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189 Mar CONSULS:  Gn. MANLIUS VULSO and M.(1) FULVIUS NOBILIOR 189 CAH 8-288, 325, DGRBM 2-1206, 3-1286, OCD 736, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.189 Λ CENSORS V patrician T.(2) Quinctius Flamininus and pleb M.(4) Claudius Marcellus 189 B76 IV-171, CDCC 351, DGRBM 2-166, 931, OCD 646, wikCon, wikLC, wikTQF
c.189 Consul Gn. Manlius VULSO is sent to Anatolia to conclude the peace.  His bro Lucius and C. Helvius are his legates. 189 B76 8-384, CAH 8-228, DGRBM 3-1286, LdHR 2-45, SORH, atl2
c.189 Λ CENSUS V  Rome has 258,318 free adult males.  Estimated population 1.1 million. 189 Dur 3-81, GHH, OCD 441
c.189 Consul M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR is sent to Greece to finish off the Aetolians.  Bro C. Valerius Laevinus accompanies. 189 spring CAH 8-226, DGRBM 2-711, 1206, LdHR 2-45
c.189 P.(3) Claudius PULCHER is curule aedile. 189 DGRBM 1-769, atl2
c.189 M.(2) Sempronius TUDITANUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily with Ap.(9) Claudius Pulcher. 189 DGRBM 3-1181
c.189 Q?. Minucius THERMUS is tribune.  He accuses M.(1) Porcius Cato Censorinus of some capital crime. 189 DGRBM 1-640
c.189 C.(1) LAELIUS (Major) becomes proconsul to Cisalpine Gaul, which is already conquered. 189 LdHR 2-49, OCD 576
c.189 Gold is worth 10 times an equal weight of silver according to Livy. 189 DGRA 132
c.189 L. Plautius HYPSAEUS is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain. 189 DGRBM 2-540, wikRCH
c.189 Praetor L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS, in Spain from 191, returns to Rome, has a triumph. 189 DGRBM 3-154, CDCC 15
c.189 Sp. Postumius ALBINUS is praetor peregrinus. 189 DGRBM 1-91
c.189 TIBUR overflows, damages Rome. 189 DGRG 2-1198
c.189  Lex Terentia  gives sons of freedmen citizenship with full rights. 189 EDRL 560
c.189 Q. Fabius PICTOR is made praetor and assigned to Sardinia.  But as he had been consecrated flamen Quirinalis in 190, pontifex maximus, P. Licinius Crassus, compels him to remain in Rome.  Fabius is so enraged at losing his province that he tries to abdicate, but the senate compels him to retain his office. 189 DGRBM 3-365
c.189 Praetor L. BAEBIUS DIVES, enroute with army to south Spain, ambushed and thrashed by Ligurians.  He is wounded, escapes to Massilia, and dies 3 days later. 189 DGRBM 1-1057, atl2, wikRCH, wikRGG
c.189 The SOCII (Italian allies of Rome) are required to contribute 15,000 inf and 1,200 cav. 189 DGRA 489
c.189 INGENUI (sons of freedmen) enrolled in rustic tribes by a bill carried by tribune Q. Terrentius Culleo. 189 CAH 8
189/8 OCD 300
c.189 BONONIA, under Rome from 196, rebuilt by L.(3) Valerius Flaccus as Latin colony.  It has 3,000 Latin colonists, each with a large land-grant of 31 acres, or 43 for an equite (cavalryman). 190 B76 II-130, GHH, LdHR 2-49 189 B76 7-960, 15-1096, CAH 8-114, 206, DGRG 1-944, OCD 440, SORH, atl2
c.189 Rome / Aetolia War from 192 ends.  Aetolian League surrenders to Nobilior.  Aetolians become subject allies, pay 500 talents, required to "preserve the majesty of Rome". (1st time this appears in a  treaty ) 189 B76 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-227, GHH
c.189 CAMPANIANS become Roman citizens, rights restored by censor T.(1) Flamininus. 190 CAH 8, OCD 441
c.189 LYCORTAS of Megalopolis sent as ambassador to Rome, with his rival Diophanes, to receive the senate's decision on the question of the war which the Achaean League had declared against Lacedaemon.  Diophanes expresses his willingness to leave every thing to the senate.  Lycortas urges the right of the league to independent action. 189 DGRBM 2-849
c.189 ROME / SYRIA WAR from 192 ends. 190 GHH
c.189 Censors T.(1) Flaminius and M.(4) Marcellus review the senate. 189 atl2
c.189 Senate grants autonomy to Delphi.  Sends decree by praetor Sp. Postumius. 189 atl2
c.189 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus, in Greece from 191, returns to Rome. 189 DGRBM 1-64
c.189 Aetolian envoy PHANEAS hastens to Rome to get ratification of the Aetolian treaty, which is, after hesitation, granted by the senate on nearly the same terms as those dictated by Fulvius. 189 DGRBM 3-232
c.189 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 comes to Rome. 190 GHH
c.189 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60 addresses senate, together with embassies from Antiochus-III and RhodiansEumenes convinces them that Phrygia Epictetus rightfully belongs to him. 189 CAH 8-325, atl2
c.189 M.(1) Porcius CATO bids for censorship, but is opposed by senate and Scipionic party because of his rustic morality. 189 LdHR 2-71
c.189 Senatorial envoys including M. Junius Brutus, sent to Anatolia to settle peace terms with Antiochus-III. 189 DGRBM 1-508
c.189 P. Sempronius GRACCHUS and C. Sempronius RUTILIUS are pleb tribunes.  They charge M'(1) Acilius Glabrio with exropriating part of the loot taken from Antiochus-III at Thermopylae.  M.(1) Porcius Cato is one of the principal witnesses against Glabrio.  Cato and Glabrio are both candidates for censor.  The prosecution is abandoned as soon as Glabrio withdraws his candidature. 189 CAH 8-179, DGRBM 2-288, 3-682
c.189 M.(1) Porcius CATO and L.(4) Valerius Flaccus are candidates for censorship against their former general M'(1) Acilius Glabrio, who lacks noble status.  Glabrio tries bribery to gain advantage.  Cato accuses Glabrio of expropriating some of spoils of war in Greece.  None of them are elected. 189 DGRBM 1-640, atl2
c.189 Q. FABIUS LABEO is elected praetor, and appointed by lot to command the eastern fleet. 189 DGRBM 2-695
c.189 Lycians, resenting being subjects of Rhodes, send envoys from Ilium to Rome to plead their case before the Senate, which gives them hope, but then keeps them under Rhodes. 189 CAH 8-335
c.189 L.(4) SCIPIO brings back much loot (marble & bronze statues, 18,000 lbs silver, 3,714 lbs gold) from Anatolia to Rome and celebrates triumph over Antiochus-III. 189 MCAW atl2
c.189 L. Aemilius REGILLUS celebrates a triumph, for his naval victory over Antiochus-III. 189 atl2
c.189 M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus fails to be elected consul, for 2nd year running. 189 atl2
c.189 PEACE with AETOLIANS ratified by senate. 189 atl2
c.189 Plautus play  The Two Bacchides .  "He whom the gods love dies young while he is in health, has his senses, and his judgment is sound." 189 TTPC, B76 14-552
188 Mar CONSULS:  M.(2) Valerius MESSALLA and C. Livius SALINATOR 188 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1050, 3-695, csm, wikCon
c.188 Consul M.(2) Valerius MESSALLA is assigned to Pisa and Liguria.  He does nothing noteworthy. 188 DGRBM 2-1050, wikRGG
c.188 Consul C. Livius SALINATOR is sent to Cisalpine Gaul.  He does nothing noteworthy. 188 DGRBM 3-695
c.188 SENATE votes to impose martial law in east.  Turning point of Roman foreign policy. 188 SHWC
188 Jul 17 Partial SOLAR ECLIPSE recorded in Italy and China.   "Before the new magistrates departed for their provinces, a three-day period of prayer was proclaimed in the name of the College of Decemvirs at all the street-corner shrines because in the daytime at the third hour darkness had covered everything."   (Livy)
"Emperor Hui, 7th year, 5th month, day ting-mao, the last day of the month.  The Sun was eclipsed; it was almost complete.  It was in the beginning of (the lunar lodge) Chi-hsing."   (Pan Ku: Han-shu (58-76CE)
188 Jul 17 mrec
c.188 ARPINUM Latium, Roman city without suffrage from 303, granted full citizenship in the Cornelian tribe.  Administered as a prefecture until 90. 188 B76 IV-214, CAH 8, DGRA 291, DGRBM 1-707, DGRG 1-221, OCD 122, wikGM
c.188 FUNDI and FORMIAE, both in Latium, granted full Roman citizenship, enrolled in the Aemilian tribe. 190 CAH 8, DGRA 291, DGRG 1-919    188 B76 IV-214, CAH 8
c.188 FORUM LIVII founded on the Utis river northwest of Ariminum by consul C. Livius Salinator. 188 CAH 8-114, wikFr, wikRGG
c.188 C. STERTINIUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 188 DGRBM 3-908
c.188 Q.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 188 DGRBM 3-285, OCD 816
c.188 C. ATINIUS is made Praetor and sent to Farther Spain until 186. 188 wikRCH
c.188 Praetor C.(2) FLAMINIUS, in Nearer from 193, is replaced by praetor L. Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS and returns to Rome. 188 DGRBM 1-13, wikRCH
c.188 M.(6) Claudius MARCELLUS is made praetor.  He orders 2 noble Romans, who had been guilty of an outrage towards the Punic ambassadors, to be given up to the Carthaginians. 188 DGRBM 2-931
c.188 Ser.(2) Sulpicius GALBA is curule aedile.  He dedicates 12 gilt shields in the temple of Hercules, out of fines which he and his colleague had exacted. 188 DGRBM 2-205
c.188 P.(3) Claudius PULCHER is is made praetor. 188 DGRBM 1-769, atl2
c.188  Lex Valeria  by pleb tribune C. Valerius TAPPO proposes that citizenship with suffrage be given to Latin cities Formiae, Fundi, and Arpinum.  Formiae and Fundi to be enrolled in the Aemilian tribe, Arpinum in Cornelian tribe.  4 other tribunes want to veto, but are disuaded. 188 CAH 9-66, DGRBM 3-975, LdHR 2-229, SORH
c.188 Fines are imposed on grain dealers who held back supplies to force up the retail price. 188 CAH 8-186
c.188 Q. Minucius THERMUS is killed while fighting under Gn. Manlius Vulso against Thracians. 188 DGRBM 1-640, 3-1097
c.188 Senate ratifies  peace treaty  with Antiochus-III. 188 GHH
c.188 Rome hit by lightning.  Bad omen. 188 GHH
c.188 ANTIOCHUS, 3rd son of A-III taken prisoner from Anatolia to Rome as hostage until 178. 189 B76 1-994, DGRBM 1-198
c.188 Q. Fabius LABEO celebrates triumph for naval victory over Antiochus-III. 188 atl2
c.188 A minimum age limit is set for initiation into the Bacchanalia. 188 atl2
c.188 M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS supports an embassy from Ambracia, which complains about their treatment by M.(1) Fulvius Nobilior. 188 atl2
c.188 Plautus play  Captivi .  "It is the nature of the poor to hate and envy men of property."   "All men love themselves." 188 TTPC
187 Mar CONSULS:  M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS and C.(2) FLAMINIUS, both assigned to Liguria 187 B76 VI-158, CAH 8, SORH, csm, wikCon     185 DGRBM 2-168
c.187 Gn. Manlius VULSO, in Asia Province from 188, returns via Thrace to Rome with new luxuries: beautiful furniture, female musicians, and other entertainment for banquets, and expert cooks.  He demands triumph for victory over Galatians. 187 DGRBM 3-1286, atl2
c.187 Acrimonious debate in senate about granting a triumph to Gn. Manlius VULSO.  Most of the 10 commissioners who had reorganized Asia Province oppose this triumph, but it is approved anyway. 187 DGRBM 2-763, 3-1286, atl2
c.187 P.(6) Scipio AFRICANUS and bro Lucius(4), in east from 190, in Anatolia from 190, returns to Rome. 189 DGRBM 3-746 187 Dur 3-91
