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c.200 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, blockaded in Bargylia Caria by ATTALUS and Rhodians, breaks out, sails for Macedonia chased by Attalus and Rhodians who stop short at Aegina. 200
CAH 8-161
c.200 CRETAN WAR between PHILIP-V, and Rhodes from 205, ends.  Philip has lost enough in several battles to give up. 200 wikCW
c.200 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, and some Rhodians go to the Piraeus, meet the Roman embassy. 200 CAH 8-258
c.200 Rhodian ships, returning home from Athens, make alliance with all the Cyclades except Andros, Paros and Cythnos, which are garrisoned by Philip-V. 200
CAH 8-259
c.200 Senatorial legates:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, M. Aemilius Lepidus, in Greece from 201/0, sail east, announce their senatus consultum in Aegean islands.  Then they go to Rhodes, then to Anatolia. 200 CAH 8-162, 260
c.200 Senatorial legate M. Aemilius Lepidus sails from Rhodes to Abydos, tells Philip-V in person of the senatus consultum.  By now demands have been added that Philip keep his hands off Ptolemy's possessions and pay the Rhodians for damages.  Lepidus then sails back to Rhodes. 200 CAH 8-260
c.200 PHILOPOEMEN, in Greece from 210, returns to Crete to fight for people of Gortyn, and doesn't return to Peloponnese until 194. 200
DGRBM 3-319 198 atl2
c.200 ANDROS island, mostly under Macedonians from 338, taken by a Roman, Pergamese, and Rhodian fleet, occupied by Romans and Pergamese.  It remains under Pergamese until 133. 200 B76 I-365, DGRG 1-136, OCD 64
XX in 2nd Athenian League 375-200 rcAg
c.200 SAMOTHRACE, autonomous 301-133: The annual festival to the Great Gods now incorporates a Dionysian competition and the construction of a theater opposite the great altar. 200 wikSTC
c.200 WINGED VICTORY STATUE, commissioned 300 by Demetrius-I Poliorcetes to honor Nike of Samothrace, begun by Pythokritos of Lindos until c.190.  Made of gray and white Thasian and Parian marble for the Samothrace temple complex. 200 wikWVS
c.199 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum joins Romans with fleet and troops. 199 DGRBM 1-410
c.199 Roman fleet continues to protect Athens while also raiding Macedonian possessions in the Aegean and the Macedonian coast.  But since Sulpicius in north Macedonia can't support the fleet, no major success is gained.  The fleet takes Andros island, Oreos in Euboea, Larisa, Cremaste and Pteleum on Thessalian coast. 199 fall
CAH 8-263 howW2M
c.199 Roman, Rhodian, and Pergamene fleets dominate the Aegean, but accomplish little. 199 SORH
c.198 L. APUSTIUS, Roman fleet commander from ?, succeeded by L. Quinctius FLAMININUS.  who sails to Malea island. 198 DGRBM 2-161
c.198 L. Quinctius FLAMININUS, fleet commander, sails from Malea to the Piraeos to join ships already there. 198 DGRBM 2-161
c.198 Earthquake results in a 4 day volcanic eruption near Thera, and the emergence of a new island called Hiera.  This name is frequently given to volcanic islands. 198 atl2
197 DGRG 2-1158
c.197 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Egypt from 308, comes under Macedonia until 168. 197 rcAg
c.197 PAUSISTRATUS, a Rhodian, is appointed to command the forces of Rhodes. 197 DGRBM 3-163
c.197 THEOXENUS commands Achaean troops, who help the Rhodians. 197 DGRBM 3-1094
c.197 LEMNOS Island under Macedonia from 323, independent until 166. 197 rcAg
c.197 Rhodians, fearing that Antiochus-III wishes to join Philip-V, meet A-III at Coracesion on the Pamphylia/Cilicia border.  They insist that A-III not attack Ptolemaic possessions in their area and successfully preserve Caunus, Myndus, Halicarnassus and Samos. 197 CAH 8-271
c.197 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 defeats Rhodes, Samos, Colophon and Phocaea in a naval battle. 197 atl2
c.197 Polycrates of Argos returns after several years as governor of Cyprus, and organises coming of age (anacleteria) of Ptolemy-V. 197 atl2
