Levant
c.140 BERYTUS (formerly Beyryt) Lebanon sacked and destroyed by Diodotus Trypho. 140 B76 2-815 138 atl2
c.140 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, confirmed as high priest "forever", commander of the army, and nasi (ethnarch) by the people without waiting for Demetrius-II. 1Mac 13:13:42
141 CAH 8-368 140 CAH 9-285, CHJ 2-318, DHJ 514, ISBE 2-623
c.140 By decree of popular assembly, bronze tablets recording the deeds of Simon Maccabee are made and put in the Temple precinct. 1Mac 14:25-49
140 Sdl 5-336
c.140 JOSE ben Joezer, Nasi (head of Sanhedrin) from 191, ends.  Joshua ben Perahya until ?. 140 rcHL
c.140 Jews set up an inscription in honor of Simon. 1Mac 14:14:25-49 140 atl2
c.140 BETH ZUR, under Jews 144-100, strengthened by order of Simon Maccabee. 1Mac 14:33
140 CHJ 2-318
c.140 Qumran cave-4 Manual of Discipline  focuses on religious life in Qumran.  Earliest copy placed in Qumran cave-IV. photo Effi Schweizer

140 Jud 6-65
140 /39 Rome supposedly distributes a circular letter to Anatolia and eastern allied countries declaring friendship toward Jews. 140/39 Jud 4-37
139 DHJ 551, IDB 1-537, ISBE 1-289
If so, this is inconsistent with contemporary events in Rome.
c.138 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29, bids for friendship with Simon Maccabee, sends him a letter confirming all previous possessions and privileges, guaranteeing independence of Judea, and the right to mint copper coins. 1Mac 15:1-6
139 E2LM 143, IDB 3-426
138 CAH 9-285, Jud 3-74
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria, flees to Dor. 1Mac 15:11, Ant 13:7:2     139 LEWH 95
139/8 CDCC 803     138 1&2BM 199, IDB 4-717, Sdl 5-337, atl2     137 DGRBM 1-199
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria, in Dor, besieged on land and sea by ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes with 120,000 inf and 8,000 cav. 1Mac 15:13, Ant 13:7:2, Wars 1:2:2     139/8 IDB 1-864     138 1&2BM 199, BHS 2-238, Jud 3-75, 6-61, Sdl 5-337
c.138 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, sends 2,000 men, gifts, and equipment to help Aniochus-VII besiege Dor.  A-VII spurns it and sends it back. 1Mac 15:26, Ant 13:7:2
c.138 HASIDIM SCHISM:  Majority become PHARISEES, support Hasmoneans, try to control state religion.  Minority split off to become ESSENES, insist on Aaronic high priests, abandon unwritten traditions. reign of Simon: ENBD 505
They split into Pharisees and Sadducees. 140 lvSd
138±3 A group of ZADOKITES, at odds with Maccabees from 152, go to Damascus, found "Community of the New Covenant in the land of Damascus". 138 VDJD 100
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria, besieged in Dor, flees by ship to Orthosia south of the Eleutheros, and from Orthosia to Apamea, his home town.  Dor capitulates to Antiochus-VII Sidetes 1Mac 15:10-14, Ant 13:7:2
139 LEWH 95
138 1&2BM 209, BHS 2-238, Jud 6-61, rcHL
c.138 DOR, republic from 322, comes under tyrant ZOILUS until ?. 138 rcHL
c.138 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29, sends envoy Athenobius to Simon Maccabee, cancels promises of 139, demands return of Joppa, Gazara, and the Jerusalem citadel or 1,000 talents silver. 1Mac 15:29, Ant 13:7:3
138 BHS 2-239, IDB 3-426, Jud 3-75, atl2
c.138 General CENDEBAEUS sent from Syria to Judea to enforce demands of Antiochus-VII, fortifies Kedron in Philistia. 1Mac 15:38, Ant 13:7:3
138 CAH 8-529, ISBE 1-628, Jud 3-75
137 DGRBM 2-541, 879 136 atl2
c.137 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29, orders Simon to return to him all coastal positions including Gazara. 1Mac 15:28-35 137 ISBE 2-459
c.137 General CENDEBAEUS harasses Jamnia. 1Mac 15:40
c.137 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, too old to fight, sends sons Judas and John Hyrcanus against Cendebaeus. 1Mac 16:1 BHS 2-239
c.137 General CENDEBAEUS defeated by Judas and John Hyrcanus, retreats to Kedron, pursued as far as Ashdod.  Judas and John Hyrcanus return to Jerusalem. 1Mac 15:41, 16:8
