Persia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Asia Go to India Go to Arabia
c.200 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 marches west from Carmania into Persis. 200 CAH 8-142
c.200 Nearly all Seleucid possessions east of Zagros Mts. lost. by 200 RAI3 414
c.200 ISTAKHR (properly Estakhr), 5km north of Persepolis, is the seat of local governors.  From here the foundations of the 2nd Persian Empire are laid.  Istakhr becomes the center of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. 200 wikPrs
c.200 Arsacid Parthians firmly established between Caspian Gate and region of Meshed east of Hyrcania. 200
RAI3 418
c.200 battery?BATTERY?:  Persian "battery", 3 artifacts found together: a ceramic pot, a copper tube, and an iron rod found near Ctesiphon.  They could make basic electric cells, but their origin and function remain unknown. drawing: Ironie

200 hifiP
c.191 ARTABANUS (Arsaces)-I ends.  2nd Arsacid king of Parthia from 211PRIAPITIUS succeeds until 176. 196 GHH     191 B76 I-548, 9-841, CAH 9-613, MRDK 381, OCD 123, RAI2, RAI3, hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, KoP, wikPE,     190 LEWH 95
185 lvArs, wikLPK, wikP
c.187 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia, and Persia from 223, plunders temple of Bel in Susa to pay Roman indemnityKilled.  Son SELEUCUS-IV Philopator succeeds until 175. 187 B76 1-994, 8-380, 383, CAH 8-241, 495, IDB 1-150, Jud 3-73, LEWH 94, RAI2, RAI3, KoP, wikP
c.185 PARTHIANS expand into eastern Iran. 185 frH, hifiE, hifiP
c.176 SAKAS, pushed by the Yuezhi, move further west, invade Parthian Empire's northeast borders. 176 wikPE
c.176 PRIAPITIUS (Arsaces-III) ends.  King of Parthia from 191.  Son PHRAATES-I succeeds until 171. 181 GHH     176 B76 VII-971, 9-842, CAH 9-613, MRDK 381, OCD 123, RAI2, hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, KoP, wikPE,     175 LEWH 95    170 lvArs, wikLPK, wikP
c.175 SELEUCUS-IV Philopator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 187, murdered by treasurer Heliodoros.  Bro of Seleucus, ANTIOCHUS-IV succeeds until 164. 175 B76 8-383, CAH 8-332, 341, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-279, DGRBM 1-198, 3-775, Dur 2-573, IDB 4-267, Jud 3-74, LEWH 94, MCAW, MRDK 353, OHG, Sdl 5-292, atl2, bk, frH, KoP, rcM, wikP     174 RAI2
c.171 PHRAATES-I dies.  4th Arsacid king of Parthia from 176, dies, having several sons, but bequeathing throne to bro.  MITHRIDATES-I (Arsaces-VI) succeeds until 138. 176 CDCC 647     175 Dur 2-556   174 GHH 171 B76 VI-945, VII-971, 9-842, CAH 8-353, 9-613, HCIP 2-110, ISBE 3-671, Jud 4-37, LEWH 95, MRDK 381, OCD 123, RAI2, RAI3, bk, eiArs, hifiE, icsPE, KoP, wikPE     167 wikLPK, wikP     165 lvArs, wikM1Pr
c.171 Mithridates-I of Parthia 171-38 1st attacks Bactra, consolidates it, then moves west to attack Media 171 irch
c.171 Mithridates-I of Parthia begins the conquest of Babylonia and Media, adding them to Persia and Bactra to form the Parthian Empire. 171 source site gone
c.171 NISA (18km southwest of present Ashgabat) Parthia founded by Mithridates-I of Parthia as capital, royal residence, and necropolis until 148/7. 171 B76 3-1133
c.167 Syrian general EUCRATIDES tries to reconquer Parthia and Aria, which have been occupied by the Parni. 167 lvA4
c.165 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia and supposedly Persia 175-64 tries to take state of Elymais (formerly Elam), but it was warned of his approach, and defeats him.  He retreats to Babylon. 1Mac 6:1
165 CAH 8-514, GHH, lvA4
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia 175-64, campaigns against Parthians. 164 atl2
