Levant
c.160 Syrian general NICANOR goes from Jerusalem to Beth Horon, where he is joined by an army from Syria. 1Mac 7:39
c.160 RAZIS, Jewish conservative elder, denounced to Nicanor.  Nicanor sends 500 men to arrest him.  Razis suicides to avoid capture. 1Mac 14:37-41
160 atl2
c.160 Syrian general NICANOR, confronts Judas Maccabee with 3,000 men at Adasa 6km north of Jerusalem.  Nicanor is killed early in the battle.  Syrians flee, and are pursued by local Jews to Gazara (Gezer).  Nicanor's head and right arm are cut off by Jews. 1Mac 7:43, Antiq 12:10:5
161 Dur 2-584, E2LM 131,
IDB 3-547, Jud 10-381, 12-1133, wikJM     160 1&2BM 99, CAH 8-520, CHJ 2-463, GHH, Jud 2-549, Sdl 5-319, atl2
c.160 General BACCHIDES with 20,000 inf and 2,000 cav returns from Syria with high priest ALCIMUS against Judas Maccabee.  Mesaloth is besieged and taken. 1Mac 9:1
160 1&2BM 112, E2LM 134, GHH, Sdl 5-320
c.160 GAZARA (Gezer) fortified by Bacchides, used to vex Jews until 143. 1Mac 9:50-52
161 IDB 2-389
c.160 THAMNA, EMMAUS, and BETHEL fortified by Bacchides. 1Mac 9:50
160 IDB 4-649
c.160 Nasi JOSE ben Joezer of Zeredah is executed by nephew, Alcimus.  Successor, Joshua b. Perahyah, does not take office for several years. 160 CHJ 2-269
c.160 General BACCHIDES with 20,000 inf and 2,000 cav besieges Jerusalem, camps at Berea southwest of Bethel.  Judas with 3,000 camps at Elasa (Adasa? location disputed). 1Mac 9:4,
Wars 1:1:6
160 1&2BM 113, Sdl 5-320
c.160 ALCIMUS rules Jerusalem with Syrian backing until 159. 1Mac 9:3
160 1&2BM 114, E2LM 134, GHH, Jud 2-549, Sdl 5-320
c.160 3,000 Jew troops at Elasa get scared by number of Syrian troops.  2,200 fall away leaving only 800 with Judas Macabee, who insists on fighting anyway. 1Mac 9:6, Antiq 12:11:1
160 DGRBM 2-879, GHH, Sdl 5-321
c.160 3rd son of Mattathias, JUDAS Maccabee dies.  Leader of Jews from 166, defeated and killed at Mt. Azotus [text is corrupt] by Syrian general Bacchides.  Many partisans tracked down and killed.  Bro JONATHAN Maccabee succeeds until 143. 1Mac 9:18, Antiq 12:11:1-2
161 B76 VI-432, MCAW, MRDK 354, hifi     160 B76 17-948,
CAH 8-250, CHJ 2, DHJ 504,
Dur 2-584, E2LM 136, GHH,
Jud 5-1489, 10-188, Sdl 5-321, TTPC, atl2, bk, ds, rcHL, wikJM
c.160 Beth Zur CITADEL under Syrians, 163-44, rebuilt 165, burnt down by Bacchides, and then rebuilt. 1Mac 9:52
160 CHJ 2-8, IDB 1-405, Jud 4-783
c.160 JONATHAN and SIMON Maccabee, flee with followers to wilderness of Tekoa, and camp at pool of Asphar. 1Mac 9:33
160 IDB 4-528 Jud 10-188
c.160 Syrian general BACCHIDES with his whole army, crosses the Jordan River to confront Jonathan and Simon. 1Mac 9:34
c.160 PEREA, area along east bank of Jordan River, between Sea of Galilee and Dead Sea, under Ammon from 850, comes under Judea until 63. 160 rcJdn
c.160 JONATHAN Maccabee, leader of Jews 160-43, sends bro JOHN with convoy to ask permission of Nabataeans to deposit baggage with them. 1Mac 9:35,
Antiq 13:1:2 160 lvAN
c.160 Sons of Jambre at Medaba Ammon raid caravan of John Maccabee. 1Mac 9:37, Antiq 13:1:2
c.160 1st son of Mattathias, JOHN Maccabee killed in Ammon by Jambrites. 1Mac 9:36, Antiq 13:1:2, Wars 1:1:6     160 atl2
c.160  PRAYER of AZARIAH  written in Hebrew as an insertion into Daniel after 3:23. after Daniel: AΨA 629
c.160  SONG of the CHILDREN  written as an insertion into Daniel after 3:24. after Daniel: AΨA 629, 652
c.160 PHARISEES emerge.  Liberal interpreters of Law using oral traditions to augment written text. Antiq 13:5:9     167 wikΦr 165-60 Jud 13-363, britΦr
c.160 JONATHAN Maccabee, leader of Jews 160-43, learns of a wedding among the Jambrites at Medaba in Ammon.  Raids wedding, kills 400 men, women, & kids, heads back to Jordan. 1Mac 9:37-40 Antiq 13:1:4
c.160 AMMON, independent from 200, under Timothy from ?, conquered by Jonathan.  Comes under Judea until 120s. 160 hifi, rcJdn
c.160 Syrian general BACCHIDES, having learned of Jonathan's intended raid on Medaba, catches Jonathan on a Sabbath with his back to the Jordan  An indecisive battle ensues.  Jonathan and his men swim across the Jordan. 1Mac 9:43, Antiq 13:1:5 160 GHH,
Jud 4-44, atl2
c.160 Syrian general BACCHIDES, fortifies the citadel at Jerusalem.  He builds strongholds and populates them with gentiles.  e.g Jericho, Emmaus, Beth Horon, Bethel, Timnath, Tephon. 1Mac 9:50
160 Jud 4-43, 783
c.159 ALCIMUS, Syrian backed high priest 162-59, orders the wall (which gentiles were forbidden to pass) of the inner court of the Temple torn down (infuriating the Hasidim). 1Mac 9:54