c.197 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Macedonia from 205, comes under Seleucids until 190. 197 rcAg
c.197 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Egypt from 308, comes under Macedonia until 168. 197 rcAg
under Macedonia from ?, given by Rome to Athens. 196 SORH
c.196 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 off coast of Lydia, learns the rumor that Ptolemy-V has died is false, prepares to take Cyprus, but part of his fleet is wrecked by storm, goes to Antioch. 196 B76 8-383, Oct CAH 8-187, atl2
c.196 THASOS Island, under Macedonia from 202, submits to Rome and is granted independence until ?. 196 DGRG 2-1136, CDCC 874
c.196 SKYROS Island in Sporadese, under Macedonia from ?, given by Rome to Athens. 196 B76 IX-263, SORH
c.196 IMBROS Island, under Macedonia from ?, given by Rome to Athens. 196 SORH
c.195 EUMENES-II of Pergamum sends fleet to help Flamininus against Nabis of Sparta. 195 DGRBM 2-90
c.194 PHILOPOEMEN, Achaean patroit, in Crete, from 200, returns to Greece. 194 B76 15-1094
c.193 PHILOPOEMEN, strategos of Achaean League 193-83, fails against Nabis of Sparta at sea. 194 GHH
193/2 B76 VII-951
c.192 Rhodian POLYXENIDAS is made fleet commander of Antiochus-III. 192 DGRBM 3-471
c.192 Rhodes sides with Romans, against Antiochus-III. 192 SORH
c.192 After co-operating with Macedonian general Menippos in reduction of Chalcis, Rhodian POLYXENIDAS, fleet commander of Antiochus-III, is sent back to Anatolia to assemble more forces during the winter. 192 DGRBM 3-471
c.191 A. Atilius SERRANUS, fleet commander from 192, succeeded by praetor C. Livius SALINATOR until ? in the war against Antiochus-IIIAtilius then captures in the Aegean a large fleet of transports carrying provisions to Antiochus-III, and sails to the Piraeus. 191 BHS 2-89, DGRBM 3-695, 788
c.191 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, in Greece from ?, flees to Ephesus. 191 Apr CAH 8
c.191 Praetor C. Livius SALINATOR sails Roman fleet across Aegean to Delos in Cyclades. 191 CAH 8-217
c.191 Having learned that praetor Livius Salinator and his fleet arrived at Delos, POLYXENIDAS strongly urges Antiochus-III to let him fight Salinator without delay, before Salinator could unite with the fleet of Eumenes-II and the Rhodians.  Though his advice is followed, it is too late to prevent the junction of Eumenes with Salinator. 191 DGRBM 3-471
c.191 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III, outnumbered by 35 warships, decides to attack C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-2 before Rhodian fleet arrives.  Polyxenidas is defeated and loses 23 ships off Corycos on coast of Lycia, returns to Ephesus 191 B76 1-994, 8-384, CAH 8-218, DGRBM 3-695, atl2
190 GHH
CONFUSION ALERT!  CORYCOS is a port city in Lycia and another in Cilicia.
c.191 Roman fleet is supported by Rhodes, and friendly with Samos, Chios, Erythrae, and others. 191 SORH
c.191 Praetor C. Livius SALINATOR sails Roman fleet from Delos to Ionia. 191 CAH 8-217
c.191 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III sails to Samos to fight Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II, but a storm prevents the engagement, and Polyxenidas sails to Ephesus. 190 DGRBM 3-471
c.191 Rhodian commander PAUSISTRATUS is appointed to command the Rhodian fleet, but joins the Romans too late to share in the victory over Polyxenidas. 191 DGRBM 3-163
c.190 Pirate captain NICANDER, employed by Polyxenidas, fights against Rhodian admiral Pausistratus. 190 CAH 8-220
c.190 Rhodian commander PAUSISTRATUS sails early with 36 ships, but is deceived by Polyxenidas, who pretends to negotiate with him, and then suddenly attacks and totally defeats him.  Almost all his ships are taken or sunk.  Pausistratus is killed trying to force his way thru the Seleucid fleet. 191 DGRBM 3-163
190 DGRBM 3-102, 471
c.190 L. Aemilius REGILLUS is made praetor and given command of the fleet against Antiochus-III. 190 DGRBM 3-642
c.190 Λ SAMOS V taken over by praetor Livius SALINATOR and EUMENES-II of Pergamum with a fresh Rhodian squadron. 190 CAH 8-220