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Syria/Babylonia returns from Persia to Babylon. 164 guess
c.164 ANTIOCHUS-IV dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 175, dies of consumption at Gabae Media.  ANTIOCHUS-V succeeds until 162. 165/4 BHS 2-161     164 B76 1-995, 17-947, CAH 8-350, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-198, GHH, IDB 1-150, Jud 3-74, OHG, RAI3, Sdl 5-241, frH, KoP, lvA4, rcM, wikP     164/3 B76 11-225     163 B76 8-383, CAH 8-514, Dur 2-556, LEWH 94-5, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-314, TTPC, bk
c.162 ANTIOCHUS-V Eupator dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 164, along with governor Lysias, executed by his troops.  Cousin (son of Seleucus-IV), DEMETRIUS-I succeeds until 150. 162 B76 III-456, 8-383, CAH 8-517, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-198, 2-879, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-151, 815, 3-193, Jud 3-73, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 72, SORH, TTPC, frH, KoP, rcM, wikP     162/1 Sdl 5-317     161 atl2
c.150 DEMETRIUS-I Soter dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia and Persia from 162, defeated and killed by usurper ALEXANDER BALAS, who succeeds until 145. 1Mac 10:48       151 IDB 1-815, Jud 2-577 150 B76 I-224, III-456, 8-383, 17-948, CAH 8-253, 362, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-314, DGRBM 1-114, 967, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-78, Jud 2-576, 5-1489, 10-189, LEWH 95, MCAW, MRDK 353, OCD 326, RAI3, TTPC, atl2, bk, frH, KoP, lvA, rcM, wikP
c.150 Mithridates-I on horseParthian relief of Mithridates-I of Parthia (left) on a horse at Xong-e Ashdar.  Parthian rulers used Rock reliefs to mark the their territory, and carved many reliefs on previous Elamite, Lullubies, or Achaemenian sites. photo Pentocelo


171-38 wikPE
no date: wikPA
c.150  PAHLAVI texts  written during reign of Mithridates-I.  Cellars of the treasury at Mithradatkird (near modern Nisa) contain thousands of pottery sherds with brief records.  Several dated ostraca name members of the royal family.  But no manuscripts dated before 500CE have been found. 171-38 wikPlv
c.149 MEDIA, under Seleucids from ?, siezed by Mithridates-I, under Parthia until 130. 155 B76 9-842   150 LEWH 95   148 eiArs 148/7 CAH 8-363, wikPE     147 CAH 8-371, atl2,     141 frH, hifiP, wikM1Pr
c.148 A dedication from Bisutun Media, dated summer 148, proves that a Seleucid governor-general was in charge of the "upper satrapies". 148 CAH 8-371
c.148 Herakles ReliefHERAKLES RELIEF at Behistun carved by a Persian artist, unfamiliar with the Greek iconography. photo: dynamosquito


148 prθ
c.148/7 ECBATANA, capital of Media, under Seleucids from ?, siezed by Mithridates-I, under Parthia until 130. 148/7 B76 9-842, wikM1Pr, wikPE
c.148/7 Capital of Parthia, Nisa from 171, moved to ECBATANA by Mithridates-I until 130. 148/7 B76 9-842
c.148/7 KAMNASKIRES-I Megas becomes ruler of Elymais until 145. 147 wikEl, wikPsk
c.148/7 Susiane satrapy, under Seleucids from ?, occupied by Kamniskires, ruler of Elymais, under Elamites until 140. 148/7 CAH 8-363, 371
c.148/7 Susa, under Seleucids from ?, occupied by Kamniskires, ruler of Elymais, under Elamites until 140. 148/7 CAH 8-371
c.148/7 General BAGASIS made satrap of Media until 144 by Mithridates-I of Parthia. 155 B76 9-842
c.147 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, conquers large areas of the East, as far as borders of India. 147 atl2