160 Jud 2-549 159 1&2BM 123
c.159 ALCIMUS dies.  Syrian backed high priest of Jerusalem from 162, has a stroke (paralized, can't talk).  The breaking of the wall is stopped.  Alcimus dies in Jerusalem.  No high priest until 152. 1Mac 9:55, Antiq 12:10:6     160 GHH
160/59 Jud 2-549     159 CHJ 2-312, DHJ 506, DGRBM 1-102, E2LM 138, Sdl 5-325, af, atl2, gw, hifi, wikHP     156 bivu     154 MCAW     153 rcHL
Judas becomes HP: Antiq 12:10:6
Romantic speculators propose that the Essene Teacher of Righteousness was high priest 159-52, and he left Jerusalem to live in the wilderness. gw
c.159 Syrian general BACCHIDES, in Judea from 160, returns to Syria until 157. 1Mac 9:54     159 GHH,
Jud 4-44, 10-188, Sdl 5-325
c.158/7 EUPOLEMUS, a Samaritan Maccabean sympathizer in Palestine, completes  On the Kings of Judah  in the 5th year of Demetrius Soter.  "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." 158
CHJ 2-397 158/7 jvl
c.157 Now that Jonathan is relaxed, Hellenistic Jews ask DEMETRIUS-I to send back Syrian general BACCHIDES.  They try to sieze Jonathan and others.  Jonathan and his men kill 50 Hellenistic ring-leaders and withdraw to Bethbasi and rebuild it. 1Mac 9:58-62,
Antiq 13:1:5
157 1&2BM 127
no date: Sdl 5-325
c.157 BETHBASI is fortified by Jonathan and Simon. 1Mac 9:62
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES, returns to Judea at request of Hellenists, besieges Jonathan and Simon at Bethbasi. 1Mac 9:63, Antiq 13:1:5
158 GHH, Jud 4-44
no date: Jud 10-189
c.157 Jonathan, and a few men, sneak out of Bethbasi and attack some of the besiegers:  Odomera and his people, and the Phasirites.  Simon sallies out and burns the Syrian siege engines. 1Mac 9:63 -68
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES defeated by Jonathan at Bethbasi. 1Mac 9:68     156 GHH
no date: Jud 10-189
c.157 BACCHIDES / JONATHAN  treaty .  Hasmonean party recognizes supremacy of Syria, which will not try to appoint the next high priest. 1Mac 9:58-73, Antiq 13:1:5
157 CHJ 2, DHJ 506, atl2
156 E2LM 136, GHH
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES takes out rage on Hellenistic Jews, releases all prisoners, vows never to return to Judea, which he doesn't. 1Mac 9:68, Antiq 13:1:6
no date: Jud 10-189
c.156 JONATHAN Maccabee, leader of Jews 160-43, settles in Michmash until 153.  Lives as an O.T. judge with no high priest.  Detroys Hellenists and recalcitrants.  Has peace until 147. 1Mac 9:73
158 Jud 10-189 156 E2LM 136 154 GHH
c.153 New taxes are first mentioned in 153 under Demetrius-I.  Quotas levied as tax amounts to ⅓ of the production of grain and half the production of fruit. 153
CHJ 2-285
c.153 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, supported by Attalus-II of Pergamum and Ptolemy-VI, musters an army. 1Mac 10:1
153/2 Sdl 5-326 152 CAH 8-523, CHJ 2-313
c.153 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, musters army to fight Alexander Balas.  Seeks alliance with Jonathan Maccabee.  Authorizes Jonathan to raise an army.  Releases Jewish hostages from the citadel in Jerusalem. 1Mac 10:3
153 GHH
152 CAH 8-523, atl2
c.153 JONATHAN Maccabee, leader of Jews 160-43, at Michmash from 156, now backed by Demetrius-I, moves to Jerusalem and refortifies it, but the citadel is still occupied by Syrians. 1Mac 10:7
153 Jud 9-1392, 10-189, wikJA
c.153 Gentiles in Judea, in strongholds of Bacchides from 160, flee to their own countries, except some in Beth Zur.  Hellenistic Jews flock to Beth Zur. 1Mac 10:12
c.153 General GELASTES sent from Egypt by Ptolemy-VI Philometor with army thru Levant to Syria to support Alexander Balas. 153 IDB 1-78, 3-966
152 CAH 8-523
c.153/2 ALEXANDER BALAS, perhaps with ships supplied by Ptolemy-VI, lands at PTOLEMAIS, under Rome from 175, where the garrison betrays the city to him.  Ptolemais under Syria until ?. 1Mac 10:1
153/2 Sdl 5-326
152 1&2BM 128, CAH 8-362, CHJ 2-313, DGRBM 1-114, E2LM 137, GHH
c.152 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, seeks alliance with Jonathan Maccabee.  Authorizes Jonathan to raise an army, orders the hostages in the citadel to be handed over to Jonathan. 1Mac 10:3,
Antiq 13:2:1
152 1&2BM 128, CAH 8-523
c.152 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, supported by Attalus-II of Pergamum and Ptolemy-VI, at Ptolemais, seeks counter-alliance with Jonathan Maccabee, appoints him high priest and vassal king, sends him a purple robe and gold crown.  Hasmonean high priests begin until ?. 1Mac 10:15, Antiq 13:2:2