c.190 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Seleucids from 197, comes under Rhodes until 133. 190 rcAg
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, fleet commander of Antiochus-III, at Ephesus blockaded by C. Livius Salinator and Eumenes-II with a fresh Rhodian squadron of 20 ships under Eudamus. 190
CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-471
c.190 C. Livius SALINATOR commander of Aegean fleet 191-89, blockading Polyxenidas at Ephesus, relieved by Praetor L. AEMILIUS REGILLUSSalinator remains commander of Aegean fleet until 189, and is now sent to Lycia. 190
CAH 8-220, DGRBM 3-471 695, atl2
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral of Antiochus-III with 89 ships at Ephesus, blockaded by Regillus with 80 ships, must attack before Regillus is reinforced.  Regillus sails northwest to relieve Notium, which gives Polyxenidas opportunity to attack. 190 CAH 8-221
c.190 The allied fleet is wanted in 3 places at once - before Ephesus to watch Polyxenidas, in Lycia to arrest Hannibal, and in the Hellespont.  It cannot be separated without setting Polyxenidas at large to harass friends of Rome and attack parts of the fleet.  Polyxenidas understands this and bides his time. 190 BHS 2-99
c.190 Praetor L. AEMILIUS REGILLUS, commander of Aegean fleet at Samos learns that Hannibal and fleet will soon arrive, remains at Samos to check Polyxenidas. 190 CAH 8-221
c.190 Polyxenidas defeats Rhodian fleet at Panhormus harbor in Samos, by trickery. 190 atl2
c.190 M. AEMILIUS REGILLUS, bro of Lucius dies at Samos. 190 DGRBM 3-642
c.190 Before battle at Myonnesus, Regillus vows to build a temple to the Lares Permarini (Lar = guardian, Permarini = sailors).  It will be dedicated in 179. 190 atl2, wikLP
c.190 POLYXENIDAS, admiral under Antiochus-III with 89 ships attacks Regillus with 80 ships between Myonnesus island and CorycosPoly is hit on the left by Rhodian fleet42 Syrian ships are lost.  Poly retreats to Ephesus and remains until he receives news of the fatal battle of Magnesia. 191 bk    190 B76 8-384, CAH 8-286, DGRBM 3-471, 642, DGRG 2-386, LEWH 93, SORH, atl2
189 DGRG 1-836
CONFUSION ALERT!  CORYCOS is a port city in Lycia and another in Cilicia.
c.190 Rhodian admirals EUDAMUS and CHARICLITUS with 36 ships voluntarily sail to face Hannibal with 47 ships. 190 CAH 8-221
c.190 HANNIBAL, admiral under Antiochus-III with 47 hastily built Phoenician ships, defeated near SIDE Pamphilia by Rhodian admirals Eudamus and Chariclitus with 36 ships. 190 B76 8-384, CAH 8-221, CDCC 414, DGRBM 1-684, GHH, atl2
c.190/89 HANNIBAL, after Magnesia, flees to Crete. 190 MCAW     189 Dur 3-55
c.189 M. Fulvius, is sent against CEPHALONIA island with a sufficient force. 189 DGRG 1-589, 2-889
c.189 SAME (Samos), chief city of Cephalonia island, submits to M. Fulvius.  Other Cephalonian towns do likewise. 189 DGRG 2-889
c.189 Λ SAMOS island, handed back and forth between Egypt, Seleucids from 277, given by Rome to Pergamum until 133. 189 wikSm
c.189 C. Livius SALINATOR commander of fleet from 190, relieved by praetor Q. Fabius LABEO. 189 CAH 8-228
c.189 CRETE:  Praetor Q. Fabius LABEO sails to Crete in an attempt to release Roman captives, tries unsuccessfully to end a war of Cydonia against Knossos & Gortyn. 189 CAH 8-291, atl2
c.189 CRETE:  30 cities ally with Eumenes-II of Pergamum. 189 CAH 8-291
c.188 Rhodian ambassadors Philophoron and Theaetetus visit the 10 Roman commissioners in Ionia.  They get Lycia assigned to the Rhodians as a reward for their services. 189 DGRBM 3-317, 1021, SORH
c.186 Dispute between Rhodes and Lycia over terms of Roman settlement. 186 atl2
c.184 Roman embassy including Ap.(9) Claudius Pulcher goes from Greece to Crete, persuades Cretan cities of Cnossus, Gortyn, and Cydonia to settle their disputes. 184 DGRBM 1-910, atl2
c.183 AGESIPOLIS, son of A-II, former king A-III of Sparta 219-15, leads an embassy of Spartan exiles bound for Rome.  Attacked by pirates and killed. 183 DGRBM 1-71, 258