138 DHJ 549, IDB 2-971     137 B76 V-581
c.136 AKRA CITADEL at Jerusalem destroyed by Simon Maccabee. Ant 13:6:7
c.135 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29, begins to recover Coele-Syria. 135 B76 I-423, CAH 8-369, IDB 1-152, OCD 72
c.135 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, fears that Joppa may surrender to Antiochus-VII Sidetes, sends Jonathan ben Absolom to take and hold Joppa. 135 Jud 10-189
c.135 Early Hebrew alphabet is used on Jewish coins from now to 135CE. 135 B76 1-619
c.134 PHARISEES and SADDUCEES polarize over interpretation of law and Pentateuch. 134 MCAW 125 GHH
c.134 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes personally comes from Syria to invade Judea. Ant 13:8:2, Wars 1:2:5 134 BHS 2-239, GHH
c.134 Jews appeal to Rome.  Senate issues decree.  ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes ignores it. 134 CHJ 2
c.134 SIMON Maccabee, and sons Judas and Mattathias, inspect cities of Judea, visit son-in-law Ptolemy ben Abub, governor of Jericho. 1Mac 16:11-14
135 Jud 11-1129, 13-1349 134 1&2BM 211, VDJD 96
c.134 PTOLEMY ben Abub, governor of Jericho leads SIMON Maccabee, and sons Judas and Mattathias to fortress of Dok (Dagon) 5km northwest of Jericho, gives a banquet, gets them drunk. 1Mac 16:15, Ant 13:7:4
135 CAH 8-370, Jud 11-1129, 13-1349
c.134 2nd son of Mattathias, SIMON Maccabee dies.  Ruler and high priest of Judea from 143/2, and sons Judas and Mattathias, murdered at Dok (Dagon) by son-in-law Ptolemy ben Abub, governor of Jericho. 1Mac 16:16, Ant 13:7:4, Wars 1:2:3-4
136 GHH, IDB 4-358     135 B76 V-581, BHS 2-239, CAH 8, 9-286, CBCNT 70, DGRBM 2-541, 879, IDB 1-862, 2-530, ISBE 2-623, af, atl2, bivu, bk, wikHD, wikST     135/4 B76 VI-432     134 1&2BM 211, B76 11-225, CAH 8, CHJ 2-297, E2LM 146, Jud 3-75, 14-1565, MCAW, MRDK 354, Sdl 5-338, TTPC, VDJD 78, ds, gw, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP
c.134 PTOLEMY ben Abub, governor of Jericho, promises gifts to officers who will join him, sends men to kill John Hyrcanus at Gazara. 1Mac 16:19
134 1&2BM 212
c.134 JOHN HYRCANUS, youngest son of Simon at Gazara, learns of murder of father and bros, warned of assassination attempt, kills the assassins when they arrive. 1Mac 16:21, Ant 13:7:4
c.134 Youngest son of Simon, JOHN HYRCANUS made leader of Judea and high priest until 104. 1Mac 16:23-4, Ant 13:8:1, Wars 1:2:3
135 AΨΨ 1, B76 V-581, 17-948, CAH 8, 9-286, CBCNT 70, DGRBM 2-879, DHJ 550, IDB 2-530, ISBE 2-623, Jud 8-1146, af, bivu, wikHD
134 BNTH 6, CAH 8, CHJ 2-321-2, Jud 3-75, MCAW, MRDK 354, VDJD 78, ds, gw, VDJD 18, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP
c.134 PTOLEMY ben Abub, governor of Jericho, is besieged at fortress of Dok (Dagon) near Jericho by John Hyrcanus.  He brings Hyrcanus' mother and brothers to the top of the city wall, threatens to throw them off unless Hyrcanus departs.  Hyrcanus refuses, but has to quit the siege because it is a Sabbatical year (?V).  Ptolemy kills Hyrcanus' mother and bros and escapes to Zeno, tyrant of Rabbah in Ammon. Ant 13:8:1, Wars 1:2:4
136 GHH     135 B76 V-581
134 atl2
129 CHJ 2-325
c.134 JERUSALEM, independent 145, under John Hyrcanus, besieged by Antiochus-VII Sidetes until 132. Ant 13:8:2, Wars 1:2:5
135 CAH 8     135/4 B76 I-423
134 1&2BM 211, CHJ 2, DHJ 550, E2LM 146, GHH, Jud 3-75, atl2
c.133 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, expells all non-combatants so they don't use up his food.  A-VII sends them back for the same reason.  They are trapped in the middle until the Feast of Tabs, when Hyrcanus allows them back in. 133 E2LM 147 132 BHS 2-240
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, requests a 7 day truce in the siege for feast of Passover.  A-VII grants it, for which he is called Antiochus Eusebes "Pius" by Jews. Ant 13:8:2 133 atl2 132 BHS 2-240
