Levant
c.130 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, compelled by Antiochus-VII to accompany him in attack on ParthiaHyrcanus goes to Syria, tells A-VII he refuses to travel on Sabbaths or feast days.  A-VII sends him home. Antiq 13:8:4
131 GHH
130
CAH 8-371, E2LM 147, Jud 4-37
c.130  Bel and the Dragon  written in Hebrew and inserted various places.  Ridicules idolatry in Palestine.  Daniel exposes priests of Bel (Baal) who ate the daily offering and credited the idol to having eaten it.  The king destroys the idol.  In what should have been a separate story, Daniel kills a dragon, and is therefore thrown to lions. 160-100 HCC 136 AΨA 656 130 IDB 1-376 100 BBP 159, ENBD 46
c.129 Sabbatical year probably begins in early autumn.  There are religious prohibitions against waging war in a Sabbatical year. 129 CHJ 2-321, 325
c.129 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria from 138 killed at Ecbatana.  Judea is now free until ?. 130 CAH 9, GHH     129 B76 VII-971, 9-843, CAH 8-530, DHJ 552, IDB 1-50, Jud 3-75, OCD 72, Sdl 5-333
129/8 CHJ 2     127 LEWH 95
c.129 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, discontinues tribute to Syria, begins taking Syrian cities in Judea. Antiq 13:8:4, Wars 1:2:6
129 CAH 9-291, atl2 128 IDB 2-530
c.129 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, goes to Ammon, takes MEDABA at great cost, then takes SAMEGA. Antiq 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6
129 CHJ 2-608
128 CHJ 2
c.128 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, subdues Idumeans, takes ADORA and MARESHAH, compels them to circumcise and obey Jewish law or get out. Antiq 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6
130 B76 10-311
129 GHH
125 CHJ 2-435
c.128 MARESHAH (Marissa), under Idumea from ?, taken by John Hyrcanus, who permits Idumean citizens to remain if they submit to circumcision. Antiq 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6
130 B76 10-311    129 GHH 125 CHJ 2-435    112 wikMr 110 IDB 3-264, bhbMr
c.128 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, goes to Samaria, takes SHECHEM and Mt. Gerizim, destroys temple. Antiq 13:9:1       130 GHH
129 CHJ 2-400     128 1&2BM 47, B76 10-311, CHJ 2-25, 608, IDB 2-1025, Jud 14-729     120 DHJ 554
c.128 Neither ALEXANDER ZEBINA, nor DEMETRIUS-II challenges John Hyrcanus' inland conquests. 128 CHJ 2-327
c.128 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 129-25, holds Damascus, Ptolemais, and coastal Palestine until 127/6. 128 CHJ 2-327
c.126 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 129-25, decisively defeated by Alexander Zebina at Damascus.  He flees to Ptolemais but his wife Cleo Thea closes the gates against him. Antiq 13:9:3       126 CHJ 2-327, atl2, frH, wikD2     126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490     125 B76 III-456, DGRBM 1-127, 3-775, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI2, Sdl 5-333, rcM
c.126 TYRE, under Seleucids from 198, becomes independent republic until 63. 140 rcLeb     126 IDB 4-723, OCD-1102
c.125 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator dies.  King of Syria from 129, flees to wife Cleo Thea in Ptolemais.  She rejects him, so he flees to Tyre, then tries to escape by ship.  He is killed near Tyre. Antiq 13:9:3       126 RAI3, frH, Sdl 5-340, wikD2     126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490
125 B76 III-456, DGRBM 1-127, 967, 2-543, 3-775, GHH, LEWH 95, MRDK, OCD 326, RAI2, Sdl 5-333, atl2, rcM
c.125 AMMON, under Judea from 160, comes under Zoilus Cotylas (Tyrant of Rabbah) until 110s. 120s rcJdn
c.125 ALEXANDER ZEBINA, pretended son of Alex Balas, counter king of Syria 125, allies with Hyrcanus and Jews. 126 GHH 125 atl2
c.125 Hyrcanus' kingdom prospers while Alex Zebina rules Syria. 123 Sdl 5-358