c.177 Senate tells the Rhodians that the Lycians had been given to them in 188 not as a gift, but rather as friends and allies - a false claim.  Roman decision causes consternation at Rhodes. 178 CAH 8-3287, 02, atl2
177 CAH 8-336, atl2
c.174 Roman envoy, Q. Minucius, with 10 ships mediates in civil war in Crete. 174 CAH 8-305, atl2
c.172 Embassy sent by the Rhodians under Satyrus to Rome to say Eumenes-II, king of Pergamum is trying to take Lycia and Caria from them. 172 DGRBM 3-727, LdHR 2-82
c.172 3 Roman envoys, Ti. Claudius Nero, A. Licinius Nerva, and M. Decimus are sent to Crete to get archers for the army of consul P. Licinius Crassus, also to Rhodes just before the war with Perseus. 172 DGRBM 1-947
171 DGRBM 2-1168
c.171 Hagesilochus and Rhodophon persuade Rhodians to declare support for Romans before a Roman embassy arrives. 171 DGRBM 3-652, atl2
c.171 Praetor C. Lucretius GALLUS is made fleet commander until later 171. 171 DGRBM 2-828
c.171 Roman embassy including Aulus Postumius Albinus & C. Decimus is sent to Crete to ask for Cretan help against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-91, 947
c.171 Romans decline help from Rhodes. 171 atl2
c.171 Rhodians agree to release their Macedonian prisoners for ransom. 171 atl2
c.171 Fleet commander C. LUCRETIUS GALLUS sends letter to Rhodes, asking for ships.  Rhodian DEINON pretends it is a forgery from Eumenes of Pergamum.  Rhodians disbelieve Deinon. 171 DGRBM 1-70
c.171 Rhodian TIMAGORAS sent with 5 ships to Chalcis to co-operate with C. Lucretius1 more ship is sent under a commander also named Timagoras to Tenedus.  He captures the crew of a ship conveying Diophanes, envoy of Perseus, to Antiochus-IVDiophanes escapes. 171 DGRBM 3-1132
c.171 At the start of the war, Rhodian Polyaratus joins with Deinon in trying, unsuccessfully, to induce the Rhodians to refuse the assistance of their ships to fleet commander C. Lucretius.  But shortly afterwards Polyaratus supports with success a proposition made to allow Perseus to ransom the Macedonian captives who had fallen into the hands of the Rhodians. 171 DGRBM 3-442
c.171 AGESILOCHUS, chief magistrate of Rhodes, advises siding with Romans. 171 DGRBM 1-70
c.170 Praetor C. LUCRETIUS GALLUS, fleet commander in Adriatic and Greece from 171, relieved by praetor L. HORTENSIUS. 171 DGRBM 2-525     170 CAH 8-311
c.170 Customs revenue at Rhodes is 1,000,000 drachmas.  The rate of duty is 2%. 170
RAH 394
c.170 People of Gortyn Crete attack Cydonia on north coast. 170 atl2
c.170 Army of Cydonia on north coast of Crete massacres inhabitants of Apollonia on north coast of Crete. 170 atl2
c.170 Macedonian fleet defeats Roman fleet off Oreos Euboea. 170 DGRBM 3-207
c.169 Rhodian envoys, Agesilochus, Nicagoras, and Nicander, sent by Philophoron and Theaetetus to Rome to clear Rhodians of charges and renew friendly relations.  Envoy Agepolis (Ariston?) is sent to Q. Marcius Philippus at Heracleium Macedonia. 169 CAH 8-314, DGRBM 1-68, 2-1173-4, 3-317, atl2
c.169 Rhodian Polyaratus continues thruout the war to maintain correspondence with Perseus.  In 169, matters having apparently taken a turn more fovorable to Perseus, the Rhodians are induced, by his efforts and those of Deinon, to give a favorable audience to ambassadors of Perseus and Gentius, and to contend at Rome to end the war. 169 DGRBM 3-442
c.168 Macedonian fleet sails into Aegean, and surprises a convoy of Pergamene ships. 168 atl2
c.168 CHIOS island, under Macedonians from 333, comes under Rome until 88. 168 rcAg
c.168 AMORGOS Island, under Macedonia from 338, comes under Rome until 395CE. 168 rcAg
c.168 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Macedonia from 197, comes under Rome until 88. 168 rcAg
c.168 RHODES, persuaded by Perseus, sends envoys under Agesipolis to Rome requesting that they stop the war on Perseus, but envoys don't arrive until after PydnaThe Senate choses to interpret their mission as motivated by the interests of Perseus.  The envoys are told that with this action the friendship between Rome and Rhodes is ended. 168 CAH 8-228, 337, DGRBM 1-68, atl2