c.145 KAMNASKIRES-I Megas, ruler of Elymais from 148/7, ends.  KAMNASKIRES-II Nikephoros succeeds until 139. 145 wikEl, wikPsk
c.145 ALEXANDER BALAS, usurper of Syria/Babylonia and (supposedly) Persia from 150, in Arabia, beheaded by Zabdiel.DEMETRIUS-II Nicator is king of Syria until 140. 1Mac 11:16, Antiq 13-4-8       147 frH
146 DGRBM 1-114, 198, 3-1178, IDB 1-816, Jud 2-576     146/5 Sdl 5-329     145 B76 I-224, III-457, CAH 8-517, CDCC 803, CHJ 2, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-78, LEWH 95, MRDK 353, atl2, bk, KoP, rcM, wikP     141 Jud 5-1489
c.144 BAGASIS Parthian satrap of Media from 148/7, goes independent, as VOLOGASES Arsacid king of Media until 122. 144 wikPsk
c.142/1 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, invades Babylonia. 142/1 B76 VI-945
c.141 HYRCANIA, under Parthia from ?, invaded by Bactrians until 140. 141 CAH 8-580, Sdl 5-332
c.141 MEDIA taken by Mithridates-I of Parthia. 141 frH, hifiE
c.141 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, has COINS minted in Seleucia on the Tigris. 141 wikM1Pr, wikPE
c.141 PERSIA, under Seleucids from 312, taken by Mithridates-I of Parthia, but quickly lost to Elamites until 139. 141 lvA
c.141 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, is recognized as far south as Uruk. 141 eiArs
c.140 Bactrians, in Hyrcania from 141, driven out by Mithridates-I of Parthia. 140 CAH 8-580 139 CAH 8-528
c.140 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, returns from Hyrcania to Babylonia. 140 CAH 8-580 139 CAH 8-528
c.140 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, captured in Babylonia by Mithradates-I king of Parthia taken to Hyrcania until 129. 1Mac 14:??       141 Jud 5-1489
140 CDCC 647     140/39 B76 8-385, CAH 9-580     139 B76 III-457, 9-842, CAH 8-528, LEWH 95, OCD 326, atl2, KoP
c.140 MITHRIDATES-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 171-38, defeats Elamites at Kut (Kut-al-Amara) on the Tigris. 140 CAH 8-371
c.140 SUSA and SUSIANE, under Elamites from 148/7, taken by Mithradates-I king of Parthia until 138. 140 CAH 8-371
c.139 PERSIA, under Elamites from 141, taken by Mithradates-I king of Parthia. 139 frH, hifiE, hifiP, wikM1Pr
c.139 ELYMAIS (Elam) comes under Parthia. 139 eiArs, icsPE, wikPE
c.139 KAMNASKIRES-II Nikephoros, ruler of Elymais from 145, ends.  OKKONAPSES succeeds 139/8 and ends.  TIGRAIOS succeeds 138/7 to 133/2. 139 wikEl, wikPsk,
c.139 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria 145-40, prisoner of Mithradates-I king of Parthia in Hyrcania, marries his dau Rhodogune (while already married to Cleo Thea). 1Mac 14:??
138 DGRBM 1-355 137 GHH
no date: BHS 2-242, CAH 8-371
c.138 MITHRIDATES-I (Arsaces-VI) dies.  5th Arsacid king of Parthia from 171.  Son PHRAATES-II (Arsaces-VI) succeeds until 128, under regency of mother until ?. 139 hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, wikPE, 139/8 eiArs     138 B76 VI-945, VII-971, BHS 2-242, CAH 8-371, 9-580, Dur 2-556, GHH, HCIP 2-121, ISBE 3-671, LEWH 95, MRDK 381, RAI3, atl2, bk, hifiE, icsPE, KoP, wikPE     138/7 CDCC 647, OCD 123,     137 RAI2     136 HCIP 2-110, wikGB     134 GHH     132 lvArs, lvD2, wikLPK, wikP
Gets increasingly ill after 138 but does not die until 132. 132 wikM1Pr
c.138 SUSA city in SUSIANE province (Elam), under Parthians from 140 both come under control of independent ruler, Tigraios until 132. 138 CAH 8-371
c.138 Hyspaosines (Aspasine), Parthian ruler of Babylon, attacks Elamites. 138 atl2
135 COMET seen in Persia at time of the birth of Mithridates-II of Parthia.  It is also noted in China. 135 wikSTH