c.125 Λ Book of ENOCH V chapters 72-82 written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  The heavenly luminaries:  Says time is reconed by sun, not moon.  Insists on a 364 day year even though the science of the day says 365¼.  Heavenly tablets record all deeds of all men past to future - therefore deterministic. 300-200 lv1E
150-00 IDB 2-104 pre-110 AΨΨ 171 110 IDB 1-487
pre-100
B76 2-937
c.125  PRAYER of MANASSEH  written in Greek by a Jew outside of Israel - or possibly a 2nd cen. Christian.  A 15 verse apocryphal penitential prayer attributed to king Manasseh of Judah. 150-00 lvCrn
c.124 Jews of Judea send a  letter  to the Jews of Egypt, telling them to observe the festival commemorating a Hasmonean victory on 25th of Kislev.  Letter does not mention John and is dated by the Seleucid era.  It contains a discreet allusion to the temple at Leontopolis built by Onias-IV 179-52. 2Mac 1:1
124 1&2BM 220, B76 2-934, CHJ 2-325, 463, Sdl 5-357, atl2
c.120  2nd LETTER  in 2Mac. 2Mac 15:38f     120 Sdl 5-358
c.120 IDUMEA overrun by John Hyrcanus, who forces them to convert to Judaism. Antiq 13:9:1, 15:7:9
125 CHJ 2-435     120 IDB 2-26
c.120 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, abolishes "second tithe", Levitical daily recital of Psalm 44:23: "Awake, why sleepest thou, O Lord?".  Abolishes practice of stunning a calf with a hammer to the head prior to slitting its throat in order to make it easier to kill.  Reason: because that gave it a blemish. no date:
Mish Sotah 9:10,
Maaser Shane 5:15
c.112 ANTIOCHUS-VIII Gryphus, supported by Ptolemaic Egypt, defeats A-IX Cyzicenus and captures AntiochA-IX retreats into Coele-Syria, and holds Sidon, Damascus, Ptolemais and Askalon. 112
CHJ 2-328, GHH, atl2
c.112 COINS minted in Askalon, Ptolemais, Damascus, and Antioch bear the name of Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, rather than Antiochus-VIII Grypus. by mid 112 CHJ 2-327-8
c.112 SIDON, under Seleucids from 198, becomes independent republic until 68. 112 rcLeb
c.112  Song of the Three Young Men  written.  An apologetic work written to give the Jews encouragement in facing persecution.  Presents the Jews as loyal supporters of the Ptolemies. 125-100 CHJ 2-496
c.111 COINS minted in Askalon, bearing the name of Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus from 112, stop being minted. 111 CHJ 2-328
c.111/0 JUDEA, under Seleucid Syria from ?, independent until ?. 111 GHH
c.111 TRIPOLIS, under Seleucids from ?, no longer so. 111 IDB 4-711
c.111 SAMARIA besieged by John Hyrcanus until 108. 111 CHJ 2-329, IDB 4-186 107 CHJ 2-608
c.111/0 COINS minted by John Hyrcanus with inscription, "Johanan the high priest and community of the Jews". 111/0 IDB 3-426
c.110 GADARA, southeast of Sea of Galilee, under Seleucids from 218, becomes member of Dekapolis until 100. 110 rcJdn
c.110 COINS found at SHECHEM date from 4th cent. to 110, then abruptly stop. 110 IDB 4-315
c.110 ARISTOBULUS & ANTIGONUS join father John Hyrcanus at siege of Samaria. 110 DGRBM 1-300
c.110 GERASA, city east of Jordan, under Seleucids from 198, becomes member of Dekapolis until 63. 110 rcHL
c.110  1st Book of MACCABEES  written in Hebrew by a Jew of Sadducean viewpoint.  Covers 175-134BCE.  Dates everything from 312 when he thought Seleucus-I took the throne. 134-04 B76 VI-431
124 Jud 11-659
110 IDB 3-205
125-00 AΨA 60
100 lvCrn
c.110 MALIKU-I king of Nabataea from 144, ends.  HARIRATH-II (Aretas-II) succeeds until 95. 110 MRDK 359, OCD 104
c.110 BETH SHAN, under Seleucids from 198, becomes part of Decapolis until 85. 110 rcCan
c.109 IDUMEA, independent from 165, incorporated into Judea until ?. 109 hifi
c.109 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, banquets with Pharisee, asks them to correct him of any offense.  Eleazar says he should quit the high priesthood because of a rumor that his mother was a captive under Antiochus-IV. Antiq 13:10:5