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, negotiates peace, offers hostages including his bro, promises 500 talents silver:  300 now, 200 later.  A-VII also demands demolition of the walls, and annual tribute.  Hyrcanus agrees. Ant 13:8:3
133 CHJ 2, DGRBM 2-542, GHH 132 BHS 2-240, atl2
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem from 134 by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, surrenders.  Walls are again destroyed. Ant 13:8:3     134 CAH 8-352, CHJ 2-647, ISBE 1-147
133 DGRBM 1-199
132 BHS 2-240, Jud 3-75
c.132 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes king of Syria 138-29, grants Jerusalem favorable peace terms, but breaks holes in the walls, returns Joppa, Gazara, etc. to Hyrcanus.  A-VII returns to Antioch. Ant 13:8:3
134 CAH 8-370 133 DGRBM 1-199
132 CAH 8-530
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, opens sepulcher of David, takes 3,000 talents to pay expenses and maintain foreign troops.  This is a first. Ant 13:8:4, Wars 1:2:5
133 E2LM 150
132 atl2
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS makes  treaty  with Rome in effort to regain Joppa, Gezer, Pegae, and other cities which A-VII had taken contrary to the decree of the senate. 1Mac 14:24, Ant 13:9:2
132 E2LM 150, atl2
129 ISBE 1-964
128 GHH
c.132  PROLOGUE to Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)  written by Jeshua ben Sirach the younger. 132 ISBE 1-594, 596
c.132/1 Antiochus-VII mints his own coins in Jerusalem which bear his name and confirm his rule. 132/1
IDB 3-426
c.130 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, compelled by Antiochus-VII to accompany him in attack on ParthiaHyrcanus goes to Syria, tells A-VII he refuses to travel on Sabbaths or feast days.  A-VII sends him home. Ant 13:8:4
131 GHH
130 CAH 8-371, E2LM 147, Jud 4-37, wikJH1
c.130  Bel and the Dragon  written in Hebrew and inserted various places.  Ridicules idolatry in Palestine.  Daniel exposes priests of Bel (Baal) who ate the daily offering and credited the idol to having eaten it.  The king destroys the idol.  In what should have been a separate story, Daniel kills a dragon, and is therefore thrown to lions. 160-100 HCC
150-100 CBCNT 58
136 AΨA 656
130 IDB 1-376
100 BBP 159, ENBD 46
c.129 (?Λ) Sabbatical year probably begins in early autumn.  There are religious prohibitions against waging war in a Sabbatical year. 129 CHJ 2-321, 325
c.129 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria from 138 killed at Ecbatana.  Judea is now free until ?. Ant 13:8:4     130 CAH 9, GHH
129 B76 VII-971, 9-843, CAH 8-530, DHJ 552, IDB 1-50, Jud 3-75, OCD 72, Sdl 5-333
129/8 CHJ 2     127 LEWH 95
c.129 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, discontinues tribute to Syria, begins taking Syrian cities in Judea. Ant 13:8:4, Wars 1:2:6
129 CAH 9-291, atl2 128 IDB 2-530
c.129 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, goes to Ammon, takes MEDABA at great cost, then takes SAMEGA. Ant 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6
129 CHJ 2-608
128 CHJ 2
c.128 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, subdues Idumeans, takes DOR and MARESHA, compels them to circumcise and obey Jewish law or get out. Ant 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6
130 B76 10-311
129 GHH
125 CHJ 2-435
c.128 MARESHA (Marissa), under Idumea from ?, taken by John Hyrcanus, who permits Idumean citizens to remain if they submit to circumcision. Ant 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6
130 B76 10-311    129 GHH 125 CHJ 2-435    112 wikMr 110 IDB 3-264, bhbMr
c.128 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, goes to Samaria, takes SHECHEM and Mt. Gerizim. Ant 13:9:1, 10:2, Wars 1:2:6     129 CHJ 2-400 129/8 CHJ 2, IDB 4-192     128 1&2BM 47, B76 10-311, CAH 9-428, CHJ 2-25, 608, FLAP 232, IDB 2-1025, ISBE 2-448, 624, 4-304, 462, Jud 14-729     120 DHJ 554
111-10 wikJH1