c.168 PERSEUS, king of Macedonia 179-68, flees from Amphipolis to Samothrace, takes refuge with his younger kids, whom he entrusts to his officer Ion of Thessalonica. 168 DGRBM 2-606, 3-208, atl2
c.168 Macedonian fleet learns of battle of Pydna, withdraws to Cassandria. 168 atl2
c.168 Praetor Gn.(3) Octavius, commander of the Roman fleet, blockades Perseus on Samothrace, but does not violate the sanctuary of the Great Gods in which Perseus had taken refuge. 168 DGRBM 3-208
c.168 Roman delegation arrives at Samothrace to negotiate with Perseus. 168 atl2
c.168 Evander the Cretan who tried to kill Eumenes-II in 172, is killed, by order of Perseus, who bribes someone to say it was suicide. 168 atl2
c.168 ANTISSA, a city on Lesbos, which had helped Perseus, is destroyed by Romans.  Inhabitants are removed to Methymna. 168 DGRG 1-148
c.168 Perseus on Samothrace, surrenders to praetor Gn. Octavius, commander of the Roman fleetIon of Thessalonica, an officer of Perseus, at Samothrace delivers kids of Perseus to Octavius, who sails them all to Amphipolis. 168 DGRBM 2-606, 3-6, 208
c.168 Rhodians and other Greek states fail to give full support to Romans during war against Perseus. 168 atl2
c.168 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Macedonia from 197, comes under Rome until 88. 168 rcAg
c.168 Roman embassy led by C. Popillius LAENUS including C. Decius goes to Rhodes at Rhodian request, and persuades an assembly to condemn to death those suspected of sympathising with Perseus, including Agesipolis and the envoys under him.  While there, they learns of Roman victory at Pydna, and proceed from Rhodes to Egypt 168 BHS 2-144, CAH 8-337, DGRBM 1-947, OCD 861, atl2
c.168 Deinon and Polyaratus, most outspoken supporters of Perseus at Rhodes, are delivered to Romans and brought to Rome. 168 atl2
167 DGRBM 1-952
c.168 LESBOS Island, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Rome until 198CE. 168 rcAg
c.168 CYPRUS, under Ptolemies from 294, siezed by Antiochus-IV  Ptolemaic governor Ptolemy Macron defects.  Cyprus under Seleucids until 163. 2Mac 10:13
168 1&2BM 297, B76 8-383, BHS 2-142, CAH 8-506
under Egypt 301-114 rcCp
c.167 Rhodian ambassadors including Philocrates, Astymedes, Philophron, and Polyaratus are sent to Rome to avert the anger of the Romans. 167 DGRBM 3-303, atl2
c.167 Rhodians are relieved to learn that Rome has not declared war on them; but they are forced to evacuate Caria and Lycia.  Carian cities Stratoniceia and Caunus, which had been Rhodian long before 188, are declared free.  They had brought an annual income of 120 talents, and their loss is a severe blow to Rhodian economy. 167
CAH 8-337 DGRG 1-576, atl2
c.167 Gn. OCTAVIUS, fleet commander in east from 168, returns to Rome with loot gained in the war. 167 DGRBM 3-6
c.166 Rhodians send an embassy led by Aristoteles to Rome, but senate again refuses to agree to an alliance. 166 atl2
c.166 LEMNOS Island, independent from 197, comes under Rome until 395CE. 166 rcAg
c.166 DELOS island, independent from 301, comes under Rome and given to Athens until 69.  Athens transplants population to Achaia (or they flee there) and installs cleruchs:  But the city of Delos is made a free port.  Traffic shifts from Rhodes to Delos, and Rhodes loses 140 talents in annual harbor dues. 167 CAH 8-337, CDCC 104, IDB 1-815, 4-78, ISBE 1-916, 4-183, OHG,
LEWH 94, RAH 394, SORH 166 B76 III-452, VIII-552, 8-377, CAH 9-20, OCD 321, rcAg
c.166 Because Delos is a free port, Rhodian harbor dues drop from 1,000,000 drachmas to 150,000. 166
CDCC 248
c.165 Ti.(5) Sempronius GRACCHUS BUBULCUS is sent east to visit Rhodes, Anatolia, and Syria to inspect the affairs of Roman allies. 166 atl2     165 CAH 8-319,
LdHR 2-99     164 DGRBM 2-289
c.165 Embassy from Rhodes appears before senate, which after 2 years of sulking, consents to renew alliance. 165 B76 15-1094, CAH 8-226, atl2
c.165 Ti. GRACCHUS delivers a speech in Greek at Rhodes, probably on his way to Syria. 166 atl2