153 B76 11-225, GHH, Jud 2-576, 10-189
153/2 B76 11-225
152 B76 17-948, CAH 8, Jud, Sdl 5-327, atl2
c.152 JONATHAN Maccabee, leader of Jews 160-43, moves to Jerusalem, rebuilds walls, appointed high priest by Alex Balas.  He accepts, becomes high priest until death 143, and an Alex Balas supporter. 1Mac 10:18     153 IDB 4-549, Jud 10-189, VDJD 90, bivu, gw, rcHL, wikHP, wikJA
152 1&2BM 130, B76 17-948, BNTH 5, 59, 71, 102, CAH 8-362, CHJ 2, DHJ 508, E2LM 138, IDB 1-78, MCAW, VDJD 98, bk
c.152 Walls of Jerusalem, destroyed from 168, partly rebuilt. 1Mac 12:36
152 1&2BM 172
c.152 HASMONEAN PERIOD begins until 37. 152 VDJD 78
c.152 ZADOKITES, the only scripturally legitimate high priests, and their supporters break from the Maccabees.  The Hasidim are divided. 152 VDJD 98
c.152 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, tries to regain support of Jonathan Maccabee.  Stops all taxes, returns all POWs, gives up the citadel at Jerusalem, promises Ptolemais, much money, and much benefit to all Jews in Syria. 1Mac 10:25, Antiq 13:2:3
152 GHH 151 atl2
c.152 JONATHAN Maccabee, leader of Jews 160-43, high priest 152-43, has promises of Demetrius-I read to the people.  They don't believe D-I.  Jonathan maintains alliance with Alex Balas. 1Mac 10:46
c.150 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor and dau Cleopatra Thea sail to Ptolemais.  ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, now at Ptolemais, marries CLEOPATRA THEAJonathan Maccabee is invited to the wedding. 1Mac 10:57, Antiq 13:4:1-2
151/0 Sdl 5-327
150 1&2BM 139, B76 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-524, DGRBM 1-800, 3-593, IDB 3-966, Jud 2-577, atl2
c.150 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, goes to Ptolemais for wedding of Alex Balas.  Establishes friendship with him and Ptolemy-VI.  Confirmed as governor of Judea. 1Mac 10:59
151/0 Sdl 5-327 150 CHJ 2, GHH, Jud 10-189, atl2
c.150 DEMETRIUS-I Soter dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 162, defeated and killed by usurper ALEXANDER BALAS, who succeeds until 145, as a vassal of Ptolemy-VI, and puppet of Rome. 1Mac 10:50, Antiq 13:3:4
151 IDB 1-815, Jud 2-577
150 B76 I-224, III-456, 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-253, 362, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-314, DGRBM 1-114, 967, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-78, Jud 2-576, 5-1489, 10-189, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI3, TTPC, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcM
c.150 3 toparchies (Ephraim, Rathamin, and Lydda) in Samaria taken by Alexander Balas and given to Jonathan Maccabee. 1Mac 11:34
150 IDB 4-13
c.150 GAZA, under Seleucids from 198, independent until 96. 150 rcHL
c.150 LACHISH deserted.  Never reoccupied. 150 IDB 3-55
150±50 1st ESDRAS (Greek Ezra or 3rd Book of Ezra) written in Egypt. post-333 AΨA 5     200-100 B76 III-958 200-50 ODCC 470     125 lvCrn
c.150  Book of DANIEL , written 165, is known and revered in mid 2nd century. 150
IDB 1-763
c.150  Book of Tobit  written 200, revised by Jews to the form common today. 150
AΨA 174
c.150  Book of Judith  written in Hebrew.   (See Holofernes) 200-100 AΨA 243, B76 V-627     150 B76 2-932, lvCrn     150-125 IDB 2-1025
Maccabean period: B76 V-627, ODCC 765
c.150  Book of GIANTS  written.  Retells part of the ΛEnochV story and elaborates on the exploits of the giants, especially 2 children of Shemihaza, Ohya and Hahya.  One of the giants is Gilgamesh. pre-200 wikBG
200-100 lvCrn
no date: gslBG
c.150 EUPOLEMUS, a Samaritan Maccabean sympathizer in Palestine, flourishes.  Earliest Hellenistic Jewish historian whose work ( Pseudo-Eupolemus ) survives (in 5 fragments).  Believed to reside in Judea because he dates his works by Seleucids rather than Ptolemies. Tries to bring together Greek and Babylonian mythology, interpreted euhemeristically, and biblical pre-history by identifying biblical with pagan names.  He thus has Bel (Kronos) in place of Noah in the genealogy, and identifies the Greek Atlas - because of his connection with astrology - with Enoch. 150
B76 10-313 pre-129 CHJ 2-400
no date: wikEu
c.150 QUMRAN period 1a begins until 103, consists of one building. 150 DQ 40
c.150  MANUAL of DISCIPLINE  (aka Community Rule) written.  Describes customs of the Dead Sea sect including annual renewal of the covenant, an explanation of the spiritual status of the sect.  Concludes with 3 hymns of praise. 150 ency