c.128 Temple at Mt. Gerizim, built 432, destroyed by John Hyrcanus. Ant 13:9:1, Wars 1:2:6     129 CHJ 2-400     129/8 CHJ 2, IDB 4-192     128 1&2BM 47, B76 10-311, CAH 9-428, CHJ 2-25, 608, FLAP 232, IDB 2-1025, ISBE 2-448, 624, 4-304, Jud 14-729     120 DHJ 554 129-09 CHJ 2-405     111-10 wikJH1     109 IDB 2-530 108 BBP 118, IDB 4-568
c.128 Neither ALEXANDER ZEBINA, nor DEMETRIUS-II challenges John Hyrcanus' inland conquests. 128 CHJ 2-327
c.128 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 129-25, holds Damascus, Ptolemais, and coastal Palestine until 127/6. 128 CHJ 2-327
c.126 TYRE, under Seleucids from 198, given freedom by Cleo Thea, becomes independent republic until 64. 140 rcLeb     126 IDB 4-723, Jud 15-1489, OCD-1102     126/5 BHS 2-255
c.125 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 129-25, decisively defeated by Alexander Zebina at Damascus.  D2 flees to Ptolemais but his wife Cleo Thea closes the gates against him. Ant 13:9:3       126 CHJ 2-327, atl2, frH, wikD2     126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490     125 B76 III-456, DGRBM 1-127, 3-775, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI2, Sdl 5-333, rcM
c.125 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator dies.  King of Syria from 129, flees from Ptolemais to Tyre, then tries to escape by ship.  D2 is killed near Tyre. Ant 13:9:3       126 RAI3, frH, Sdl 5-340, wikD2     126/5 CAH 8-531, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Jud 5-1490     125 B76 III-456, DGRBM 1-127, 967, 2-543, 3-775, GHH, LEWH 95, MRDK, OCD 326, RAI2, Sdl 5-333, atl2, rcM
c.125 AMMON, under Judea from 160, comes under Zoilus Cotylas (Tyrant of Rabbah) until 110s. 120s rcJdn
c.125 ALEXANDER ZEBINA, pretended son of Alex Balas, counter king of Syria 125, allies with Hyrcanus and Jews. 126 GHH 125 atl2
c.125 Hyrcanus' kingdom prospers while Alex Zebina rules Syria. Ant 13:10:1 123 Sdl 5-358
c.125 IDUMEA, independent 165-109, overrun by John Hyrcanus, who forces them to convert to Judaism. Ant 13:9:1, 15:7:9
125 CHJ 2-435     120 IDB 2-26
c.125 Λ Book of ENOCH V chapters 72-82 written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  The heavenly luminaries:  Says time is reconed by sun, not moon.  Insists on a 364 day year even though the science of the day says 365¼.  Heavenly tablets record all deeds of all men past to future - therefore deterministic. 300-200 lv1E
150-00 IDB 2-104 pre-110 AΨΨ 171 110 IDB 1-487
pre-100
B76 2-937
c.125  Prayer of Manasseh  written in Greek by a Jew outside of Israel - or possibly a 2nd cen. Christian.  A 15 verse apocryphal penitential prayer attributed to king Manasseh of Judah. 150-50 CBCNT 58 150-00 lvCrn
c.124 Jews of Judea send a  letter  to the Jews of Egypt, telling them to observe the festival commemorating a Hasmonean victory on 25th of Kislev.  Letter does not mention John and is dated by the Seleucid era.  It contains a discreet allusion to the temple at Leontopolis built by Onias-IV 179-52. 2Mac 1:1
124 1&2BM 220, B76 2-934, CHJ 2-325, 463, Sdl 5-357, atl2
c.120  2nd LETTER  in 2Mac. 2Mac 15:38f     120 Sdl 5-358
c.120 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, abolishes "second tithe", Levitical daily recital of Psalm 44:23: "Awake, why sleepest thou, O Lord?".  Abolishes practice of stunning a calf with a hammer to the head prior to slitting its throat in order to make it easier to kill.  Reason: because that gave it a blemish. no date:
Mish Sotah 9:10,
Maaser Shane 5:15
c.113 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, begins extensive military campaign against Samaria. 113 wikJH1
c.112 ANTIOCHUS-VIII Gryphus, supported by Ptolemaic Egypt, defeats A-IX Cyzicenus and captures AntiochA-IX retreats into Coele-Syria, and holds Sidon, Damascus, Ptolemais and Askalon. 112
CHJ 2-328, GHH, atl2
c.112 COINS minted in Askalon, Ptolemais, Damascus, and Antioch bear the name of Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, rather than Antiochus-VIII Grypus. by mid 112 CHJ 2-327-8
