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c.200 L.(6) Cornelius LENTULUS a governor in Spain from 206, returns to Rome, succeeded by C. Cornelius CETHEGUS until ?. 200 DGRBM 1-675, wikRCH
c.200 C. Cornelius CETHEGUS defeats a hostile force in Sedetania.  15,000 Spaniards killed. 200 wikRCH
c.199 L. STERTINIUS sent from Rome as proconsul to Farther Spain until 196. 199 DGRBM 3-907
c.199 People of Gades ask that no prefect be sent to their town. 199 wikRCH
c.199 L. Manlius ACIDINUS proconsul in Spain from 206, returns to Rome, succeeded by Gn. Cornelius BLASIO and L. Titus STERTINUS. 199 DGRBM 1-12, wikRCH
c.197 COLCHAS, chief of some Spaniards, ally of Rome from ? rebels.  Gets 17 towns to join him.  Rebellion spreads and continues until 195. 197 DGRBM 1-813, atl2
c.197 Chieftain LUXINIUS rebels in Spain. 197 atl2
c.197 The TURDETANI of south central Spain rebel against their Roman governor. 197 CAH 8, wikTr, wikTRH,
c.197 The 2 regular legions from 197 to 187 include 10,800 citizen troops plus an average of 7,900 allied troops (including 400 cavalry). 197 CAH 8-126
c.197 Praetor M. HELVIUS BLASIO sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 195, finds it in turmoil.
Praetor C.(1) Sempronius TUDITANUS arrives in Nearer Spain until death 197.   Each has 8,000 Latin inf and 400 cav to replace the old soldiers, who are sent back home.  They are assigned to define the border between the 2 provinces.
197 DGRBM 1-492, 3-1181, rcIb, wikRCH
c.197 Romans impose general levies in goods and money on Spaniards. 197 CAH 9-21
c.197 CARMO is first mentioned as one of the headquarters of the rebellion in Turdetania. 197 DGRG 1-521
c.197 Praetor C.(1) SEMPRONIUS TUDITANUS, in Nearer Spain, currently a pontifex, is defeated, wounded in battle, and dies of it. 197 DGRBM 3-1181, atl2, wikRCH
c.197 South and east SPAIN under Rome from 206, divided into 2 provinces:  NEARER SPAIN, annexed 201, is Rome's 3rd province.  FARTHER SPAIN (Baetica), is Rome's 4th province.  Both are governed by praetors, now Gn. Cornelius Blasio and L. Stertinius. 205 LEWH 102
198 LdHR 2-52
197 B76 15-1095, CAH 8, IDB 4-430, ISBE 4-591, wikRCH
c.197 LUSITANIA, comprising most of Portugal, comes within province of Farther Spain until 83, but is not under Roman control until 150. 197 rcIb
c.197 BAETICA, in south Spain, comes within province of Farther Spain until 26. 197 rcIb
Sources often confuse whether a particular Roman is assigned to Nearer or Farther Spain.
c.197 TAXES:  Whereas Spain pays vectigal stipendarium (fixed taxes), Sicily pays decumae (tithes). 197 SORH
c.197 Roman troops in Spain withdrawn, leaving only Latin, Italian and Spanish allies.  This decision is a mistake. 197 CAH 8-122
c.197 late 2 chiefs, Culchas and Luxinius, rebel in Farther Spain in the area of the Baetis.  Culchas is supported by 15 fortified cities and Luxinius by 2 strong cities, Carmo (Carmona) and Bardo.  Senate takes no immediate action. 197 wikRCH
c.196 Praetor Q. FABIUS BUTEO with 1 legion sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 195. 196 DGRBM 1-519, rcIb, wikRCH
c.196 Praetor M. HELVIUS BLASIO, in Nearer Spain from ?, succeeded by Praetor Q. MINUCIUS THERMUS with 1 legion until 195.  Blasio remains in Spain because of illness.  Minucius is successful against the Torboletae inland from Saguntum. 196 CAH 8-123, DGRBM 3-1097, rcIb, wikRCH
c.196 The Tuboletae revolt is crushed by praetor Q. Minucius THERMUS governor of Nearer Spain, in a battle near the ruins of Turba.  Their devastated lands are divided among the Bastetani and Edetani, resulting in their total disappearance. 196 wikTRH
c.196 L. STERTINIUS, proconsul of Farther Spain from 199, with 50,000 lbs of Spanish silver, returns to Rome. 196 DGRBM 3-907, wikRCH
c.195 Former Carthaginian colonies in SPAIN break into general rebellion against Romans. 195 Dur 3-87
c.195 Praetor App. Claudius Nero possibly sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 194. 195 DGRBM 2-1161, rcIb, wikRCH
c.195 M. HELVIUS BLASIO returning from Farther Spain thru Nearer Spain, guarded by 6,000 troops given by Ap. Claudius Nero, attacked by 20,000 Celtiberi near Iliturgi.  Blasio defeats them, killing 12,000 men, and takes Iliturgi.  Blasio then reaches Cato's camp and sends the escort back to Farther Spain. 197 wikClW 195 wikRCH no date: DGRBM 1-492
c.195 Praetor M. Helvius BLASIO in Spain from 197, returns to Rome with much silver. 196 rcIb     195 DGRBM 1-492, wikRCH
c.195 Praetor Q. FABIUS BUTEO in Farther Spain from 196, ends. 195 rcIb
c.195 10,000 Celtiberi join the Turdetani against Rome. 195 wikClW
c.195 Consul M. Porcius CATO with 2 extra legions sent from Rome to quell rebellions in Nearer Spain, arrives at Emporeae.  He is immmediately opposed at ports of Rhoda and Emporeae.  The llergetes of King Bilistages are the only obedient Spaniards left north of the Ebro. 196/5 CAH 8-123 195 B76 II-645, CAH 8, Dur 3-87, LdHR 2-52, atl2, wikClW, wikRCH, wikTr, wikTRH
c.195 The Ilergetes, a loyal tribe in north Nearer Spain, is attacked, and sends 3 envoys to ask Cato for help.  Cato does not want to split his army to help them because an enemy force is near.  Cato tells the envoys that he will help them and pretends to dispatch 3,000 soldiers for this.  The ambassadors leave.  Cato recalls his men and goes into winter quarters 3 miles from Emporeae. 195 wikRCH
c.195 Consul M. Porcius CATO surprise attacks and defeats Spanish rebels near Emporeae, subjugates all Spain north of the Ebro. 195 B76 II-645, Dur 3-87, MCAW, atl2, wikRCH
c.195 7 forts of the BERGISTANI, a small people of Tarraconensis, rebel, and are subdued without serious fighting.  Cato returns to Tarraco, but the Bergistani rebel again.  Cato defeats them again, and enslaves them all. 195 DGRG 1-392, wikRCH
c.195 Praetor Q. MINUCIUS THERMUS, in Nearer Spain from 196, returns to Rome.  P. MANLIUS succeeds until 194. 195 rcIb, wikRCH
c.195 P. MANLIUS, praetor in Nearer Spain, marches into Turdetania, joins forces with, Appius Claudius Nero against the Turdetani and Celtiberi. 195 wikRCH
c.195 Consul M. Porcius CATO disarms all peoples north of the Ebro, then levels their defensive walls.  Segestica holds out, and is taken by storm. 195 atl2, wikRCH
c.195 P. MANLIUS asks Cato for help.  Cato goes south of the Ebro to Celtiberia, threatens the Celtiberi, ravages their fields, but fails to bring the Turdetani and their Celtiberian allies to battle.  Next Cato marches to Segontia, because he heard that the baggage of the Celtiberi had been left there, but fails to take it.  Cato then returns with an escort to the Ebro, leaving his army in praetor Manlius"s camp. 195 CAH 8-124, atl2, wikClW, wikRCH
c.195 The Sedetani, Ausetani, and Suessetani near the Ebro submit to Cato.  The Lancetani and Bergistani in Catalonia hold out, then are forced to surrender. 195 wikRCH
194 CAH 8-124
c.195 Consul M. Porcius CATO goes to Vergium, a town controled by bandits, executes the bandits, enslaves the inhabitants, and organises its iron and silver mines efficiently. 195 wikRCH
c.195 Rebellion from 197 suppressed by Consul M. Porcius Cato, Q. Minucius Thermus, and others. 195 DGRBM 1-813, GHH, wikClW
c.195 Nearer Spain subdued by Consul M. Porcius Cato - until he leaves. 195 SORH