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, son of D-I, in Cilicia with Cretan mercenaries, appoints Apollonius governor of Coele-Syria. 1Mac 10:67
147 B76 3-457, CAH 8-524 147/6 IDB 1-816, RAI2
Alex B. appoints Apollonius: Antiq 13:4:3
c.147 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, leads army north along coast to support Alex Balas, who orders all Syrian cities opened to him, but not including Seleucia PieriaP-VI garrisons each city enroute. 1Mac 11:1-8
148 B76 VIII-281 147 bk, lvPt6
c.147 ALEXANDER BALAS returns from Ptolemais to Antioch. 1Mac 10:68
147 1&2BM 151
147/6 APOLLONIUS, governor of Coele-Syria for Demetrius-II, camps at Jabneh, challenges Jonathan Maccabee to battle, garrisons surrounding cities including Joppa. 1Mac 10:69,
Antiq 13:4:4
147/6 1&2BM 142
c.146 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, with 10,000 men, camps near Joppa and besieges it. 1Mac 10:75, Antiq 13:4:4     148 GHH 146 AΨΨ 86
c.146 JOPPA, besieged by Jonathan Maccabee, gets scared, opens to him, occupied by Jews until 146. 1Mac 10:75, Antiq 13:4:4     148 GHH 147 1&2BM 171, IDB 2-971
146 AΨΨ 86     140 CHJ 2-499
c.146 APOLLONIUS, governor of Coele-Syria for Demetrius-II, defeated by Jonathan Maccabee at Ashdod. 1Mac 10:77, Antiq 13:4:4
148 GHH     147 atl2
c.146 ASHDOD (Azotus) burnt by Jonathan Maccabee along with the temple of Dagon. 1Mac 10:84, Antiq 13:4:5
c.146 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, goes from Ashdod to Askelon, extorts tribute, returns to Jerusalem with much loot. 1Mac 10:86, Antiq 13:4:4
c.146 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, praised and honored by Alex Balas, who gives him Ekron. 1Mac 10:86,
Antiq 13:4:4 146 atl2
c.146 COELE-SYRIA, under Seleucids from 202, occupied by PTOLEMY-VI Philometor until 145. 1Mac 11:1-4
c.146 JONATHAN Maccabee meets PTOLEMY-VI at Joppa, accompanies him to Eleutherus river, returns to Jerusalem. 1Mac 11:6, Antiq 13:4:5
c.146 JOPPA, under Jonathan Maccabee from 147, comes under Ptolemies until 145/4. 146
1&2BM 171
c.146 A "TEACHER of RIGHTEOUSNESS", age c.35, sets up a community at Qumran. 175 VDJD 77     150 wikTR 150-42 DQ 54
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, with help of Ptolemy-VI, defeats usurper ALEXANDER BALAS at the Oenoparas river.  Balas escapes and flees to Arab dynast Zabdiel. Antiq 13:4:8     146 MCAW 146/5 Jud 5-1489
145 B76 8-383, CAH 8-364, RAI3, TTPC, atl2
c.145 As soon as Ptolemy-VI is dead (145), DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 attacks Ptolemaic possessions in Levant. 145 lvPt6
c.145 COELE-SYRIA, occupied by PTOLEMY-VI Philometor from 146, Egyptian garrisons are expelled by locals.  Comes back under Seleucids until ?. 1Mac 11:18
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, besieges Syrians in the Jerusalem citadel. 1Mac 11:20, Antiq 13:4:9
145 GHH     no date: Jud 10-189
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 orders Jonathan Maccabee to stop besieging Syrians in the Jerusalem citadel, and meet him at Ptolemais. 1Mac 11:22, Antiq 13:4:9
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, continues the siege of the citadel, but takes a few elders & priests & gifts with him to Ptolemais.  Meets Demetrius-II, promises 300 talents in exchange for exemption from tribute and 3 districts of Samaria: Ephraim, Lydda, and RamathaimDemetrius-II accepts, and confirms Jonathan's 152 appointment as high priest. 1Mac 11:23-8, Antiq 13:4:9
145 GHH,
Jud 5-1489, 11-619, atl2
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, sends 3,000 troops to Antioch. 1Mac 11:44, Antiq 13:5:2
145 DHJ 510     142 Jud 3-71
no date: Jud 10-189
c.145 3,000 Jewish mercenaries arrive at Antioch.  They rescue Demetrius-II, massacre inhabitants, plunder and burn Antioch, return with much loot. 1Mac 11:44-51, Antiq 13:5:3
145 1&2BM 158, CAH 8-365, DHJ 510, atl2     142 Jud 3-71
no date: CAH 8-365, Jud 10-189
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, regains control of government and troops.  Demands back the loot taken from Antioch by Jonathan Maccabee, threatens war, breaks alliance. 1Mac 11:52
145 1&2BM 159
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 takes Kedesh in Galilee, intends to depose Jonathan Maccabee. 1Mac 11:63
145 GHH
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, his troops now in revolt, withdraws garrison from the Jerusalem citadel, asks Jonathan Maccabee to quell the revolt at Antioch. 1Mac ???