164 DGRBM 2-289
c.164 Senate grants Rhodes a  treaty  it had long been asking for, allows Rhodes to acquire Calynda Caria, whose inhabitants prefer Rhodian rule to that of Caunus.  Rhodians vote to erect a colossal figure of the people of Rome. 164 CAH 8-380
c.163 CYPRUS, under Seleucids from 168, returned by Rome to Ptolemies until 58. 163 CAH 8-284
c.163 Syrian warships burnt by Romans. 163 CAH 8-154
c.163 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene until 163-16, tries to grab Cyprus until 161. 163 lvPt6
c.163/2 CYPRUS, property of Ptolemy-VI Philometor from 163, claimed by Ptolemy-VIII Physconsenate goes along, but Ptolemy-VI does not yield.  senate takes no action. 163/2
CAH 8-284 162 SORH
c.162 Gn. MERULA accompanies Ptolemy Physcon from Rome to Crete and Anatolia. 162 DGRBM 2-149
c.161 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon king of Cyrene, tries to grab Cyprus and fails.  Senate confirms token support and sends his ambassadors home. 161 atl2, wikP8
c.161 Letter from C. Fannius to magistrates of Cos island asks safe passage of some Jewish envoys. 1Mac 12:4, Antiq 14:10:15
161? 1&2BM 112, 167
c.160 PANAETIUS, Stoic of Rhodes, in Athens from ?, returns to Rhodes.  Becomes priest of Poseidon Hippios at Lindos. 170-50 OCD 774
c.160 Eumenes of Pergamum and Demetrius-I, king of Syria donate grain to Rhodians. 170-50 OCD 774
c.155 Adriatic coast is now under Romans. 155 LdHR 2-101
c.155 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, tries to take CYPRUS from Ptolemy-VI Philometor. 155 B76 VIII-281 155/4 CAH 8-522
c.155 Crete / Rhodes war begins until 153. 155 CAH 8-381
c.155/4 DEMETRIUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 162-50, bribes Archias, Ptolemaic governor of Cyprus to betray Ptolemy-VI Philometor.  Archias is caught and tried, and during the trial hangs himself. 155 B76 VIII-281 155/4 CAH 8-361
c.154 Ptolemy EUERGETES, governor of Cyprus for P-VI, goes to Rome to get help from senate. 154 DGRG 1-731
c.154 Senate sends Ptolemy-VIII Physcon with 5 legates for home charged to establish him in Cyprus, but no Roman army, but P-VI Philometor, anticipating him, had already occupied Cyprus with a large fleet and army. 154 DGRBM 3-593, DGRG 1-731
c.154 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon king of Cyrene 163-16, lands on Cyprus at the head of his mercenaries.  He is soon defeated and shut up in Lapethus, where he is forced to surrender on condition that he should settle for CyreneThe Romans shrug it off. 154 B76 VIII-281, DGRBM 3-593-4, DGRG 1-731, lvPt6, lvPt8
c.154 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, king of Egypt & Cyprus 163-45, lets bro Ptolemy-VIII Physcon go back to Cyrene. 154 CAH 8-284, atl2
c.154 Senate refuses to hear answer of Ptolemy-VI Philometor to charges of Ptolemy-VIII Physcon.  Orders allies to take Cyprus from P-VI and give it to P-VIII.  Allies do little or nothing. 154 CAH 8-284
c.154 Coalition of Ptolemy-VI, Attalus of Pergamum and Ariarathes of Cappadocia against Demetrius-I of Syria. 154 CAH 8
c.154 ARCHIAS, governor of Cyprus for Ptolemy-VI, accepts bribe of 500 talents and high honor at the Seleucid court from Demetrius-I, for defection.  Archias is detected, arrested, and suicides with a curtain rope. 154 BHS 2-208, atl2
c.154 Cretans defeat a Rhodian fleet, commanded by Aristocrates. 154 atl2
c.153 Rhodes and Crete both make unsuccessful appeals to Achaean assembly for help against each other. 154/3 CAH 8-381 153 DGRBM 1-569, atl2
c.153 A Rhodian embassy, led by Astymedes, goes to Rome for intervention in war against Crete. 153 atl2
c.153 Crete / Rhodes war from 155 ends. 153 CAH 8-381
c.152 PTOLEMY EUPATOR, son of P-VI Philometor is sent from Egypt to Cyprus, but is dead before the end of the year. 152 lvPt6
c.149 PANAETIUS, Stoic pupil of Diogenes, on Rhodes 160-39, chosen by the people of Lindos on Rhodes to be priest of Poseidon Hippios. 149 wikPn
c.148/7 Demetrius, son of D-I goes to Crete. 148/7 BHS 2-218