c.109 Pharisees recommend flogging and imprisonment for Eleazar, but not death.  JOHN HYRCANUS, miffed at this light punishment, breaks with Pharisees and favors Sadducees. Antiq 13:10:6
110 GHH     109 AΨΨ 171 106 AΨA 129, AΨΨ 282
c.109 Country of SAMARIA overrun by John Hyrcanus. 110 CHJ 2-435
109 GHH     108 BBP 118
c.109 Temple at Mt. Gerizim, built 400, under John Hyrcanus from 128, destroyed by him. Antiq 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6     129 CHJ 2-400   129/8 CHJ 2, IDB 4-192     128 CAH 9-428, CHJ 2-25, FLAP 232     129-09 CHJ 2-405 109 IDB 2-530     108 BBP 118
c.108 City of SAMARIA besieged by John Hyrcanus from 111.  Encircled with a ditch and mound.  Hyrcanus then turns over siege to sons Aristobulus & Antigonus until 107. Antiq 13:10:2, Wars 1:2:7
108 BBP 118, atl2
no date: Mish 1-506
c.108 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, starts persecuting Pharisees.  2nd Zuggot: Joshua ben Perachiah and Nittai the Arbelite flee to Alexandria. Antiq 13:10:5 Mish 1-506
c.108 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, goes to Coele-Syria, tries to relieve siege of Samaria, defeated by Maccabees Antigonus and Aristobulus, chased to Beth Shan, returns to Syria. Antiq 13:10:2, Wars 1:2:7
108
CAH 8-533
c.108 Jews appeal to Rome because ANTIOCHUS-IX occupied forts and cities in Judea.  Senate issues consultum directing A-IX to cease action against Jews. 110 E2LM 150 108 CHJ 2
c.108  TESTAMENT of the 12 PARTIARCHS , based on Gen. 49, written in Hebrew by a pharisee.  12 sons instruct their sons, review their own failings, warn against disobedience.  Joseph & Issachar commend their own virtues.  Exhortations to humility, love, & generosity.  It will be expanded by later additions.
 TESTAMENT of JUDAH  speaks of 2 spirits which serve men: truth & error, plus a 3rd spirit of choice mentioned less frequently.
109-6 AΨΨ 282 160-00 HCC late 2nd cen. ENBD 1060
c.107 City of SAMARIA besieged by Antigonus & Aristobulus from 108, falls, destroyed.  Comes under Judea until mid 300sCE. Antiq 13:10:3, Wars 1:2:6     130 GHH     129 CHJ 2-400, rcHL     128 or 107 lvSm
128 B76 10-311, CHJ 2-25, 608, IDB 2-1025, Jud 14-729     110 CHJ 2-435     110-07 DHJ 555     109 AΨΨ 290, DGRBM 2-543     108 CAH 9-427     107 IDB 3-967, 4-186, Jud 3-75, Jud 8-1147, atl2
c.107 SHECHEM, fortified Hellenic city from 330, destroyed by Antigonus & Aristobulus.  The temple on Mt. Gerizim is leveled. Antiq 13:10:3
107 CHJ 2-596,
IDB Sup 821, Jud 14-1333
c.107 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, goes again to Coele-Syria, rents 6,000 mercenaries from Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, who rents them without consent of Cleo-IIIAntiochus-IX lets mercenaries ravage Judea, hoping to force Hyrcanus to raise the siege of Samaria. Antiq 13:10:2
c.107 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenusrival king of Syria 115-96, loses battles, becomes unpopular with troops, turns over army to Callimander and Epicrates, returns to Tripolis. Antiq 13:10:2
c.107 BETH SHAN, in Jezreel Valley west of Jordan river, under mixed Jews & gentiles from ?, taken by John Hyrcanus. 107 IDB 1-401, Jud 4-758
c.107  Book of JUBILEES  written in Hebrew by a pharisee in the person of Moses.  Supposedly a revelation to Moses on Mt. Sinai.  Advocates a 364 day year in order to keep feasts on the same day.  Strict legalism.  Upholds eternal validity of Mosaic Law.  Says Satan persuaded Yahweh to induce Abe to sacrifice Isaac (17:16). 175 lvCrn    
170 gcBE
109-5 AΨA 6 105
IDB 1-487
c.106 MOAB, under Nabataeans from 323, no longer so. 106 rcJdn
c.106/5 COINS minted by Judas Aristobulus with inscription, "Jehuda the high priest and community of the Jews". 106/5
IDB 3-426