c.133 Because of Xiongnu movements in Asia, various nomads begin to appear in the Oxus region until 129. 133 eiArs
c.133/2 TIGRAIOS, ruler of Elymais from 138/7, ends.  DARIUS succeeds before 129 to 85. 133/2 wikEl, wikPsk
c.132 SUSA and SUSIANE province (Elam), under control of independent ruler, Tigraios from 138, no longer so. 132 CAH 8-371
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 invades Parthia, proceeds down east side of Tigris. 129 GHH
c.130 SELEUCIA on the Tigris, under Parthians from 141, recovered by Antiochus-VII. 130 CAH 8-372
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 defeats Parthian generals 2 more times.. 130 B76 VII-971, CAH 8-371, 9-581, atl2
c.130 SUSA and SUSIANE province recovered by Antiochus-VII Sidetes until ?. 130 CAH 8-372
c.130 MEDIA under Parthians from 155, recovered by Antiochus-VII Sidetes until 129A-VII demands tribute and all Seleucid land conquered by Parthians except Hyrcania. 130 CAH 9-581
c.130 PHRAATES-II, Arsacid king of Parthia 138-28, is too busy fighting 'Scythians' (Sakas) on his eastern front to engage Antiochus-VII. 130 CAH 9-581-2
c.130 PHRAATES-II, Arsacid king of Parthia 138-28, hires "Scythians" (Sakas) to fight Antiochus-VII, promising payment after the job is done.  Sakas take their time preparing. no date: CAH 8-372
c.130 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes, king of Syria 138-29 pushes farther east, into Parthian heartland. 130 CHJ 2-324
c.130 ECBATANA Media, Parthian capital from 148/7, recovered by Antiochus-VII Sidetes, under Seleucids until ?. 130 guess
c.130 When winter comes, the large Seleucid army and camp-followers must be distributed in groups thruout the country.  The native population, which suffers from the presence of so many foreigners, turns hostile towards the army they had welcomed a few months before. 130 CAH 8-372
c.129 Phraates-II understands that the position of Antiochus-VII had worsened, and tries negotiation.  But Antiochus-VII is immovable on 3 conditions: Phraates-II must
1.  abandon everything outside Parthia
2.  pay regular tribute
3.  deliver up Demetrius-II
129 BHS 2-244
c.129 DEMETRIUS-II Nicator, king of Syria/Babylonia 145-40, prisoner of Parthians from 140, released by Phraates-II king of Parthia to stir up civil war in Syria. 1Mac 14:??
130 CAH 8-372
129 B76 III-457, LEWH 95, OCD 326, atl2
c.129 Negotiations between Antiochus-IV and Phraates-II of Parthia break down. 129 atl2
c.129 Many of the native population in various Median cities, obeying Phraates-II' orders, attack all Seleucid camps on a given day, while Antiochus-VII parties in Ecbatana. 129 BHS 2-244, CAH 8-372
c.129 ANTIOCHUS-VII Sidetes dies.  2nd son of Demetrius-I, 3rd husband of Cleo Thea, king of Syria/Babylonia from 138 at Ecbatana, hurries out with troops at hand to support the nearest of the camps attacked.  Phraates-II leads his full army against him in hill country.  A-VII attacks, and is killed in battle.  His 2nd son Seleucus is taken prisoner by Phraates-II king of Parthia, and never regains freedom.  Phraates sends A-VII's body home in a silver coffin.  Syrian army is captured.  This leaves DEMETRIUS-II Nicator unchallenged king of Syria until 125. 130 CAH 9, OHG
129 B76 I-423, VII-971, 9-843, BHS 2-244, CAH 8-352, 372, 530, CDCC 803, CHJ 2-322, E2LM 148, IDB 1-50, ISBE 1-147, 2-623, Jud 3-75, 5-1490, MRDK 353, OCD 72, Sdl 5-333, atl2bk, frH, lvA, lvD2, rcM     129/8 CHJ 2 128 DGRBM 1-199, 967, 3-770, GHH, ISBE 1-918, MCAW
127 LEWH 95
c.129 Scythian (Saka) mercenaries, previously hired to fight Antiochus-VII, arrive after the battle, demand payment anyway.  Phraates refuses. no date: CAH 8-372