c.194 Praetor Ap. Claudius Nero, in Farther Spain from 195, returns to Rome, succeeded by praetor P. Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA until 193. 194 DGRBM 1-639, 3-751, OCD 962, rcIb
c.194 Q. P. Manlius, praetor in Nearer Spain from 195, returns to Rome.  Praetor Sextus DIGITIUS succeeds until 193 in south. 194 DGRBM 1-1005, rcIb
c.194 M. Porcius CATO, in Spain from 195, leaves praetors P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica and Sextus Digitus in charge of the 2 provinces, returns to Rome. 195 wikRCH 194 CAH 8-124, atl2, wikTr
c.194 After Cato leaves, the LUSITANI of west Spain war with Romans until ?. 194 CAH 8, wikLst
c.194 Praetor SCIPIO NASICA wins many battles south of the Ebro, resulting in the surrender of 50 towns. 194 wikRCH
c.194 Praetor SCIPIO NASICA attacks Lusitani bandits returning from plundering Farther Spain carrying their loot near Ilipa.  The Lusitani lose 12,000 men plus 140, mainly cavalrymen, captured.  Romans lose 73. 194 wikRCH
194/3 Praetor SCIPIO NASICA while in winter quarters, makes his soldiers build ships. early 193 atl2
c.193 Celtiberi, Vaccae and Vettones form a coalition. 193 wikClW
c.193 Praetor Sex. Digitius is defeated by Spanish rebels in several battles, but P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica prevents rebellion from spreading. 193 atl2
c.193 Sextus DIGITIUS, praetor in Nearer Spain from 194, ends.  Praetor C.(2) FLAMINIUS with a fresh army from Italy, after a detour to Africa, succeeds until 188, with orders to send the veterans back. 193 DGRBM 2-168, rcIb, wikRCH
c.193 Praetor M. Fulvius NOBILIOR sent from Rome to Farther Spain with title of proconsul until 191. 193 DGRBM 2-1206, rcIb, wikRCH
Nearer Spain 193 OCD 736
c.193 Praetor P.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA in Farther Spain from 194, returns to Rome. 193 rcIb
c.193 The Oretani around the upper Guadiana (Anas); and still farther north, the Carpetani, Vettones and Vaccae, are all defeated at Toletum by Nobilior.  The rebelling forces take refuge in the Lusone city of Contrebia Belaisca, which is taken by Nobilior.  The rebellion is over. 193 CAH 8-124, wikClW, wikTRH 192 wikRCH
c.193 TOLETUM capital of Carpentia taken by Nobilior, under Rome until ?. 193 B76 X-30 192 wikRCH
c.192 C.(2) Flaminius and M. Fulvius fight successfully against Spanish rebels. 192 atl2
c.191 Praetor M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR in Farther Spain from 193, returns to Rome, succeeded by praetor L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS with title of proconsul until 189. 191 B76 VII-808, CDCC 15, DGRBM 3-154, rcIb, wikRCH
c.190 L.(2) Aemilius Paulus is defeated by Lusitani at Lyco (location unknown) in Baetica.  He loses 6,000 men.  He retreats to a friendly country, raises an army by levy, and routs the Lusitani.  They lose 18,000 men; 3,300 are captured. 190 DGRBM 3-154, atl2, wikRCH
c.190 L.(2) Aemilius Paulus grants liberty and land to the Servi of the Hastenses living in the Turris Lascutana. 190 CAH 9-22
c.189 L.(2) Aemilius Paulus defeats the Lusitani again. 189 DGRBM 3-154, atl2
c.189 Praetor L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS, in Farther Spain from 191, returns to Rome. 189 B76 VII-808, DGRBM 3-154, CDCC 15    188 rcIb
c.189 Praetor L. Plautius HYPSAEUS sent from Rome to Nearer Spain. 189 DGRBM 2-540, wikRCH
c.188 C.(2) FLAMINIUS, praetor in Nearer Spain from 193, returns to Rome.  Praetor L. Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS, with an extra allotment of 6,400 allied troops succeeds until 186. 188 DGRBM 1-13, rcIb, wikRCH
c.188 Praetor C. ATINIUS sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 186. 188 rcIb, wikRCH
c.187 The number of regular legions in Spain is increased from 2 (10,800 citizen troops plus 7,900 allied troops including 400 cavalry) to 4 until 172.  The 4 legions have 6,300 allies including 300 cavalry per legion 187 CAH 8-124, 126
c.186 Praetor C. ATINIUS in Farther Spain from 188, defeats the Lusitani, seizes their camp near Hasta, killing 6,000, attacks Hasta, which he easily seizes, but dies in the battle. 187 wikRCH, 186 rcIb
c.186 Praetor C. Calpurnius PISO sent from Rome to Farther Spain to succeed dead Atinius until 184.  L. Juventius Thalna is his legate. 186 CAH 8-124, DGRBM 3-372, rcIb 185 DGRBM 3-1020
c.186 Praetor L. Quinctius Pennus CRISPINUS sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 184. 186 CAH 8-124, DGRBM 1-891
c.186 Celtiberi and Lusitani supposedly attack territory of unspecified Roman allies, but this is probably a convenient pretext. 186 CAH 8-126
c.186 Praetors C. Calpurnius PISO and CRISPINUS co-operate (unusual among praetors) and defeat a coalition on the River Tagus in Carpetani land. 186 CAH 8-124 185 wikClW
c.186 Roman reinforcements arrive: 20,000 Latin and 3,000 Roman inf and 800 Latin and 200 Roman cav. 186 wikRCH
c.186 Praetor L. Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS fights an indecisive battle against the Celtiberi.  Both sides withdraw.  A few days later, the Celtiberi return with a larger army, engage the Romans near Calagurris, and are defeated, suffering 12,000 casualties and 2,000 captured. 187 wikRCH
186 DGRBM 1-13, atl2 185 GHH
c.186 Praetors C. Atinius and L. Manlius fight successfully against Spanish rebels. 186 atl2
c.186 Praetor L. Manlius ACIDINUS FULVIANUS in Nearer Spain from 188, returns to Rome.  Praetor L. Quintius CRISPINUS succeeds until 184. 186 DGRBM 1-13, atl2, rcIb
c.185 Praetors C. Calpurnius Piso and L. Quinctius Pennus Crispinus suffer an initial defeat, then win a victory over Spanish rebels. 185 SORH atl2
c.185 Praetor C. Calpurnius defeats the Lusitani. 185 SORH
c.184 Praetor L. Quinctius Pennus CRISPINUS in Nearer Spain from 186, returns to Rome, succeeded by Praetor A. Terentius VARRO until 182. 184 DGRBM 1-891, 3-1222, rcIb, wikRCH
c.184 Praetor C. Calpurnius PISO, in Farther Spain from 186, propraetor from 185, returns to Rome.  Praetor P. SEMPRONIUS LONGUS succeeds, soon gets sick, and does nothing until 182. 184 DGRBM 3-372, rcIb, wikRCH
c.184 Consul Cato the Elder induces the Celtiberi and smaller tribes, by a stratagem, to demolish their town defences, and to place themselves in his power, which he used with such justice and moderation as to win their hearts. 184 DGRG 1-1079
c.184 A. Terentius VARRO seizes the Suessetani town of Corbio north of the Ebro, and enslaves inhabitants. 184 wikRCH
c.183 Celtiberi invade far into Roman controled territory, including the territory of the Ausetani, where A. Terentius VARRO defeats them near the Ebro. 183 CAH 8-124, 126, atl2, wikRCH
c.182 Praetor Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 180.  His bro Marcus is legate.  Praetor A Terentius VARRO in Nearer Spain from 184, returns to Rome.  Flaccus opens war with the Celtiberi until 179.  They respond by raising an army of 35,000. 182 CAH 8-125, DGRBM 2-154, 3-1222, OCD 440, rcIb, wikClW
181 CAH 8, OCD 218
c.182 Praetor P. Sempronius Longus in Farther Spain from 184, dies of illness.  Praetor P. Manlius arrives in Farther Spain until 180. 182 rcIb, wikRCH
c.182 Roman reinforcements for Flaccus arrive: 4,000 Roman and 7,000 allied inf, and 200 Roman and 300 allied cav. 182 wikRCH
