Levant
c.163 At beginning of 163, the Syrian government unconditionally grants the Jews religious freedom and the right to live as their ancestors had.  The relationship between the crown and the nation that had existed from 200 to 168 is restored.  The new government sacrifices Menelaus.  He is executed and replaced by Alcimus. 163 CAH 8-350
163 Mar Sabbatical Year begins. 1Mac 6:49
163 Diaspora Jews of Ammon, Idumea, Gilead persecuted by local gentiles. 1Mac 5:1
c.163 ESSENES first appear 20 years before the "Teacher of Righteousness" becomes prominent in sect.  Date rests on assumption that "Teacher of Righteousness" lived at time of Jonathan. 163 atl2
c.163 Jews in Galilee attacked by gentiles from Gilead, flee to Dathema in Gilead, petition Maccabees for help. 1Mac 5:9-10
c.163 Q. MEMMIUS is senatorial legate to Judea until 162. 163 DGRBM 2-1026
c.163 SIMON Maccabee sent by Judas with 3,000 men to rescue Galilee, chases Syrians to gates of Ptolemais. 1Mac 5:17-22, Ant 12:8:2
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, leaves Joseph ben Zechariah and Azariah in charge of Judea.  Goes with Jonathan and 8,000 men to Gilead. 1Mac 5:18, Ant 12:8:2
c.163 JUDAS and Jonathan Maccabee and 8,000 men cross Jordan, march 3 days, find some Nabataeans who report on condition of Jews in north Gilead.  Judas turns east, surprise attacks Bozra in Bashan, burns it.  Marches 30 miles by night to Dathema Gilead, which is besieged by Timothy.  Routs Timothy, frees Jews in Dathema, makes it his base of operations. 1Mac 5:24, Ant 12:8:3
164 DHJ 496, Jud 4-292,
163 Sdl 5-312
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee attacks Joppa and Jabneh in retaliation for attacks against Jews.  Destroys Joppa, kills inhabitants. 2Mac 12:3-9
163 GHH, atl2
c.163 JABNEH (Greek Jamnia) taken and burnt by Judas Maccabee. 2Mac 12:8
164 IDB 2-780
c.163 The HASIDIM, with the Maccabees from 166, separate. 163 IDB 3-776
c.163 SIMON Maccabee with 3,000 men is successful in Galilee, pursues gentiles to Ptolemais, brings loot and freed Jews back to Judea. 1Mac 5:21, Ant 12:8:2
163 ISBE 2-390, Sdl 5-313, atl2
c.163 Joseph ben Zechariah and Azariah in charge of Judea, with orders not to attack, Jabneh and are defeated by Gorgias, at Jabneh, lose 2,000 men, and are pursued to Judea. 1Mac 5:57,
Ant 12:8:2, 6 163 Sdl 5-314
c.163 Ammonite Timothy and army return, camp at Raphon in Gilead.  They are defeated there by Judas and retreat to Carnaim.  Raphon is taken by Judas, who goes to Carnaim and defeats Timothy again.  Carnaim is taken by Judas, temple burnt.  Judas now controls north Gilead. 1Mac 5:52-37-44, Ant 12:8:3-4
163 Sdl 5-313, atl2
c.163 JUDAS and JONATHAN take MIZPAH, BOZRAH, CASPHOR, MAKED, BOSOR, and CARNAIM, then head for home. 1Mac 5:52-9, Ant 12:8:3, 4
c.163 EPHRON taken by Judas and Jonathan returning from Gilead. 1Mac 5:46, Ant 12:8:5 163 Sdl 5-313
c.163 JUDAS and Jonathan return to Jerusalem before Feast of Weeks without losing a man.  Judas then learns of the defeat of Joseph and Azariah by Gorgias. 1Mac 5:54, 2Mac 12:31, Ant 12:8:5-6
163 1&2BM 76, Sdl 5-313
c.163 JUDAS and bros attacks Idumeans and other enemies on the borders, invade Idumea, take Hebron, Maresha, and Ashdod. 1Mac 5:63-8, 2Mac 12:35-37, Ant 12:8:6    163 1&2BM 68, Sdl 5-314, GHH, atl2
c.163 JUDAS and bros are defeated by Gorgias at Maresha and withdraw to Judea. 2Mac 12:35-37     163 1&2BM 78, Sdl 5-314, GHH, atl2
c.163 battlesJUDAS and bros go to Adullam (12km northwest of Beth Zur), spends Sabbath.  While burying their dead, they find forbidden tokens of Jabneh idols on some Jewish corpses, and assume that's why the men died.  He prays for them and sends a sin offering for them to Jerusalem, thus initiating the practice of praying for the dead. 2Mac 12:38-45, Ant 12:9:4
c.163 JUDAS and bros sack Ashdod and returns with loot to Jerusalem. 1Mac 5:68
163 Sdl 5-314
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, builds catapults and a siege tower, besieges Menelaus and the Syrian remnant in the Jerusalem citadel, but fail to capture.  Some Syrians escape, and report the siege to Antiochus-V and LYSIAS.  Judas abandons siege and camps at Beth Zur. 1Mac 6:18-32, 2Mac 13:1
163 1&2BM 85 163/2 CHJ 2-306, Sdl 5-314
162 AΨA 88, CAH 8-517
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, night attack on Syrian camp near Modin, kills 2,000 by daybreak. 2Mac 13:9-17
163 atl2
c.163 Syrian general LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, with 100,000 inf, 20,000 cav, 32 elephants, marches south on east side of Jordan River, to Idumea, then attacks Beth Zur from south.  Judas Maccabee retreats from Beth Zur 8km north to Beth Zechariah. 1Mac 6:28, Ant 12:9:4
163 1&2BM 60, BHS 2-183, DHJ 497, GHH, IDB 1-151 2-83, ISBE 1-480, 2-58
163/2 Sdl 5-315
This 2nd campaign is omitted by 2Mac, and may not have happened. 1&2BM 60
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, leaves siege of Beth Zur, leads army 8km north to attack Judas Maccabee at Beth Zechariah. 1Mac 6:33
163 E2LM 123 162 CAH 8-517
c.163 battles5th son of Mattathias, ELEAZAR dies at Beth Zechariah.  He sees an elephant with gold armor, assumes Antiochus-V is riding it, fights his way to it and stabs it from underneath.  It falls on him and kills him. 1Mac 6:43, Ant 12:9:4, Wars 1:1:5
163 B76 11-225, BHS 2-184, E2LM 124, GHH, Jud 6-594     163/2 Sdl 5-315     162 CAH 8-517, Jud 4-782
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, defeats Judas Maccabee at Beth Zechariah.  Judas flees to Gophna [Wars], or Jerusalem [Ant]. 1Mac 6:47, Wars 1:1:5
163 BHS 2-184, Jud 11-627, atl2     162 IDB 1-404, Jud 4-782
c.163 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, retreats from Antiochus-V to Jerusalem. 1Mac 6:47, Ant 12:9:5
162 CAH 8-517
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, send part of the army to besiege Beth Zur, proceed with the rest to besiege Judas Maccabee in Jerusalem. 1Mac 6:48,
Ant 12:9:5
163/2 ISBE 2-622, Sdl 5-315
c.163 BETH ZUR, under Jews 163, besieged by general Lysias and Antiochus-V, starved to surrender.  Under Syrians and Hellenistic Jews until 144. 1Mac 6:49, Ant 12:9:5, Wars 1:1:5    163 Jud 4-783
162 IDB 1-404