c.105 ITUREA (Bekaa Valley) region in south Lebanon, independent from 168, invaded and partly conquered by Judah Aristobulus, of Judea.  Its Hellenistic kings probably pay tribute to Judea until Roman rule. 105 rcLeb
c.104 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, disputes with Pharisees. 104 atl2
c.104 ASKALON under Seleucids from 198, becomes independent until 67. 150 rcHL
104 IDB 1-253, Jud 3-714
c.104 Youngest son of Simon, JOHN HYRCANUS dies.  Leader of Judea and high priest from 134.  Leaves wife & 5 sons.  Wills government to widow.  Wills priesthood to 37 year old 1st son JUDAH ARISTOBULUS-I. Wars 1:2:8     109 CHJ 2-270     106 DGRBM 2-879, GHH     106/5 DGRBM 2-543
105 AΨΨ 6, IDB 2-530, Mish 1-506, af
104 B76 11-225, 17-948, BNTH 6, CAH 8-573, 9-286, CHJ 2-331, 459, DHJ 564, E2LM 151, Jud 3-440, 8-1146, MRDK 354, TTPC, VDJD 79, atl2, bivu, bk, ds, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP
c.104 JUDAH ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest 104-3, imprisons mother and 3 bros, becomes king of Judea, 1st king since Zedekiah until 103.  Puts bro ANTIGONUS in charge of the army. Antiq 13:11:1     106 DGRBM 2-879, GHH     104 B76 I-515, 17-948, BNTH 6, IDB 1-221, 2-531, Jud 3-65, 440, MRDK 354, rcHL     103 ds
471 years and 3 months after return from Babylonian Captivity. Wars 1:3:1
c.104 WIDOW of John Hyrcanus, imprisoned by son, starves herself to death. Antiq 13:11:1 106 GHH
c.104 ANTIGONUS, army commander of bro king ARISTOBULUS-I, goes to Temple for Feast of Tabernacles in kingly dress with armored troops.  Makes elegant prayers for recovery of bro.  Causes suspicion of king. Antiq 13:11:1
c.104 STRATO'S TOWER, a small Sidonian town from 300s, taken by Alexander Jannai, bro of king Aristobulus-I. 104
Jud 5-6
c.104 ALEXANDER JANNAI, bro of king Aristobulus-I, marries. 104 IDB 1-500
c.104  PSALM 2  written for wedding of Alexander Jannai. 104 IDB 1-500
c.104 ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest and king of Judea 104-3, sends message to bro Antigonus to come to Jerusalem unarmed, tells guards to kill Antigonus if he arrives armed.  Queens' friends tell the messenger to tell Antigonus to come in new armor. Antiq 13:11:2
104 Jud 3-65
c.104 ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest and king of Judea 104-3, kills his mother. 104 atl2
c.104 ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest and king of Judea 104-3, conquers Ituraeans. 106 GHH 104 atl2
c.104 ANTIGONUS, bro of king Aristobulus-I, returns from conquering Itureans.  He receives altered message from Aristobulus, puts on new set or armor, arrives at Stratos Tower, Killed by king's guards. Antiq 13:11:2, 1:3:2-4
106 GHH
104 Jud 3-65, atl2
c.104 GALILEE, under Seleucids from 198, conquered by Aristobulus, comes under Judea until 4. 104 CHJ 2, Jud 7-266 103 rcHL
c.104 ANTIPATER of Sidon, author of several epigrams in the Greek Anthology, flourishes. 108-00
DGRBM 1-203
c.103 FORCDED CONVERSION of Itureans to Judaism by Aristobulus. 103 B76 10-311
c.103 1st son of Hyrcanus, ARISTOBULUS-I dies.  High priest and king of Judea from 104, age 38, dies of illness.  Widow Salome Alexandra releases 3 bros from prison.  Bro ALEXANDER JANNAI succeeds until 76. Antiq 13:11:3, Wars 1:3:6
106 DGRBM 3-698     105 DGRBM 2-879, GHH     104 IDB 2-531, Jud 4-37     104/3 af 103 B76 I-515, 17-948, BNTH 6, CAH 9, CHJ 2-328, DHJ 566, E2LM 151, IDB 1-221, 2-801, Jud 3-440, MRDK 354, Sdl 5-345, TTPC, VDJD 18, atl2, bivu, bk, ds, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP     102 HCC
c.103 PTOLEMAIS is besieged by Alexander Jannai.  Ptolemais can't get aid from Syria, because of civil war, therefore appeals to Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, ruler of Cyprus 107-89. Antiq 13:12:2
c.103 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, kills his bro on suspicion of treason. 105 GHH
