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ae    frM    ktut     lveg     mxfld    nar
phou     pic     resh    scar    tig
treg    wikP
2nd Intermediate period Go to Mediterranean Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Africa Go to North Africa
Data for the 2nd Intermediate Period is more contradictory than most Egyptian history.
c.1786 2nd Intermediate Period begins until 1550.
13th Dynasty begins until 1650, capital at Memphis until 1674.  Consists of 65 or more kings who ruled in Memphis, Itj-Towy, and other places.
1786 CAH 2.1, JIAE, MRDK, lveg 1785 Grim     1784 pic
1783 ae, resh, tig
1782 Clay, Murn     1781 DMoN 1773 phou, Shaw
1750 SHWC 21
c.1786 Rival 14th Dynasty begins at Xois (aka Sais) until 1650.  About 76 unrelated kings. 1786 CAH 2.1, lveg, resh, tig
1773 phou, resh, Shaw
1720 pic
c.1783 WEGAF becomes 1st king of 13th Dyn until ?. 1784 pic     1783 treg, Clay
no date: phou, Shaw
c.1782 SEBEKHOTEP-I, son of Amenhemhat-IV, becomes 1st king of 13th Dyn at Memphis until ?. 1783 ae     1781 DMoN
no date, but definitely 1st: CAH 2.1, GEoP 151
The contradictory data above illustrates the futility of even trying to fill in the rest of the 13th & 14th Dynasties.
c.1750 HYKSOS, in Egypt from 1800, become numerous enough under chief TIMAIOS to assert dominance in the Delta by force without a battle.  (Or possibly this was a new invasion from the Levant.) 1786 JIAE, MRDK, resh, tig 1773 Shaw, phou
1720 IDB 2-47
1700 FLAP 85   1680 TTPC 1675 BHoE 214
1674 B76 V-249
1670 Sdl 1-24
1660 RAI2 221
SUTEKH is the Hyskos god, possibly an Egyptianism of some Baal, possibly an older form of Seth (Set).
HORSE & CHARIOT introduced to Egypt by Hyksos.
c.1750 Tomb of NEFERHOTEP (not to be confused with Neferhotep-I below, or TT49), scribe during 13th (Memphite) dyn.  Earliest tomb group with a rishi coffin.  Contained a walking stick, a head rest, a fa´ence hippopotamus, wooden pieces of the Hounds and Jackals game, a mace, writing implements, a wooden tray for a mirror, two calcite vessels, a magical wand, a double scarab, and Papyrus  BOULAQ 18 , an account of life in the Theban palace.  Lists palace officials and daily rations received.  Officials mentioned include vizier Ankhu, and queen Aya. 1750 wikN, wikPB18
c.1750 A HORSE is given an honored burial at Buhen. 1750 PAE 142
c.1730 NEFERHOTEP-I dies.  (not to be confused with Neferhotep the scribe above), 22nd-27th pharaoh for 11 or 12 years in 13th dyn at Memphis.  Burial place unknown.  Bro SOBEKHOTEP-IV succeeds. 1740 de, pic
1730 Clay, Grim, Murn, tig     1713 resh 1686 treg
c.1725 HYKSOS, dominant in delta from 1750, take AVARIS, make it their capital until 1550. 1786 JIAE, MRDK, resh, tig
1773 Shaw, phou   1730 IDB 2-667
1730-20 Grim 185   1720 B76 6-470, WPOT 39, pic     1600 RAI2 197
c.1700 Λ MATH V :  Egyptians convert common fractions into a series of decreasing unit fractions:  e.g.  ¾ is written as ½ + ¼.   ⅞ is written as ½ + ¼ + ⅛.  Egyptian math is less advanced than contemporary Sumero-Akkadian math.   (See YBC7289 1600, China 950 ) 1700
IDB 3-561
c.1674 MEMPHIS, capital of 13th Dynasty from 1786, taken by SALITIS, king of Hyksos at Avaris. 1674 B76 V-249, 6-471,
WPOT 87, bk, nar, resh
1663 Clay, Murn
1650 Shaw
13th Dynasty 1786-1550 & capital of Egypt moves south to THEBES until 1390.