c.163 MENELAUS ends.  Benjamite high priest from 171, deposed by General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, deported to Beroea near Aleppo until death 162.  Son of O-III, ONIAS-IV succeeds until 162. 2Mac 4:32, Ant 12:9:7     165 af     164 IDB 3-603
163 CAH 8-517, af
162 E2LM 106, Sdl 5-316 bivu, gw, hifi, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP     161 CBCNT 70,
c.163 ELIAKIM, Aaronite neph of Jose ben Joezer, a Hellenist who calls himelf ALCIMUS, is legitimate claimant to high priesthood, but is prevented from ruling by Judas Maccabee until 162. 163
CAH 8-517 162 wikHP
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, hear that Philip has returned to Antioch, and is trying to take the throne.  They promise religious freedom and make peace with Judas Maccabee in Jerusalem.  Judas agrees to surrender Jerusalem. 1Mac 6:61
163 B76 17-948,
CAH 8, DHJ 504,
IDB 1-151, atl2, wikJM
163/2 Sdl 5-315-6
162 E2LM 125
c.163 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, breaks oath to Judas Maccabee, destroys the wall around the Temple in Jerusalem.  Judas is left as a vassal with the Temple cult intact, but now including a burnt offering to Antiochus-V. 1Mac 6:55-63,
Ant 12:9:7
163 B76 17-948, atl2
162 CAH 8-517
c.163 MENELAUS dies.  Benjamite former high priest 171-63,deported to Beroea near Aleppo from 163, executed. Ant 12:9:7     163 CAH 8, atl2     162 Jud 11-1351, af, rvlv
c.163/2  Book of BARUCH  written, parts A & B in Hebrew, part C in Greek.  Named after Baruch ben Neriah, Jeremiah's scribe. 163/2 lvCrn
164-150 IDB 1-363
after 70CE AΨA 574
no date: wikBB
The 3 parts of the book were probably written at different times. mb
c.162 General LYSIAS and ANTIOCHUS-V, appoints HEGEMONIDES strategos of south Palestine and returns to Antioch to deal with Philip. 1Mac 6:63
162 CAH 8-517, Sdl 5-316
c.162 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Seleucus-IV in Lycia, sails army to Tripolis Syria. 1Mac 7:1, 2Mac 14:1, Ant 12:10:1
162 CAH 8-518, IDB 4-711, RAI3
c.162 ELIAKIM, Aaronite neph of Jose ben Joezer, a Hellenist who calls himelf ALCIMUS, legitimate claimant to high priesthood, visits Demetrius-I in Tripolis?, complains that Judas Maccabee persecutes the Hellenists, asks for and receives appointment as high priest.  Sent back with Syrian troops under Bacchides. 1Mac 7:5, 2Mac 14:3, Ant 12:10:2
163 CAH 8, GHH
162 GHH, ISBE 1-917, Jud 2-549, af, gw
161 BNTH 59, 70, DGRBM 1-102, ISBE 2-390, Sdl 5-317, bk
c.162 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, is supported by the Hasidim and the Zugoth:  Jose ben Joezer & Jose ben Johanan because he is an Aaronite.  He is opposed by Judas Maccabee because he comes with Syrian troops. 1Mac 7:8, Mish 1-506
162 Jud 2-549
c.162 BACCHIDES, Syrian general installs high priest Alcimus by force. 1Mac 7:8
161 atl2
c.162 ONIAS-IV ends.  Zadokite high priest from 163, flees to Heliopolis EgyptALCIMUS succeeds until 159. Ant 12:9:7, Wars 1:1:1
163 GHH     162 CAH 8-517,
Jud 12-1403, bivu       161 CBCNT 70     160 DHJ 612
c.162 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, arrests and executes 60 Hasidim in 1 day. 1Mac 7:16, Ant 12:10:2
162 GHH, ISBE 1-917, Jud 2-549
c.162 Λ Book of ENOCH V chapters 83-90 written in Hebrew or Aramaic.  Consists of 2 visions:  Ch 83-84: Flood was the 1st judgment.  Ch 85-90: a dispensational world history to the Maccabean period, and predicts a Jewish leader, a final battle, destruction of the enemy, new Jerusalem established, apostate Jews punished, a Messiah appears symbolized by a white bull, good guys get resurrected, whole world converts to Judaism. 166-61 je 165-60 lv1E 163-30 IDB 2-104-5 pre-161 AΨΨ 171
c.162 The future MESSIAH becomes (among other things) a lamb. 1 ENOCH 90:38
AΨΨ 260
c.162/1 BACCHIDES, Syrian general supporting high priest Alcimus, withdraws from Jerusalem, camps at Beth Zaith (7km northeast of Beth Zur), executes many opponents. 1Mac 7:19
161 IDB 1-404
c.162/1 BACCHIDES, Syrian general leaves a detachment to support high priest Alcimus, returns to Syria until 160. 1Mac 7:20, Ant 12:10:2
162/1 Jud 2-549
c.161 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, persecutes partisans of high priest Alcimus, drives him out of Jerusalem. 1Mac 7:23
162 GHH
161 Jud 2-549
c.161 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, appeals to Demetrius-I for military aid against Judas Maccabee. 1Mac 7:25, 2Mac 14:6, Ant 12:10:3     161 CAH 8-519, Jud 2-549, Sdl 5-318
c.161 NICANOR, general with a large Syrian force enters Judea. 1Mac 7:26-32, Ant 12:10:4
161 1&2BM 99 DHJ 501,
Jud 2-549, atl2
c.161 SIMON Maccabee defeated by Nicanor's troops, near Dessau village. 2Mac 14:16
161 Sdl 5-319
c.161 Syrian general NICANOR asks Judas Maccabee for a peaceful meeting.  Judas agrees, discovers a trap, flees. 1Mac 7:27, Ant 12:10:4     162 GHH
c.161 Syrian general NICANOR, defeated by Judas Maccabee at Capharsalma 6km north of Jerusalem, loses 500 men, flees to Jerusalem. 1Mac 7:29-33, Ant 12:10:4
161 CAH 8, IDB 3-200, Jud 4-44, Sdl 5-319, atl2
c.161 JUDAS Maccabee, leader of Jews 166-60, sends envoys under Eupolemus ben Johanan and Jason ben Eleazar to Rome to establish alliance and aid against Syria. 1Mac 8:17     166 CHJ 2-640 161 CAH 8-519, CHJ 2-310, ISBE 1-964, Jud 4-44, 9-1115, 14-240, wikHD     161/0 DHJ 501
160 CHJ 2-397, GHH, atl2
no date: Sdl 5-320
c.161 Senate makes  defense treaty  with Judas Maccabee of Judea:  No trade with enemy of either.  Jews may be judged by their own laws.  Tells Demetrius-I to lay off.  But gives no material support.  Renewed 142. 1 Mac 8-23, Ant 12:10:6
161 CAH 8-519, 290, CHJ 2, Dur 2-584, E2LM 134, MCAW, SORH, wikJM    161/0 DHJ 501 160 GHH, atl2
c.161 Syrian general NICANOR, goes to the Temple, demands that the Jews surrender Judas Maccabee or he will burn the Temple.  Nicanor then goes to Beth Horon. 1Mac 7:33, Ant 12:10:5 161 atl2
161/0 Sdl 5-319
c.160 Syrian general NICANOR goes from Jerusalem to Beth Horon, where he is joined by an army from Syria. 1Mac 7:39, Ant 12:10:5
161 atl2   161/0 Sdl 5-319
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is an Upper and a Lower Beth Horon 3km apart, midway between Emmaus and Bethel.  Unless Upper or Lower is specified, there is no way to know which is referred to.