c.187 L. Terentius MASSALIOTA is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 187 DGRBM 3-996
c.187 TABULARIUM, depository for plebiscites and senatus consulta, in the Temple of Ceres from ?, moved to the Aerarium. 187 CDGRA 609
c.187 2 pleb tribunes named Petillius, instigated by M.(1) Porcius Cato and other enemies of the Scipios, require L.(4) Scipio Asiaticus to give account of 500 talents paid to him by Antiochus-III.  L. Scipio accordingly prepares his accounts, but as he is delivering them, P.(6) Scipio Africanus indignantly snatches them out of his hands, and tears them up before the senate.  L.(4) is then tried before the Assembly and convicted of embezzling.  L.(4) is defended his cousin P.(7) Scipio Nasica, and saved from prosecution by tribune veto of Ti.(5) Gracchus, son-in-law of P.(6) Africanus. 187
B76 16-397, CAH 8-179, DGRBM 3-746, Dur 3-91, GHH, LdHR 2-66, SORH, atl2, bk
185 MCAW
c.187 Ser.(2) Sulpicius GALBA is appointed urban praetor, and supports M. Fulvius in his demand for a triumph. 187 DGRBM 2-205
c.187 Aulus Postumius ALBINUS is curule aedile, supervises the games. 187 DGRBM 1-91
c.187 M. Furius Luscus and C. Sempronius Blaesus are pleb aediles.  They exhibit a 2nd time the plebeii ludi. 187 DGRBM 2-843
c.187 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS, son of Publius, is pleb tribune.  Though personally hostile to P.(6) Scipio Africanus, he defends him against attacks of the other tribunes. 187 CAH 9-4, DGRBM 2-288
c.187 P.(6) Scipio AFRICANUS is brought to trial by the Petillii, but wins sympathy of audience by recalling his victory over Carthage. 187 atl2
c.187 Brothers L. and Q. MUMMIUS are pleb tribunes. 187 DGRBM 2-1119
c.187 Tribune L. MUMMIUS opposes the bill of M.(1) Porcius Cato inquiring into monies paid by Antiochus-III, as the price of peace in 188, to brothers P.(6) and L.(4) Scipio.  Mummius, intimidated by Cato, withdraws his opposition, and the bill is passed. 187 DGRBM 2-1119
c.187 Aulus HOSTILIUS CATO, former legate of L.(4) Scipio, is convicted of receiving 40 pounds of gold and 403 of silver from Antiochus-III.  Since Scipio, a greater defaulter, eludes punishment, Hostilius probably escapes also. 187 DGRBM 2-531
c.187 C. HOSTILIUS CATO, former legate of L.(4) Scipio, is accused of taking bribes from Antiochus-III, but acquitted. 187 DGRBM 2-531
c.187 P.(6) Scipio AFRICANUS leaves Rome.  Tribune Ti.(5) Gracchus intervenes to prevent his trial continuing in his absence. 187 SORH, atl2
c.187 Consuls Lepidus & Flaminius subdue more Ligurian tribes, ravage Liguria. 187 SORH, atl2, wikRGG
c.187 The APUANI of Liguria, who by their attacks made it impossible to cultivate land at Pisa or Bononia, are defeated by consul C.(2) Flaminius and subdued until 186. 187 CAH 8-115, DGRG 1-163, wikAp, wikRGG
c.187 The FRINIATES are defeated and subdued by consul C.(2) Flaminius. 187 DGRG 2-185, wikRGG
c.187 Praetor M. Furius Crassipes illegally disarms the Cenomani. 187 wikRGG
c.187 Consul M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus rebukes praetor M. Furius Crassipes for an unprovoked attack on the CenomaniForces Crassipes out of Cisalpine Gaul. 187 CAH 8-112, atl2, wikRGG
c.187 Q.(3) Fulvius FLACCUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 187 DGRBM 2-155
c.187 C. Sempronius Blaesus is pleb aedile. 187 DGRBM 1-491
c.187 P. Cornelius CETHEGUS is curule aedile. 187 DGRBM 1-675
c.187 Latin cities complain that so many of their men had migrated to Rome that they are unable to meet their military requirements. 187 acdm
c.187 Praetor peregrinus Q. Terrentius CULLEO, examines evidence of illegal registration by Latins on citizen roll, forces 12,000 illegal Latin immigrants to leave Rome. 187
OCD 300, SORH, atl2
c.187 Non-citizens expelled from Rome. 187 CAH 8
c.187 M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR, in Greece from 189, returns to Rome, and asks for a triumph.  This is opposed by M.(1) Porcius Cato Censorinus, because Nobilior is a philhellene who kept poets in his camp, and was over-generous with his troops. 187 DGRBM 1-640, 2-1206
c.187 M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR celebrates triumph over Aetolians and Cephallenia. 187 DGRBM 2-1206, atl2
c.187 Praetor peregrinus Q. Terrentius CULLEO is appointed commissioner to investigate misappropriation of Antiochus' money by L.(4) Scipio Asiaticus and his legates. 187 DGRBM 1-900
c.187 Pleb tribune C. Minucius Augurinus proposes to fine L.(4) Scipio Asiaticus, and demands that he give security.  Scipio refuses.  Augurinus orders him siezed and imprisoned, but can't get it done because Ti.(5) Sempronius Gracchus intercedes.  Livy says differently.  . 187 DGRBM 1-420, atl2
c.187 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS marries Cornelia, younger dau of P.(6) Scipio Africanus. 187 MCAW, atl2
c.187 Opponents of triumph of Gn. Manlius Vulso include L. Furius Purpurio. 187 DGRBM 3-605
c.187 M. Furius CRASSIPES is made praetor and sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 187 DGRBM 1-871
c.187 C. FANNIUS is pleb tribune. 187 DGRBM 2-136
c.187 Praetor M. Furius CRASSIPES looking for a pretext for war, disarms the Cenomani, though they had committed no offense.  They appeal to the senate.  Crassipes is ordered to give their weapons back and leave the province. 187 DGRBM 1-871
c.187 Ap.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is made praetor and sent to Tarentum until 1??. 187 DGRBM 1-769
c.187 Via FlaminiaVIA FLAMINIA, ending at Ariminum from 220, now extended thru Caesena and the newly founded Forum Livii to Bononia by consul C.(2) Flaminius. 187
B76 15-1096, CAH 8, DGRG 1-223, SORH, atl2, wikRGG
c.187 Via Aemilia VIA AEMILIA continues Via Flaminia from Bononia to Placentia on the Po.  Built by consul M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus. 187 B76 VII-982, 15-1096,
CAH 8-114, DGRG 1-213, 2-1286, 1297,
Dur 3-78, MCAW, SORH, atl2, wikVA
c.187 Small settlement of REGIUM LEPIDUM halfway between Mutina and the future Parma, founded by consul M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus on his new Via Aemilia. 187 CAH 8-114
187 or 175 rynfb
c.187 NICODEMOS of Elis heads an embassy sent by Philopoemen to Rome. 187 DGRBM 2-1188
c.187 Boeotians send Theban Callicritos as envoy to Rome to persuade senate not to require Boeotia to recall Zeuxippus and other exiles.  Callicritos says Zeuxippus had been legally found guilty of sacrilege and murder.  Senate maintains their demand, but doesn't press it. 187 DGRBM 1-570
c.187 Temple of Hercules Musarum (Hercules and the Muses) built near the Circus Flaminius and dedicated by M. Fulvius Nobilior because he learned in Greece that Hercules was a musagetes "leader of the Muses".  Round (like many temples of Hercules) and contains many statues, including Hercules playing the lyre and the 9 Muses. 187 CAH 8 wikTHM
post 187 rmrbrn
c.187 COOKING according to Livy:  "The army of Asia introduced foreign luxury to Rome.  It was then that meals began to demand more preparation and expense.  ... The cook considered and employed until then as a slave at the lowest cost, became extremely expensive." 187 TTPC 27
186 Mar CONSULS:  Sp. Postumius ALBINUS and Q.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS 186 CAH 8-312, DGRBM 1-91, 3-285, OCD 816, csm, wikCon
c.186 About 50,000 CARNI, part of the Taurisci confederation of Gauls in Noricum, cross the Alps from Veneti territory in Noricum to Veneti territory in Italy.  They settle around a hill which they name Akileja until 183. 186 atl2, hifiCrn
12,000 DGRG 1-944
c.186 Duronia Aebutius, now with 2nd husband T. Sempronius Rutilius, tries to get her son Publius Aebutius initiated into the Bacchic orgies (possibly to get rid of him). 186 DGRBM 1-1093
c.186 HISPALA FECENIA, a freed woman, mistress of P. Aebutius, who lives in the Aventine.  To prevent Aebutius's initiation in the Bacchanalian mysteries, she tells him the nature of their rites.  Aebutius reveals to consul, Sp. Postumius Albinus, what Hispala had told him.  Hispala is summoned by Albinus, who gets from her a full report on the Bacchanalian society.  Cult of BACCHUS (Roman Dionysus), secretly existing in Rome, is now under arch-priestess Paculla Minia, a Campanian woman, and her sons Herennius and Minius Cerrinius, the chief hierophants of the Bacchanalia. 186
CDGRA 102, DGRA 413, DGRBM 1-23, 1093, 2-407, 498, 1091,
LdHR 2-62
c.186 BACCHANALIA and the worship of Bacchus suppressed for immorality in all Italy except the south by a senatus consultum (except for special supervised instances).  The cult's secrecy feeds rumors of unrestrained drinking and sex.  Livy accuses them of debauchery, forgery, poison, and murder.  A rumor that its devotees plot to overthrow the government causes a witch hunt.  The consuls acting partly thru the aediles and the triumviri capitales round up many men and women.  7,000 devotees arrested and condemned, hundreds executed. 186 B76 I-711, 12-780, 15-1099, CAH 8-186, 227, 9-528, 10-491, CDCC 118, DGRBM 2-498, Dur 3-20, 94, GHH, ISBE 4-213, OCD 157, OHG, SORH, bk, wikDM
c.186 HISPALA FECENIA is rewarded with the privileges of a free-born matron of Rome and a million of sesterces from the treasury.  The consuls are charged to protect her from retribution by the Bacchanalians. 186 DGRBM 2-498
c.186 Consul Q.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS, having dealt with the Bacchanalian problem, is sent to Liguria. 186 CAH 8-312
c.186 Minius Cerrinius, one of the chief persons implicated in the Bacchanalian mysteries, confined in Ardea Latium. 186 DGRG 1-194
c.186 M.(1) Licinius LUCULLUS is praetor peregrinus. 186 DGRBM 2-838-9
c.186 C.(2) Calpurnius PISO is made praetor and sent to Farther SpainL. Juventius Thalna is his legate.  He replaces C. ATINIUS, who returns to Rome. 186 DGRBM 3-372, wikRCH
185 DGRBM 3-1020
c.186 L. Quinctius Pennus CRISPINUS is made praetor and sent to Spain  Praetor L. Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS in Nearer Spain from 188, returns to Rome.  Asks for a triumph, gets only an ovation. 186 DGRBM 1-13, 891, wikRCH
c.186 C. Aurelius SCAURUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 186 DGRBM 3-738
c.186 P. Cornelius SULLA is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 186 DGRBM 3-933
c.186 Consul Q.(2) MARCIUS PHILIPPUS ambushed in a narrow pass and defeated by the Apuani Ligurians in the territory of Seravezza (near Lucca).  Marcius loses 4,000 men and 3 standards.  Location is henceforward called Saltus Marcius.  The Apuani continue to resist thereafter. 186 CAH 8-115, DGRBM 3-285, DGRG 1-163, LdHR 2-50, OCD 816, atl2, wikAp, wikRGG
c.186 10 days of victory games for M.(1) Fulvius Nobilior and L.(4) Cornelius Scipio are partly paid for by public contributions.  Many artists from Greece attend. 186 DGRA 913, atl2