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, visits fringe cities confirming his rule, visits transjordan, south Syria.  Well received at Askalon. 1Mac 11:60
c.145 GAZA refuses to open gates to Jonathan Maccabee, besieged.  Suburbs burnt.  Surrenders.  Princes taken captive to Jerusalem. 1Mac 11:61, Antiq 13:5:5 145 Jud 7-340
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, goes north to Damascus to extend his influence. 1Mac 11:62, Antiq 13:5:5
c.145 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, invades Coele-Syria, confirms Jonathan Maccabee as high priest, and declares all present boundaries to remain in effect.  Appoints Simon Maccabee strategos of the coast from Tyre to EgyptRegarrisons the Jerusalem citadel with Syrian troops. 1Mac 11:57, Antiq 13:5:4
145
Jud 6-60
144 GHH
c.145 3 Samaritan toparchies including its capital Ramah (Arimathea), in hill country of Ephraim, given by Antiochus-VI to Jonathan Maccabee. 1Mac 11:34, Antiq 13:4:9
145 IDB 1-219, 4-8,
Jud 13-1529
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, defeats Demetrius-II in plain of Hazor, chases him north to Kadesh, returns to Jerusalem. 1Mac 11:67-74, Antiq 13:5:7-8
144 atl2
c.145 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, supports Diodotus Trypho against Demetrius-II, wins over Trypho's army, becomes so powerful as to be distrusted by Trypho. 145
Jud 6-60 144 CAH 8
c.145/4 JOPPA, under Ptolemies from 146, comes under Syria until 143. 145/4 1&2BM 171
c.145/4 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, compelled by Demetrius-II to raise siege of Ptolemais, cede Joppa and Ashdod, which he had captured, and promise 300 talents tribute. 145/4 Jud 5-1489
c.144 BETH ZUR Citadel, under Syrians and Hellenistic Jews from 163, besieged and taken by Simon Maccabee, who installs a Jewish garrison.  Under Jews until 100.  Peace reestablished in region.  Event celebrated annually by Jews on June 23 until 70CE. 1Mac 11:65
147/6 IDB 4-358
145 Jud 4-783
144 1&2BM 164, atl2 143 IDB 1-405
142 CHJ 2-8
c.144 HARITHATH-I king of Nabataea from 169, ends.  MALIKU-I succeeds until 110. 144
MRDK 359
c.144/3 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, sends letters of friendship via envoy Numenius (Jew with Roman name) to Rome, Sparta, etc. 1Mac 12:1
143 E2LM 155, atl2 no date: IDB 3-572
c.143 JONATHAN Maccabee marches from Jerusalem to confront Syrians near Hamath.  The Syrians get scared, and withdraw by night to north of The Eleutherus. 1Mac 12:24-30, Antiq 13:5:10
143 1&2BM 170, atl2
c.143 JONATHAN Maccabee plunders the Zabadean Arabs, then goes to Damascus. 1Mac 12:31-2
143 1&2BM 170
c.143 SIMON Maccabee marches to Ascalon, then to Joppa. 1Mac 12:33-4
143 1&2BM 170
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, wants throne of Syria, sees Jonathan Maccabee as a possible threat, leads army to Beth Shan. 1Mac 12:39, Antiq 13:6:1
c.143 The "Wicked Priest" pursues (? and kills) "Teacher of Righteousness", leader of Essenes, who is in exile at Damascus.  On the assumption, which is far from certain, that the "Wicked Priest" was Jonathan. 143 atl2
c.143 Jews of Jerusalem appeal for help to Jews of Egypt.   Their  letter  does not mention Simon, but is dated in the reign of Demetrius-II, showing that Judea has abandoned the regime of Trypho and Antiochus-VI. 2Mac 1:10
143 1&2BM 220, B76 2-934, CHJ 2-318, atl2
c.143 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, doesn't know intentions of Trypho, leads 40,000 men to Beth Shan. 1Mac 12:41, Antiq 13:6:1
143 1&2BM 174
c.143 Judea / Rome treaty of 161 renewed with Jonathan. 144 GHH   143 CHJ 2
c.143 JONATHAN Maccabee, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, restores walls and fortifications of Jerusalem, starts blockading the citadel. 1Mac 12:35-38, Antiq 13:6:4     144 GHH
143 1&2BM 187, atl2
c.143 ADIDA in the Shephelah fortified by Jonathan. 1Mac 12:38
143 1&2BM 187
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO meets Jonathan Maccabee at Beth Shan, gives J.M. many gifts, persuades J.M. to send away most of his army, and keep only 1,000 men. 1Mac 12:44, Antiq 13:6:1-2 143 1&2BM 174, IDB 4-717, Jud 6-61, wikJA
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO invites Jonathan Maccabee to Ptolemais, murders his 1,000 men, captures J.M.. 1Mac 12:39-53, Antiq 13:6:2, Wars1:2:1     144 GHH
143 DHJ 512, Jud 6-61