c.160 RAZIS, Jewish conservative elder, denounced to Nicanor.  Nicanor sends 500 men to arrest him.  Razis suicides to avoid capture. 1Mac 14:37-41
160 atl2
c.160 Mar 9 Syrian general NICANOR, confronts Judas Maccabee with 3,000 men at Adasa 6km north of Jerusalem.  Nicanor is killed early in the battle.  Syrians flee, and are pursued by local Jews to Gazara (Gezer).  Nicanor's head and right arm are cut off by Jews.  March 9 is celebrated annually as Nicanor's day. 1Mac 7:43, Ant 12:10:5
161 BHS 2-202, Dur 2-584, E2LM 131, IDB 3-547, ISBE 1-917, 2-459, Jud 10-381, 12-1133, wikJM       160 1&2BM 99, CAH 8-520, CHJ 2-463, GHH, Jud 2-549, 10-381, Sdl 5-319, atl2
c.160 ALCIMUS, Hellenist high priest 162-59, flees to Syria. 1Mac 7:26, Ant 12:10:3     161 ISBE 1-917
c.160 General BACCHIDES with 20,000 inf and 2,000 cav returns from Syria with high priest ALCIMUS against Judas Maccabee.  Mesaloth is besieged and taken. 1Mac 9:1
160 1&2BM 112, E2LM 134, GHH, Sdl 5-320
c.160 GAZARA (Gezer), under Judea from 167, taken and fortified by Bacchides, used to vex Jews until 142. 1Mac 9:50-52
161 IDB 2-389, ISBE 2-459
c.160 THAMNA (Timnath), EMMAUS, and BETHEL fortified by Bacchides. 1Mac 9:50
160 IDB 4-649
c.160 Nasi JOSE ben Joezer of Zeredah is executed by nephew, Alcimus.  Successor, Joshua b. Perahyah, does not take office for several years. 160 CHJ 2-269
c.160 General BACCHIDES with 20,000 inf and 2,000 cav besieges Jerusalem, camps at Berea southwest of Bethel.  Judas with 3,000 camps at Elasa (Adasa? location disputed). 1Mac 9:4, Wars 1:1:6
161/0 wikJA
160 1&2BM 113, Sdl 5-320
c.160 ALCIMUS rules Jerusalem with Syrian backing until 159. 1Mac 9:3   160 1&2BM 114, E2LM 134, GHH, Jud 2-549, Sdl 5-320
c.160 3,000 Jew troops at Elasa get scared by number of Syrian troops.  2,200 fall away leaving only 800 with Judas Macabee, who insists on fighting anyway. 1Mac 9:6, Ant 12:11:1
160 DGRBM 2-879, GHH, Sdl 5-321
c.160 JABNEH: Name helenized to JAMNIA.
It is called Jamnia in the Book of Judith c.150.