c.182 Praetor Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS, now reinforced goes to Carpetania. 182 wikClW
c.182 Town of Urbicua, under Celtiberi from ?, besieged by Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS, who is attacked by other Celtiberi, defeats them, and takes Urbicua. 182 DGRBM 2-154, atl2, wikClW, wikRCH
c.181 1st Celtiberi War begins until 179.  Celtiberi raid into Carpetani territory. 181 CAH 8-126, DGRG 1-582, wikClW
c.181 More fighting with the Lusitani. 181 CAH 8-125
c.181 Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS defeats the Celtiberi near Aebura Carpetania.  12,000 Celtiberi killed, 5,000 men and 400 horses captured.  Romans lose 200 plus 800 allies and 2,400 native auxiliaries.  Flaccus then takes Aebura and Contrebia, ravages Celtiberi land, and storms many forts until the Celtiberi surrender. 181 SORH, atl2, wikClW, wikRCH
no date: DGRBM 2-154
c.181 Several tribes along the Ebro, especially the Lusones, rebel against Roman rule, invading Farther Spain, Ebro valley and Iberic Levante in search of living space. 181 wikTRH
c.181 SPAIN:  Romans advance north. 181 CAH 8
c.180 Praetor Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS vows a temple to goddess Fortuna during a battle against the Celtiberi. 180 DGRBM 2-42
c.180 L. Minucius is legate of praetor Q, Fulvius Flaccus in Nearer Spain. 180 DGRBM 2-1092
c.180 Praetor P. Manlius, in Farther Spain from 182, ends. 180 rcIb
c.180 Since his successor is late, Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS starts a 3rd campaign against the Celtiberi who had not surrendered, ravaging distant part of Celtiberia where the Lusones live. 181 CAH 8-125 180 DGRBM 2-1092
c.180 Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS returning from his last campaign, ambushed at Manlian Pass, defeats the Celtiberi, killing 17,000 and capturing 3,700 men and 600 horses, but losses 4,400 men, returns to Taracco. 181 CAH 8-125 180 wikClW
c.180 Praetor Q.(2) Fulvius FLACCUS in Nearer Spain from 181, succeeded by Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS until 179, taking over the campaign against the Celtiberi.  Flaccus returns to Rome taking veterans who had been sent to Spain before 186. 181 DGRBM 2-288, wikTRH     180 CAH 8-125, CDCC 176, OCD 472, rcIb, wikRCH 179 CAH 9-20
c.180 The BELLI tribe of Celtiberi are forced to accept Roman suzerainty by Ti. Sempronius Gracchus. 181 wikTRH
c.180 Praetor L. Postumius ALBINUS sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 178. 180 DGRBM 1-91, rcIb, wikRCH
c.179 MUNDA taken by Gracchus in an unexpected night attack.  He leaves a garrison, takes hostages, and burns the countryside. 179 wikClW, wikRCH
c.179 CERTIMA taken by Gracchus, who takes 40 hostages, and imposes an indemnity on them. 179 wikClW, wikRCH
c.179 ALCE, under the Celtiberri, taken by Gracchus, who loses 109 Romans.  Celtiberi lose 9,000 men, 320 men and 112 horses captured.  Many nobles are taken, including 2 sons and a dau of Celtiberian chief Thurru. 179 wikClW, wikRCH
c.179 ERGAVICA, another Celtiberri city, opens gates to Gracchus. 179 wikClW, wikRCH
c.179 CARAVIS allied with Rome, but besieged by Celtiberi, is freed by Ti. Sempronius Gracchus. 180 wikTRH 179 wikClW
c.179 COMPLEGA taken by Gracchus.  Afterwards, Gracchus allocates land to the poor and makes carefully defined treaties with the surrounding tribes. 179 wikClW
c.179 GRACCHUS policy:  Enlist noteworthy Celtiberi.  Settle new towns.  Establish fair treaties. 179 SORH
c.179 GRACCHUS last battle with the Celtiberi cost them 22,000 casualties and the capture of 300 men and 300 horses. 179 wikClW
c.179 1st Celtiberian War with Rome from 181 ends with battle of Moncayo (a mountain range).  Celtiberi pacified by Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS, who makes friends with tribal chiefs and gives land to poor. 179 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1207, DGRG 1-582, Dur 3-87, GHH, LdHR 2-55, atl2, wikClW, wikRCH, wikTRH     178 CAH 8, atl2
c.179 CELTIBERI / Rome  Treaty  lasts until 155. 179 CAH 8, Dur 3-87, LdHR 2-55, SORH     178 CAH 8, atl2
c.179 Praetor L. Postumius ALBINUS defeats the Vaccae and Lusitani. 179 CAH 8, atl2
c.178 GRACCHURIS founded on the upper Ebro by Ti. Gracchus.  He is the 1st Roman to name a city after himself.  Sources don't say who lived there. 180 wikTRH
178 CAH 8-128, wikRCH
c.178 Ti. Sempronius GRACCHUS, in Nearer Spain from 180, returns with loot including 40,000 lbs of silver to RomePraetor M. TITINIUS CURVUS succeeds with title of proconsul until 176. 178 CAH 9-20, CDCC 176, DGRBM 2-289, 3-1158, rcIb
c.178 Praetor T. Fonteius CAPITO sent from Rome to Farther Spain, succeeding Praetor L. Postumius ALBINUS in Farther Spain from 180, who returns. 178 DGRBM 1-92, 602, rcIb
c.177 Praetor M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS arrives in Farther Spain until 168?. 177 DGRBM 2-932     169? rcIb
This is questionable. rcIb
c.176 Praetorships of M. Titinius and Titus Fonteius are extended.  They are given reinforcements of 3,000 Roman and 5,000 Latin inf, and 200 Roman and 300 Latin cav. 176 wikRCH
c.176 Q. Fulvius FLACCUS vows a temple of Fortuna Equestris in a battle against the Celtiberi.  He will build it in 173. 176 DGRG 2-834
c.175 Celtiberi rebel briefly. 175 CAH 8
c.175 Praetor Appius CLAUDIUS CENTHO sent from Rome to Nearer Spain.  Praetor M. Titinius CURVUS, in Nearer Spain from 178, returns. 176 rcIb
175 DGRBM 1-769, wikRCH
c.174 Praetor Gn. Servilius CAEPIO(2) arrives in Farther Spain. 174 DGRBM 1-534, wikRCH
c. 174 Roman power in Spain:  North of the Ebro, it extends, as before 197, to the Ilergetes, while in the Ebro valley the limit is farther west, at Calagurris (Calahorra) or a little higher.  South of the Ebro, most of the Celtiberi, and all who lived between the Celtiberi and south-east coast, are subject to Rome.  So are the Carpetani and Vettones, whose territories lay astride the Tagus farther west; and so probably are their northern neighbors, the Vaccae.  Yet none of these 3 peoples is completely subdued.  The Lusitani remain independent.  Roman control beyond the Guadiana (Anas) is probably limited to the Cunei in the extreme south of Lusitania.  The Cunei were Roman subjects before 174. 174 CAH 8-127
c.174 M. TITINIUS, proconsul of Nearer Spain from 178, returns to Rome, succeeded by Praetor P. Furius PHILUS until 173. 174 DGRBM 3-335, 1158, rcIb 173 wikRCH
c.174 Praetor Ap. Claudius CENTHO defeats the Celtiberi. 175 DGRBM 1-769 174 atl2
c.174 Roman wars in Spain end. 174 CAH 8
c.173 Praetor L. MANCINUS, in Farther Spain from ?, returns to Rome.  Praetor M. MATIENUS succeeds until 172.  He plunders and oppresses it. 173 DGRBM 2-973, wikRCH
c.173 Spain is mostly peaceful from now until 155. 173 CAH 8-131
c.173 Praetor P. Furius PHILUS, in Nearer Spain from 174, ends. 173 rcIb
c.172 Praetor Sp. LUCRETIUS sent from Rome to Farther Spain. 172 DGRBM 2-828, wikRCH
c.172 Praetor M. Junius PENNUS arrives in Nearer Spain.  Reinforcements for his army, which he urgently demands from the senate, do not arrive till he has to give up the province to his successor. 172 DGRBM 3-184
