788
c.152 Consul M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS sent to Spain until 151. 152 DGRBM 2-932, OCD 646
c.152 M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS, pontifex maximus from 180, greatly honored, dies, having ordered his sons to bury him in a simple manner.  Office is vacant until 150. 152 CDCC 15, DGRBM 2-763, atl2, wikMAL, wikPM
c.151 Jan. CONSULS:  Aulus(2) Postumius ALBINUS and L.(2) Licinius LUCULLUS 151 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-92, 2-831, OCD 624, csm, wikCon
c.151 Repeated military disasters in Spain have inspired such dread of that war, that men resist conscription.  None wants to signs up as a soldier, or to be tribune or legate. 151 CAH 8-194, DGRBM 3-748, LdHR 2-105, bk
c.151 Consuls ALBINUS and L.(2) LUCULLUS try so hard to enforce draft laws to raise troops for Spain that they are imprisoned by tribunes.  Again 138. 151 B76 15-1096, DGRBM 1-92, LdHR 2-106, OCD 624, atl2
c.151 Celtiberi send envoys to Rome.  Senate rejects Celtiberian peace terms. 151 CAH 8-132, atl2
c.151 C.(2) LAELIUS SAPIENS is pleb tribune. 151 DGRBM 2-706
c.151 2nd son of L.(2) Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS, age 33, volunteers to serve under consul Lucullus as military tribune in Spain when many refuse.  He is sent to Spain.  Polybius accompanies. 151
CDCC 703, OCD 963, 853, atl2
c.151 MACEDONIA, now 4 separate republics, is so distressed that it sends envoys to Rome asking for P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus to return and straighten things out.  However, Aemilianus is already committed to serve under consul Lucullus. 151 LdHR 2-110
c.151 Roman embassy returns from Africa with Gulussa, 2nd son of Masinissa, and reports on Carthaginian war preparations. 151 atl2
c.151 M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS governor of Spain from 150, returns to Rome.  Consul L.(2) Licinius LUCULLUS succeds until ?. 151 DGRBM 2-831, OCD 646
c.151 Ser.(3) Sulpicius GALBA is made praetor and sent to Spain. 151 DGRBM 2-205
c.151 P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus influences Censor M.(1) Porcius Cato to support the restoration of the Achaean exiles, and the authority of Cato carried the point, but not without protracted debate in the senate. 151 DGRBM 3-444
c.151 M.(1) Porcius CATO favors return of Achaean exiles.  His argument is not out of sympathy, but because he's tired of wasting time debating it.  He favors Attalus-II of Pergamum over Prusias-II of Bithynia, and favors prohibition of re-election to consulship. 151 LdHR 2-109, OCD 215
c.151 Senate votes to allow Achaean exiles to return home, after a caustic comment from M.(1) Porcius Cato. 149 atl2
c.151 300 surviving ACHAEAN EXILES out of the original 1,000, in Rome from 167, return to Greece. 151 CAH 8, GHH, HRR, LEWH 92, MCAW, SORH     151/50 B76 8-385, LdHR 2-110,     150 CAH 8-319, CDCC 703, Dur 2-665, OCD 853     149 atl2
c.151 A law forbids successive consulships, but permits re-election after 1 year, thus voiding Lex Annalis 342. 151 LEWH 101-2

Italy 150-124
V