160 guess
no date: ISBE 2-947
c.160 3rd son of Mattathias, JUDAS Maccabee dies.  Leader of Jews from 166, defeated and killed at Mt. Azotus [text is corrupt] by Syrian general Bacchides.  Many partisans tracked down and killed.  Bro JONATHAN Apphus succeeds until 143. 1Mac 9:18, Ant 12:11:1-2, 13:1:1, Wars 1:2:1     161 B76 VI-432, MCAW, MRDK 354, hifi     161/0 wikHD     160 B76 17-948, CAH 8-250, 9-281, CHJ 2, DHJ 504, Dur 2-584, E2LM 136, GHH, ISBE 1-917, 2-622, Jud 5-1489, 10-188, Sdl 5-321, TTPC, atl2, bk, ds, rcHL, wikJA, wikJM
at Adasa village Wars 1:1:6
at Elasa CAH 9-281
c.160 Beth Zur CITADEL, rebuilt 165, under Syrians 163-144, burnt down by Bacchides, and then rebuilt. 1Mac 9:52
160 CHJ 2-8, IDB 1-405, Jud 4-783
c.160 JONATHAN Apphus and SIMON Maccabee, flee with followers to wilderness of Tekoa, and camp at pool of Asphar. 1Mac 9:33, Wars 1:2:1
160 IDB 4-528 Jud 10-188
c.160 Syrian general BACCHIDES with his whole army, crosses the Jordan to confront Jonathan and Simon. 1Mac 9:34
c.160 PEREA, area along east bank of the Jordan, between Sea of Galilee and Dead Sea, under Ammon from 850, comes under Judea until 63. 160 rcJdn
c.160 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, sends elder bro Johanan Gaddi with convoy to ask permission of Nabataeans to deposit baggage with them. 1Mac 9:35,
Ant 13:1:2 160 lvAN
c.160 Sons of Jambre at Medaba Ammon raid caravan of John Maccabee. 1Mac 9:37, Ant 13:1:2
c.160 1st son of Mattathias, JOHANAN GADDI killed in Ammon by Jambrites. 1Mac 9:36, Ant 13:1:2, Wars 1:1:6     161 Jud 10-155, jvl     160 atl2
c.160  Prayer of Azariah  written in Hebrew as an insertion into Daniel after 3:23. after Daniel: AΨA 629
c.160  Song of the Children  written as an insertion into Daniel after 3:24. 167-163 CBCNT 58
after Daniel: AΨA 629, 652
c.160 PHARISEES emerge.  Liberal interpreters of Law using oral traditions to augment written text. Ant 13:5:9     167 wikΦr 165-60 Jud 13-363, britΦr
c.160 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, learns of a wedding among the Jambrites at Medaba in Ammon.  Raids wedding, kills 400 men, women, & kids, heads back to the Jordan. 1Mac 9:37-40 Ant 13:1:4
c.160 AMMON, independent from 200, under Timothy from ?, conquered by Jonathan.  Comes under Judea until 120s. 160 hifi, rcJdn
c.160 Syrian general BACCHIDES, having learned of Jonathan's intended raid on Medaba, catches Jonathan on a Sabbath with his back to the Jordan.  An "indecisive" battle ensues.  Jonathan and his men swim across the Jordan. 1Mac 9:43, Ant 13:1:3
160 GHH, Jud 4-44, atl2
c.160 Syrian general BACCHIDES, fortifies the citadel at Jerusalem.  He builds strongholds and populates them with gentiles.  e.g Jericho, Emmaus, Beth Horon, Bethel, Thamna (Timnath), Tephon. 1Mac 9:50
160 BHS 2-215, Jud 4-43, 783
c.159 ALCIMUS, Syrian backed high priest 162-59, orders the wall (which gentiles were forbidden to pass) of the inner court of the Temple torn down (infuriating the Hasidim). 1Mac 9:54
160 Jud 2-549 159 1&2BM 123
c.159 ALCIMUS dies.  Syrian backed high priest of Jerusalem from 162, has a stroke (paralized, can't talk).  The breaking of the wall is stopped.  Alcimus dies in Jerusalem.  No official HP until 152. 1Mac 9:55, Ant 12:10:6     160 GHH
160/59 Jud 2-549     159 CBCNT 70, CHJ 2-312, DHJ 506, DGRBM 1-102, E2LM 138, ISBE 1-917, 2-622, Sdl 5-325, af, atl2, gw, hifi, rvlv, wikHP     156 bivu     154 MCAW     153 rcHL
Judas becomes HP: Ant 12:10:6
Josephus (Ant 12:10:6) says Judas becomes high priest, and holds it 3 years. (Ant 12:11:2)
Romantic speculators propose that the Essene Teacher of Righteousness was high priest 159-52, and he left Jerusalem to live in the wilderness. gw
c.159 Syrian general BACCHIDES, in Judea from 160, having subjugated it, returns to Syria until 157. 1Mac 9:54, Ant 13:1:5     159 Jud 4-44, 10-188, Sdl 5-325
c.158/7 EUPOLEMUS, a Samaritan Maccabean sympathizer in Palestine, completes  On the Kings of Judah  in the 5th year of Demetrius-I Soter.  "Moses was the first wise man, the first who imparted the alphabet to the Jews; the Phoenicians received it from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians." 158
CHJ 2-397 158/7 jvl
c.157 Now that Jonathan is relaxed, Hellenistic Jews ask DEMETRIUS-I to send back Syrian general BACCHIDES.  They try to sieze Jonathan and others.  Jonathan and his men kill 50 Hellenistic ring-leaders and withdraw to Bethbasi and rebuild it. 1Mac 9:58-62,
Ant 13:1:5
157 1&2BM 127
no date: Sdl 5-325
c.157 BETHBASI is fortified by Jonathan and Simon. 1Mac 9:62
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES, returns to Judea at request of Hellenists, besieges Jonathan and Simon at Bethbasi. 1Mac 9:63, Ant 13:1:5
158 GHH, Jud 4-44
no date: Jud 10-189
c.157 Jonathan, and a few men, sneak out of Bethbasi and attack some of the besiegers:  Odomera and his people, and the Phasirites.  Simon sallies out and burns the Syrian siege engines. 1Mac 9:63 -68
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES defeated by Jonathan at Bethbasi. 1Mac 9:68     157 ISBE 2-622     156 GHH
no date: Jud 10-189
c.157 Jonathan and Simon retreat into a desert and fortify Beth-hogla, a village where they are besieged several days by Bacchides.  Jonathan offers a peace treaty and exchange of war prisoners.  Bacchides accepts. Ant 13:1:5-6 no date: wikHD
c.157 BACCHIDES / JONATHAN  treaty .  Hasmonean party recognizes supremacy of Syria, which will not try to appoint the next high priest. 1Mac 9:58-73, Ant 13:1:5
157 CHJ 2, DHJ 506, atl2
156 E2LM 136, GHH
155 CAH 9-281