c.171 Praetor L. CANULEIUS DIVES sent from Rome, to Spain to govern both provinces. 171 DGRBM 1-1057, wikRCH
c.171 Praetor M. MATIENUS, in Farther Spain from 173, returns to Rome. 171 CAH 8-131, DGRBM 1-641, 1057, SORH, atl2 no date: DGRBM 2-973
c.171 Tax in Spain set at 1/20 instead of the usual 1/10 because of the infertility of the country. 171 CDGRA 228
c.171 Roman soldiers who had married Spanish women, and now have over 4,000 mixed children, send envoys to Rome.  They complain about the rapacity and arrogance of Roman officials, and request a town of their own. 171 DGRBM 1-1057, wikRCH
c.171 CARTEIA on coast of Spain near Gibraltar founded with 6,000 Roman soldiers who had married Spanish women.  This is the 1st Latin colony outside of Italy. 171 B76 15-1098, CAH 8-128, 9-22, DGRG 1-527, MCAW, OCD 208
c.170 Olonicus leads a rebellion in Nearer Spain. 170 CAH 8, atl2
c.169 Praetor M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS sent from Rome as commander in both provinces of Spain until 168.  He intervenes in the levies, demands from local allies 4,000 inf and 300 cav. 169 OCD 646, rcIb, wikRCH
c.169 Spain is given reinforcements of 3,000 Roman and inf and 300 cav.  The number of soldiers in each legion is fixed at 5,200 inf and 300 cav. 169 wikRCH
c.169 MARCOLICA is taken by Marcellus 169 wikRCH
c.168 Praetor M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS commander in both provinces of Spain from 169, returns to Rome.  P. FONTEIUS succeeds until 167 168 OCD 646, rcIb, wikRCH
c.167 Praetor Gn. Fulvius GILLO sent from Rome to Nearer Spain. 167 DGRBM 2-268, wikRCH
c.167 6 praetors arrive in Farther Spain.  They include ???. 167 DGRBM 2-1168
c.167 Livy's extant works end here.  Subsequent books are lost, and we have a gap of 12 years with hardly any info. 167 wikRCH
c.166 Praetor A. Licinius NERVA sent from Rome to Farther Spain. 167 wikRCH
166 DGRBM 2-1168
c.166 The LUSITANI fight Romans until 160. 166 CAH 8-131
c.166 Praetor P. Rutilius Calvus sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until ?. 166 wikRCH
c.158 SAURMAG, king of Iberians from ?, dies.  MIRVAN succeeds until 108. 158 atl2
c.155 Praetor M. Manlius arrives in Farther Spain until 154. 155 rcIb
c.155 Under command of Punicus first and Cesarus after, the Lusitani and Vettones reach Gibraltar. 155 wikLst, wikTRH
c.154 Praetor L. Calpurnius PISO Caesoninus sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 153. 154 DGRBM 3-372, rcIb
c.154 Punicus leads the Lusitani in revolt and defeats both praetors in a single battle. 154 CAH 8-132, DGRBM 3-372, atl2
c.154 Roman conquest south of Lusitania:  Lusitanian War with Rome begins until 138. 155 CAH 9-21, Dur 3-20, wikClW, wikLst , wikTRH 154 CAH 8, Dur 3-87, atl2, bk, wikClW, wikTAR
c.154 The AREVACI, inspired by Lusitanian success, also rebel. 154 CAH 8-132
c.154 PUNICUS, chief of the Lusitani from ?, dies.  CESARUS, succeeds until ?. 155-3 wikRCH
c.154 Lusitani, under Cesarus, pillage thru Baetica. 154 wikTRH
c.154 The BELLI tribe of Celtiberri persuade people of some smaller towns to settle there and build a circuit of walls 7km long.  It also forces the neighboring Titti to join. 154 wikTRH
c.154 Senate forbids the enlargement of the fortification of Segeda, capital of the Belli, saying it violates the treaty with Gracchus in 179.  The Belli continue the enlargement. 154 wikClW
c.154 Senate declares war on Celtiberi because of enlargement of the town of Segeda.  War lasts until 151. 154 CAH 8, atl2, wikClW
153 DGRG 1-582, 1080, GHH
c.153 Praetor L. MUMMIUS sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 152, succeeding praetor L. Calpurnius PISO Caesoninus, in Farther Spain from 154, who returns. 154 DGRBM 2-1119 153 rcIb, wikRCH
c.153 CELTIBERI form a coalition of Arevaci, Belli, and Titii.  Senate objects to the Belli town of Segeda building a circuit of walls, and declares 2nd CELTIBERI War until 151. 155 wikRCH     154 wikClW 153 CAH 8, CDCC 176, GHH, OCD 218, atl2
c.153 Lusitani under Cesarus defeat praetor L. Mummius. 153 atl2, wikRCH
c.153 Consul Q. Fulvius NOBILIOR with nearly 30,000 men sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 152. 153 CAH 8-132, rcIb, wikClW, wikRCH
c. 153 With advance of Consul Q. Fulvius Nobilior, the people of Segeda take refuge with the Arevaci Celtiberi and chose Segedan Carus as their commander.  Carus, with 20,000 inf and 500 cav, lays an ambush in a thick forest.  Romans lose 6,000.  From then on they would not fight on the festival day of Vulcan because this defeat occurred on that day.  The Arevaci assemble at Numantia, which has strong natural defenses.  3 days later Nobilior camps 4km from Numantia, and is repulsed losing 4,000 men and 3 out of 10 Numidian elephants. 153 CAH 8, DGRG 1-1080, SORH, atl2, wikClW, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.153 Consul Q. Fulvius Nobilior destroys Segeda, attacks Axinium, which stores Celtiberi supplies, but achieves nothing, loses many men, and returns to his camp at night.  These Roman disasters encouraged the town of OCILIS (a storehouse of Roman supplies) to defect to the Celtiberi. 153 wikClW, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.153 6,000 Roman soldiers ambushed and killed at Ribarroya, in Baldano river valley by Belli tribe of Celtiberi, led by Carus. 153 atl2, wikClW, wikTRH
c.153 Lusitani under Cesarus raid neighboring territories, but are checked by praetor L. Mummius. 153 atl2
c.153 Praetor L. MUMMIUS defeats the Lusitani and Blasto-Phoenicians. 153 DGRBM 2-1119, SORH
c.153 Celtiberi ambush Roman cavalry reinforcements, and kill their leader Blesius. 153 atl2
c.153/2 Consul Q. Fulvius Nobilior spends winter besieging Numantia. 153 atl2, wikTRH
c.152 Q. Fulvius NOBILIOR, in Nearer Spain from 153, returns to Rome.  M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS, now a consul, returns? until 151.  Marcellus brings 8,000 inf and 500 cav, and opens negotiations with the Celtiberi. 152 CAH 8, CDCC 617, DGRBM 2-932, GHH, OCD 646, rcIb, wikClW, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.152 Celtiberi cities of Ocilis and Nertobriga (Tarraconense) taken by M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS, who sends a letter to Rome recomending a peace treaty. 152 atl2, wikClW, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.152 CORDUBA, under Rome from 206, founded as a colony by M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS until 510.  Used as winter quarters by Marcellus. 169 OCD 646, wikCrd
152 B76 III-146, 5-171, OCD 289, SORH, atl2
c.152 Praetor L. MUMMIUS in Farther Spain from 154, returns to Rome, succeeded by praetor M. ATILIUS SERRANUS until 151. 152 CAH 8-133, DGRBM 3-788, atl2, rcIb
c.152 Lusitani under Cesarus resume resistance to Romans. 152 atl2
c. 152 With his replacement enroute, consul M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS begins negotiating with Celtiberi.  He tells them about the impending war, returns the hostages, talks with the chief of the embassy which had gone to Rome, tries to persuade the Celtiberi to put matters in his hands because he wanted to bring the war to an end before the arrival of Lucullus.  After this 5,000 Arevaci take Nertobriga.  Marcellus camps near Numantia. 152 wikClW