c.112  Song of the Three Young Men  written.  An apologetic work written to give the Jews encouragement in facing persecution.  Presents the Jews as loyal supporters of the Ptolemies. 125-100 CHJ 2-496
c.112/1 SIDON, under Seleucids from 198, becomes aristocratic republic until 68. 112 rcLeb
111 BHS 2-256, Jud 14-1507
c.111 COINS minted in Askalon, bearing the name of Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus from 112, stop being minted. 111 CHJ 2-328
c.111 TRIPOLIS, under Seleucids from 198, becomes independent until ?. 111 IDB 4-711, ISBE 4-922
105 BHS 2-256
c.111 SAMARIA, under Seleucids 198-107, besieged by John Hyrcanus until 108. Ant 13:10:2, Wars 1:2:7
111 CHJ 2-329, IDB 4-186 107 CHJ 2-608
c.111/0 COINS minted by John Hyrcanus with inscription, "Johanan the high priest and community of the Jews". 111/0 IDB 3-426
c.110 DAMASCUS, under Iturea from 167, is an independent member of Decapolis until 85. 110 rcS
c.110 GADARA, southeast of Sea of Galilee, under Seleucids from 218, becomes member of Decapolis until 100. 110 rcJdn
c.110 COINS found at SHECHEM date from 4th cent. to 110, then abruptly stop.  The last have the name of Hyrcanus-I. 110 IDB 4-315, ISBE 2-624
c.110 ARISTOBULUS & ANTIGONUS join father John Hyrcanus at siege of Samaria. 110 DGRBM 1-300
c.110 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, invades Transjordan. 110 wikJH1
c.110 GERASA, city east of Jordan, under Seleucids from 198, becomes member of Decapolis until 63. 110 rcHL, rcJdn
c.110  1st Book of MACCABEES  written in Hebrew by a Jew of Sadducean viewpoint.  Covers 175-134BCE.  Dates everything from 312 when he thought Seleucus-I took the throne. 134-04 B76 VI-431
124 Jud 11-659
110 IDB 3-205
125-00 AΨA 60
100 lvCrn
103-63 CBCNT 58
c.110  Book of Daniel  is regarded as reliable, if not scriptural. 1Mac 2:60
c.110 MALIKU-I ends.  King of Nabataea from 144.  HARIRATH-II (Aretas-II) succeeds until 95. 110 MRDK 359, OCD 104
Aretas-II ends.  Erotim succeeds to 100. 110 rcJdn
c.109 IDUMEA, independent from 165, incorporated into Judea until ?. 109 hifi
c.109 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, banquets with Pharisee, asks them to correct him of any offense.  Eleazar says he should quit the high priesthood because of a rumor that his mother was a captive under Antiochus-IV. Ant 13:10:5
c.109 Pharisees recommend flogging and imprisonment for Eleazar, but not death.  JOHN HYRCANUS, miffed at this light punishment, breaks with Pharisees and favors Sadducees. Ant 13:10:6
110 GHH     109 AΨΨ 171 106 AΨA 129, AΨΨ 282
c.109 Country of SAMARIA overrun by John Hyrcanus. 110 CHJ 2-435     109 GHH, ISBE 2-624     108 BBP 118
c.108 City of SAMARIA, Under Seleucids 198-107, besieged by John Hyrcanus from 111.  Encircled with a ditch and mound.  Hyrcanus then turns over siege to sons Aristobulus & Antigonus until 107. Ant 13:10:2-3, Wars 1:2:7
108 BHS 2-256, BBP 118, atl2     no date: Mish 1-506
c.108 City of SAMARIA, besieged by Aristobulus & Antigonus, invite Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus to rescue them. Ant 13:10:2, Wars 1:2:7 no date: wikJH1
c.108 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, starts persecuting Pharisees.  2nd Zuggot: Joshua ben Perachiah and Nittai the Arbelite flee to Alexandria. Ant 13:10:5 Mish 1-506
c.108 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, goes to Coele-Syria, tries to relieve siege of Samaria, defeated by Antigonus and Aristobulus, chased to Beth Shan, returns to SyriaAri & Ant then return to the siege. Ant 13:10:2, Wars 1:2:7
108 CAH 8-533
c.108 Jews appeal to Rome because ANTIOCHUS-IX occupied forts and cities in Judea.  Senate issues consultum directing A-IX to cease action against Jews. 110 E2LM 150 108 CHJ 2
c.108  Testaments of the 12 Patriarchs , based on Gen. 49, written in Hebrew by a pharisee.  12 sons instruct their sons, review their own failings, warn against disobedience.  Joseph & Issachar commend their own virtues.  Exhortations to humility, love, & generosity.  It will be expanded by later additions.