c.157 Syrian general BACCHIDES takes out rage on Hellenistic Jews, releases all prisoners, returns to Antioch, vows never to return to Judea, which he doesn't. 1Mac 9:68, Ant 13:1:6
no date: Jud 10-189
c.156 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, settles in Michmash until 153.  Lives as an O.T. judge with no high priest.  Detroys Hellenists and recalcitrants.  Has peace until 147. 1Mac 9:73, Ant 13:1:6 158 Jud 10-189
156 E2LM 136
154 GHH
c.153 New taxes are first mentioned in 153 under Demetrius-I.  Quotas levied as tax amounts to ⅓ of the production of grain and half the production of fruit. 153
CHJ 2-285
c.153 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, supported by Rome, Attalus-II of Pergamum and Ptolemy-VI, musters an army. 1Mac 10:1
153/2 Sdl 5-326 152 CAH 8-523, CHJ 2-313
c.153 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, musters army to fight Alexander Balas.  Seeks alliance with Jonathan Apphus.  Authorizes Jonathan to raise an army.  Releases Jewish hostages from the citadel in Jerusalem. 1Mac 10:3
153 GHH
152 CAH 8-523, atl2
c.153 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, at Michmash from 156, now backed by Demetrius-I, moves to Jerusalem and refortifies it, but the citadel is still occupied by Syrians. 1Mac 10:7     153 Jud 9-1392, 10-189, wikHD, wikJA
152 CAH 9-281
c.153 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, officiates as high priest in Jerusalem at the Feast of Tabernacles. 1Mac 10:1-14, Ant 13:2:1 153 ISBE 1-87, rvlv, wikJA
c.153 Gentiles in Judea, in strongholds of Bacchides from 160, flee to their own countries, except some in Beth Zur.  Hellenistic Jews flock to Beth Zur. 1Mac 10:12
c.153 General GELASTES sent from Egypt by Ptolemy-VI Philometor with army thru Levant to Syria to support Alexander Balas. 153 IDB 1-78, 3-966 152 CAH 8-523
c.153/2 ALEXANDER BALAS, perhaps with ships supplied by Ptolemy-VI, lands at PTOLEMAIS, under Rome from 175, where the garrison betrays the city to him.  Ptolemais under Syria until ?. 1Mac 10:1, Ant 13:2:1
153/2 Sdl 5-326
152 1&2BM 128, CAH 8-362, CHJ 2-313, DGRBM 1-114, E2LM 137, GHH
c.152 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, seeks alliance with Jonathan Apphus.  Authorizes Jonathan to raise an army, orders the hostages in the citadel to be handed over to Jonathan. 1Mac 10:3,
Ant 13:2:1
152 1&2BM 128, CAH 8-523
c.152 ALEXANDER BALAS, pretended son of Antiochus-IV, supported by Attalus-II of Pergamum and Ptolemy-VI, at Ptolemais, seeks counter-alliance with Jonathan Apphus, appoints him high priest, vassal king, sends him a purple robe and gold crown.  Hasmonean high priests begin until 36. 1Mac 10:15, Ant 13:2:2
153 B76 11-225, GHH, Jud 2-576, 10-189
153/2 B76 11-225
152 B76 17-948, CAH 8, Jud, Sdl 5-327, atl2
c.152 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, moves to Jerusalem, rebuilds walls, appointed high priest by Alex Balas.  He accepts.  JONATHAN Apphus becomes high priest until death 143, and an Alex Balas supporter. 1Mac 10:18     153 IDB 4-549, Jud 10-189, VDJD 90, bivu, gw, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP, wikJA
152 1&2BM 130, B76 17-948, BNTH 5, 59, 71, 102, CAH 8-362, CBCNT 70, CHJ 2, DHJ 508, E2LM 138, IDB 1-78, Jud 9-1392, MCAW, VDJD 98, bk     150 ISBE 2-622
c.152 Walls of Jerusalem, destroyed from 168, partly rebuilt. 1Mac 12:36
152 1&2BM 172
c.152 HASMONEAN PERIOD begins until 37. 152 VDJD 78
c.152 ZADOKITES, the only scripturally legitimate high priests, and their supporters break from the Maccabees.  The Hasidim are divided. 152 VDJD 98
c.152 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, tries to regain support of Jonathan Apphus.  Stops all taxes, returns all POWs, gives up the citadel at Jerusalem, promises Ptolemais, much money, and much benefit to all Jews in Syria. 1Mac 10:25, Ant 13:2:3
152 GHH 151 atl2
c.152 JONATHAN Apphus, leader of Jews 160-43, high priest 152-43, has promises of Demetrius-I read to the people.  They don't believe D-I.  Jonathan maintains alliance with Alex Balas. 1Mac 10:46
c.150 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor and dau Cleopatra Thea sail to Ptolemais.  ALEXANDER BALAS, king of Syria 150-45, vassal of Ptolemy-VI, now at Ptolemais, marries CLEOPATRA THEAJonathan Apphus is invited to the wedding. 1Mac 10:57, Ant 13:4:1-2
151/0 Sdl 5-327
150 1&2BM 139, B76 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-524, DGRBM 1-800, 3-593, IDB 3-966, Jud 2-577, atl2
c.150 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, goes to Ptolemais for wedding of Alex Balas.  Establishes friendship with him and Ptolemy-VI.  Confirmed as governor of Judea. 1Mac 10:59, Ant 13:4:2
151/0 Sdl 5-327 150 CHJ 2, GHH, Jud 10-189, atl2
c.150 DEMETRIUS-I Soter dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 162, defeated and killed by usurper ALEXANDER BALAS, who succeeds until 145, as a vassal of Ptolemy-VI, and puppet of Rome. 1Mac 10:50, Ant 13:3:4
151 IDB 1-815, Jud 2-577
150 B76 I-224, III-456, 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-253, 362, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-314, DGRBM 1-114, 967, Dur 2-556, GHH, IDB 1-78, Jud 2-576, 5-1489, 10-189, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI3, TTPC, atl2, bk, frH, lvA, rcM
c.150 Samarian toparchies3 toparchies (Lydda, Rathamin (Ramah, Ramathaim), and Ephraim) in southern Samaria taken by Alex Balas and given to Jonathan Apphus. 1Mac 11:34
150 IDB 4-13 145 ISBE 3-151
c.150 GAZA, under Seleucids from 198, independent until 96. 150 rcHL
c.150 LACHISH destroyed, deserted.  Never reoccupied. 150 IDB 3-55, ISBE 3-58, Jud 10-1334
150±50  1st ESDRAS  (Greek Ezra or 3rd Book of Ezra) written in Egypt.