c.152 M.(7) Marcellus extracts 3,600,000 denarii tribute from Celtiberia. 152 CAH 9-22
c.152 Consul M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS turns against the Lusitani. 152 CAH 8, atl2
no date: DGRBM 2-932, OCD 646
c.151 Celtiberi send envoys to Rome. 151 CAH 8-132, atl2
c.151 Celtiberi surrender to M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS.  2nd CELTIBERI WAR with Rome from 153 suspended until 143Marcellus negotiates a fair and liberal peace treaty (which the senate will reject). 152 wikClW, wikTRH       151 CAH 8-132, atl2
149 CDCC 176
c.151 M.(7) Claudius MARCELLUS governor of Nearer Spain from 150, returns to Rome.  Consul L. Licinius LUCULLUS succeeds until 150?.  He finds the Celtiberi already pacified.  He violates the treaty of 179 by attacking the Vaccae and Cauci without pretext for slaves and plunder. 151 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-831, DGRG 1-1080, Dur 3-87, GHH, LdHR 2-106, OCD 624, 646, SORH, rcIb, wikClW
c.151 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is sent from Rome to Spain to serve under Lucullus as military tribune.  Polybius accompanies. 151 CDCC 703, OCD 963, 853
c.151 Consul L. Licinius LUCULLUS orders execution of 20,000 men at the Vaccaean city of Cauca, almost the whole adult male population, in spite of their having surrendered. 151
CAH 8-137, GHH, atl2
c.151 Praetor M. ATILIUS SERRANUS, in Farther Spain from 152, returns to Rome, succeeded by praetor Servius Sulpicius GALBA until 149.  Galba hastens to relieve some Roman subjects who are pressed by the Lusitani. 151 DGRBM 2-205, GHH, rcIb
c.151 Praetor Servius Sulpicius GALBA invades Lusitania, routs the Lusitani, but his undisciplined army pursues carelessly and is defeated.  7,000 Romans are killed.  Galba escapes over the mountains into Baetica, collects the remnant of his army and allies, and winters at Conistorgis. 151 DGRBM 2-205, 3-1269, GHH, LdHR 2-106, SORH, atl2
c.151 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS kills a Spanish chief who challenged him to in single combat during siege of Intercatia. 151 B76 16-394, atl2
c.151 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is 1st over the wall in assault on Intercatia. 151 B76 16-394, atl2
c.151 INTERCATIA, besieged by L. Licinius LUCULLUS from ?, falls. 151 atl2
c.151 Consul L. Licinius LUCULLUS fails to capture Pallantia, main town of the Vaccae in north Tarraconensis. 151 LdHR 2-106, atl2
c.151 L. Licinius LUCULLUS defeats the Cantabri. 151 GHH
c.151/0 Consul L. Licinius LUCULLUS winters in Turdetania south Spain. 151/0 DGRBM 2-831
c. 150 Servius Sulpicius GALBA governor of Farther Spain, marches from the south into Lusitania, and ravages the country.  The Lusitani send an embassy to him, repenting of having violated their treaty with Atilius, and promise to observe it.  Galba tells the Lusitani that if they will leave the mountains and separate into 3 parts, and meet him at specified places, he will assign fertile lands to each group, as Gracchus had done.  Lusitani comply.  Galba attacks each group individually, massacres or enslaves 7,000 of them  A few, including Viriathus, escape. 150
CAH 8-137, spring DGRBM 2-205, 3-1269,
Dur 3-87, GHH, LdHR 2-106, MCAW, SORH, atl2, wikLst
c.150 LUSITANIA, offically part of Farther Spain from 197, comes under Roman control until 83.  Some sources call this the end of the Lusitanian War 154-38. 150 rcIb, wikClW
c.150 Proconsul L. Licinius LUCULLUS invades Lusitania from the north, at the same time with Ser. Galba from the south. 150 spring DGRBM 2-831, 3-1269, LdHR 2-106
c.150 L. Licinius LUCULLUS campaigns against Lusitani near Gades and Turdetania. 150 atl2
c.150 Λ GADES (Cadiz) under Carthage from ??, comes under Rome until 396CE. 150 rcIb
c.150 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS sent by Lucullus to Africa to get elephants from Masinissa.  Polybius accompanies. 151 CDCC 703 150 B76 16-394
c.149 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS becomes military tribune in Spain again until 148. 149 OCD 963
c.149 Praetor Servius Sulpicius GALBA, in Farther Spain from 151, returns to Rome.  Praetor C. VETILIUS with 10,000 inf and 1300 cav, succeeds until 147. Appian: Hisp 64a
149 DGRBM 2-205, LdHR 2-131, rcIb
147 DGRBM 3-1249
c.149 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS, now a tribune with an army, again sails to Africa. 149 B76 16-394
c.148 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS returns to Rome with African cavalry commander Phameas. 148 B76 16-395 atl2
c.148 VIRIATHUS, a survivor of the Lusitanian massacre, kills a Roman governor, becomes leader of a Lusitanian army. 148 MCAW, GHH, wikVr
c.147 VIRIATHUS, becomes king of Lusitania until 139. 148 atl2, rcIb     147 CAH 8, CDCC 931, wikTRH
c.147 VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, rebels against Romans, begins a successful guerrilla war until 140. 149 SORH     148 GHH
147 B76 X-455, CAH 8, Dur 3-20, vrb, wikClW, wikRCH
c.147 VIRIATHUS of Lusitania invades Turdetania in Farther Spain. 147 CAH 8-133, DGRBM 3-1269
c.147 VIRIATHUS of Lusitania overruns the fruitful country of Carpetania without hindrance. Appian: Hisp 64a 147 atl2
c.147 VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, ravaging Turdetania, is attacked by propraetor C. or M. Vetilius, defeated, and forced to take refuge in a fortress, which the Romans besiege. 147 DGRBM 3-1269
c.147 VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, escapes from praetor C. Vetilius. 147 atl2
c.147 VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, defeats praetor C. Vetilius, captures and kills him. 149 SORH     147 CDCC 931, DGRBM 3-1249, 1269, atl2, rcIb
c.147 C. PLAUTIUS sent from Rome to Farther Spain until 146. 147 rcIb
146 DGRBM 3-1269
c.146 At arrival of C. Plautius, Viriathus abandons Carpetania and retreats into Lusitania.  Plautius crosses the Tagus in pursuit of him. 146 DGRBM 3-1269
c.146 VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, attacks 4,000 under C. Plautius fortifying camp on a mountain south of the Tagus, destroys it.  Plautius is so disheartened that he retreats to winter quarters, though it is still mid summer. 146 DGRBM 3-1269, atl2
c.146 VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, ravages land of the Roman allies, compells inhabitants to pay to him the full value of their crops, or be destroyed.  He also takes Segobriga, chief town of the Celtiberi. 146 DGRBM 3-1269
c.146 C. PLAUTIUS, in Farther Spain from 147, ends. 146 rcIb
c.146 POLYBIUS sails in the Atlantic. 146 B76 8-389
c.146 Claudius Unimanus, arrives in Nearer Spain until 143. 146 rcIb
c.145 Consul Q. FABIUS Maximus AEMILIANUS is sent from Rome with 2 fresh legions to command of Roman army in both provinces of Spain until 143.  Fabius arrives in mid summer.  Because his raw troops need further training, he leaves his army under his legate, while he goes to Gades to sacrifice to Hercules. 145 DGRBM 3-1269, GHH, atl2, rcIb
c.145 While Q.(8) Fabius Maximus AEMILIANUS is in Gades, VIRIATHUS, king of Lusitania 147-39, defeats some Roman foragers. 145 DGRBM 3-1270, atl2
c.145 Praetor C. LAELIUS Sapiens, friend of Scipio Aemilianus, sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 144. 145 B76 V-984, OCD 576