c.103 PTOLEMAIS, besieged by Alexander Jannai, having appealed to Ptolemy-IX, reconsiders, because it doesn't want to anger Cleo-III.  Vacillates. Antiq 13:12:3
c.103 PTOLEMY-IX SOTER LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, lands 30,000 men at Sycamine (unknown location) in Phoenicia, sends envoy to Ptolemais to support Ptolemais and Gaza against Alexander Jannai.  Ptolemais doesn't receive the envoys. Antiq 13:12:3
103 DGRBM 3-595, atl2 102 DGRBM 3-596
c.103 ZOILUS tyrant of Dor & Strao's Tower, plus people from Gaza, go to Sycamine, ask Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, for help against the Jews. Antiq 13:12:4
c.103 Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus supports the Samarians against king John HyrcanusPtolemy-IX supports Antiochus-IX, hoping that Judea will be a 1st step to a return to Egypt. 103 lvC3, lvPt9
c.103 PTOLEMY-X ALEXANDER, invades Levant, reaches Damascus, and returns to Egypt. 103 lvC3, lvPt9
c.103 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, besieging Ptolemais, is repulsed at Amathus, fears attack from Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, returns to Jerusalem in disgrace. Antiq 13:12:4
103 GHH
c.103 QUMRAN period 1a from 150 ends.  Period 1b begins until 31.  The 1a building is enlarged.  A western block has developed around existing cisterns.  Several more cisterns have been built, with a water system.  A tower is at the northwest corner.  New members arrive. 103 DQ 43 100 DQ
c.102 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, leads 50,000 men against Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus at Saphoth near the Jordan.  Routed by P-IX. Antiq 13:12:5 102 atl2
c.102 PHARISEES oppose rulership of Alexander Jannai. 102 GHH
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, subdues Zoilus tyrant of Dor and Strato's Tower.  He then learns of Alex Jannai's secret invitation to Cleo-III to attack P-IX.  Therefore P-IX attacks Alex Jannai. Antiq 13:12:4
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX LATHYRUS, besieges Ptolemais because it still wouldn't receive him. Antiq 13:12:4
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, leaves part of army besieging Ptolemais, takes the rest to ravage Galilee and Judea, takes Asochis Galilee, fails to take Sepphoris, controls all Palestine. Antiq 13:11: 4-5-6
c.102 Alliance between Alexander Jannai and Cleo-III, queen of Egypt. Antiq 13:13:2
102 atl2
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III regent for son Ptolemy Alexander 107-01, fears attack by Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, sends land army into Palestine and son Ptolemy Alexander by sea to Phoenicia.  Cleo-III sails to Ptolemais, besieges because they wouldn't open to her either. Antiq 13:13:1
103 GHH
102 DGRBM 1-117, 3-596
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, slips by army of Cleo-III, heads for Egypt.  Thwarted by Cleo-III's navy, returns to Gaza. Antiq 13:13:1     103 atl2 102 CAH 9-387, DGRBM 3-595
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, returns to Cyprus. Antiq 13:13:3     102 CAH 9-387
101 DGRBM 1-117, 3-595
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III regent for son Ptolemy Alexander 107-01, would like to annex Palestine, but Ananias ben Onias tells her it would anger the Egyptian Jews.  Cleo-III returns to Egypt. Antiq 13:13:3 102 CAH 9, 387, 399
c.101 Seleucid civil war has by now become intertwined with conflict in Ptolemaic Empire. 101 lvPt9
c.101 Antiochus-VIII Gryphus is in control of the northern part of the Seleucid Empire and is supported by Ptolemy-X Alexander. 101 lvPt9