c.150  Book of DANIEL , written 165, is known and revered in mid 2nd century. 150
IDB 1-763
c.150  Book of Tobit  written 200, revised by Jews to the form common today. 150
AΨA 174
c.150  Book of Judith  written in Hebrew.   A misinformed fiction saying Nebuchadnezzar, who reigned 605-562, is king of Assyria and resides in Nineveh, which fell in 612.    (See Holofernes) 200-100 AΨA 243, B76 V-627     175-110 CBCNT 58     150 B76 2-932, ISBE 2-1165, lvCrn     150-125 IDB 2-1025
Maccabean period: B76 V-627, ODCC 765
c.150  Book of GIANTS  written.  Retells part of the ΛEnochV story and elaborates on the exploits of the giants, especially 2 children of Shemihaza, Ohya and Hahya.  One of the giants is Gilgamesh. pre-200 wikBG
200-100 lvCrn
no date: gslBG
c.150 EUPOLEMUS, a Samaritan Maccabean sympathizer in Palestine, flourishes.  Earliest Hellenistic Jewish historian whose work ( Pseudo-Eupolemus ) survives (in 5 fragments).  Believed to reside in Judea because he dates his works by Seleucids rather than Ptolemies. Tries to bring together Greek and Babylonian mythology, interpreted euhemeristically, and biblical pre-history by identifying biblical with pagan names.  He thus has Bel (Kronos) in place of Noah in the genealogy, and identifies the Greek Atlas - because of his connection with astrology - with Enoch. 150
B76 10-313 pre-129 CHJ 2-400
no date: wikEu
c.150 Qumran 1a QUMRAN period 1a begins until 103, consists of one building.  People clear the cistern, build 2 rectangular cisterns beside it, build a few rooms around them, install 2 pottery kilns. art Dorindavidaurel

150 DQ 40
130 Jud 13-1430
100 CHJ 3-35
c.150 A "TEACHER of RIGHTEOUSNESS", age c.35, sets up a community at Qumran. 175 VDJD 77     150 wikTR 150-42 DQ 54
c.150  Manual of Discipline  (aka Community Rule) written.  Describes customs of the Dead Sea sect including annual renewal of the covenant, an explanation of the spiritual status of the sect.  Concludes with 3 hymns of praise. 150 ency
c.147 JUDEA is the only part of Syrian Coele-Syria that does not support Demetrius-II. 147 ISBE 1-918
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, son of D-I, in Cilicia with Cretan mercenaries, appoints Apollonius governor of Coele-Syria to deal with Judea. 1Mac 10:67, Ant 13:4:4
147 B76 3-457, CAH 8-524 147/6 IDB 1-816, RAI2
Alex Balas appoints Apollonius. Ant 13:4:3
c.147 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, leads army north along coast to support Alex Balas, who orders all Syrian cities opened to him, but not including Seleucia PieriaP-VI garrisons each city enroute. 1Mac 11:1-8
148 B76 VIII-281 147 bk, lvPt6
c.147 ALEXANDER BALAS returns from Ptolemais to Antioch. 1Mac 10:68
147 1&2BM 151
c.147 APOLLONIUS, governor of Coele-Syria for Demetrius-II, camps at Jamnia, challenges Jonathan Apphus to battle, garrisons surrounding cities including Joppa. 1Mac 10:69, Ant 13:4:4
147 wikHD
147/6 1&2BM 142
c.147 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, with 10,000 men, camps near Joppa and besieges it. 1Mac 10:75, Ant 13:4:4     148 GHH
146 AΨΨ 86
c.147 JOPPA, besieged by Jonathan Apphus, gets scared, opens to him, occupied by Jews until 146. 1Mac 10:75, Ant 13:4:4     148 GHH 147 1&2BM 171, IDB 2-971, ISBE 2-1119   146 AΨΨ 86   140 CHJ 2-499
c.147 APOLLONIUS, governor of Coele-Syria for Demetrius-II, defeated by Jonathan Apphus at Ashdod. 1Mac 10:77, Ant 13:4:4
148 GHH     147 atl2
c.147 ASHDOD (now called Azotus) burnt by Jonathan Apphus along with the temple of Dagon. 1Mac 10:84, Ant 13:4:5 147 wikHD
no date: BHS 2-218
c.147 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, goes from Ashdod to Askalon, extorts tribute, returns to Jerusalem with much loot. 1Mac 10:86, Ant 13:4:4
c.146 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, praised and honored by Alex Balas, who gives him Ekron as a personal hereditary possession. 1Mac 10:86, Ant 13:4:4 146 Jud 6-560, atl2
no date: BHS 2-219, wikHD
c.146 Ptolemy-VI wants a hand in the Seleucid succession, marches army north thru Levant while his fleet sails up along the coast.  In each of the coastal cities, P-VI drops a garrison.  At Ashdod the inhabitants show him the appalling results of the Jewish visitation. Ant 13:4:5 147/6 BHS 2-219
c.146 JOPPA, under Jonathan Apphus from 147, comes under Ptolemies until 145/4. 146
1&2BM 171
c.146 JONATHAN Apphus meets PTOLEMY-VI at Joppa, accompanies him up the coast. 1Mac 11:6, Ant 13:4:5
no date: BHS 2-219, wikHD
c.146 ALEXANDER BALAS doesn't want Ptolemy-VI interfering.  He orders general Ammonius to ambush Ptolemy-VI. Ant 13:4:6
c.146 At Ptolemais PTOLEMY-VI discovers Ammonius' trap.  He writes to Alex Balas, telling him to punish Ammonius.  AB doesn't comply.  Ptolemy-VI knows AB ordered the ambush. Ant 13:4:6
c.146 COELE-SYRIA, under Seleucids from 202, occupied by PTOLEMY-VI Philometor until 145. 1Mac 11:1-4
c.146 JONATHAN Apphus accompanies Ptolemy-VI as far as Eleutherus river, returns to Jerusalem. 1Mac 11:6, Ant 13:4:5
no date: BHS 2-219, wikHD
c.145 Inhabitants of Aradus island off coast of Syria lynch some envoys from Marathus (Amrit), a city in south Syria. 145 atl2
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, with help of Ptolemy-VI, defeats usurper ALEXANDER BALAS at the Oenoparas river.  Balas escapes and flees to Arab dynast Zabdiel. Ant 13:4:8     146 MCAW 146/5 Jud 5-1489
145 B76 8-383, CAH 8-364, RAI3, TTPC, atl2
c.145 As soon as Ptolemy-VI is dead (145), DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 attacks Ptolemaic possessions in Levant. 145 lvPt6
c.145 COELE-SYRIA, occupied by PTOLEMY-VI Philometor from 146, Egyptian garrisons are expelled by locals.  Comes back under Seleucids until ?. 1Mac 11:18
c.145 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, besieges Syrians in the Jerusalem citadel. 1Mac 11:20, Ant 13:4:9
145 GHH     no date: Jud 10-189
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 orders Jonathan Apphus to stop besieging Syrians in the Jerusalem citadel, and meet him at Ptolemais. 1Mac 11:22, Ant 13:4:9
c.145 Samarian toparchiesJONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, continues the siege of the citadel, but takes a few elders & priests & gifts with him to Ptolemais.  Meets Demetrius-II, promises 300 talents in exchange for exemption from tribute and 3 districts formerly of Samaria: Lydda, Rathamin (Ramah, Ramathaim), and EphraimDemetrius-II accepts, and confirms Jonathan's 152 appointment as high priest. 1Mac 11:23-8, Ant 13:4:9
145 BHS 2-224, GHH, Jud 5-1489, 11-619, 12-1414, atl2
c.145 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, sends 3,000 troops to Antioch. 1Mac 11:44, Ant 13:5:2
145 DHJ 510     142 Jud 3-71
no date: Jud 10-189
c.145 3,000 Jewish mercenaries arrive at Antioch.  They rescue Demetrius-II, massacre inhabitants, plunder and burn Antioch, return with much loot. 1Mac 11:44-51, Ant 13:5:3
145 1&2BM 158, CAH 8-365, DHJ 510, atl2     142 Jud 3-71
no date: CAH 8-365, Jud 10-189
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, regains control of government and troops.  Demands back the loot taken from Antioch by Jonathan Apphus, threatens war, breaks alliance. 1Mac 11:52
145 1&2BM 159
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40 takes Kedesh in Galilee, intends to depose Jonathan Apphus. 1Mac 11:63
145 GHH
c.145 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, his troops now in revolt, withdraws garrison from the JERUSALEM CITADEL, leaving only Helenistic Jews and foreigners until 141.  JERUSALEM independent until ?.  D-II asks Jonathan Apphus to quell the revolt at Antioch. 1Mac ???