c.147 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, son of D-I, in Crete from 148/7, sails to Cilicia with Cretan mercenaries. 1Mac 10:67     148/7 DGRBM 1-967     147 B76 3-457, CAH 8-524, CHJ 2-314, ISBE 1-918, atl2     147/6 IDB, RAI2
c.147 Rhodes helps Rome against Carthage. 147 CAH 8
c.146 THERA Island, southernmost of Cyclades, under Egypt and member of Cycladic League from 308, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcAg 145 B76 IX-943
c.145 Ptolemaic garrison on Thera island from ?, removed. 145
Shaw 392
c.146 KYTHERA Island (south of Peloponnese), under Sparta from 277, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcAg
c.146 ANTIKYTHERA Island (between Kythera and Crete), independent from 277, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcAg
c.146 After the fall of Corinth, DELOS becomes the centre of an extensive commerce, a favorite resort of merchants. 146 DGRG 1-759
c.145 ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, librarian of Alexandria from 180, flees to Cyprus. 145
OCD 109
c.145 ARISTARCHUS of Samothrace, pupil of Aristophanes of Byz., on Cyprus, dies. 145 B76 I-514, atl2 144 MTNT 150
c.145 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is sent from Rome east to settle the distractions which ensued on the murder of Ptolemy Eupator in Cyprus 152. 145 DGRG 1-100
c.145 Inhabitants of Aradus island off coast of Syria lynch some envoys from Marathus (Amrit), city in Syria. 145 atl2
145
±15
HIPPARCHUS of Nicaea, astronomer, mathematician, flourishes probably on Rhodes, lays foundation of trigonometry.

Λ ASTRONOMY:  His astronomical observations began in 162 and end 127.  Best known for discovering processional movement of equinoxes because the spring sun no longer comes up against the Taurus constellation as ancient symbols had depicted, but against Ares.  He endorses Λ GEOCENTRIC THEORY, uses that plus Apollonius' theory of eccentric and epicyclic motion to explain planetary motion.  Uses that plus extensive Babylonian eclipse records, and his own observations to produce 1st satisfactory theory for the motion of sun and moon.  He updates lunar cycles and catalogs 850 stars.

GEOGRAPHY:  He is first to endorse the klima idea, i.e. that there is a general slope of the Earth from south to north.  A klima is a latitudinal line around the Earth.  He assumes the circumference of the earth to be 252,000 stadia, and divides this into 360 degrees, of 700 stadia each.

MATH:  Compiles 1st tables of chord lengths, a forerunner of trigonometric tables.
162 DGRA 146, GHH
160 CDGRA 174, DGRA 296
150
BHM 175, OCD 135 146-27 B76 8-941
143 GHH 129
B76 8-941
c.144 PANAETIUS, Stoic of Rhodes, goes to Rome, joins the circle around P.(10) Scipio Aemilianus until Scipio's death 129. 144 IDB 4-444, OCD 774, OHG
c.144 KNOSSOS Crete tries to rebuild its power, causing trouble in Crete. 144 atl2
c.140/39 P.(10) SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Pergamum to Rhodes.  Both Panaetius and Polybius accompany. 140 B76 16-395, OCD 774, 963
140/39 CAH 8-381 139 atl2, wikPn
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Rhodes to Egypt. Diodotus 33.28b
143 SORH     140 B76 16-395 140/39 CAH 8-381, 9-311     139 CAH 8-376, atl2, wikPn
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Egypt to Cyprus, concludes that Cilician pirates thrive because of incompetence of local rulers.  Kings of Cyprus and Egypt co-operated with them in this, being enemies to the Syrians. Diodotus 33.28b
143 SORH
140 B76 16-395     140/39 CAH 9-311
139 CAH 8-376, atl2
c.140/39 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS heads an embassy including Spurius Mummius and L. Caecilius Metellus Calvus, sails from Cyprus to Syria. Diodotus 33.28b
143 SORH
139 atl2
c.135 Decree of senate settles dispute between Samos and Priene. 135 CAH 8
134 New STAR discovered by HIPPARCHUS, probably on Rhodes.  He concludes that fixed stars lack permanence. 134 B76 8-941
134 "CLOUDY STARS" (nebulae?) mentioned by HIPPARCHUS. 190-25 B76 12-927