 Testament of Judah  speaks of 2 spirits which serve men: truth & error, plus a 3rd spirit of choice mentioned less frequently.
130 CBCNT 58
109-6 AΨΨ 282 160-00 HCC late 2nd cen. ENBD 1060
c.107 City of SAMARIA, Under Seleucids from 198, besieged by Antigonus & Aristobulus from 108, falls, destroyed.  Comes under Judea until mid 300sCE. Ant 13:10:3, Wars 1:2:6     130 GHH
129 CHJ 2-400, rcHL     128 or 107 lvSm
128 B76 10-311, CHJ 2-25, 608, IDB 2-1025, Jud 14-729     110 CHJ 2-435     110-07 DHJ 555     109 AΨΨ 290, DGRBM 2-543     108 CAH 9-427     107 IDB 3-967, 4-186, Jud 3-75, Jud 8-1147, atl2
c.107 SHECHEM, fortified Hellenic city and capital of Samaria from 330, destroyed by Antigonus & Aristobulus.  The temple on Mt. Gerizim is leveled. Ant 13:10:3
107 CHJ 2-596,
IDB 4-315, Sup 821, ISBE 4-303, 462, Jud 14-1333
c.107 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, goes again to Coele-Syria, rents 6,000 mercenaries from Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, who rents them without consent of Cleo-IIIAntiochus-IX lets mercenaries ravage Judea, hoping to force Hyrcanus to raise the siege of Samaria. Ant 13:10:2
c.107 ANTIOCHUS-IX Cyzicenus, rival king of Syria 115-96, loses battles, becomes unpopular with troops, turns over army to Callimander and Epicrates, returns to Tripolis. Ant 13:10:2
c.107 BETH SHAN (Scythopolis), in Jezreel Valley west of Jordan river, under Seleucids from 198, under mixed Jews & gentiles from ?, taken by John Hyrcanus.  Under Hasmoneans as part of Decapolis until 85. 110 rcCan 107 IDB 1-401, ISBE 1-477, Jud 4-758
c.107  Book of JUBILEES  written in Hebrew by a pharisee in the person of Moses.  Supposedly a revelation to Moses on Mt. Sinai.  Advocates a 364 day year in order to keep feasts on the same day.  Strict legalism.  Upholds eternal validity of Mosaic Law.  Says Satan persuaded Yahweh to induce Abe to sacrifice Isaac (17:16). 175 lvCrn     170 gcBE
161-140 ISBE 4-250 150-100 CBCNT 58 109-5 AΨA 6
105 IDB 1-487
c.106 MOAB, under Nabataeans from 323, no longer so. 106 rcJdn
c.106/5 COINS minted by Judas Aristobulus with inscription, "Jehuda the high priest and community of the Jews". 106/5
IDB 3-426
c.105 ITUREA (Bekaa Valley) region in south Lebanon, independent from 168, invaded and partly conquered by Judah Aristobulus, of Judea.  Its Hellenistic kings probably pay tribute to Judea until Roman rule. 105 rcLeb
c.104 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, disputes with Pharisees. 104 atl2
c.104 ASKALON under Seleucids from 198, becomes independent until 67. 150 rcHL     104 BHS 2-256, IDB 1-253, ISBE 1-318, Jud 3-714
c.104 Youngest son of Simon, JOHN HYRCANUS dies peacefully  Leader of Judea and high priest from 134.  Leaves wife & 5 sons.  Wills government to widow.  Wills priesthood to 37 year old 1st son JUDAH ARISTOBULUS-I. Ant 13:10:7, Wars 1:2:8     109 CHJ 2-270     106 DGRBM 2-879, GHH     106/5 DGRBM 2-543     105 AΨΨ 6, IDB 2-530, ISBE 1-290, Mish 1-506, af     104 B76 V-581, 11-225, 17-948, BNTH 6, CAH 8-573, 9-286, CBCNT 70, CHJ 2-331, 459, DHJ 564, E2LM 151, ISBE 2-624, Jud 3-440, 8-1146, MRDK 354, TTPC, VDJD 79, atl2, bivu, bk, ds, gw, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikAri1, wikHD, wikHP
c.104 JUDAH ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest 104-3, imprisons mother and 3 bros, becomes king of Judea, 1st king since Zedekiah until 103.  Puts bro ANTIGONUS in charge of the army. 106 DGRBM 2-879, GHH
104 B76 I-515, 17-948, BNTH 6, CBCNT 70, IDB 1-221, 2-531, Jud 3-65, 440, MRDK 354, rcHL     103 ds
481 years, 3 months after return from Babylonian Captivity. Ant 13:11:1
471 years, 3 months after return from Babylonian Captivity. Wars 1:3:1