c.100  DAMASCUS DOCUMENT  written, a composite text edited together from different sections of a larger source..  Collection of rules and instructions reflecting the practices of a sectarian community.  Has 2 parts:  Admonition and Laws.  Admonition: moral instruction, exhortation, and warning addressed to members of the sect, together with polemic against its opponents.  The Laws looks at this new covenant community expressed to them thru the Teacher of Righteousness.  It details different social arrangements of the time.  Expresses an eschatological hope of restoration of Davidic monarchy. 110-00 VDJD 84 100 IDB 2-801, wikTR
c.100 PTOLEMAIS, under Rome from 175, comes under Judea until 67. 100 rcHL
c.100 7 WONDERS of the WORLD listed by Antipater of Sidon:  Pyramids of EgyptHanging Gardens of Babylonstatue of Zeus at Olympiatemple of Diana at Ephesus,  Mausoleum at HalicarnassusColossus of Rhodes,  lighthouse of Pharos.  Philo of Byzantium will hace to modify this list. 100 TTT
c.100 GLASS BLOWING invented in the Levant. 300 Syria avw    100 TTT
c.100 GADARA, southeast of Sea of Galilee, member of Dekapolis from 110, besieged by Alex Jannai 10 months, falls, comes under Judea until 63. Antiq 13:13:3, Wars 1:4:2
103 GHH
100 atl2, rcJdn
c.100 Simeon ben Shetach, bro of queen Alexandra Salome, becomes Nasi (head of Sanhedrin) until ?. late 100s-early 1st cen. rcHL
c.100 BETH ZUR, under Jews from 144-100, abandoned and not reoccupied. 100 IDB 1-405
c.100 RAPHIA, taken by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, under Judea until ?. Wars 1:4:2
100 atl2
c.100 Alex Jannai attacks Gaza. 100 atl2
c.100 GAZA taken by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, under Judea until ?. Wars 1:4:2
c.100 ANTHEDON, north of Gaza, taken by Alex Jannai, citizens enslaved, under Judea until ?. Wars 1:4:2
100 atl2
c.100 COINS struck by Alex Jannai say "King Jonathan" in Hebrew and "King Alexander" in Greek. 100 E2LM 154
c.100 STRATO'S TOWER, under tyrant Zoilus of Dor from ?, taken by Alex Jannai, under Judea until 63. soon after 103 OCD 191
c.100 THEODOTUS of Samaria writes a work conventionally called  On Shechem .  Calls Shechem "the holy town".  Connects Shechem with Sikimios son of Greek god Hermes. 100 B76 10-313
c.100 Jewish dramatist EZEKIEL writes tragedy  The Exodus .  Shows influence of Euripides. 100 B76 10-313
c.100  2nd Book of MACCABEES  written in Egypt.
c.100 Λ Book of ENOCH  ch 6-36 written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  Ch 6-11: (from the Book of Noah) fallen angels (watchers) result from sex between sons of God and daus of men.  Ch 12-16: Watchers are doomed.  Enoch is then conducted by angels of light on journeys thru Earth to Sheol, to place where watchers are judged, to tree of life, to Jerusalem, to Garden of Righteousness.
14:18-22 is clearly related to Daniel 7:9-10.  It is likely that 1 Enoch borrows from Daniel.
300-270 lv1E pre-170
AΨΨ 170 120-00
B76 2-937
100 IDB 2-104 no date:
IDB 1-762
c.100  Book of PSALMS  classified among scriptures, closed to further insertions. 100 IDB 3-943
c.100  Testament of Job  written by a strict Jew, possibly a Hasid.  Job delivers swan song to children of 2nd wife. 100 ENBD 1060
c.100  2nd Book of MACCABEES  written in Greek, probably in Alexandria, for a diasporan Jewish audience.  An abridgment a 5-volume work by Jason of Cyrene.  Covers from high priest Onias-III (c.180) to defeat of general Nicanor in 161, but begins with letters written as late as 124.  Overtly describes miraculous divine interventions directing the course of events. 100
CHJ 2-495, lvCrn
no date: nwe
c.100 RESURRECTION:  "The King of the world shall raise us up who have died for his laws, and revive us to life eternal."
"So he [Razis] died, calling on Him who is lord of life and spirit to restore them to him again."
2Mac 7:10
2Mac 14:46
c.100 IDUMEA, under Judea 109-?, Antipas becomes governor until 78. 100 hifi
c.100 PETRA, capital of Nabataean Arabs, peaks. 100 PW 17