c.186 M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR exhibits for 10 successive days the games which he had vowed in the Aetolian war, which are the most magnificent yet seen at Rome.  There are lions and panthers, and athletic contests now for the first time exhibited in the city. 186 CAH 8-177, DGRA 1186, DGRBM 2-1206
L.(4) Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus.  Not Nobilior. CAH 8-177
c.186 NOBILIOR's games so concern the senate that it restricts future games to no more than the cost of Nobilior's triumph. 186 acdm
c.186 Gn. Baebius TAMPHILUS is one of the triumviri for founding 2 colonies. 186 DGRBM 3-973
c.186 After the quaestio is over, Postumius meets with the Senate at the temple of Bellona in October.  Senate decrees senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus to prevent the Bacchanalia from being used again as a cover for criminal operations.  Conspirators flee south to Magna Graecia and continue their operations.  Quaestiones concerning coniurationes continue thruout the 180s. 186 acdm
c.186 Envoys from towns in Thessaly, Perhaebia, Athamania, which had been taken by Philip-V visit senate, request independence, complain that Philip-V is violating treaty of 196.  Senate sends 3 commissioners to investigate. 186 CAH 8-247, DGRBM 1-452, 3-974       185 DGRBM 3-284
c.186 Plautus play  Amphitryon .  "If anything is spoken in jest, it is not fair to turn it to earnest." 186 TTPC, bk
no date: B76 14-552
c.186 Plautus play  Truculentus . 186 TTPC 27
no date: B76 14-552
185 Mar CONSULS:  Ap.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER and pleb M.(2) Sempronius TUDITANUS 185 CAH 8, 9-45, DGRBM 1-769, 3-1181, csm, wikCon
c.185 Consul Ap.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is sent against the Ingauni Ligurians. 185 DGRBM 1-769
c.185 Consul M.(2) Sempronius TUDITANUS is sent against the Apuani Ligurians. 185 DGRBM 3-1181
c.185 Consul M.(2) TUDITANUS attacks and defeats the Apuani in Liguria.  He makes the land-route to Luna (near the Magra, at the north end of the coastal plain) secure against the Apuani. 185 DGRBM 3-1181, DGRG 1-163, atl2, wikRGG
c.185 L. Scribonius Libo, M. Tuccius, and ??? are appointed to conduct colonists to Sipontum (east coast) and Buxentum (west coast), which had both been abandoned. 185 DGRBM 1-779, 3-1181
c.185 Consul Ap.(9) CLAUDIUS attacks and defeats the Ingauni in several battles.  The Ingauni lose 6 towns and nominally submit, but still resist. 185 CAH 8-115, DGRBM 3-1181, DGRG 2-53, atl2, wikRGG
181 DGRG 2-185
c.185 BUXENTUM on west coast of Lucania, a colony from 194, but now deserted, recolonized by Romans. 186 DGRG 1-460
184 DGRG 2-1011
c.185 Slaves and shepherds in Apulia are condemned for banditry by a praetor.  L. Postumius, who conducts a quaestio and executes 7,000. 185 LdHR 2-144, acdm
c.185 Gn. SICINIUS is aedile. 185 DGRBM 3-816
c.185 L. PUPIUS is aedile. 185 DGRBM 3-605
c.185 APULIA:  Rural slaves and free workers rebel.  7,000 slaves captured and condemned to mines. 185
Dur 3-112
c.185 L. POSTUMIUS is sent to Tarentum to investigate alleged conspiracies of slaves and Baccanalia devotees. 185 DGRG 2-1098
c.185 L.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO ASIATICUS is deprived of his horse by censors. 185 DGRA 473
c.185 L.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO ASIATICUS holds a magnificent triumph with money he acquired during an embassy on which he was sent after his condemnation, to settle the disputes between Antiochus-III and Eumenes. 185 DGRBM 3-747
c.185 Embassies from Eumenes-II and Greek states complain to senate about Philip's seizure of extra territory - Maroneia and Aenus, which Eumenes wants for himself. 185 CAH 8-293, DGRBM 3-284, DGRG 2-1188, atl2
c.185 Spartan envoys go to Rome to accuse Achaeans. 185 DGRBM 1-237
c.185 After hearing embassies from Philip-V, Eumenes, Achaeans, Sparta, and exiles from Aenus and Maronia, senate decides to send out more commissioners under Q.(1) Caecilius Metellus to settle their disputes. 185 DGRBM 3-284, atl2
c.185 After Q.(1) Metellus' non-solution, envoys from Philip-V, Eumenes, and exiles from Aenus and Maronia, go to Rome and offer the same arguments they had put before Caecilius.  This time the Senate orders Philip to also to withdraw from Aenos and Maronea and in general to quit all forts, territories, and cities on the coast of Thrace. 185 CAH 8-294
c.185 P. Cornelius CETHEGUS is praetor. 185 DGRBM 1-675   184 DGRBM 1-675
c.185 C. Afranius STELLIO is praetor. 185 DGRBM 3-904
c.185 C. Atilius SERRANUS is praetor. 185 DGRBM 3-788
c.185 Aulus Postumius ALBINUS is praetor. 185 DGRBM 1-91
c. 185 M. NAEVIUS is made pleb tribune for 184, but takes office in 185.  He and tribune Q. Petillius accuse P.(6) Scipio Africanus of having been bribed by Antiochus-III to let him off leniently.  P.(6) Scipio does not condescend to refutate the charges, but rambles long and eloquently upon his former services until night.  Early next morning, when when the tribunes take their seats, Africanus proudly reminds the people that this is the anniversary of Zama, and calls on them to abandon all disputes and follow him to the Capitol, and there thank the gods.  The crowd followed him, and the tribunes are left alone in the rostra.  P.(6) Scipio leaves Rome, and retires to his country seat at Liternum north of Cumae.  The tribunes move to renew the prosecution, but Ti.(5) Gracchus persuaded them to drop it.  Africanus never returns to Rome. 187 GHH 185 DGRBM 2-1135, 3-213, 747
184 CAH 8-180
c.185 Ultraconservative M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus is elected censor for 184 despite (or because of) combined opposition by all 6 other candidates including L.(4) Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus.  Cato and Valerius promise severity against luxuries, and are therefore popular with the lower classes. 185
CAH 8-183, DGRBM 1-640 LdHR 2-71
c.185 L.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO ASIATICUS dies. 185 GHH, geni post-183 wikLCSA
c.185 P.(3) Claudius PULCHER is elected consul, after energetic and violent canvassing by his bro Ap. Claudius. 185 DGRBM 1-769, atl2
c.185 Q. FABIUS LABEO is candidate for consulship, but Ap.(9) Claudius Pulcher gets his bro P.(3) elected in his stead. 185 DGRBM 2-695
c.185 Roman COOKING upgraded:  Soldiers returning from Greece and Anatolia have acquired a taste for eastern food.  Livy will say, "the army of Asia introduced foreign luxury to Rome.  It was then that meals began to demand more preparation and expense...   The cook, considered and employed until then as a slave at the lowest cost, became extremely expensive.  What had been only a job became an art.". 185 TTPC
184 Mar CONSULS:  P.(3) Claudius PULCHER and L. Porcius LICINIUS, both elected on a moral reform platform.  Both sent to Liguria. 184 CAH 8, 9-45, DGRBM 1-769, 2-785, csm, wikCon, wikRGG
c.184 Λ CENSORS V patrician L.(4) VALERIUS FLACCUS and pleb M.(1) Porcius CATO.  They focus on standards of conduct of upper classes. 184 B76 II-645, CAH 8-181, 453, CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-158, Dur 3-102, MCAW, SORH, atl2, wikCon, wikLC, bk
c.184 Censors L.(4) Valerius Flaccus and Cato fight liberal Greek influences, which he believes are corrupting Roman morals.  They tax luxuries, curb abuses by tax gatherers.  Cato, taking vengeance on Roman women for repealing Lex Oppia in 195, multiplies by 10 the taxes on items formerly forbidden by Lex Oppia.  Property tax, doubled 215, returned to 1 unit per 1,000.?? 184 B76 II-645, CAH 8, Dru 3-20, MCAW, OCD 214, atl2
no date: Dur 3-89
c.184 Censors, primarily Cato, review senate, and boot out 7 senators.  They impose penalties on L.(2) Quinctius Flamininus and L. Scipio.  L.(2) Flamininus is expelled from the senate for scandalous behavior in north Italy. 184 B76 15-1096, DGRBM 1-640, 2-162, GHH, LdHR 2-71, SORH, atl2
c.184 Senator L. MANILIUS booted out by Cato for kissing his wife in the presence of his daughter. 184 GHH
c.184 Proposal to build a theater is denied by senate. 184 GHH
c.184 SEWERS revovated by censors Flaccus and Cato at enormous expense, probably 6,000,000 denarii. 184 CAH 8-187
c.184 L. Postumius Tempsanus, cousin of Sp. Postumius Albinus and praetor in Tarentum, diligently prosecutes what was left of the Bacchanalian investigation. 184 acdm
c.184 Censors Flaccus and Cato build a new road, a mole or causeway, 2 business buildings, and the BASILICA PORCIA, which lasts until 52. 184 CAH 8-187, 509, wikBsPr
c.184 Censor M.(1) Porcius Cato buys a house in the forum from Maenius for the purpose of building the Basilica Porcia. 184 DGRBM 2-897
c.184 BASILICA PORCIA, 1st basilica in Rome.  A basilica is a multi-purpose building used as a law court and meeting place for merchants and businessmen. 184 DGRA 198, SORH
c.184 A. Terentius VARRO is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain until 182. 184 DGRBM 3-1222, wikRCH
c.184 P. SEMPRONIUS Longus is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain.  C.(2) Calpurnius PISO, in Farther Spain from 186, returns to Rome, triumphs for a victory over the Lusitani and Celtiberi. 184 DGRBM 2-806, 3-372, wikRCH
c.184 Praetor L. Quinctius Pennus CRISPINUS, in Spain from 186, returns to Rome, and has triumph. 184 DGRBM 1-891
c.184 Property tax, 2 units per 1,000 from 215, raised to 3 per 1,000 by censors until ?.  Raised by the tribuni aerarii and no farmed out. 184 CDGRA 650
c.184 Rome drained, modernized, extended. 184 CAH 8
c.184 Ap.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER heads an embassy to Macedonia and Greece. 184 DGRBM 1-769
c.184 Q. Naevius MATHO is made praetor and assigned to Sardinia.  He is also ordered to investigate all cases of poisoning.  He investigates for 4 months, and condemns 2,000 people before setting out for his province. 184 CDGRA 665, DGRA 1188, DGRBM 2-972
c.184 C. Sempronius BLAESUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 184 DGRBM 1-491
c.184 Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS seeks election to an urban praetorship, vacant after death of C. Decimius, while Flaccus is in office as curule aedile.  The Senate decides to leave the praetorship unfilled rather than risk a questionable appointment. 185 CAH 8-190, DGRBM 2-154 184 atl2
c.184 C. Calpurnius and L. Quinctius celebrate triumphs for victory in Spain. 184 atl2
c.184 Q. ENNIUS, Oscan speaking Calabrian poet, dramatist, and satirist, in Rome from 204, is granted Roman citizenship. 184 CAH 8-444
c.184 POTENTIA (Pollentia) in Picenum founded as Roman maritime colony by 3 agents including M.(5) Fulvius Flaccus, Q. Fabius Labeo, Q. Fulvius Nobilior. 184 CAH 8-215, DGRBM 2-155, 695, DGRG 2-662, SORH, atl2
c.184 PISAURUM Umbria founded as Roman maritime colony by 3 agents including M.(5) Fulvius Flaccus, Q. Fulvius Nobilior. 184 CAH 8-215, DGRBM 2-155, 1206, DGRG 2-633, SORH, atl2 183 DGRG 2-1316, TTPC
CONFUSION ALERT!  Pisaurum Umbria and Pisa Etruria are often both called Pisa.
