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Ionia Go to Europe Go to Asia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.1200 ACHAEANS pressed by Doric and Aeolian tribes from the north of Greece start migrating to Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia. 1200 vrb
c.1200 PERGAMON comes under Phrygia until 700. 1200 rcT
c.1200 TROY-7b, destroyed 1230, but occupied, comes under Phrygians until 900, but not rebuilt until 1190. 1200 rcT
c.1200 TROY (-7 1300-1100) comes under Phrygians until 900. 1200 rcT
c.1200 ARMENO-PHRYGIANS, in Balkans and Thrace from 1250, cross Bosphorus straits into Anatolia.  Settle west of Halys River among non-Indo-Europeans like those in Troy.  V 1250 vrb
LEWH 50, TAWH 56
1190 CWH, RAI2 219

photo: Carlos Delgado
Cybele Λ THEOLOGY:  CYBELE, mother goddess, chief deity of Phrygians, usually portrayed either seated or riding a chariot drawn by lions, brought to Anatolia.  Rituals include orgies.
(See Rigveda 1500, Hinduism 950, Theogony 700
c.1200 MUSHKI, in Thrace from ?, cross Bosphorus straits into Anatolia, move quickly across the north. 1200 TAWH 56
c.1200 SARDIS founded by descendants of Heracles. 1200 ISBE 4-336
c.1200 MYSIA, devastated since Trojan war, becomes part of Phrygia until 700. 1200 hifi
c.1200 Hittites of western Anatolia, detached from the kingdom by Sea Peoples, form a state called MAEONIA, which lasts until 1140.  First king is Manes or Timolus.  Herodotus says emigrants from here land in Italy and become Etruscans. 1205 RAI3
1200 hifi
c.1200 LUKKA tribes now emerge as LYCIA, a tightly-knit confederation of independent minor states, independent until 546. 1200 hifi
c.1200 Ishuwa and Kizzuwatna in S.E. Anatolia fall to Sea Peoples. 1200 hifi
c.1200 TARHUNTASSA, independent from 1240, falls to Sea Peoples, disappears from history.  Area is partly occupied by Aeolian and Achaean Greeks, and becomes known as PAMPHYLIA.  It is independent until 600. 1200 hifi, rcT
c.1200 Λ HEATING accomplished by smoke ducts under floors in palace of king of Arzawa. 1300 achr 1200 TTT
c.1200 Dendochronology from a tree found in Gordion shows evidence of a very dry period. 1200 pczy
c.1195 MANES / TIMOLUS, 1st king of Maeonia, gored to death by a bull.  Widow OMPHALE succeeds to 1173. 1195 hifi
c.1190 ATYS, son of Manes & Omphale, comes of age, rules Maeonia for unknown time. 1190 hifi
c.1190 SUPPILULIUMA-II ends.  King of 2nd Hittite Dyn from 1209. 1200 Morb, hifi, hiwo, jrank
1190 B76 V-67, RAI2 220, WPOT 206, anan, mxfld
1180 B76 2-192
1178 stma, wikHK     1177 hinf
HATTUSA, Hittite capital from 1270, sacked and burned.  Hittite culture survives south of Taurus Mts.
c.1190 CARCHEMISH, under Assyria from 1260, recovered by Hittites.  Becomes their chief city until 1110. guess
c.1190 2nd HITTITE EMPIRE ends.  Began 1450.  Destroyed by Sea Peoples, Kashkans, and anyone else in the area.   Little recorded history in Anatolia until 800. 1230 vrb
1200 SHWC 25, WBANE 322, bk, hifi 
c.1190 TROY-7b, under Phrygians 1200-900, rebuilt by Thracians until 1100. 1190 rcT
c.1185 Mycenean HERACLES becomes 1st head of Heraclid dynasty, which lasts until 716, but they don't rule as kings until 1100. 1185 anan
c.1183 CYGNUS king of Colonae in the Troad from 1200s killed by Achilles of Phthia. 1183 hifi
c.1183 MYNES king of Lyrnessos in the Troad from 1200s, and son or co-king Epistrophos, both killed by Achilles of Phthia. 1183 hifi
c.1183 Mycenean HERACLES arrives in Maeonia.  Required to serve queen/regent OMPHALE until 1173. 1183 hifi
Apr 16
SOLAR ECLIPSE:  ". . . and the Sun has perished out of heaven, and an evil mist hovers over all." Homer, Odyssey
1178 Apr 16 mrec, nasa
c.1173 OMPHALE dies.  Queen or regent of Maeonia from 1195.  Son of Heracles, ALCAEOS succeeds until 1140. 1173 hifi
c.1165 MUSHKI, in Anatolia from 1200, arrive at beginning of Tigris & Euphrates. 1165 TAWH 56
c.1140 MAEONIA, Neo-Hittite kingdom in west Anatolia from 1200, ends.  Taken over by Mycenaeans.  Ruler of Maeonia from 1173 ALCAEOS ends.  Son BELOS succeeds to 1120.  At some point, MAEONIA will become LYDIA. 1140 hifi
c.1130 AEOLIAN Greeks of Thessaly begin migrating to Lesbos island, thence to Anatolia.  Continue until 1000. 1130 B76 I-111 1100 GHH
c.1120 Son of Alcaeos, BELOS ends.  Heraclid ruler of Maeonia/Lydia from 1140.  Son NINOS succeeds to 1100. 1120 hifi
c.1115 MUSHKI defeated in battle by Assyrians. 1115 TAWH 56
c.1110 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites from 1190, taken by TIGLATH-PILESER-I.  Under Assyria until ?. 1120 wikA
c.1100 LAMPS made in Europe and Anatolia burn olive or nut oil thru a wick. 1100 TTT
c.1100 Son of Belos, NINOS ends.  Heraclid ruler of Maeonia/Lydia from 1120.  Son ARGON succeeds as 1st Heraclid king of Lydia until ?.  HERACLID DYNASTY begins in LYDIA until 716.  17 Kings.  Argon's successors are unknown until 795. 1100 hifi
c.1100 TROY-7b, under Phrygians 1200-900, rebuilt from 1190, destroyed by fire, possibly by Sea Peoples.  Site abandoned until 700. 1100 B76 X-145, rcT     950 lvA
c.1100 MYCENEANS on Crete chased out by Dorians, some to Anatolia.  This begins the Ionian migration to Anatolia. 1100 MCAW 50
c.1068 CODROS, last king of Attica from ?, dies.  Sons Nelos and Androclos emigrate with many followers to west coast of Anatolia. 1068 CDGRA 65, rcSB3, wikEA     1045 GHH
1044 DGRG 2-61
c.1050 IONIAN MIGRATION:  MYCENEANS of Attica and Arcadia move to Anatolia. 1050 OCD 140
1000 bk
c.1050 ARMENO-PHRYGIANS, in Anatolia from 1200, settle in Phrygia. 1000 hystn
c.1050 GORDION (Gordium), Anatolia founded by Armeno-Phrygians.  Lasts until 676. 1050 MCAW 52
c.1050 CYME Aeolis founded by Greeks probably from Euboea. 1050 wikCm 1033 GHH
c.1045 EPHESUS, previously called Apasa, founded on the Ayasuluk Hill, 3km from the center of ancient Ephesus by Dorian Androclos, who drives out the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants. 1100 IDB 1-242     1045 GHH 1044 ISBE 2-116 10th cen wikEΦ     1000 Dur 2-143     600 B76 6-904
c.1045 PHOCAEA founded by Atticans on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans. 1045 GHH

Anatolia 1000-501