c.143 SIMON Maccabee, holds conference at Jerusalem, becomes ruler of Judea until 134, completes fortification of Jerusalem, sends Jonathan ben Absolom to drive enemies out of Joppa. 1Mac 13:1, Antiq 13:6:4
143 BNTH 59
142 MRDK 354, bk, ds, rcHL
c.143 JOPPA, under Syrians from 145/4, taken and sacked, garrisoned by Simon Maccabee until ?. 1Mac 12:34, Antiq 13:6:7
146 1&2BM 171,
IDB 2-971
c.143 Trypho controls AntiochDemetrius-II controls Syrian coast, Cilicia, & Mesopotamia.  Maccabees control coast south of Eleutheros river 143
1&2BM 175
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO & army go from Ptolemais to Judea, bringing Jonathan Maccabee with them, stopped by Simon Maccabee at Adida. 1Mac 13:12-21, Antiq 13:6:5 143 Jud 6-61     142 IDB 1-50
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO defeated by Simon Maccabee at Adida. 1Mac 13:20, Antiq 13:6:5
143 1&2BM 175     142 IDB 1-50
c.143 MASADA:  1st fortress built by Jonathan Maccabee. Wars 7:8:3 142 atl2
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO promises to release Jonathan Maccabee for 100 talents silver and J.M.'s 2 sons as hostages.  Simon Maccabee knows Trypho is lying, but can't risk indignation of Jews.  Complies. 1Mac 13:14,
Antiq 13:6:5
143 Jud 6-61, atl2
c.143 Even in late 143, pious Jewish authorities still believed that the persecutions by Antiochus-IV were punishment for the rebellion against A-IV perpetrated by deposed high priest Jason.  Non-rebellious Jews were so loyal to their pagan masters that from the time of the Persian empire they were preferred as mercenaries. 143 CHJ 2-292-3
c.143 Diodotus TRYPHO hindered by heavy snow, withdraws, crosses Jordan near Jericho, and goes to Gilead. 1Mac 13:20     143 CHJ 2-317     143/2 1&2BM 180   142 IDB 1-50
c.143/2 4th son of Mattathias, JONATHAN Maccabee dies.  Ruler of Judea from 160, high priest from 152, prisoner of Trypho, murdered by Trypho at Baskama Galilee.  Trypho returns to Syria. 1Mac 13:23, Antiq 13:6:6, Wars 1:2:1
144 DGRBM 2-879, GHH
143 CAH 8, CHJ 2, DHJ 513, Dur 2-584, E2LM 141, Jud 6-61, 10-188, MCAW, TTPC, ds, gw, rcHL, wikHP
143/2 1&2BM 180, B76 VI-432
142 af, atl2, bivu, bk, hifi, rcHL
c.143/2 SIMON Maccabee becomes high priest until 134. Antiq 13:6:6, Wars 1:2:2
143 CAH 8     142 VDJD 100, bivu
c.143/2 SIMON Maccabee high priest 143-34 buries Jonathan at Modin and builds a family mausoleum. 1Mac 13:25,
Antiq 13:6:6     144 GHH
143/2 1&2BM 181
c.142 Envoy NUMENIUS (Jew with Roman name) sent by Simon Maccabee with a 1,000 lb gold shield as a gift to Rome. 142 CAH 8, TTPC 141 IDB 3-571
c.142 Consul "Lucius" (L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus?) makes  treaty  with high priest Simon Maccabee:  No country under Roman dominance shall harm their Jews.  The integrity of Jewish territory is guaranteed.  A letter to this effect is sent to Judea by envoy Numenius. 1Mac 14:6
142 Jud 5-170, atl2 141 CAH 8-368 142-39 CHJ 2
139 IDB 3-571
c.142 JABNEH (Jamnia) taken and sacked by Simon Maccabee. Antiq 13:6:7, Wars 1:2:2
142 IDB 2-780
c.142 JOPPA, garrisoned by Jews 143-??, has its fortifications strengthened.  Greeks are forced to leave.  Joppa remains under Jews for next 2 centuries. 1Mac 13:11, 14:5, Antiq 13:6:4
142 IDB 2-971 140 CHJ 2-499
c.142 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, negotiates new alliance with Demetrius-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, who acknowleges Simon as high priest, forgives all debts, but maintains garrisons at Gazara & Jerusalem. 1Mac 13:34-40
142 1&2BM 183, CAH 8, CHJ 2-318, atl2     142/1 Sdl 5-335     141 GHH
c.142 JUDEA, technically under Seleucids from 198, but virtually independent from 166, granted independence by Demetrius-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40.   Judea is an independent kingdom under Hasmoneans until 63. 1Mac 13:41     143 GHH
142 1&2BM 183, CAH 8-527, DHJ 514, E2LM 143, OHG, TTPC
142/1 CHJ 2     141 B76 17-448, BNTH 71, CAH 8, IDB 1-500, 2-530, Sdl 5-336     141/0 B76 VI-432
c.142/1 Demetrius, Trypho and Simon, each controlling parts of Syria and Palestine, are almost deadlocked. 142/1
CAH 8-368
c.141 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, appointed ethnarch and high priest, with right of hereditary succession by Assembly of Jews  "forever until a trustworthy prophet should arise". 1Mac 13:41, 14:27-48
142 IDB 2-462, gw
142/1 Sdl 5-335
141 IDB 2-530, 4-358, MCAW
140 BNTH 59, 71
c.141 GAZARA (Gezer), garisoned by Syrians from 160, besieged and taken by Simon Maccabee. 1Mac 13:43-48, Antiq 13:6:7, Wars 1:2:2     143 IDB 2-389 142 Jud 7-536 141 atl2