c.184 Envoys from many neighbors of Philip-V present complex grievances against him. 184 CAH 8-252
c.184 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, in Macedonia from 190, is sent back to Rome until 183 to defend Philip-V.  Officers Philocles and Apelles accompany him.  Senate accepts his defense. 186 GHH     184 B76 15-1094, CAH 8, atl2, DGRBM 3-284, 300
c.184 CALES, Latin colony 334, reinforced by Roman colonists sent there by consul P.(3) Claudius Pulcher. 184 OCD 193, atl2
c.184 ATESTE in Cisalpine Gaul peacefully annexed by Rome. 184 OCD 137
c.184  Lex Porcia (3) by consul L. Porcius Licinus safeguards citizens from summary execution on military service, all dealing with right of appeal (provocatio).   Extended 123. 184 wikLRL 135 atl2
c.184 T. Maccius PLAUTUS (maccius = jay bird, plautus = flat-footed) ergo "Titus the Flat-Footed Jay Bird", playwright, age 60, dies.  Known for slapstick buffoonery.  His 20 surviving plays are loose adaptations of Greek originals. 184 B76 VIII-37, 14-551, BD 28, CDGRA 203, DGRBM 3-407,
Dur 3-101, GHH, LdHR 2-162, SORH, TTPC, atl2
c.184 Q. Maenius retains possession of a pillar near the forum, from which he can watch gladiator shows. 184 atl2
c.184 P. Licinius Crassus Dives, pontifex maximus 212-183 punishes a Vestal Virgin for carelessness in guarding the sacred flame. 184 atl2
c.184 M.(2) Sempronius TUDITANUS is unsuccessful candidate for consul, but is elected one of the pontifices in 183. 184 DGRBM 3-1181
c.184/3 4 groups of contending Spartans appeal to the senate, which appoints Flamininus, Q.(1) Caecilius Metellus and Ap.(9) Claudius Pulcher to untangle the disputes and reach agreeable decisions. 184/3 CAH 8-297
c.183 DEINOCRATES, envoy from Messene Peloponnese goes to Rome to justify Messenian rebellion from Achaeans, learns that his friend T.(1) Flamininus had been appointed ambassador to Prusias-I of Bithynia, and is about to pass thru Greece on his way to AnatoliaDeinocrates seeks to gain support of T.(1) Flamininus, who promises to help Messene. winter 184/3 CAH 8-297 183 DGRBM 1-951, atl2
c.183 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS is sent to negotiate with Prusias-I of Bithynia in attempt to capture Hannibal.  Flamininus first goes to Greece. 183 CAH 8-298, DGRBM 2-166, OCD 441, wikTQF
183 Mar CONSULS:  Q. Fabius LABEO and pleb M.(5) Claudius MARCELLUS, both assigned to Liguria 183 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-695, 931, csm, wikCon
c.183 Censors are moderate in their expulsions. 183 CAH 8-183
c.183 P.(7) Scipio Nasica, C.(2) Flaminius, and L. Manlius Acidinus are sent with an army to Venetia to deal with the Carni and Taurisci Gauls who settled on a hill they call Akileja in 186.  The Gauls are forced back to the mountains, their settlement is destroyed. 183 hifiCrn, wikAq
c.183 3 Envoys including L. Manlius Acidinus, Q. Minucius Rufus, are sent to Transalpine Gaul. 183 DGRBM 1-13, 3-675
c.183 Gn. SICINIUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 183 DGRBM 3-816
c.183 L. PUPIUS is made praetor and sent to Apulia. 183 DGRBM 3-605
c.183 Sp. Postumius ALBINUS PAULULLUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 183 DGRBM 1-91
c.183 CHAERON represents the Spartans who had been exiled by Philopoemen in 188.  He tries to get the exiles restored, and succeeds. 183 DGRBM 1-679
c.183 Senate, impressed with Demetrius, 2nd son of Philip-V, pardons all the past offences of Philip. 183 DGRBM 3-284, SORH
c.183 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, in Rome from 184, having accomplished his mission, returns to Macedonia. 183 CAH 8-295, atl2
c.183 L.(1) Julius CAESAR is made praetor and sent to Cisalpine Gaul, and ordered to prevent the Transalpine Gauls from building Akileja. 183 DGRBM 1-537, wikLJC, wikRGG
c.183 CARNI Gauls at Akileja from 186, are ordered to leave by consul M.(5) Claudius Marcellus, who confiscates any movable property they had brought with them.  He says their property will be returned when they are about to leave Italy.  They quietly cross the Alps under the inspection of 3 senators (including L. Furius Purpurio), who are well received by the Transalpine Gauls. 183 DGRBM 3-606, DGRG 1-944, LdHR 2-56, atl2
c.183 Consul M.(5) Claudius Marcellus in Venetia writes and asks permission of the senate to lead his legions into Istria, which is occupied by weak Transalpine Gauls.  Without waiting for reply, he marches into IstriaThen he gets permission. 183 DGRG 1-944, LdHR 2-56
c.183 Rhodian envoys protest to senate about Pharnaces capture of Sinope 183.  The Senate, at the same meeting, hears envoys of Eumenes, who has differences of his own with Pharnaces, and to Pharnaces' envoys. 183 CAH 8-328
c.183 Q.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS sent as ambassador to Macedonia, with orders to watch Roman interests in south Greece. 183 DGRBM 3-286
c.183 A statue of L.(4) Scipio Asiaticus in Greek dress style is sculpted. 183 atl2
c.183 P.(6) Scipio Africanus learns of death of his bro L.(4) Scipio, while staying at Liternum on coast north of Cumae. 183 atl2
c.183 SATURNIA Etruria becomes a Roman colony with voting rights.  3 Romans including Ti.(5) Sempronius Gracchus supervise it. 183 CAH 8-215, DGRBM 2-288, DGRG 2-924, SORH
c.183 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO AFRICANUS dies, age 53, in Liternum Campania from 184.  He had requested burial at Liternum, and not ungrateful Rome. 185 CAH 8-180, DGRBM 3-213, 747 184/3 B76 16-397     183 CAH 8, CDCC 796, GHH, atl2
c.183 PARMA, on former Boii land, colonized with 2,000 Roman settlers with full rights. 183 CAH 8-114, 215, DGRG 1-417, 944, 2-378, SORH, TTPC, atl2
c.183 MUTINA, on former Boii land, colonized with 2,000 male settlers with full rights.  Lasts until 177. 183 B76 VI-959, CAH 8-114, 215, DGRG 1-417, 944, 2-378, SORH, atl2
c.183 P. Licinius CRASSUS DIVES, pontifex maximus from 212, dies.  His 3 day funeral is celebrated with feasts, games, and a show of 120 gladiators.  C. SERVILIUS GEMINUS succeeds until 180. 184 atl2
183 DGRBM 1-873, 3-794, wikPLCD, wikPM
c.183  PRAECEPIA ad FILIUM  "Advice to His Son" a series of letters (now lost) written by censor M.(1) Porcius Cato to his son.  A collection of practical info. 183 B76 6-793
c.183 Omens, include a rain of blood falling for 2 days in the temple precinct of Concord, and appearance of a new island near Sicily. 183 atl2
182 Mar CONSULS:  L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS and Gn. Baebius TAMPHILUS
Suffect: Q.(3) Fulvius Flaccus
182 B76 VII-808, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-452, 3-154, 973, csm, wikCon
c.182 Consul L.(2) Aemilius Paulus campaigns in Liguria against the Ingauni for alleged piracy. 182 CAH 8-115
181 DGRBM 3-154
c.182  Lex Orchia  by tribune C. Orchius on recommendation of the Senate.  Restricts expenditure and limits number of guests at entertainments and banquets.  See 275161. 182 CAH 8-184, 9-59, OCD 603, atl2     182/1 unrv     181 B76 II-645, CDGRA 600, DGRA 1077, EDRL 557, GHH, SORH
c.182 Senate limits the amount of public money to be spent on victory games, because of lavish expenditure on games by aedile Ti. Sempronius, burdensome on Italy, Latin allies, and provinces outside Italy. 182 CAH 8-177
c.182 Consul L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS divorces Papiria, dau of C. Papirius.   Her sons Quintus and Publius are apparently more loyal to her than their father.  They are adopted:  Quintus into the Fabii, and Publius into the Cornelii Scipiones.  Publius' name is changed to P.(10) Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus.  He is nephew of P. Cornelius Scipio's wife, Aemilia Tertia - as Aemilia and Lucius are siblings and their father is L. Aemilius Paulus.
Paulus will remarry and have 2 more sons to carry on his name, but they will die in 167 before he does in 160.