c.145 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, visits fringe cities confirming his rule, visits transjordan, south Syria.  Well received at Askalon. 1Mac 11:60
c.145 GAZA refuses to open gates to Jonathan Apphus, besieged.  Suburbs burnt.  Surrenders.  Princes taken captive to Jerusalem. 1Mac 11:61, Ant 13:5:5
145 Jud 7-340
c.145 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, goes north to Damascus to extend his influence. 1Mac 11:62, Ant 13:5:5
c.145 Diodotus, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, invades Coele-Syria, confirms Jonathan Apphus as high priest, and declares all present boundaries to remain in effect.  Appoints Simon Maccabee strategos of the coast from Tyre to EgyptRegarrisons the Jerusalem citadel with Syrian troops. 1Mac 11:57, Ant 13:5:4
145
Jud 6-60
144 GHH
c.145 Samarian toparchies3 Samaritan toparchies, Lydda, Rathamin (Ramah, Ramathaim), and Ephraim in hill country of Ephraim, given by Antiochus-VI to Jonathan Apphus. 1Mac 11:34,
Ant 13:4:9
145 IDB 1-219, 4-8,
Jud 13-1529
c.145 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, defeats Demetrius-II in plain of Hazor, chases him north to Kadesh, returns to Jerusalem. 1Mac 11:67-74, Ant 13:5:7-8
144 ISBE 2-390, 4-928, atl2
c.145 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, supports Diodotus against Demetrius-II, wins over Diodotus' army, becomes so powerful as to be distrusted by Diodotus. 145
Jud 6-60 144 CAH 8
c.145/4 JOPPA, under Ptolemies from 146, comes under Syria until 143. 145/4 1&2BM 171
c.145/4 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, compelled by Demetrius-II to raise siege of Ptolemais, cede Joppa and Ashdod, which he had captured, and promise 300 talents tribute. 145/4 Jud 5-1489
c.144 BETH ZUR, under Syrians and Hellenistic Jews from 163, comes under Jews until 100.  Citadel besieged and taken by Simon Maccabee, who installs a Jewish garrison.  Peace reestablished in region.  Event celebrated annually by Jews on June 23 until 70CE. 1Mac 11:65
147/6 IDB 4-358
145 Jud 4-783
144 1&2BM 164, atl2 143 IDB 1-405
142 CHJ 2-8
c.144 HARITHATH (Aretas)-I ends.  King of Nabataea from 169.  MALIKU-I succeeds until 110. 150 rcJdn 144
MRDK 359
Aretas-I succeeded by 2 kings. 150 rcJdn
c.144 When DIODOTUS rebels in Syria, Judea favors him because Demetrius-II had kept his garrison in the Jerusalem citadel. 144
BHS 2-228
c.144/3 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, sends letters of friendship via envoy Numenius (Jew with Roman name) to Rome, Sparta, etc. 1Mac 12:1
150 Jud 14-240
146 ISBE 4-593 144 ISBE 1-964
143 E2LM 155, atl2 no date: IDB 3-572
c.143 JONATHAN Apphus marches from Jerusalem to confront Syrians near Hamath.  The Syrians get scared, and withdraw by night to north of the Eleutherus. 1Mac 12:24-30, Ant 13:5:10
143 1&2BM 170, ISBE 4-928, atl2
c.143 JONATHAN Apphus plunders the Zabadean Arabs, then goes to Damascus. 1Mac 12:31-2
143 1&2BM 170
c.143 SIMON Maccabee marches to Askalon, then to Joppa. 1Mac 12:33-4
143 1&2BM 170
c.143 DIODOTUS, regent of Syria for Antiochus-VI, son of Alex Balas, wants throne of Syria, sees Jonathan Apphus as a possible threat, leads army to Beth Shan. 1Mac 12:39, Ant 13:6:1
c.143 The "Wicked Priest" pursues (? and kills) "Teacher of Righteousness", leader of Essenes, who is in exile at Damascus.  On the assumption (which is far from certain) that the "Wicked Priest" was Jonathan. 143 atl2
c.143 Jews of Jerusalem appeal for help to Jews of Egypt.   Their  letter  does not mention Simon, but is dated in the reign of Demetrius-II, showing that Judea has abandoned the regime of Diodotus and Antiochus-VI. 2Mac 1:10
143 1&2BM 220, B76 2-934, CHJ 2-318, atl2
c.143 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, doesn't know intentions of Diodotus, leads 40,000 men to Beth Shan. 1Mac 12:41,
Ant 13:6:1
143 1&2BM 174
c.143 JONATHAN Apphus, ruler of Judea 160-43, high priest 152-43, restores walls and fortifications of Jerusalem, starts blockading the Syrians in the citadel. 1Mac 12:35-38, Ant 13:6:4     144 GHH
143 1&2BM 187, atl2
c.143 ADIDA, which commands the road from Joppa to the Judaean upland, fortified by Jonathan. 1Mac 12:38
143 1&2BM 187
no date: BHS 2-229
c.143 DIODOTUS meets Jonathan Apphus at Beth Shan, gives J.A. many gifts, persuades J.A. to send away most of his army, and keep only 1,000 men. 1Mac 12:44, Ant 13:6:1-2
143 1&2BM 174, IDB 4-717, ISBE 2-390, Jud 6-61, wikJA
no date: BHS 2-229
c.143 DIODOTUS invites Jonathan Apphus to Ptolemais, murders his 1,000 men, captures J.A.. 1Mac 12:39-53, Ant 13:6:2, Wars1:2:1     144 GHH
143 DHJ 512, Jud 2-222, 6-61, 14-1565
c.143 SIMON Maccabee, holds conference at Jerusalem, becomes ruler of Judea until 134, completes fortification of Jerusalem, sends Jonathan ben Absolom to drive enemies out of Joppa. 1Mac 13:1, Ant 13:6:4
143 BNTH 59, ISBE 2-623     142 MRDK 354, bk, ds, rcHL, wikHD
c.143 JOPPA, under Syrians from 145/4, taken sacked, and garrisoned by Simon Maccabee until ?. 1Mac 12:34, Ant 13:6:7, Wars 1:2:2     146 1&2BM 171, IDB 2-971