c.141 AKRA, citadel at Jerusalem, containing only Hellenizers and foreigners, starved to surrender by Simon.  Garrison and inhabitants expelled from Jerusalem.  Citadel is incorporated into the fortifications of the Temple mount.  Simon resides there with his retinue. 1Mac 13:50, Antiq 13:6:7
142 CAH 8-367, GHH
141 1&2BM 28, 187, CHJ 2-319, E2LM 142, Jud 9-392, Sdl 5-336
c.141 JOHN HYRCANUS, son of Simon Maccabee, made general, put in charge of GAZARA. 1Mac 13:53
141 GHH
c.140 BERYTUS (Beirut) Lebanon sacked and destroyed by Trypho. 140 B76 2-815     138 atl2
c.140 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, confirmed as high priest "forever", commander of the army, and nasi (ethnarch) by the people without waiting for Demetrius-II. 1Mac 13:13:42
141 CAH 8-368 140 CHJ 2-318, DHJ 514
c.140 By decree of popular assembly, bronze tablets recording the deeds of Simon Maccabee are made and put in the Temple precinct. 1Mac 14:25-49
140 Sdl 5-336
c.140 JOSE ben Joezer, Nasi (head of Sanhedrin) from 191, ends.  Joshua ben Perahya until ?. 140 rcHL
c.140 Jews set up an inscription in honor of Simon. 1Mac 14:14:25-49 140 atl2
c.140 BETH ZUR, under Jews 144-100, strengthened by order of Simon Maccabee. 1Mac 14:33
140 CHJ 2-318
140/39 Rome distributes a circular to Anatolia and eastern allied countries declaring friendship toward Jews. 140/39 Jud 4-37 139 DHJ 551, IDB 1-537
c.139 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, son of Demetrius-I, bro of D-II ruler? of Rhodes, bids for friendship with Simon Maccabee, sends him a letter confirming all previous possessions and privileges, guaranteeing independence of Judea, and the right to mint copper coins. 1Mac 15:1-6
139 E2LM 143, IDB 3-426
138 Jud 3-74
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria, flees to Dor. 1Mac 15:11, Antiq 13:7:2     139 LEWH 95
139/8 CDCC 803     138 1&2BM 199, IDB 4-717, Sdl 5-337, atl2     137 DGRBM 1-199
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria, in Dor, besieged by ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes with 120,000 inf and 8,000 cav. 1Mac 15:13, Antiq 13:7:2, Wars 1:2:2 139/8 IDB 1-864     138 1&2BM 199, Jud 3-75, 6-61, Sdl 5-337
c.138 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, sends 2,000 men, gifts, and equipment to help Aniochus-VII besiege Dor.  A-VII spurns it and sends it back. 1Mac 15:26, Antiq 13:7:2
c.138 HASIDIM SCHISM.  Majority become PHARISEES, support Hasmoneans, try to control state religion.  Minority split off to become ESSENES, insist on Aaronic high priests, abandon unwritten traditions. reign of Simon: ENBD 505
They split into Pharisees and Sadducees. 140 lvSd
138±3 A group of ZADOKITES, at odds with Maccabees from 152, go to Damascus, found "Community of the New Covenant in the land of Damascus". 138 VDJD 100
c.138 Diodotus TRYPHO, attempted usurper of Syria, besieged in Dor, flees by ship to Orthosia south of the Eleutheros, and from Orthosia to Apamea, his home town.  Dor capitulates to Antiochus-VII Sidetes 1Mac 15:10-14, Antiq 13:7:2
139 LEWH 95
138 1&2BM 209, Jud 6-61
c.138 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29, sends envoy Athenobius to Simon Maccabee, cancels promises of 139, demands return of Joppa, Gazara, and the Jerusalem citadel or 1,000 talents silver. 1Mac 15:29, Antiq 13:7:3
138 IDB 3-426, Jud 3-75, atl2
c.138 General CENDEBAEUS sent from Syria to Judea to enforce demands of Antiochus-VII, fortifies Kedron in Philistia. 1Mac 15:38, Antiq 13:7:3
138 CAH 8-529, Jud 3-75 137 DGRBM 2-541, 879 136 atl2
c.137 General CENDEBAEUS harasses Jabneh. 1Mac 15:40
c.137 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, too old to fight, sends sons Judas and John Hyrcanus against Cendebaeus. 1Mac 16:1
c.137 General CENDEBAEUS defeated by Judas and John Hyrcanus, retreats to Kedron, pursued as far as Ashdod.  Judas and John Hyrcanus> return to Jerusalem. 1Mac 15:41, 16:8
138 DHJ 549, IDB 2-971
c.136 AKRA CITADEL at Jerusalem destroyed by Simon Maccabee. Antiq 13:6:7
c.135 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29, begins to recover Coele-Syria. 135 B76 I-423, CAH 8-369, IDB 1-152, OCD 72
c.135 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, high priest 141-34, fears that Joppa may surrender to Antiochus-VII Sidetes, sends Jonathan ben Absolom to take and hold Joppa. 135 Jud 10-188
c.135 Early Hebrew alphabet is used on Jewish coins from now to 135CE. 135 B76 1-619