182 atl2
no date: wikSA
c.182 C. Terentius ISTRA is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 182 DGRBM 3-996
c.182 L. Caecilius DENTER is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 182 DGRBM 1-993
c.182 Consuls PAULUS and TAMPHILUS campaign successfully in Liguria.  Paulus until 181, Tamphilus until 180. 182 CDCC 15, DGRBM 3-973
c.182 M.(1) Porcius CATO, censor from 184, resigns office, and is prosecuted and fined 12,000 ases. no date: LdHR 2-72
c.182 Envoys from Eumenes-II, Ariarathes, Pharnaces, and Philip, and from Spartans and Achaeans, appear before senate. 182 atl2
c.182 Tribunes censure aedile A. Mancinus for his behavior towards a prostitute called Manilia. 182 atl2
c.182 Envoys from Achaeans inform the Senate about Messene and Sparta.  Spartans who would have had things otherwise also send envoys, as do the exiles who had not been taken back, and whose part had been taken by Diophanes and some others. 182 CAH 8-299
c.182 Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain until 180His bro Marcus is legate.  Praetor A Terentius VARRO in Nearer Spain from 184, returns to Rome. 182 CAH 8-125, DGRBM 2-154, 3-1222, OCD 440, rcIb, wikRCH 181 CAH 8, OCD 218
181 Mar CONSULS:  P. Cornelius CETHEGUS and M. Baebius TAMPHILUS, both assigned to Liguria. 181 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-675, 3-974, OCD 159, csm, wikCon, wikRGG
c.181 L.(1) Aurelius Cotta is military tribune, and commands 3rd legion with tribune Sextus(2) Julius Caesar in war against Ligurians. 181 DGRBM 1-867
c.181 Legislation against bribery is carried on the proposal of the consuls, who act on the authority of the Senate. 181 CAH 8-178, 9-59
c.181  Lex Cornelia et Baebia de Λ Ambitu V  by consuls P. Cornelius Cethegus and M. Baebius Tamphilus, against electoral corruption in election canvassing and bribery.  Men convicted of ambitus may not be candidates for magesterial positions for 10 years. 181 CAH 8, DGRA 77, 688, EDRL 550, GHH, LdHR 2-61, OCD 51, 214, SORH, unrv
c.181  Lex Baebia  reduces the number of praetors in alternate years, but this cumbersome arrangement is soon superseded or repealed and the number reverted to 6 or 8 (whichever it was in 197). 181
CAH 8-176, CDGRA 379
c.181 C. Lucretius Gallus and C. Matienus are created duumvir navalis to equip a fleet against the Ligurians. 181 DGRBM 2-828, 973
c.181 C. Matienus, duumvir navalis, takes 32 Ligurian ships. 181 DGRBM 2-973
c.181 2nd Temple of Venus Erycina outside the Porta Collatina is dedicated by duumvir L. Porcius Licinus. 181 CAH 8-441, 507, DGRBM 2-51, 785, atl2
c.181 L. DURONIUS is made praetor and assigned to Apulia, also commissioned to inquire into activities of the Bacchanalia in Apulia. 181 DGRBM 1-1093
c.181 CHAERON and other Spartan exiles go to Rome and inform senate of reincorporation of Sparta into Achaean League. 181 DGRBM 1-679 180 atl2
c.181 C.(2) CLAUDIUS NERO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 181 DGRBM 2-1161
c.181 Temple of PIETAS (personification of faithful attachment, love, and veneration), built 191 in the herb-market, is dedicated by M'(2) Acilius Glabrio.  (see 150) 181 DGRBM 2-271, atl2
180 DGRG 2-832
c.181 Proconsul L.(2) Aemilius Paulus campaigns in Liguria against Ingauni and Apuani until 180.  He decisively defeats and entirely subdues the Ingauni, razes their fortifications, and carries off their shipping. 181 B76 VII-808, DGRBM 3-154, DGRG 2-53, OCD 609, atl2, wikRGG
180 LdHR 2-50
c.181 Deportation policy in Liguria begins. 181 CAH 8
c.181 PHILOCLES and Apelles, officers of Philip-V, are again sent to Rome, to inquire into the truth of an accusation brought by Perseus against Demetrius, of bidding for succession to the throne, and of having communicated it to T.(1) Quintius Flamininus and other Romans.  The envoys had been chosen by Philip because he thought that they were impartial between his sons.  But they are suborned by Perseus, and bring back with them a forged letter, professing to be from T.(1) Flamininus to Philip, and confirming the charge. 181 DGRBM 3-301     179 LdHR 2-79
c.181 GRAVISCAE, the port of the Etruscan city of Tarquinii, founded as a Roman colony by 3 commissioners: P.(3) Claudius Pulcher, C.(2) Calpurnius Piso, C. Terentius Istra. 181 CAH 8-215, DGRBM 1-769, 3-372, 996, DGRG 1-1018, SORH, atl2
c.181 TARQUINI Etruria, under Rome from 311, becomes a Roman colony. 181 B76 IX-829
c.181 BIPPOS of Argos sent by Achaean League as ambassador to Rome. 181 DGRBM 1-490
c.181 Q.(7) FABIUS MAXIMUS is made praetor peregrinus. 181 DGRBM 2-994
c.181 ATTALUS and Athenaeus, bros of Eumenes-II king of Pergamum comes to Rome, tell them about invasion by Pharnaces-I, king of Pontus. 181 DGRBM 1-411, atl2
c.181 Q. Petillius SPURINUS is made urban praetor, and commissioned to levy troops for the war with the Ligurians.  Then ordered to dismiss them. 181 DGRBM 3-898, wikRGG
c.181 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus urges adoption of  Lex Orchia  182 restricting the number of guests at banquets. 181 DGRBM 1-641
c.181 L. Duronius, praetor assigned to Apulia, conducts another investigation into the Bacchanalia. 181 acdm
c.181 Q.(2) FABIUS BUTEO is made praetor and sent to Cisapline Gaul until 179. 181 DGRBM 1-519, wikRGG
c.181/0 Praetor Q.(2) FABIUS BUTEO campaigns in Istria near Aquileia. 181/0 wikRGG
c.181 M. PINARIUS POSCA is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 181 DGRBM 3-504
c.181 AQUILEIA (Latinized from Akileja which was destroyed 183) on north Adriatic founded as Latin colony by 3 commissioners: C.(2) Flaminius, P.(7) Scipio Nasica, and L. Manlius Acidinus with 3,000 colonists.  They are given unusually large land allotments (pedites 50 iugera, centuriones 100 iugera, equites 140 iugera) to control the Veneti and the passes threatened by the Gauls.  See 169.  The colony disturbs the Istri. 183 DGRG 1-944, SORH 181 B76 I-466, 7-960, 15-1096, CAH 8-206, 505, CDCC 53, DGRBM 2-168, 3-751, DGRG 1-170, 2-1273, MCAW, OCD 90, atl2
c.181 Sextus(2) Julius CAESAR is military tribune under L.(2) Aemilius Paulus. 181 DGRBM 1-537
c.181 Senate orders Achaean League to recall all the Spartan exiles without distinction. no date: DGRBM 2-537
c.181 CALLICRATES, head of 2nd Achaean League 183-49 goes to Rome until 180, announces subservience to Rome. 181 B76 15-1094, OCD 194 180 CAH 8-301, atl2
c.181 TRIUMPH over Liguria is granted to consuls P. Cornelius Cethegus and M. Baebius Tamphilus even though NO BATTLE WAS FOUGHT!.  This is a first. 181 DGRBM 1-675, wikRGG
c.181  Sacred books  of NUMA POMPILIUS (king of Rome 716-673), buried near him in a separate tomb at the foot of the Janiculus, are discovered accidentally by one Terentius.  They are carried to urban praetor Q. Petilius Spurinus, and found to consist of 7 in Latin on pontifical law, in which Numa prescribed all religious rites and ceremonies, and 7 in Greek containing philosophical examination of the same subjects.  Petillius reads them, determines that the philosophy books are dangerous to state religion and tells the senate, which has them publicly burnt, but the former are carefully preserved. 181
B76 VII-439, DGRA 941, DGRBM 1-675, 2-1213, 3-213, 898, GHH, atl2
The story of the discovery is a forgery. DGRBM 2-1213
The books were forgeries. B76 VII-439
c.181 Q.(2) Fulvius Flaccus suffers a 3rd defeat in consular elections. 181 atl2
c.181/0 Consuls CETHEGUS and TAMPHILUS in Liguria get their commands extended as proconsuls until new consuls relieve them. 181/0 DGRBM 1-91, 3-974
c.180 Proconsuls CETHEGUS and TAMPHILUS in Liguria, knowing their time is short, march to the territory of the Apuani Ligures, who are surprised and surrender.  40,000 Apuani of Liguria including women and kids deported to Samnium by Tamphilus. 181 B76 15-1096, CAH 8-116, OCD 159
180 DGRG 1-163, 3-974, LdHR 2-50, MCAW, SORH, atl2, wikRGG
180 Mar CONSULS:  Aulus Postumius ALBINUS Luscus and C.(2) Calpurnius PISO   Suffect: Q.(3) Fulvius Flaccus 180 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-91, 3-372, csm, wikCon
c.180 Consuls ALBINUS and PISO assigned to Liguria. 180 wikRGG
c.180 A Roman squadron attacks the Intemelli pirates of Liguria. 180 DGRG 2-55
c.180 PISA Etruria invites Romans to colonize their territory. 180 DGRG 2-632
c.180 L. Terentius MASSALIOTA is made military tribune. 180 DGRBM 3-996
c.180 Ti. Minucius Augurinus is praetor peregrinus and dies of plague same year. 180 DGRBM 1-420, 2-1092
c.180 M.(3) Fulvius NOBILIOR is military tribune. 180 DGRBM 2-1207
c.180 L. Postumius ALBINUS is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 180 DGRBM 1-91, wikRCH
c.180 Gn.(1) Cornelius DOLABELLA dies.  Rex sacrourm from 208.  His kinsman L. Cornelius Dolabella wants to succeed him.  Pontifex maximus C. Servilius demands that Lucius resign his office as duumvir navalis first.  Lucius refuses.  Servilius fines him.  Lucius appeals to the people.    Lucius is released from the fine, but doesn't become rex sacrourm.  As duumvir navalis Lucius patrols the east coast with 20 ships against Illyrians. 180 DGRBM 1-1058
c.180 C. SERVILIUS dies.  Pontifex maximus from 183.  M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS is elected successor until death 152. 180 DGRBM 2-763, 3-794, atl2, wikMAL, wikPM
c.180  Lex Villia Annalis  by tribune L. Villius Tappulus establishes minimum ages for magistrates.  Quaestors must be 30, pleb and curule aediles 36 (previously 27), praetors 39, consuls 42.  Patrician age minimums are 2 years earlier.  It also requires that at least 2 years must elapse between successive curule magistracies.  Reaffirmed 81. 180 B76 15-1096, CAH 8-176, CDGRA 378, DGRA 19, EDRL 561, GHH, LdHR 2-60, OCD 286, SORH, atl2, unrv, wikAd, wikLRL
179 DGRBM 1-180
c.180 L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS dies.  Pontifex from 195, friend of Cato.  Q. Fabius LABEO succeeds as pontifex. 180 DGRBM 2-158, 695, OCD 440
c.180 A. Hostilius MANCINUS is made urban praetor. 180 DGRBM 2-914
c.180 P. Cornelius MAMMULA is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 180 DGRBM 2-763
c.180 C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is made praetor. 180 DGRBM 1-769
c.180 Consul C.(2) Calpurnius PISO dies, probably of plague, but the people suspect poison by his wife Quarta Hostilia, because her son by a former marriage.  Hostilia is convicted and executed.  Q.(3) Fulvius Flaccus, presently in Spain, is elected consul in Piso's place. 180 DGRA 1188, DGRBM 2-155 3-372, LdHR 2-62, atl2, wikRGG
c.180 Suspected cases of POISONING:  Senate orders public investigation.  Praetor C.(4) Claudius Pulcher is assigned to investigate Rome and within 10 miles of it.  Praetor C. Maenius is assigned to investigate beyond 10 miles. 180
CDGRA 665, DGRA 1188
c.180 C. MAENIUS is made praetor and commissioned to examine all cases of poisoning which had occurred beyond 10 miles from Rome, after which he is to go to Sardinia.  After condemning 3,000 persons, he still finds so many guilty, that he writes to the senate that he must either abandon the investigation he won't have time to go to Sardinia. 180 DGRBM 2-897, acdm
c.180 T. MAENIUS is urban praetor. 180 DGRBM 2-897