c.144 Wedding of Viriathus. 144 atl2
c.144 C. LAELIUS Sapiens defeats Viriathus. 145 SRH, atl2     144 CDCC 931
c.144 C.(2) LAELIUS Sapiens in Nearer Spain from 145, returns to Rome. 144 LdHR 2-132
c.144 Q.(8) Fabius Maximus AEMILIANUS defeats Viriathus, drives him out of Roman dominions.  Viriathus escapes to town of Baecor (Baecula? Bailen?). 144 CAH 8-133, DGRBM 3-1270, SORH, atl2
c.144/3 Q.(8) Fabius Maximus AEMILIANUS winters at Corduba. 144/3 CAH 8-133,
DGRBM 3-1270, SORH, atl2
c.143 Q.(8) Fabius Maximus AEMILIANUS, proconsul in Farther Spain from 145 returns to Rome, succeeded by praetor Q. POMPEIUS until 142 with a well-trained army of 30,000 inf and 2,000 cav. 144 rcIb
143 DGRBM 3-1270 142 wikRCH
c.143 VIRIATHUS forms a league with several Celtic tribes including the Arevaci. 143 wikTRH
c.143 CELTIBERI of Numantia, peaceful from 151, rebel.  2nd Celtiberi War with Rome resumes as Numantine War until 133. 145 CDCC 176     144 SORH
144/3 CAH 8-134     143 DGRG 1-198, 582, GHH, LEWH 102, OCD 218, atl2, vrb, wikClW, wikTRH
c.143 Praetor Q. Quinctius in Farther Spain is repeatedly defeated, and takes refuge in Corduba. 143 SORH
c.143 Viriathus defeats Claudius Unimanus. 147 SORH     143 atl2
c.143 Claudius Unimanus, in Nearer Spain from 146, returns to Rome.  Consul Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS succeeds to fight Celtiberi, remains commander until 141. 143 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1057, 3-1270, DGRG 1-1080, OCD 677, rcIb
c.143 Q. COTIUS, legate of consul Q. Caecilius Metellus kills 2 Celtiberi in single combat. 143 DGRBM 1-866
c.143 Consul Q.(2) Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS attacks the territory of the Vettones, but fails to take Numantia or Termantia. 143 wikRCH, wikTRH
c.143 Consul Q. Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS surprise attacks and subdues the Arevaci. 143 atl2, wikRCH
c.143 Praetor Q. POMPEIUS defeats Viriathus, pursues him to the mountain south of the Tagus.  Viriathus turns on Pompeius, and drives them back to their camp with a loss of 1,000 men and several standards.  This so disheartens Pompeius that he allows Viriathus to ravage the country around the Guadalquiver (Baetis) without resistance.  Pompeius retreats early in autumn to winter quarters at Corduba. 143
CAH 8, DGRBM 3-1270, GHH
c.143 CORDUBA besieged by Viriathus until 141. 143 wikCrd
c.143 Viriathus overruns Farther Spain. 143 SORH
c.143 Consul Q. Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS besieges Contrebia on the Tagus. 143 atl2
c.142 CELTIBERI suppressed except for their strongholds, Numantia and Termantia (Termessus, just southeast of it) by Q. Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS. 143 B76 VI-836 142 OCD 677, SORH
c.142 Q. POMPEIUS attacks Termantia, but loses 700 men.  Romans are driven to a rocky place where many are forced down a precipice.  An indecisive battle follows.  Pompeius then goes to the town of Malia, which is surrendered by treachery.  Pompeius then defeats some brigands in Sedetania. 142 wikRCH
c.142 Q. Fabius Maximus SERVILIANUS with 2 new legions plus allies totaling 16,000 inf and 1600 cav sent from Rome to Lusitania to succeed Q. Pompeius.  C. Fannius Strabo is tribune under him.  Servilianus commands Farther Spain until 141/0. 143 rcIb
142 DGRBM 2-995, 3-922 1270, atl2
c.142 Q. Fabius Maximus SERVILIANUS repels an initial attack by Viriathus, compells him to retire into Lusitania, storms many of his cities in Baetica and southern Lusitania, and exterminates several guerilla bands. 142 DGRBM 3-1270, atl2, wikTRH
c.142 Numidian auxiliary force sent by Micipsa to help Servilianus in Spain against Viriathus. 142 DGRBM 2-1082
c.142 Cotius defeats Celtiberi champion Tyresius in combat, but then lets him go as a friend. 142 atl2
c.141 Q. Fabius Maximus SERVILIANUS defeats Viriathus, captures several Lusitanian towns, plunders 5 cities in Turdetania which had collaborated with Viriathus, punishes 500 leading rebels. 141 CAH 8-136, atl2
c.141 CORDUBA, besieged by Viriathus from 143, no longer so. 141 wikCrd
c. 141 Q. Fabius Maximus SERVILIANUS besieges Erisane (location unknown).  Viriathus enters Erisane by night, and at dawn sallies against the besiegers.  Romans lose many men, and are routedBravery of Fannius enables some to escape to Itucci.  Rest are trapped in a mountain pass, and surrounded.  Escape is impossible, and they surrender.  Viriathus makes treaty with Servilianus.  Romans can live, but must permit the Lusitani to retain undisturbed possession of their own territory, and recognize him as friend and ally of the Roman people.  Repudiated 140. 142 CDCC 931, atl2, wikTRH
141 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-1270, GHH, LdHR 2-134, SORH, atl2 141/0
CAH 8-134
c.141 Q. POMPEIUS, now a consul, sent from Rome back to Spain, this time Nearer Spain, succeeding Q. Caecilius METELLUS MACEDONICUS commander in Nearer Spain from 143, who returns. 141 DGRBM 2-1057, 3-474, LdHR 2-132, OCD 857, atl2, rcIb
c.141 Consul Q. POMPEIUS unsuccessfully attacks Numantia, Celtiberi capital. 141 atl2
c.141 NUMANTIA, under Celtiberi, on both sides of the Douro, besieged by Q. Pompeius. 141 MCAW
c.141 Consul Q. POMPEIUS attacks Termantia (Termes, just southeast of Numantia). 141 atl2
c.141 Consul Q. POMPEIUS captures Malia (east of Numantia near the Ebro). 141 atl2
c.140 Q. FABIUS Maximus SERVILIANUS, commander in Farther Spain, succeeded by his bro consul Q. Servilius CAEPIO until 138.  Servilianus stays on as proconsul until later 140. 141/0 DGRBM 3-1270 140 GHH, LdHR 2-134, rcIb
c.140 Senate repudiates Servilianus' 141 treaty with Viriathus, authorizes Caepio to renew war against Lusitania. 140 early CAH 8-134 139 atl2
c.140 Consul Q. Servilius CAEPIO drives Viriathus, who has only a small force, from Carpetania north to Galicia, and then turns to fight the Vettones and even the Callaeci in far north-west. 141/0 CAH 8-134
140 LdHR 2-134, SORH, wikTRH
c.140 Q. POMPEIUS defeated at Numantia. 140 atl2
c.140 Q. POMPEIUS negotiates unfavorable treaty with Celtiberi of Numantia.  Pompeius publicly demands unconditional surrender, but in private only demands hostages, the captives and deserters, and 30 talents.  The Numantines agree, and immediately pay part of the money. 141 wikTRH 140 CAH 9-61, OCD 857, SORH
139 atl2
c.140 Q. Occius is attacked by the Lusitani. 140 atl2
c.140/39 Q. POMPEIUS' army suffers severely during winter. 140/39 atl2
c.139 Q. POMPEIUS' army grants the Arevaci a favorable peace settlement. 139 CAH 8-134
c.139 Numantines send legates to Rome to defend Pompeius' 140  treaty  before the senate. 139 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-474, GHH, atl2
c.139 M. POPILLIUS LAENAS sent from Rome to Nearer Spain to relieve Q. POMPEIUS, who now disowns his 140 treaty but doesn't give back the money, though it had all been witnessed by his own officers.  The senate supports him.  Siege of Numantia is resumed. 139 CDCC 617, DGRBM 3-474, GHH, GHH, SORH, wikRCH
c.139 Consul Q. Servilius CAEPIO arranges or encourages the murder of Viriathus. 139
CAH 8-134
M. Popillius Laenas does it. 139 wikTRH