c.134 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes invades Judea. 134 GHH
c.134 PHARISEES and SADDUCEES polarize over interpretation of law and Pentateuch. 134 MCAW 125 GHH
c.134 Jews appeal to Rome.  Senate issues decree.  ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes ignores it. 134 CHJ 2
c.134 SIMON Maccabee, and sons Judas and Mattathias, inspect cities of Judea, visit son-in-law Ptolemy ben Abub, governor of Jericho. 1Mac 16:11-14
135 Jud 13-1349 134 1&2BM 211, VDJD 96
c.134 PTOLEMY ben Abub, governor of Jericho leads SIMON Maccabee, and sons Judas and Mattathias to fortress of Dok (Dagon) 5km northwest of Jericho, gives a banquet, gets them drunk. 1Mac 16:15
135 CAH 8-370, Jud 13-1349
c.134 2nd son of Mattathias, SIMON Maccabee dies.  Ruler of Judea from 143, high priest from 141, and sons Judas and Mattathias, murdered at Dok by son-in-law Ptolemy ben Abub, governor of Jericho. 1Mac 16:16, Antiq 13:7:4, Wars 1:2:3
136 GHH, IDB 4-358     135 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-541, 879, IDB 1-862, 2-530, af, atl2, bivu, bk     135/4 B76 VI-432     134 1&2BM 211, B76 11-225, CAH 8, CHJ 2-297, E2LM 146, Jud 3-75, MCAW, MRDK 354, Sdl 5-338, TTPC, VDJD 78, ds, gw, hifi, rcHL, wikHP
c.134 PTOLEMY ben Abub, governor of Jericho, promises gifts to officers who will join him, sends men to kill John Hyrcanus at Gazara. 1Mac 16:19
134 1&2BM 212
c.134 JOHN HYRCANUS, youngest son of Simon at Gazara, learns of murder of father and bros, warned of assassination attempt, kills the assassins when they arrive. 1Mac 16:21, Antiq 13:7:4
c.134 Youngest son of Simon, JOHN HYRCANUS made leader of Judea and high priest until 104. 1Mac 16:23-4, Antiq 13:8:1, Wars 1:2:3
135 AΨΨ 1, B76 17-948, CAH 8, 9-286, DGRBM 2-879, DHJ 550, IDB 2-530, Jud 8-1146, af, bivu
134 B76, BNTH 6, CAH 8, CHJ 2-321-2, Jud 3-75, MCAW, MRDK 354, VDJD 78, ds, gw, VDJD 18, hifi, rcHL, wikHP
c.134 PTOLEMY ben Abub, governor of Jericho, is besieged at fortress of Dok (Dagon) near Jericho by John Hyrcanus.  He brings Hyrcanus' mother and brothers to the top of the city wall, threatens to throw them off unless Hyrcanus departs.  Hyrcanus refuses, but has to quit the siege because it is a Sabbath year.  Ptolemy kills Hyrcanus' mother and bros and escapes to Zeno, tyrant of Rabbah in Ammon. Antiq 13:8:1, Wars 1:2:4
136 GHH     134 atl2
129 CHJ 2-325
c.134 JERUSALEM, under John Hyrcanus, besieged by Antiochus-VII Sidetes until 132. Antiq 13:8, Wars 1:2:5
135 CAH 8     135/4 B76 I-423
134 1&2BM 211, CHJ 2, DHJ 550, E2LM 146, GHH, Jud 3-75, atl2
c.133 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, expells all non-combatants so they don't use up his food.  A-VII sends them back for the same reason.  They are trapped in the middle until the Feast of Tabs, when Hyrcanus allows them back in. 133 E2LM 147
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, requests a 7 day break in the siege for feast of Passover.  A-VII grants it, for which he is called Antiochus Pius by Jews. Antiq 13:8:2
133 atl2
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, negotiates peace, offers hostages including his bro, promises 500 talents silver: 300 now, 200 later.  A-VII also demands demolition of the walls, and annual tribute.  Hyrcanus agrees. Antiq 13:8:3
133 CHJ 2, DGRBM 2-542, GHH 132 atl2
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, besieged in Jerusalem from 134 by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, surrenders.  Walls are again destroyed. Antiq 13:8:3
134 CAH 8-352, CHJ 2-647 133 DGRBM 1-199
132 Jud 3-75
c.132 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes king of Syria 138-29, grants Jerusalem favorable peace terms, but breaks holes in the walls, returns Joppa, Gazara, etc. to Hyrcanus.  A-VII returns to Antioch. Antiq 13:8:3
134 CAH 8-370 133 DGRBM 1-199
132 CAH 8-530
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, opens sepulcher of David, takes 3,000 talents to pay expenses and maintain foreign troops.  This is a first. Antiq 13:8:4, Wars 1:2:5
133 E2LM 150
132 atl2
c.132 JOHN HYRCANUS, leader of Judea and high priest 134-04, makes  treaty  with Rome in effort to regain Joppa, Gezer, Pegae, and other cities which A-VII had taken contrary to the decree of the senate. Antiq 13:9:2
132 E2LM 150, atl2     128 GHH
c.132/1 Antiochus-VII mints his own coins in Jerusalem which bear his name and confirm his rule 132/1
IDB 3-426

Levant 130-100
V