c.180 P.(8) Cornelius Scipio Africanus, son of P.(6), is elected augur. 180 DGRBM 3-748
c.180 Q.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS chosen a decemvir sacrorum. 180 DGRBM 3-286
c.180 Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS is made praetor and sent with a legion and 400 cav to Nearer Spain until 179. 181 DGRBM 2-288 180 DGRA 494, wikRCH     179 MCAW
c.180 Praetor Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS in Spain from 182, returns to Rome. 180 OCD 472
c.180 Embassy of 2nd Achaean League arrives in Rome about Spartan exiles. 180 atl2
c.180 L. Duronius accuses Illyrian king Genthius of encouraging piracy. 180 atl2
c.180 Q.(2) Fulvius Flaccus, now consul, pays for games out of loot which he brought back from Spain. 180 atl2
c.180 Consul Q.(2) Fulvius Flaccus is assigned to Liguria to take over for dead Piso.  He blocks settlement of immigrants from Transalpine Gaul in Italy. 180 wikRGG
c.180 Consuls combine to subdue some Ligurian tribes, deport 7,000 more Apuani to Samnium near Beneventum, where they (now 47,000) will receive arable land and common grazing rights.  Then M. Fulvius illegally disbands his legion. 180
CAH 8-202, DGRG 1-163, atl2
c.180 CUMAE, under Rome from 338, asks and gets permission to use Latin language in public documents.  This shows decreasing Greek influence in the city. 180 CAH 8-231, DGRG 1-717
c.180 LUCCA Tuscany, last of the Latin colonies, founded in former Apuani territory as a Latin colony by 3 Roman commissioners including L. Egilius.  Its purpose is to stem the incursions of Ligurians. 180 B76 VII-370, 15-1096, CAH 8-116, 215, wikLc     177 DGRBM 2-4, GHH
c.180 CALLICRATES, head of 2nd Achaean League 183-49, in Rome from 181, returns to Achaea. 180 OCD 194, atl2
c.180 BARI (Barium), port in Apulia, first mentioned. 180 B76 I-816
c.180 COTTON first mentioned in a Roman document. 180 CDGRA 141
179 Mar CONSULS:  L. Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS and bro Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS   The only time brothers hold consulship at same time.  Both are assigned to Liguria. 179 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-13, 2-154, OCD 440, csm, wikCon, wikRGG
c.179 Λ CENSORS V patrician M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus and M.(1) Fulvius Nobilior.  They agree to co-operate despite their previous disagreements. 179 B76 VI-158, DGRBM 2-763, 1206, LdHR 2-72, OCD 214, 736, atl2, wikCon, wikLC
c.179 Censors have at their disposal all regular revenues received by the state in one year.  (See 169) 179 CAH 8-187
c.179 Censors expell 3 senators. 179 LdHR 2-72
c.179 Census:  273,294 adult males. 179 GHH
c.179 Censor M.(1) Fulvius Nobilior reforms the Comitia Centuriata, has large building program. 179 OCD 736, atl2
c.179 Gn.(3) Cornelius SCIPIO HISPALLUS is praetor. 179 DGRBM 3-752
c.179 Temple of Lares Permarini (Lar=guardian, Permarini=sailors), vowed 190, in the campus Martius dedicated by censor M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus. 179 atl2, wikLP
c.179 Senate decrees that Q.(?) Fulvius Flaccus, who is giving victory games, should not invite compel or accept contributions for these, or do anything contrary to the decree of the Senate in 182. 179 CAH 8-177
c.179 Temple of DIANA in the Circus Flaminius district dedicated by censor M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus. 179 DGRG 2-834, atl2
c.179 Temple of JUNO REGINA in the Circus Flaminius district dedicated by censor M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus. 179 DGRG 2-834, atl2
c.179 3 men including Q.(2) Fabius Buteo, M. Popillius Laenas, are sent in response to request of Pisa to found a Latin colony in their territory. 180 GHH
179 DGRBM 1-519
c.179 C. Valerius LAEVINUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 179 DGRBM 2-711
c.179 MACELLUM, an indoor market building selling mostly provisions (especially fruits and vegetables), built north of the Forum. 179 CDGRA 399
c.179 4 praetors are appointed under Lex Baebia 181.  They include C. Valerius Laevinus. 179 DGRBM 2-711
c.179 Gn.(3) Servilius CAEPIO is curule aedile.  He celebrates the Roman games again because of religious oddities. 179 DGRBM 1-534
c.179 Tabernae Novae "new shops" in the Form cleared away to make room for the Basilica Fulvia. 179 wikSVC
c. 179 Basilica AemiliaBASILICA FULVIA, a house of justice, begun in the forum by censor M.(1) Fulvius Nobilior, who dies.  It is continued by other censor M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus, and called BASILICA AEMILIA.  2 stories, marble floor, bronze roof tiles. reconst. L.VII.C

179 CAH 8-509, DGRG 2-787, MCAW, OHG, slshBA, wikBA
c.179 Praetor L. Postumius Albinus celebrates a triumph over the Lusitani. 179 wikLst
c.179 Brothers Q.(2) and P.(1) Mucius SCAEVOLA are both elected praetors.  Publius has the urbana provincia, and the quaestio de veneficiis in, and within 10 miles of the city.  Quintus is sent to Sicily. 179 DGRBM 3-732
c.179 Ludi Romani are re-held to offset some spooky omens. 179 atl2
c.179 Aemilian Bridge AEMILIAN BRIDGE, 1st stone bridge in Rome, begun across the Tiber by censors M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior to replace a previous wooden bridge, and augment the aging Sublician Bridge just south of it.  Finished 142. photo:
Patrick Denker

179 CAH 8-505, CDGRA 494, DGRG 2-849, OHG, TTPC, atl2, wikPA
c.179 3,000 Transalpine Gauls cross the Alps peaceably, and beg consul, Q.(2) Fulvius Flaccus and the senate to allow them to settle in Italy as subjects of Rome.  The senate orders them to quit the country, and Flaccus receives instructions to punish the leaders of the emigration. 179 DGRG 1-944
c.179 Censor M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS, pontifex maximus 180-52, becomes princeps senatus until his death in 152. 179 B76 15-1096
c.179 Aqueduct begun under supervision of censors, but M. Licinius Crassus refuses any support and does not allow it to cross his property. 179 CAH 8-505, DGRA 110, rmaq
c.179 Consuls Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS and Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS operate in Liguria. 179 OCD 440, atl2
c.179 Consul Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS defeats Ligurians. 179 GHH, SORH
c.179 Consul Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS with 2 legions invades Istria, narrowly escapes the capture of his camp. 178 DGRG 2-73
c.179 Sp. Postumius ALBINUS dies. 179 DGRBM 1-91
178 Mar CONSULS:  Aulus Manlius VULSO and M. Junius BRUTUS 178 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-508, 3-1286, csm, wikCon
c.178 M. Junius BRUTUS is assigned to Liguria. 178 wikRGG
c.178 Consul Aulus Manlius VULSO receives Cisalpine Gaul as his province, and without consulting the senate marches against the Istri. 178 DGRG 2-73, wikRGG
c.178 T. Fonteius CAPITO is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain to succeed praetor L. Postumius ALBINUS in Farther Spain from 180, who returns. 178 DGRBM 1-92, 602, rcIb
c.178 M. TITINIUS CURVUS is urban praetor.  He levies troops, and gives audience of the senate to Ti. Sempronius Gracchus and L. Postumius Albinus on their return from Spain. 178 DGRBM 3-1158
c.178 Praetor M. TITINIUS CURVUS sent to Nearer Spain with title of proconsul until 176.Ti.  Sempronius GRACCHUS, in Nearer Spain from 180, returns with loot including 40,000 lbs of silver to Rome.  Has triumph over Celtiberi. 178 CAH 9-20, CDCC 176, DGRBM 2-289, 3-1158, rcIb, wikRCH
c.178 Provinces of Sardinia and Istria are allotted to new consuls. 178 atl2
c.178 C. Papirius TURDUS is pleb tribune. 178 DGRBM 3-1191
c.178 C. FURIUS is duumvir navalis with 10 ships to guard the coast as far north as Aquileia. 178 DGRBM 2-190
c.178 Consul Gn. Manlius Vulso attacks the Istri.  He is ambushed and chased out of his camp, but saved by bravery of tribune C. Aelius.  He then defeats the Istri. 178 CAH 8-116, DGRBM 3-1286, atl2, wikRGG
c.178 M. Junius BRUTUS, in Liguria, learns of defeat of the Istri, joins Vulso at Aquileia. 178 wikRGG
c.178 L. Minucius Thermus is legate under consul A. Manlius Vulso, in Istria. Istria 178 DGRBM 3-1097
c.178 C. Popillius Sabellus an equite, distinguishes himself by his bravery in campaign against the Istri. 178 DGRBM 3-497
c.178 Consul M. JUNIUS BRUTUS is sent to rescue Vulso in Istria, but Vulso recovers his position before Junius arrives. 178 DGRG 2-73
c.178 Consuls VULSO and BRUTUS campaign in Istria until 177. 178 CAH 8, OCD 556
c.178 Appius(10) CLAUDIUS CENTO is aedile. 178 DGRBM 1-769
c.178 A. Licinius NERVA is pleb tribune.  He proposes that consul, A. Manlius Vulso, should not hold his command among the Istri beyond a certain day, the object of the tribune being to bring Manlius to trial for misconducting the war. 178 DGRBM 2-1168
c.178 Ti.(2) Claudius NERO is made praetor peregrinus, but sent with a military command to Pisa to take care of Liguria for M. Junius Brutus the consul, who had gone to Istria. 178 DGRBM 2-1161, wikRGG
c.178 T. AEBUTIUS CARUS is made praetor. 178 acdm
c.178 A Lycian embassy complains to senate about their treatment by Rhodians.  The Senate tells the Rhodians that the Lycians had been given to them in 188 not as a gift, but rather as friends and allies - a false claim. 178 CAH 8-302, atl2     177 CAH 8-287, 336, atl2
c.178 Sacred fire at temple of Vesta dies out. 178 atl2
c.178 Censors complete census, with a total of 258,000 adult males. 178 atl2
c.178 ANTIOCHUS, 3rd son of A-III, hostage in Rome from 188, released in exchange for his neph DEMETRIUS-I, age 9, 1st son of Seleucus-IV, who is hostage until 162Antiochus goes to Athens until 175. 180 GHH     178 B76 1-994, CAH 8-340, DGRBM 1-198 175 1&2BM 93, B76 1-994, ISBE 1-145,
c.177 Consuls VULSO and BRUTUS continue as proconsuls against the Istri with better success, but quarrel, and are prevented from final victory by arrival of new consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher. 178 DGRBM 3-1286
177 wikRGG
177 Mar CONSULS:  C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER and Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS (2nd)? 177 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-769, 2-289, OCD 247, 472, csm, wikCon
c.177  Lex Claudia de Sociis  by consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher: Forbids any adopting or manumiting Latin citizens with the view of changing his citizenship.  Requires those who had become Roman citizens by this means to renounce their citizenship.  This forces resident Latins to leave Rome. 177
DGRA 686, SORH, atl2, unrv
c.177 MONEY:  Silver QUINARIUS = half a denarius is coined pursuant to Lex Claudia.  It is also called a victoratus for the victory figure stamped on it.  . 177 DGRA 393
c.177 Restrictions imposed on citizens of Latin and allied states. 177 CAH 8
c.177 L. MUMMIUS is made praetor and assigned to Sardinia.  But first he is instructed by the senate to put in force a decree for dismissing to their respective cities all residents at Rome, who were possessed merely of the Jus Latii. 177 DGRBM 2-1119