c.104 WIDOW of John Hyrcanus, imprisoned by son, starves herself to death. Ant 13:11:1, Wars 1:3:1 106 GHH
c.104 ANTIGONUS, army commander of bro king ARISTOBULUS-I, goes to Temple for Feast of Tabernacles in kingly dress with armored troops.  Makes elegant prayers for recovery of bro.  Causes suspicion of king. Ant 13:11:1, Wars 1:3:2
c.104 STRATO'S TOWER, a small Sidonian town from 300s, taken by Alexander Jannai, bro of king Aristobulus-I. 104
Jud 5-6
c.104 ALEXANDER JANNAI, bro of king Aristobulus-I, marries. 104 IDB 1-500
c.104  PSALM 2  written for wedding of Alexander Jannai. 104 IDB 1-500
c.104 ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest and king of Judea 104-3, sends message to bro Antigonus to come to Jerusalem unarmed, tells guards to kill Antigonus if he arrives armed.  Queens' friends tell the messenger to tell Antigonus to come in new armor. Ant 13:11:2
104 Jud 3-65
c.104 ARISTOBULUS-I, high priest and king of Judea 104-3, kills his mother. 104 atl2
c.104 ANTIGONUS, bro of king Aristobulus-I, is sent to Judaize Galilee. 104 ISBE 2-940
c.104 ANTIGONUS, bro of king Aristobulus-I, conquers Ituraeans. 106 GHH       104 ISBE 2-940, atl2
c.104 ANTIGONUS dies.  Bro of king Aristobulus-I, returns from conquering Itureans.  He receives altered message from Aristobulus, puts on new set or armor, arrives at Stratos Tower, Killed by king's guards. Ant 13:11:2, Wars 1:3:4     106 GHH
104 Jud 3-65, atl2
c.104 GALILEE, under Seleucids from 198, conquered by Aristobulus, comes under Judea until 4. 104 CHJ 2, ISBE 2-390, Jud 7-266 103 rcHL
c.104 ANTIPATER of Sidon, author of several epigrams in the Greek Anthology, flourishes.  Cicero says he lived in Rome in the time of Crassus & Catulus. 150-100 wikAS
108-00 DGRBM 1-203
c.104 7 WONDERS of the WORLD listed by Antipater of Sidon:  Pyramids of EgyptHanging Gardens of Babylonstatue of Zeus at Olympiatemple of Diana at Ephesus,  Mausoleum at HalicarnassusColossus of Rhodes.  Modified from Philo of Byzantium 225, substituting Walls of Babylon for previous lighthouse of Pharos at Alexandria.   (See Herodotus) 140 qra, wikAS 100 TTT '  
c.103 FORCDED CONVERSION of Itureans to Judaism by Aristobulus. 103 B76 10-311
c.103 1st son of Hyrcanus, ARISTOBULUS-I dies.  High priest and king of Judea from 104, age 38, dies of illness.  Widow Salome Alexandra releases his 3 bros from prison.  Bro ALEXANDER JANNAI succeeds until 76. Ant 13:11:3, Wars 1:3:6     106 DGRBM 3-698 105 DGRBM 2-879, GHH     104 IDB 2-531, ISBE 1-290, Jud 4-37     104/3 af     103 B76 I-515, 17-948, BHS 2-257, BNTH 6, CAH 9, CBCNT 70, CHJ 2-328, DHJ 566, E2LM 151, IDB 1-221, 2-801, ISBE 2-624, Jud 3-440, 16-714, MRDK 354, Sdl 5-345, TTPC, VDJD 18, atl2, bivu, bk, ds, gw, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikAJ, wikAri1, wikHD, wikHP, wikSAl     102 HCC
c.103 PTOLEMAIS is besieged by Alexander Jannai.  Ptolemais can't get aid from Syria, because of civil war, therefore appeals to Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, ruler of Cyprus 107-89. Ant 13:12:2
c.103 PTOLEMAIS, besieged by Alex Jannai, having appealed to Ptolemy-IX, reconsiders, because it doesn't want to anger Cleo-III.  Vacillates. Ant 13:12:3
c.103 PTOLEMY-IX SOTER LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, lands 30,000 men at Sycaminum in Phoenicia, sends envoy to Ptolemais to support Ptolemais and Gaza against Alex Jannai.  Ptolemais doesn't receive the envoys. Ant 13:12:3
103 DGRBM 3-595, atl2 102 DGRBM 3-596
c.103 ZOILUS tyrant of Dor & Strato's Tower, plus people from Gaza, go to Sycaminum, ask Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, for help against the Jews. Ant 13:12:4