c.134 SLAVE REBELLION on Delos quickly suppressed. 134 atl2
c.133 ANDROS island, under Pergamese from 200, annexed to Roman province of Asia, under Rome until 395. 133 B76 I-365
c.133 SAMOTHRACE Island, autonomous from 301, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 rcAg, '  
c.133 SAMOS, under Pergamum from 189, asserts autonomy until 129. 133 B76 VIII-833
c.133 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Rhodes from 190, comes under Rome until 395CE. 133 rcAg
c.131 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene 163-45, king of Egypt from 145, exiled from Alexandria until 129, goes to Cyprus with niece/wife Cleo-III.  Sis/wife CLEOPATRA-II sole rule in Egypt until 129. 131 CAH 9-384
c.130 Ptolemy MEMPHITIS, only child of P-VIII and Cleo-II, age 13, murdered by father on Cyprus.  P-VIII dismembers his body and sends the parts home to Cleo-II for her birthday. 130
CAH 9-384 atl2, wikC2
c.130 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, exiled on Cyprus from 131, apparently leaves niece/wife Cleo-III on Cyprus until 127, returns to Egypt. 130 lvPt8
c.129 SAMOS, autonomous from 133, comes under Rome until 395CE. 129 rcAg
c.127 CLEOPATRA-III, 2nd wife of P-VIII Physcon, on Cyprus from 131, returns to Egypt. 127 lvC3, wikP, wikC3
120 HIPPARCHUS of Nicaea, Greek astronomer, geographer, mathematician, founder of trigonometry, on Rhodes from ?, dies on Rhodes.  First whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon survive.  Invented or improved several astronomical instruments. 127 BD 96
125 B76 12-927 BHM 162
120 SHWC 95, wikHp
c.119 Q. Mucius SCAEVOLA, governor of Asia Province, visits rhetoric teacher, Apollonius of Alabanda, at Rhodes. 119 atl2
c.116 PTOLEMY-IX Soter-II LATHYRUS, on Cyprus from ?, leaves sis/wife Cleo-IV on Cyprus, returns to Alexandria. 116 lvCT, lvPt9
c.116 Ptolemy-X ALEXANDER, son of P-VIII & Cleo-III, is made governor of Cyprus until ?. 116 CAH 9
114 B76 VIII-281
c.115 CLEOPATRA-IV, divorced by P-IX Soter-II, assembles an army and offers her hand to Antiochus-IX Cyzicenus, sails from Cyprus to Syria. 117 DGRBM 1-800 115 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9, lvCT
c.113 Ptolemy-X ALEXANDER governor of Cyprus 116-?, assumes official title of king. 113 atl2
c.110 Antikythera mechanismANTIKYTHERA DEVICE sinks off Antikythera island.  An intricate system of 24 gears and 13 axles.  Contains 1st known differential gears.  Designed to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendrical and astrological purposes. 150-100 wikAM
100 TTT
c.107 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, king of Egypt under Cleo-III 116-10, from 109, accused of conspiracy by Cleo-III, flees 3rd time to Cyprus until 89.  CLEOPATRA-III is regent for son PTOLEMY ALEXANDER until 101. 108 B76 VIII-281 108/7 CAH 9-386 107 B76 6-483, Jud 5-603
c.107 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, exiled on Cyprus 107-89, wins over the army sent by Cleo-III to get him. 107 B76 VIII-281, Jud 5-604
c.107 A naval expedition from Cleo-III forces Ptolemy-IX to flee to Seleucia, but he soon returns. 107 B76 VIII-281, lvPt9
c.105 ASTYPALAEA island in Dodecanese, under Egypt from 308 comes under Rome until 395CE. 105 DGRG 1-251
c.105 ASTYPALAEA island in Dodecanese allies with Rome, which recognizes its good harbors and central position in the Aegean. 105 DGRG 1-251
c.104 Though Rome already sent a navy, commanded by a praetor named Marcus Antonius, it refuses to take real measures. 104 lvA
c.103 PTOLEMY-XII AULETES, sent from Egypt by father P-X Alexander and Cleo-III with bro ??? and P-XI ALEXANDER-II to Cos island for safe-keeping.  They remain until 88. 103 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-315, lvPtX
102 DGRBM 3-597
c.102 PTOLEMY-IX Soter LATHYRUS, ruler of Cyprus 107-89, slips by army of Cleo-III, heads for Egypt.  Thwarted by Cleo-III's navy.  Goes to Gaza. Ant 13:13:1
102 CAH 9-387, atl2 101 DGRBM 1-117

East Mediterranean 100-0
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