c.177 Consul Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS sent to Sardinia until 175. 177 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-289, Dur 3-112, OCD 472, atl2
c.177 IstriaISTRIA conquered by consul C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, who takes 5,632 prisoners and the equivalent of at least 350,000 denarii.  Istrian towns Nesactium, Mutila, and Faveria are taken.  Istria is annexed. 177 CAH 8-116, DGRG 2-73, 89, 643, GHH, LdHR 2-56, OCD 556, 928, SORH, atl2
c.177 C. Quinctius FLAMININUS is preator peregrinus. 177 DGRBM 2-166
c.177 P. Aelius TUBERO is elected preator. 177 DGRBM 3-1179
c.177 Consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher defeats Ligurians on the Scultenna in Cisalpine Gaul, but they still occupy the heights and valleys of the Appenines. 177 DGRG 2-934, SORH, atl2
c.177 Consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher leaves Liguria. 177 atl2
c.177 Migration of Latins and allies to Rome causes gradual abandonment of rural communities, and jeopardizes the provision of soldiers.  Italian migrants are also settling in Latin colonies;  e.g. 4,000 Samnite and Paelignian families had moved to Fregellae, prompting complaints from their original communities, which were nonetheless obliged to supply the same military contingents.  Fregellae is careful not to protest. 177 CAH 8-217
c.177 Roman government enacts a series of consular laws, consular edicts, and senatus consulta which are interlinked, and which limit the capacity of Latins and allies to acquire Roman citizenship thru migration and the census, obliges them to register in their own town of origin and hence to return home, and institutes enquiries to ascertain the transgressors. 177 CAH 8-218
c.177 P. Valerius Laevinus is made praetor and sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 177 DGRBM 2-711
c.177 MUTINA, a Roman citizen colony from 183 surprised and captured by Ligurian Friniates until 176. 177 CAH 8-114, DGRG 2-378, atl2     177/6 CAH 8-116
c.177 Consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher returns from Istria, conquers Ligurians. 177 wikRGG
c.177 Port of LUNA in Apuani territory in Etruria is made a Roman citizen colony with 2,000 male colonists by 3 men including Gn. Sicinius.  It serves as a port for Massilia and Spain and to protect against Ligurians. 177 B76 15-1096, CAH 8-116, 215, DGRBM 3-816, DGRG 2-215, GHH, SORH     177-6 CAH 8, OCD 625, TAWH 87, atl2
c.177 M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS, son of M.(3)C.M. d.208, pontifex from ?, dies.  Son M.(7) succeeds. 177 DGRBM 2-931, OCD 646
c.177 Consul C.(4) Claudius Pulcher celebrates triumph, over Istrians and Ligurians.  His allies no longer share equally with citizens in the loot. 177 SORH, atl2
c.177 Many Samnites and Pelignians migrate to Fregellae. 177 CAH 9-76
c.177 Envoys from Rhodians, Thessaly, and Dardani appear before senate. 177 atl2
c.177 Rhodian envoy LYCOPHRON is sent to Rome to obtain from the senate a more favorable decree than that which had just pronounced the Lycians to have been assigned by Rome to the Rhodians, 11 years before, as allies rather than as subiects. 177 DGRBM 2-848
176 Mar CONSULS:  Gn.(3) Cornelius SCIPIO HISPALLUS and Q. Petillius SPURINUS, Suffect C. Valerius Laevinus 176 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-212, 898, csm, wikCon
c.176 Consul Gn.(3) Cornelius SCIPIO HISPALLUS dies at end of Latin Festival at Cumae.  C. Valerius Laevinus is elected consul in his place. 176 DGRBM 2-711, atl2 171 DGRBM 3-752
c.176 3 days after his election, consul C. Valerius LAEVINUS departs to take command of the war against Liguria. 176 DGRBM 2-711, wikRGG
c.176 P. Licinius CRASSUS is made praetor and assigned to Nearer Spain.  He claims to be bound to perform a sacrifice in order to avoid going.  M. Cornelius Scipio Maluginensis is assigned to Nearer Spain, and also refuses to go.  We are not told why. 176 DGRBM 1-873, wikRCH, wikRCH
c.176 Embassy including Appius Claudius Pulcher is sent to Aetolia to halt their internal hostilities and oppose Perseus. 176 DGRBM 1-769
c.176 Proconsul C.(4) Claudius PULCHER achieves further victories in Liguria. 176 DGRBM 2-498, atl2
c.176 Envoys of MONUNIUS-II, chief of Dardanians 176-67, come to Rome with news of an invasion by the Bastarnae.  Envoys say the Bastarnae are giant warriors and allege that they are in league with Perseus and the GaulsA Thessalian embassy confirms it.  Senate says it will investigate, but does nothing. 177 atl2
CAH 8-303, wikMn2
c.176 L. Papirius MASO is urban praetor. 176 DGRBM 2-970
c.176 M. Popillius Laenas is made praetor and assigned to Sardinia, but obtains leave to stop at Rome. Sardinia is then continued to pro-praetor, Aebutius. 176 DGRBM 2-708
c.176 MUTINA, under Ligurians from 177, recaptured by C.(4) Claudius Pulcher.  8,000 Ligurians are massacred. 176 OCD 247 no date: DGRG 2-378
c.176 Consul Q. PETILLIUS SPURINUS is killed by Ligurians while attacking a mountain-top in Liguria. 176 DGRBM 3-898, GHH, atl2, wikRGG
c.176 Romans build a new house for Seleucid hostage Antiochus to live in during his stay in Rome. 176 atl2
c.176 Demetrius replaces Antiochus as Seleucid hostage at Rome. 176 atl2
175 Mar CONSULS:  M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS (2nd) and P.(1) Mucius SCAEVOLA 175 B76 VI-158, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-763, 3-732, csm, wikCon
c.175 Consuls LEPIDUS & SCAEVOLA are sent to Liguria.  Between the Po and Arnus rivers Scaevola defeats some tribes which had ravaged Luna and Pisa. 175 DGRBM 3-732, SORH, wikRGG
c.175 Ap.(10) CLAUDIUS CENTHO is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain. 175 DGRBM 1-769
c.175 Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS(5) BUBULCUS in Sardinia from 177, returns to Rome, has triumph. 175 DGRBM 2-289, GHH
c.175 C. Cluvius Saxula is made praetor. 175 DGRBM 1-807
c.175 Aulus Postumius ALBINUS is sent to Dardania and Thessaly to investigate their allegations against the Bastarnae and Perseus.  He returns to Rome same year, along with envoys from Perseus to rebut the charge of inciting the Bastarnae.  The Senate neither absolves Perseus of the charge nor presses it. 175
DGRBM 1-91 no date:
CAH 8-303
c.175 A Roman embassy returns from Macedonia and reports on Perseus' policies. 175 atl2
c.175 Consuls win victories in Liguria and Cisalpine Gaul. 175 GHH, atl2
c.175 PATAVIUM Venetia, having domestic disturbances, appeals to Rome for consular intervention. 175 wikPd     174 CAH 8-226, DGRG 2-556
c.175 Consul M. Aemilius sent to Patavium. 174 DGRG 2-556
c.175 The BRINIATES, GARULI, HERCATES, and LAPICINI are subdued by Romans. 175 DGRG 2-185
c.175 Via AemiliaVIA AEMILIA, reaching Bononia from 187, is further extended from Bononia thru Patavium (Padua) to Aquileia. 175
B76 15-1096, CAH 8
no date:
LdHR 2-51
c.175 C. CICEREIUS, former secretary of P.(6) Scipio Africanus, is a candidate for praetor in 174 along with Scipio's son L.(7).  Cicereius gets more votes, and prudently withdraws from the contest.  L.(7) Scipio is elected praetor. 175 DGRBM 1-707, atl2
c.174 PATAVIUM Venetia, having domestic disturbances, gets Roman intervention. 174 CAH 10-424
174 Mar CONSULS:  Sp. Postumius ALBINUS PAULULLUS and Q.(2) Mucius SCAEVOLA 174 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-91, 3-732-3, csm, wikCon
c.174 Λ CENSORS V patrician Aulus Postumius Albinus and pleb Q.(2) Fulvius Flaccus 174 DGRBM 1-91, 2-154, LdHR 2-72, wikCon, wikLC
c.174 Censors Albinus and Q.(3) Fulvius Flaccus strictly enforce Lex Claudia 177. 174 SORH
c.174 Censors Albinus and Flaccus repatriate Latins in Rome, degrade many equites. 174 DGRBM 1-91, LdHR 2-72, OCD 440
c.174 Censors Albinus and Flaccus contract to pave streets of Rome with lava and begin roads outside Rome with gravel. 174 CDGRA 668
c.174 L.(7) SCIPIO, degenerate son of Africanus, is praetor.  He is expelled from the senate by the censors. 174 DGRBM 3-748
c.174 Ti.(3) Sempronius GRACCHUS, son of TSG. d.212, augur from 203, dies of plague.  C. Sempronius Longus is elected successor. 174 DGRBM 2-288, 806
c.174 Censors, Flaccus and Albinus, review senate and remove 9 senators, including Gn. Fulvius, bro of censor Flaccus. 174 DGRBM 1-91, LdHR 2-72, atl2
c.174 Q. Aelius PAETUS elected augur in place of his father P. Aelius Paetus. 174 DGRBM 3-84
c.174 Freedmen with a son or with substantial property are allowed to register in whatever tribe they wish until 169. 174 CAH 8-450
c.174 Census:  269,015 adult males. 174 GHH
c.174 P. Furius PHILUS is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain. 174 DGRBM 3-335, wikRCH
c.174 Gn.(3) Servilius CAEPIO is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 174 DGRBM 1-534, wikRCH
c.174 M. TITINIUS, proconsul of Nearer Spain from 178, returns to Rome. 174 DGRBM 3-1158
c.174 M. Atilius SERRANUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 174 DGRBM 3-788
c.174 Plague at Rome. 174 DGRBM 3-1181-2, atl2
c.174 Gn.(2) Servilius CAEPIO dies of plague. 174 DGRBM 1-533
c.174 M.(2) Sempronius TUDITANUS dies of plague. 174 DGRBM 3-1181-2
c.174 C. Mamilius VITULUS dies of plague. 174 DGRBM 3-1279
c.174 P. Aelius PAETUS dies of plague. 174 DGRBM 3-84
c.174 Curie maximus C. MAMILIUS VITULUS dies of plague.  C. Scribonius CURIO appointed successor. 174 DGRBM 1-901
c.174 M.(1) Porcius CATO is envoy to Carthage to inquire into complaints against Masinissa. 174 GHH
c.174 Omens include 3 suns appearing in sky at same time.  (Same 118, moons 122) 174 atl2
c.174 M.(1) Porcius Cato takes on personal responsibility for education of his son. 174 atl2
c.174 Roman embassy returns from Africa, and report that the Punic senate had received by night an embassy from Perseus. 174 CAH 8-304, atl2
c.174 3 Roman envoys sent into Macedonia to counteract their negotiations with CarthageThey are C. Laelius, M.(2) Valerius Messalla, and Sextus Digitius.  They return early in 173. 174 CAH 8-304, DGRBM 1-1009, 2-706, 1050
c.174 PORTICUS AEMILIA, a large warehouse, in Rome's dockland built 193, rebuilt by censors Q.(2) Fulvius Flaccus and Aulus Postumius Albinus. 174 OHG 466, wikPA
c.174 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS, Greek lover, dies.  His son of the same name celebrates 4 day funeral games. 175/4 DGRBM 2-166 174 B76 IV-171, CDCC 350, OCD 441, wikTQF
c.174 Gates of CIRCUS MAXIMUS, built 329, are rebuilt.  7 wooden eggs are placed on top of the spina (central wall in the arena). The eggs are used to count the number of laps; after each lap one egg is removed. 174 avoc
c.174 1st PAVED STREETS in Rome are easily cleaned, and allow traffic even in rainy weather.  They also increase traffic congestion. 174 GHH, SORH
c.174 5 commissioners sent to Delphi to mediate in civil war in Aetolia..  They include L. Canuleius, Ap. Claudius Pulcher, C. Valerius Laevinus, M. Popillius. 174 DGRBM 1-596, 2-711, 3-497, atl2, CAH 8-305
c.173 Before 173 no complaints were made by the socii about being extorted by Roman magistrates. Livy xlii:1
173 DGRA 986