c.143 DIODOTUS controls AntiochDemetrius-II controls Syrian coast, Cilicia, & MesopotamiaMaccabees control coast south of Eleutherus river 143
1&2BM 175
c.143 DIODOTUS & army go from Ptolemais to Judea, bringing Jonathan Apphus with them, stopped by Simon Maccabee at Adida. 1Mac 13:12-21, Ant 13:6:5
143 Jud 6-61     142 IDB 1-50
c.143 DIODOTUS defeated by Simon Maccabee at Adida. 1Mac 13:20, Ant 13:6:5
143 1&2BM 175     142 IDB 1-50
c.143 MASADA west of Dead Sea:  1st fortress built by Jonathan Apphus. Wars 7:8:3 142 atl2
c.143 DIODOTUS promises to release Jonathan Apphus for 100 talents silver and J.M.'s 2 sons as hostages.  Simon Maccabee knows Diodotus is lying, but can't risk indignation of Jews.  Complies. 1Mac 13:14,
Ant 13:6:5
143 Jud 6-61, atl2
c.143 Even in late 143, pious Jewish authorities still believe that the persecutions by Antiochus-IV were punishment for the rebellion against A-IV perpetrated by deposed high priest Jason.  Non-rebellious Jews were so loyal to their pagan masters that from the time of the Persian empire they were preferred as mercenaries. 143 CHJ 2-292-3
c.143 DIODOTUS hindered by heavy snow, withdraws, crosses Jordan near Jericho, and goes to Gilead. 1Mac 13:20     143 CHJ 2-317     143/2 1&2BM 180   142 IDB 1-50
c.143/2 4th son of Mattathias, JONATHAN Apphus dies.  Ruler of Judea from 160, high priest from 152, prisoner of Diodotus, murdered by Diodotus at Baskama Galilee.  Diodotus returns to Syria. 1Mac 13:23, Ant 13:6:6, Wars 1:2:1
144 DGRBM 2-879, GHH
143 CAH 8, CHJ 2, DHJ 513, Dur 2-584, E2LM 141, ISBE 1-918, Jud 6-61, 10-188, MCAW, TTPC, ds, gw, rcHL, rvlv, wikHP     143/2 1&2BM 180, B76 VI-432, CAH 9-283, ISBE 4-928     142 CBCNT 70, af, atl2, bivu, bk, hifi, rcHL
c.143/2 SIMON Maccabee made high priest by the people until 134. Ant 13:6:7, Wars 1:2:2     143 CAH 8     142 CBCNT 70, ISBE 1-918, VDJD 100, bivu, rvlv, wikHD, wikST
c.143/2 SIMON Maccabee high priest 143-34 buries Jonathan at Modin and builds a family mausoleum. 1Mac 13:25,
Ant 13:6:6     144 GHH
143/2 1&2BM 181
c.142 Envoy NUMENIUS (Jew with Roman name) sent by Simon Maccabee with a 1,000 lb gold shield as a gift to Rome. 142 CAH 8, TTPC 141 IDB 3-571, ISBE 1-964
139 Jud 14-240
c.142 Consul "Lucius" (L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus?) renews 161 Judea / Rome treaty with high priest Simon Maccabee:  No country under Roman dominance shall harm their Jews.  The integrity of Jewish territory is guaranteed.  A letter to this effect is sent to Judea by envoy Numenius, and to Ptolemy Euergetes-II and other allies in the east, ordering them to deliver all Jewish fugitive outlaws to high priest Simon Maccabee.  Renewed 47BCE. 1Mac 15:15
142 Jud 5-170 142-39 CHJ 2 141 CAH 8-368 139 IDB 3-571, wikHD
138/7 ISBE 1-916
c.142 JAMNIA (formerly Jabneh) taken and sacked by Simon Maccabee. Ant 13:6:7, Wars 1:2:2
142 IDB 2-780, ISBE 2-947
c.142 JOPPA, garrisoned by Jews 143-??, has its fortifications strengthened.  Greeks are forced to leave.  Joppa remains under Jews for next 2 centuries. 1Mac 13:11, 14:5, Ant 13:6:4
142 IDB 2-971
140 CHJ 2-499
c.142 GAZARA (Gezer), garisoned by Syrians from 160, besieged and taken by Simon Maccabee, under Judea until 63. 1Mac 13:43-48, Ant 13:6:7, Wars 1:2:2     143 IDB 2-389 142 ISBE 2-418, Jud 7-536 141 atl2
c.142 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, negotiates new alliance with Demetrius-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, who acknowleges Simon as high priest, forgives all debts, but maintains garrisons at Gazara & Jerusalem. 1Mac 13:34-40
142 1&2BM 183, CAH 8, CHJ 2-318, atl2     142/1 Sdl 5-335 141 GHH
c.142 JUDEA, technically under Seleucids from 198, but virtually independent from 166, granted independence by Demetrius-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40.   Judea is an independent kingdom under Hasmoneans until 63. 1Mac 13:41     143 GHH
142 1&2BM 183, CAH 8-527, DHJ 514, E2LM 143, ISBE 2-623, Jud 14-1565, OHG, TTPC
142/1 CHJ 2     141 B76 17-448, BNTH 71, CAH 8, IDB 1-500, 2-530, Sdl 5-336     141/0 B76 VI-432
c.142/1 Demetrius-II, Diodotus and Simon, each controlling parts of Syria and Palestine, are almost deadlocked. 142/1
CAH 8-368
c.141 SIMON Maccabee, ruler of Judea 143-34, appointed ethnarch and high priest, with right of hereditary succession by Assembly of Jews  "forever until a trustworthy prophet should arise". 1Mac 13:41, 14:27-48
142 IDB 2-462, gw
142/1 Sdl 5-335
141 IDB 2-530, 4-358, MCAW, wikHD, wikST
140 BNTH 59, 71
c.141 AKRA, citadel at JERUSALEM, rebuilt 167, containing only Hellenizers and foreigners from 145, starved to surrender by Simon.  Garrison and inhabitants expelled from Jerusalem.  Citadel is incorporated into the fortifications of the Temple mount.  Simon resides there with his retinue. 1Mac 13:50, Ant 13:6:7
142 CAH 8-367, GHH
142/1 BHS 2-232
141 1&2BM 28, 187, CAH 9-284, CHJ 2-319, E2LM 142, ISBE 2-623, Jud 9-1392, Sdl 5-336, wikHD
c.141 JOHN HYRCANUS, son of Simon Maccabee, made general, put in charge of GAZARA. 1Mac 13:53
141 GHH

Levant 140-101
V