c.139 VIRIATHUS dies.  King of Lusitania from 147, treacherously murdered in his sleep by Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus, due to Roman briberyTAUTALUS succeeds until ?. 140 B76 14-865, CDCC 931, GHH, LdHR 2-134, MCAW, SORH
139 B76 X-455, 15-1095, 17-404, CAH 8, CDCC 428, LEWH 102, atl2, rcIb, wikLst, wikTRH
138 B76 X-334, CAH 8-139
c.139 TAUTALUS king of Lusitania penetrates to the walls of Saguntum, but retreats at approach of Caepio.  He then surrenders. 139 wikTRH, no date: LdHR 2-134
c.139 Q. Servilius CAEPIO concludes the war in Lusitania. 139 SORH, wikTRH
c.138 Romans refuse to reward Viriathus' murderers. 138 atl2
c.138 M. POPILLIUS LAENAS doesn"t recognize the 140 treaty between Q. Pompeius and the Arevaci. 138 wikTRH
c.138 M. POPILLIUS LAENAS attacks the Lusones, a Celtiberi tribe close to Numantia. 138 atl2, wikRCH
c.138 Proconsul M. POPILLIUS LAENAS is defeated at Numantia. 138 DGRBM 2-708, SORH, atl2
c.138 Q. Servilius CAEPIO proconsul in Farther Spain from 140, returns to Rome, succeeded by consul D. JUNIUS BRUTUS until 137/6. 139 rcIb     138 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-509, GHH, LdHR 2-136
c.138 Consul D. JUNIUS BRUTUS first advances by rapid and violent steps to the Douro. 138 CAH 8-135
c.138 Consul D. Junius BRUTUS finishes the war against the Lusitani. 138 DGRG 1-1080, GHH
c.138 LUSITANIAN War with Rome from 154 ends.  Romans conquer south Lusitania. 150 wikClW   139 wikLst 138 bk, wikTAR
c.138 VALENTIA founded by consul D. Junius BRUTUS for Spaniards who had fought under Viriathus and Brutobriga.  This is to pacify the locals. 138 CAH 9-22, DGRBM 1-509, LdHR 2-136, OCD 1104, SORH     137 atl2
for soldiers who had fought against Viriathus 138 CAH 8-139, DGRBM 1-509
c.138/7 Lusitania between the Tagus and the far north-west (territory conquered by D. Junius Brutus in 138 and 37. 138 GHH
138/7 CAH 8-138
c.137 Proconsul M. POPILLIUS LAENAS in Nearer Spain from 139, returns to Rome.  Consul C. Hostilius MANCINUS succeeds until 137, finds the army in disorder. 138 GHH, wikRCH 137 DGRBM 2-914, LdHR 2-133, atl2, wikRCH
c.137 Ti.(6) Sempronius GRACCHUS, age 30, is quaestor under Mancinus in Spain. 137 DGRBM 2-291, LdHR 2-173, OCD 473     no date: OCD 642
c.137 Consul C. Hostilius MANCINUS, having inherited a disordered army, is defeated several times by the Celtiberi of Numantia. 137 LdHR 2-133, wikRCH
c.137 D. BRUTUS, proconsul of Farther Spain, advances from the Douro to the Oblivio (Lethe? Limaea?).  His troops refuse to cross.  Brutus siezes the standard and enters the river alone.  His troops follow.  They invade Galicia under the Celtic Gallici. 138 B76 17-404, CAH 8-135       137 DGRG 1-1080, atl2
no date: DGRBM 1-509, OCD 642
c.137 GALICIA, under Celtic Gallici from ?, conquered by D. BRUTUS, for which he is named Gallaecus. 137 B76 IV-387
136 SORH
no date: OCD 642
c.137 D. BRUTUS Gallaecus, proconsul of Farther Spain, advances to river Minius (Minho) where he defeats the Bracari.  They cross and continue until they reach the Atlantic.  Troops are astonished to see the sun set on water. 137 wikLst
no date: CAH 8-135, DGRBM 1-509
c.137 D. BRUTUS Gallaecus, proconsul in Farther Spain 138-7/6, advances thru Lusitania. 137 CAH 8
no date: OCD 642
c.137 D. BRUTUS Gallaecus, proconsul of Farther Spain subdues Lusitania. 137 atl2
c.137 The Vaccae and Cantabri from the north and west march to relieve fellow Spaniards in Numantia.  Consul C. Hostilius MANCINUS learns of it and withdraws from the siege.  The Numantines pursue him. 137 LdHR 2-133
c.137 Consul C. Hostilius MANCINUS is trapped by Numantines.  He offers to surrender if his army, 20,000 men, is spared.  Numantines agree only if quaestor Ti.(6) Gracchus is held responsible to secure a peace treaty.  Gracchus agrees,  treaty  is made, and the army is saved. 137 B76 15-1099, CAH 8, 9-4, 61, CDCC 176, GHH, LdHR 2-133, MCAW, OCD 642, SORH, atl2, vrb, wikRCH, wikTRH
no date: OCD 642
137 Consul C. Hostilius MANCINUS commander in Nearer Spain 137, returns to Rome.  M. Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina succeeds until 136. 137 DGRBM 2-764, atl2, wikMALP, wikRCH
c.137 Consul M. Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina plunders Vaccae territory on the spurious pretext that they had helped their neighbors the Arevaci against Rome.  The senate tries to stop him, because enthusiasm for wars in this region has declined except among those who did so for loot. 137 CAH 8-135
c.137/6 M. Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina remains in Spain as proconsul 136. 137/6 DGRBM 2-764
c.136 Consul M. Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina besieges Pallantia, main town of the Vaccae in north Tarraconensis.  He does poorly, and sends for D. Brutus Gallaecus to help. 137 atl2
136 GHH, LdHR 2-136, SORH
c.136 TALABRIGA besieged and taken by D. Brutus Gallaecus. 136 wikTRH
c.136 D. BRUTUS Gallaecus turns to help his relative M. Aemilius Lepidus Porcina against the Vaccae around the upper Douro. 137 SORH
136 CAH 8-135
c.136 Consul M. Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina is defeated by the Vaccae.  He retreats, and his army is destroyed. 137 atl2     136 GHH, LdHR 2-136, SORH
c.136 Legions in Farther Spain depart south leaving no garrisons. 136 wikTRH
c.136 D. Junius BRUTUS Gallaecus in Farther Spain from 138, returns to Rome. 137/6 DGRBM 1-509     136 rcIb
c.136 Consul L. Furius PHILUS is sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 135.  2 of his greatest enemies, Q. Metellus Macedonicus and Q. Pompeius are his legates that they might bear witness to his uprightness. 136 DGRBM 3-335, OCD 857, atl2, rcIb, wikLFP
c.136 Senate, on advice of Scipio Aemilianus and C. Hostilius Mancinus, rejects 137 Gracchan peace treaty in Spain.  Mancinus, with his own consent, is sent back to Spain as hostage.  He is delivered by Furius Philus to the Numantines, but Numantines refuse him. 137 GHH
136 DGRBM 3-335, atl2
no date:
OCD 642
c.136 M. Aemilius LEPIDUS Porcina in Nearer Spain from 137, returns to Rome. 136 GHH, LdHR 2-136, rcIb
c.135 Consul Q. Calpurnius PISO is sent from Rome to Nearer Spain until 134.  He does not attack Numantia, but contents himself with a plundering excursion into the territory of Pallantia, main town of the Vaccae in north Tarraconensis. 135 DGRBM 3-374, LdHR 2-136, atl2, rcIb, wikRCH
c.135 L. Furius PHILUS in Nearer Spain from 136, ends. 135 rcIb
c.135/4 Q. Calpurnius Piso winters in Carpetania. 135 atl2
c.134 Q. Calpurnius PISO in Nearer Spain from 135, returns to Rome, succeeded by consul Scipio AEMILIANUS with 60,000 men, the largest army yet, who becomes commander in Spain until 132.  C. Marius is on his staff. 134 B76 11-504, CAH 8-136, LdHR 2-139, SORH, atl2, rcIb, wikTRH
By 134 there remains independent only the peoples in the mountain range parallel to the north coast, and the Arevaci of Numantia.  The senate agrees to ignore the north coastal area. 134 CAH 8-135-6
c.134 Consul P.(10) Scipio AEMILIANUS expells all camp followers, restores discipline in Roman army. 134 LdHR 2-139, SORH, atl2, wikRCH
c.134 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS makes elaborate preparations to prevent supplies from being sent to Numantia, including a campaign against the Vaccae. 134 CAH 8-136, LdHR 2-139