Parthia 129 Map
Ali Zifan
c.129 SCYTHIANS (Sakas) invade Hyrcania. 129 B76 III-276     128 CAH 8-372
c.129 Seleucia on Tigris punished by Phraates-II king of Parthia. 129 atl2
c.129 CTESIPHON becomes convenient residence of Parthians. 129 B76 III-276
c.128 PHRAATES-II, king of Parthia 138-28, attacks Sakas in Hyrcania?.  His Seleucid troops, who had joined him after Antiochus-VII died, defect to the Sakas. 128 CAH 8-372
c.128 PHRAATES-II (Arsaces-VI) dies.  6th Arsacid king of Parthia from 138, killed fighting Sakas.  Uncle ARTABANUS-II (Arsaces-IX)succeeds until 124, futilly fighting invasion of Sakas. 129 hifiE, icsPE, wikPE, 128 B76 VII-971, 9-843, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-355, HCIP 2-121, MRDK 381, OCD 123, RAI2, RAI3, atl2, eiArs, hifiE, hifiP, wikPE     127 LEWH 95, KoP, wikLPK, wikP
126 lvArs, wikLPK
c.127 CHARACENE (Mesene, Meshan) founded as a kingdom in east Mesopotamia and adjacent Persia by Seleucid satrap from 141, HYSPAOSINES who rules until 124.  Capital is Charax.  Characene independent until 122, and lasts until 222CE. 127 CAH 8-372, wikCrc, wikPsk     125 rcM
c.126 ARTABANUS-II, king of Parthia 128-24, asserts authority in Media and Babylonia.  Mesopotamia under Parthians until Trajan. 126 RAI2 351
c.124 ARTABANUS-II (Arsaces-IX) dies.  king of Parthia from 128, killed fighting Sakas.  Son MITHRIDATES-II (Arsaces-XI) succeeds until 88.  Other son HIMERUS governs Mesopotamia. 126 GHH, wikLPK, wikP     125 GHH
124 B76 VII-774, CAH 9-584, CHEIA 158, LEWH 96, RAI3, eiArs, hifiE, hifiP, icsPE, KoP, wikPE
124/3 B76 VI-945, 9-843, OCD 123 123 HCIP 2-121, MRDK 381, RAI2, atl2, bk, wikGB     122 lvArs, wikLPK     121 wikM2P
Arsacid Vologases succeeds in Media until 122. 126 wikLPK, wikP
c.124 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88, repels invasion of Sakas.  Consolidates Parthia. 124 CAH 9
c.124 MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia 124-88, makes treaty with Rome. 124 source site gone
c.124 PITTIT, leader of Elamites, defeated and captured by Parthians. 124 source site gone
c.124 HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine), ruler of CHARACENE 141-24, king from 127, defeated by Mith-II. 122/1 eiArs
c.124 HYSPAOSINES (Aspasine), ruler of CHARACENE from 141, king from 127, age 85, dies of illness.  Widow Thalassia tries to install their son APODAKOS as king, but he does not rule until 110/9. 125 rcM
124 CAH 8-371, ansr, atl2, wikCrc, wikHs     122/1 wikPsk     110 rcM
c.122 VOLOGASES, Arsacid king of Media from 144, ends.  ARSACES succeeds until 111. 122 wikPsk
c.115 Embassy from Han Emperor WUTI visits MITHRIDATES-II, king of Parthia. 121 wikPE 115 eiArs
c.114 HECATOMPYLOS starts to become an important city because of its location on the Silk Road. 114 wikPr
c.111 ARSACES, Arsacid king of Media from 122, ends.  ARTAXERXES succeeds until 97. 111 wikPsk
c.110 Parthia (in Asia & Persia) establishes relations with Han China.
Chang Chien says, "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom ...  When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them ...  The emperor was delighted at this."
110 wikSPR
c.110/9 APODAKOS, son of Hyspaosines former king of Characene 127-24, becomes king of Characene until 104/3. 110 rcM
110/9 ansr, wikCrc, wikPsk
c.104/3 APODAKOS, king of Characene from 110/9 ends.  TIRAIOS-I does not succeed until 95/4. 104/3 ansr, wikCrc, wikPsk     90 rcM
c.106 1st SILK CARAVAN goes from Han China thru Kushan and Parthian Asia to Persia. 106 B76 3-1136

Persia 100-0
V