c.103 Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus supports the Samarians against the JewsPtolemy-IX supports Antiochus-IX, hoping that Judea will be a 1st step to a return to Egypt. 103 lvC3, lvPt9
c.103 PTOLEMY-IX, invades Levant, reaches Damascus, and returns to Egypt. 103 lvC3, lvPt9
c.103 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, besieging Ptolemais, is repulsed at Amathus, fears attack from Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, returns to Jerusalem in disgrace. Ant 13:12:4
103 GHH
c.103 ALEXANDER JANNAI, now at Jerusalem, privately invites Cleo-III to come against Ptolemy-IX, but publicly pretends to want a league with P-IX, and promises P-IX 400 talents silver.  AJ wants P-IX to remove Zoilus tyrant of Dor, and give his country to the Jews. Ant 13:12:4
c.103 QUMRAN period 1a from 150 ends.  Period 1b begins until 35.  The 1a building is enlarged.  A western block has developed around existing cisterns.  Several more cisterns have been built, with a water system.  A tower is at the northwest corner.  New members arrive. 103 DQ 43 pre-100 Jud 13-1430, 100 DQ
c.102 ALEXANDER JANNAI, high priest and king of Judea 103-76, leads 50,000 men against Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus at Saphoth near the Jordan.  Routed by P-IX. Ant 13:12:5 102 atl2
c.102 PHARISEES oppose rulership of Alexander Jannai. 102 GHH
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, subdues Zoilus tyrant of Dor and Strato's Tower.  He then learns of Alex Jannai's secret invitation to Cleo-III to attack P-IX.  Therefore P-IX attacks Alex Jannai. Ant 13:12:4
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX LATHYRUS, besieges Ptolemais because it still wouldn't receive him. Ant 13:12:4
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, leaves part of army besieging Ptolemais, takes the rest to ravage Galilee and Judea, takes Asochis Galilee, enslaves 10,000, tries and fails to take Sepphoris, controls all Palestine. Ant 13:12:4-5, Wars 1:4:2
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX LATHYRUS, defeats Alexander Jannai at Saphoth near the Jordan. Ant 13:12:5
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX LATHYRUS ravages Judea, commands his troops to strangle women and children, cut them in pieces, boil them, and eat them. Ant 13:12:6
c.102 Alliance between Alexander Jannai and Cleo-III, queen of Egypt. Ant 13:13:2
102 atl2
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III regent for son Ptolemy Alexander 107-01, fears attack by Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, sends land army from Egypt into Palestine and son Ptolemy Alexander by sea to Phoenicia.  Cleo-III sails to Ptolemais, besieges because they wouldn't open to her either. Ant 13:13:1
103 GHH
102 DGRBM 1-117, 3-596
c.102 PTOLEMAIS taken by Ptolemy-IX until 100. Ant 13:12:6
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, slips by army of Cleo-III, tries to invade Egypt.  Thwarted by Cleo-III's navy, returns to Gaza. Ant 13:13:1     103 atl2 102 CAH 9-387, DGRBM 3-595, atl2 101 DGRBM 1-117
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, returns from Gaza to Cyprus. Ant 13:13:3     102 CAH 9-387
101 DGRBM 1-117, 3-595
c.102 CLEOPATRA-III regent for son Ptolemy Alexander 107-01, wants to annex Palestine, but Ananias ben Onias tells her it would anger the Egyptian Jews.  Cleo-III returns to Egypt. Ant 13:13:2 102 CAH 9, 387, 399
c.101 Seleucid civil war has by now become intertwined with conflict in Ptolemaic Empire. 101 lvPt9
c.101 Antiochus-VIII Gryphus is in control of the northern part of the Seleucid Empire and is supported by Ptolemy-X Alexander. 101 lvPt9

Levant 100-63
V