c.134 Scipio AEMILIANUS attacks Pallantia, main town of the Vaccae in north Tarraconensis.  He rescues Rutilius Rufus from an ambush. 134 atl2
c.134 JUGURTHA, neph of Micipsa king of Numidia, with 12 elephants and archers and slingers, sent to Spain, joins Scipio Aemilianus in Numantine territory. 134 DGRBM 2-638, LdHR 2-139, atl2, wikRCH
c.134 Consul SCIPIO AEMILIANUS defeats Numantines. 134 GHH, atl2
c.134/3 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is sent a gift from Attalus-III of Pergamum. 134/3 CAH 8-378
c.133 C. Caecilius METELLUS CAPRARIUS serves under Scipio at siege of Numantia. 133 DGRBM 2-1058
c.133 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS builds a wall 3m high and 2½m thick around Numantia with 7 fortresses.  He builds an embankment of same dimensions as the wall around the adjoining marsh, and 2 towers by the Durius, to which he moores large timbers with ropes full of knives and spear heads. 133 wikTRH
c.133 NUMANTIA, under Celtiberi, on both sides of the Douro, besieged 8 months by Scipio Aemilianus. 133 B76 VII-439, 16-395, LdHR 2-139, OCD 427, 963, SORH, wikNm
c.133 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is privately sent a gift from Antiochus-VII SidetesScipio accepts it, publicly and has the quaestors record it. 134 CAH 8-370 133 atl2
c.133 Young men of Lutia try to get supplies into Numantia.  Scipio Aemilianus with a detachment of light troops marches to Lutia, forces the surrender of 400 of the most active sympathizers, and cuts off their right hands. 133 LdHR 2-140
c.133 EQUITES (cavalry composed of nobles) abolished by Scipio Aemilianus at siege of Numantia. 140 CDGRA 291
no date: LEWH 103-4
c.133 C. MARIUS distinguishes himself at the siege of Numantia, and is praised and promoted by Scipio Aemilianus. 133 atl2
c.133 C. METELLUS at the siege of Numantia, is insulted by Scipio Aemilianus. 133 atl2
c.133 Celtiberi in NUMANTIA, reduced to cannibalism, ask terms of surrender.  Scipio Aemilianus tells them to immediately throw out all weapons, and next day to appear at a given place.  They ask for time to deliberate.  Some of the men suicide rather than surrender.  The rest come out of the gates. 133 LdHR 2-140, wikTRH
c.133 4,000 Celtiberi in NUMANTIA, besieged 8 months by Scipio Aemilianus with 60,000, citizens burn the city and die free rather than live as slaves.  50 Numantines are selected to adorn Scipio's triumph.  The rest are enslaved, and Numantia is levelled.  Scipio establishes Roman dominion in central Spain. 134 CAH 8, 9-21, DGRBM 2-1207, 133 B76 15-1095, 1099, 16-395, 17-404, CAH 8-107, 136, 9, CDCC 428, DGRBM 3-750, DGRG 1-1080 Dur 3-87, GHH, IDB 4-430, LdHR 2-140, MCAW, OCD 963, SORH, atl2, bk, wikRCH, hifiCT     132 wikNm
c.133 Numantine War with Rome from 143 ends. 133 DGRG 1-198, GHH, OCD 218, wikClW
c.133 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS learns of death of Ti. Gracchus(3).  Though Scipio is married to Sempronia, sis of Ti. Gracchus, he says, "So may all those perish who attempt such crimes", a quote from Homer's Odyssey.  His legate C. Gracchus is aware of it. 133 DGRBM 2-294, 3-750, atl2
c.133 SPAIN, 3 provinces from 197, settled by Scipio AEMILIANUS and legate Fabius Maximus Aemilianus. 133 CAH 8, 9, GHH, LEWH 102, atl2, vrb
c.133 Spaniards, until now mead drinkers, acquire a taste for wine.  Some become wine exporters. 133 vrb
c.133 Spaniards quickly forget their languages and learn Latin - except the Vascones in the north. 133 vrb
c.132 Senate sends 10 commissioners to organize new territories in Spain. 132 atl2     no date: LdHR 2-140
c.132 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS commander in Spain from 134, returns to Rome.  His legate C. Gracchus accompanies. 133 rcIb     132 B76 16-395, DGRBM 2-294, 3-750, OCD 963
c.124 Praetor Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS becomes proconsul in Farther Spain until 123. 124 OCD 427, rcIb
c.123 Praetor Q. Cęcilius Metellus (apparently not Balearicus) arrives in Farther Spain until 122. 123 rcIb
c.123 Praetor Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS (later Allobrogicus) proconsul in Farther Spain from 124, ends. 123 rcIb
c.122 Praetor Q. Cęcilius Metellus, in Farther Spain from 123, ends. 122 rcIb
c.122 3,000 Romans exported from Spain to settle PALMA and POLLENTIA on Mallorca in Balearic Islands. 123 LEWH 104, SORH
122 CAH 8-139, 9-22, CDCC 120, OCD 678
121 B76 17-405, OCD 160
c.118 Narbo Martius (Narbonne 45) technically in province of Nearer Spain founded by Marius as an exercise in agricultural colonization, for the benefit of Italian civilians.  1st transmarine colony with citizen rights. 118 CAH 10-469, 476, GHH, SORH
c.118 M. Sergius in Nearer Spain until 114. 118 rcIb
c.114 Praetor C. MARIUS is made governor of Farther Spain until later 114. 115 rcIb     114 B76 11-504, wikGM
c.114 M. SERGIUS in Nearer Spain from 118, ends.  Sextus MARIUS succeeds until ?. 114 rcIb
c.114 Praetor C. MARIUS curbs banditry in Farther Spain, gets control of luctative mining industry. 114 B76 11-504, SORH, atl2, wikRCH
c.114 Fighting in Spain resumes until 111. 114 CAH 9-21
c.114 Praetor C. MARIUS in Farther Spain 114, ends. 114 rcIb
Corduba Hoard
Corduba Hoard     photos: jononmac46
c.113 CORDUBA TREASURE buried in a pit for safe-keeping on the outskirts of the city.  Iron Age silver objects include a large circular torc, 8 armlets with zoomorphic decoration, a brooch in the shape of 2 horse heads, a conical bowl, over 300 coins, 2 lumps of silver and other miscellaneous objects including rods and ingots.  82 of the coins are locally made, 222 minted in a Roman city.  Jewelry shows Celtic aesthetic traditions. 113 wikCrd 100 wikCT
c.112 L. Calpurnius PISO FRUGI, commander in Farther Spain, campaigns against Spanish rebels. 112 atl2
c.111 L. Calpurnius PISO FRUGI, commander in Farther Spain from ?, killed while practicing maneuvers.  Praetor Ser. Sulpicius GALBA succeeds until . 111 CAH 9-21, atl2 110 rcIb     no date:
DGRBM 2-205
c.111 Q. Fabius Labeo arrives in Nearer Spain until 110. 111 rcIb
c.110 C. Porcius CATO sails from Italy to Tarraco Narbonensis. 110 DGRBM 1-645
c.109 Praetor Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO sent from Rome to Farther Spain. 110 DGRBM 1-534 109 OCD 188
c.108 MIRVAN, king of Iberians from 158, dies.  PARNAJOM succeeds until ?. 108 atl2
c.108 Praetor Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO defeats the Lusitani. 108 DGRBM 1-534 109 OCD 188
c.105/4 Germanic CIMBRI, in Rhone valley from 110, enter Roman province of Narbonensis Gaul until 102. until 102.  They conflict with the Celtiberi. 110 B76 I-480     105 SORH, wikRCH, wikTRH
105/4 GHH    104 atl2
no date: DGRG 1-955, 1080, OCD 240
c.103 Germanic CIMBRI, in Spain from 105/4 expelled by the Celtiberi, return to Rhone valley.  Cimbri ally with Helveti and Teutons for joint invasion of Cisalpine Gaul. 104 GHH     103 DGRG 1-1080, SORH, atl2
102 Dur 3-119, wikTRH no date: OCD 240
c.101 Roman embassy tries to stifle rebellion in Spain. 101 atl2
c.101 Romans subdue the Lusitani again. 102 CAH 9-21     101 atl2

Spain 100-0
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