c.173 Envoys C.(1) Laelius, M.(2) Valerius Messalla, and Sextus Digitius in Macedonia from 174, return.  They report that they were not allowed to see Perseus, but were told he is ill or away (which they reckon to be lies).  They assume that Perseus is preparing for war.  They also report civil war in Aetolia. early 173 CAH 8-304
173 Mar CONSULS:  patrician L. Postumius ALBINUS and pleb M. POPILLIUS LAENAS both assigned to Liguria 173 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-92, csm, wikCon
c.173 C. CICEREIUS, former secretary of P.(6) Scipio Africanus, is elected praetor and assigned to Sardinia, but is ordered to go to Corsica first and deal with a rebellion. 173
DGRA 1165, DGRBM 1-707
c.173 M. Furius CRASSIPES is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 173 DGRBM 1-871
c.173 C. MEMMIUS GALLUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily until 171. 173 DGRBM 2-1026
c.173 LATINS struck off citizen rolls, required to return to their own cities. 173 CAH 8
c.173 A consular edict orders the socii (Italian allies) to return to their homes and be registered there. 173
CAH 8-218
c.173 Sextus DIGITIUS is sent to Apulia to buy provisions for the fleet and army. 173 DGRBM 1-1009
c.173 C. Cluvius Saxula is made praetor peregrinus. 173 DGRBM 1-807
c.173 M.(5) Claudius Marcellus leads a group of envoys to Greece to get cessation of open hostilities in Aetolian civil war. 173 CAH 8-305
c.173 After crop failures, senate decrees that Flora or Chloris, goddess of spring, has been neglected.  LUDI FLORAE, festival in her honor, held occasionally from 238, made annual and extended to 6 days.  It is conducted by aediles, and includes theater, mimes, licentious games and much drinking.  Women dress in multicolored clothing. 173 DGRBM 1-92, OCD 625, atl2, wikFl
c.173 Ap.(10) CLAUDIUS CENTO is sent to Thessaly. 173 DGRBM 1-769
c.173 M.(2) Porcius CATO Licinianus, son of Censorinus, serves under consul Laenas in Liguria. 173 DGRBM 1-644
c.173 A road is built connecting Bononia to Aquileia. 173 wikAq
c.173 Consul M. POPILLIUS LAENAS attacks the Alpine STATELLI (last of the Cisalpine Ligurians), though they had never attacked the Romans, defeats them near Caristum Liguria in a pitched battle after great slaughter.  Fewer than 10,000, escape and surrender to him.  They are sold as slaves, and their city plundered and destroyed.  This is not customary treatment of peoples who made formal submission. 173 CAH 8-116, DGRG 1-944, 2-185, LdHR 2-50, OCD 609, atl2, bk       172 DGRBM 2-708
c.173 Consul L. Postumius ALBINUS is assigned to Liguria, but first sent to Campania to separate state land from private land.  This occupies him all summer, so he can't go to Liguria. 173 CAH 9-55, DGRBM 1-92, wikRGG
c.173 High-handed conduct of consul L. Postumius ALBINUS at Praeneste. 173 CAH 8
c.173 Via FlaminiaFORUM POPILII founded on the Via Aemilia about half-way between Forum Livii and Caesena by consul M. Popilius LAENAS. 173 wikFP
c.173 M. MATIENUS is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain until 172Praetor L. MANCINUS, in Farther Spain from ?, returns. 173 DGRBM 2-973, wikRCH
c.173 Numerius(2) Fabius BUTEO is made praetor in command of Nearer Spain, but he dies enroute at Massilia. 173 DGRBM 1-519, wikRCH
c.173 A. Atilius SERRANUS is urban praetor.  He is ordered to renew with Antiochus-IV the treaty which had been concluded with his father A-III. 173 DGRBM 3-788
c.173 Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS strips half the marble roof tiles off temple of Juno Lacinia at Lacinium 8km south of Croton for his own temple of Fortuna Equestris.  The outrage is censured by the senate, who cause the slabs to be returned to Lacinium, but in the decayed condition of the province, it is impossible to replace them. 173
CAH 8-503, CDGRA 312, DGRG 1-712, atl2
c.173 Temple of FORTUNA EQUESTRIS dedicated by Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS. 173 DGRG 1-712, atl2
c.173 5 Roman envoys, led by consular C. Valerius Laevinus, including Gn. Lutatius Cerco, M. Caecilius Denter, M. Cornelius Mammula, Q. Baebius Sulca are sent to Alexandria to renew alliance with Ptolemy-VI, then to the Macedonian court to watch Perseus, until 172. 173 CAH 8-306, DGRBM 1-672, 993, 2-711, 913, 3-933
c.173 An embassy from Antiochus-IV under Apollonius brings tribute which buys friendly relations between A-IV and Romans. 173 BHS 2-133, DGRBM 1-237, atl2
c.173 Rome / Syria  treaty  relations renewed by praetor Atilius Serranus and Antiochus-IV. 173 OCD 143
c.173  Lex Cicereia  provides regulations for sureties. 173 atl2
c.173 Q. Fabius LABEO judges a dispute between Neapolis and Nola. 173 atl2
c.173 10 commissioners assigned to allot vacant land in Liguria and Cisalpine Gaul to Roman citizens and Latin allies.  They are led by M. Aemilius Lepidus and include C. Cassius Longinus, C. Munatius, C. Salonius, L. Appuleius Saturninus, Gn. Tremellius.  Romans receive 10 iugera, Latins 3. 173 CAH 8-117, DGRBM 2-799, 1120, 3-700, 723, 3-1172, SORH, atl2
c.173 Epicurean philosophers Alcaeus and Philiscus are charged with corrupting the youth and are expelled from Rome. 173 CAH 8, Dur 3-95, SORH, acdm, atl2     173 or 155 Dur 2-649 173 or 154 DGRBM 1-95
c.173 After 173, magistrates traveling thru Italy require authorities of allied towns to pay them homage, provide them a residence, and give them pack animals to continue their journey. Livy xlii:1
173 DGRA 1051
c.173/2 Consul M. Popilius LAENAS in Liguria sells the Statelli into slavery, ignores attempts by the senate to reverse his action. 173/2 wikRGG
c.172 Senate censures conduct of consul M. Popillius LAENAS in Liguria 173, and decrees that he should restore the Ligurians to liberty, to their country, and as far as possible, to their property. 172
CAH 8-116, DGRBM 2-708
c.172 M. Popillius LAENAS disobeys senatorial decree, continues as proconsul in Liguria, not only attacks more Statelli Ligurians, but in the end obtains a compromise under which many of them remain slaves and most of the rest are deported northwards across the PoRefuses to return until forced by 2 pleb tribunes. 171 CAH 8-117 DGRBM 2-708, wikRGG
172 Mar CONSULS:  P. Aelius LIGUS and C. Popillius LAENAS:  Both Plebs. 172 CAH 8, CDGRA 206, DGRBM 2-708, LdHR 1-192, MCAW, OCD 861, SORH, atl2, csm, wikCon
c.172 M. Popillius LAENAS returns from Liguria to Rome.  He is called to account for disgraceful conduct in Liguria.  He is defended by consul C. Popillius Laenas, and escapes punishment. 172 DGRBM 2-708 OCD 861, wikRGG
c.172 Both consuls of 172 try to have Macedonia allocated as a province, but both are assigned to Liguria. 172 CAH 8-306, wikRGG
c.172 Sp. LUCRETIUS is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 172 DGRBM 2-828, wikRCH
c.172 M. Junius PENNUS is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain. 172 DGRBM 3-184, wikRCH
c.172 Sp. CLUVIUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 172 DGRBM 1-807
c.172 Praetor C. CICEREIUS returns from Sardinia to Rome.  He is denied a triumph for his victory in Corsica, and celebrates his own triumph on Mt. Alban. 172 DGRBM 1-707
c.172 M.(2) Valerius Messalla is appointed decemvir sacrorum, in the office of deceased M. Aemilius Papus. 172 DGRBM 2-1050
c.172 C. Licinius CRASSUS is made praetor. 172 DGRBM 1-873
c.172 M. LUCRETIUS, bro of C. Lucretius Gallus, is pleb tribune. 172 DGRBM 2-828
c.172 Consuls LIGUS and LAENAS finally set out to join army in Liguria, after delays caused by accusations against M. Popillius Laenas. 172 atl2
c.172 Carthaginian envoys arrive in Rome, to complain about attacks by Masinissa.  Accuse him of taking more than 70 towns and forts in their territory in the previous 2 years. Senate favors Massinissa, but postpones a decision to give the Numidians time for consultation. 172 CAH 8-146, atl2
c.172 5 Roman envoys, led by consular C. Valerius Laevinus, including Gn. Lutatius Cerco, M. Caecilius Denter, M. Cornelius Mammula, Q. Baebius Sulca from 173 return from Greece to Rome. 172 DGRBM 2-711
c.172 Ti.(2) Claudius NERO is sent on a mission into Anatolia. 172 DGRBM 2-1161
172  Lex Licinia Cassia  gives consuls and praetors the right to appoint military tribunes, previously elected by the comitia tributa. 172 EDRL 556
c.172 L. Porcius LICIINUS is appointed to conduct the fleet from the docks at Rome to Brundisium.  The fleet is to convey troops to Greece for war against Perseus. 172 DGRBM 2-785
c.172 A. Atilius SERRANUS is appointed to collect the force at Brundisium for voyage under Gn. Sicinius across to Apollonia. 172 CAH 8-308
c.172 EUMENES-II king of Pergamum 197-60, visits Rome, accuses Perseus of Macedon of violating the treaty and preparing war against Rome. 173 atl2     172 B76 III-993, 8-384, 15-1094, CAH 8-256, 306, 332, DGRBM 2-90, 3-207, GHH, LdHR 2-82, MCAW, OCD 415, SORH
c.172 HARPALUS, envoy of Perseus sent to Rome to answer charges of Eumenes-II of Pergamum 197-60.  His haughty manner irritates the already existing bias against Perseus.  Harpalus hurries home to tell Perseus of impending war. 172 DGRBM 2-352, LdHR 2-82
c.172 Rhodian envoys to Rome say Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum is trying to take Lycia and Caria from them.  Embassy leader Satyrus gives great offence by his attacks on Eumenes-II. 172 DGRBM 3-727, LdHR 2-82
c.172 EUMENES-II is greatly honored in Rome.  He sails for home, lands in Greece. 172 LdHR 2-82, MCAW
c.172 Gn. SICINIUS is made praetor and sent to Apulia to deal with a locusts plague. 172 DGRBM 3-816
c.172 Senate decides that the censors would grant leases on land recovered by the state. 172 CAH 8-199
c.172 Gn.(2) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is made pontifex. 172 DGRBM 1-84
c.172 After senate declars war, Roman envoys including Q.(2) Marcius Philippus, T. Annius Luscus, and A. Atilius Serranus are sent to Perseus of Macedonia to communicate demands and threats.  They sail first to Corcyra. 172 CAH 8-308, DGRBM 1-707, 2-842, 3-286, 381, 1222, OCD 143     171 BHS 2-135, DGRBM 2-632, 732, 3-286, 788, 845, LdHR 2-83
c.172 C. Valerius Laevinus reports to senate on situation in Greece and Macedonia, and supports accusations made by Eumenes-II of Pergamum.  Senate decides on 3rd Macedonian War, starts preparations. 172 B76 8-384, atl2
c.172 Q. ENNIUS completes 12th book of his  Annales . 172 atl2
c.172 Rome makes alliances with envoys of various Thracian tribes against Perseus. 172 DGRG 2-1188
c.172 Ligurian communities of the Appennines, which had not committed hostile acts since 179, are transferred to north of the Po and given land there. 172 CAH 8-214
c.172 Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS, son of Q.(1)F.F. d.204, learns of death of his son in Illyria.  Goes to his bedroom and hangs himself. 173 DGRBM 2-155 172 OCD 440, atl2
c.172 Envoys of Perseus arrive in Italy.  They are given audience outside Rome and then ordered to leave Italy within 11 days.  Sp. Carvilius is appointed to watch over them. 171 DGRBM 1-617, atl2
c.172 Rome declares war on PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68. 172 MCAW, SORH, atl2, bk
171 DGRBM 3-207, LdHR 2-83
c.172 T. JUVENTIUS THALNA, is one of 3 legati sent into Apulia and Calabria to buy grain for the use of the army and fleet. 172 DGRBM 2-691, 3-1020

Italy 171-151