c.1674 15th (Hyksos) DYNASTY begins until 1550.  Worships SUTEKH (Seth) & ANATH. 1730 IDB 2-667
1674 JIAE, MRDK, resh, wikP
1668 pic     1663 Clay, Murn, tig
1650 DMoN, Shaw, phou   1640 ae
c.1663 KHYAN becomes king of Hyksos until 1625. 1663 CAH 2.1-143
c.1663 13th Dynasty at Thebes from 1674, disappears from written records. 1663 Grim 185
c.1660 ABYDOS, under a separate and unnumbered Egyptian Dynasty, conquered by Hyksos. 20 yrs after Hyksos invade: ae
20 yrs after Abydos independent: ae
c.1650








c.1650
Rhind papyrus
{{PD-US}}
Λ MATH V RHIND PAPYRUS copied by scribe Ahmes from a source in the Middle Kingdom, contains 85 math problems in Hieratic script.  Instruction manual for students in arithmetic and geometry.  Shows sophisticated knowledge of fractions and the beginning of algebra where the quantity of things in a "heap" is determined."  Egyptian math shows no advancement for 1,000 years afterward, and is less advanced than contemporary Sumero-Akkadian math.
(See multiplication 1775, YBC7289 1600, China 950)

GEOMETRY V:  Geometric understanding shows a lack of distinction between exactness and approximation." Pi is approximated at 3⅙.   (See Plimpton 1800)
by 1700
B76 11-640
1650
BHM 11, EIHM 39, IDB 3-561
1650-01 TTS, wikHM
1600 mxfld
c.1650 13th DYNASTY ends.   Existed from 1786, at Thebes from 1674. 1674 MRDK     1668 pic
1650 Clay, DMoN, Murn, phou
post-1650 Shaw   1640 ae, resh, tig
1633 CAH 2.1, JIAE, Grim
c.1650 14th DYNASTY ends.   At Xois (aka Sais) from 1786.
Absorbed by 15th (Hyksos) Dynasty 1720-1550.
1700 CWH     1680 WCBOT   1690 wikP
1665 pic     1650 DMoN, Shaw, phou
1640 ae     1633 Grim     1603 CAH 2.1, JIAE, MRDK, resh, tig     1590 nar
c.1650 Manetho's 16th DYNASTY begins at Thebes until 1567.
Africanus calls it Hyksos;  Eusebius calls it Theban.
1684 CAH 2.1, JIAE, resh     1665 pic
1663 Clay, tig     1650 Shaw, phou
1640 ae     1620 nar
Dyn 16 is fictitious: GEoP 159, 172
c.1650 17th DYNASTY begins at Thebes until 1550.   It controls little more than the area around Thebes. 1668 pic     1663 Clay, Murn, tig, wikP
1650 B76 6-471, CAH 2.1, JIAE, resh, wikP     1619 nar     1610 Sdl 2-74
1600 lveg    1580 Shaw, phou    1571 ae
c.1650 RAHOTEP ascends as king of 17th Dyn at Thebes until 1576. 1663 pic     1650 GEoP, wikP     1616 nar 1580 friM     1571 ae     no date: Shaw, ktut, treg     omit Clay, JIAE, Murn, tig
c.1628 Mediterranean coast flooded with saltwater caused by seawaves caused by volcano at THERA.   Causes famine. 1470 TTPC
1300 Sdl 1-169
c.1625 KHYAN king of Hyksos from 1663, ends. 1625 CAH 2.1-143
c.1600 Middle Egyptian Language Period from 2200, ends as general language, but continues as a literary language.
Late (Neo) Egyptian Language Period begins until 700.
1600
B76 8-595
c.1600  Λ MEDICAL V text  contains 700 prescriptions, 100 of which include Λ BEER V.  Brewers use balsam, hay, dandelion, mint, wormwood seeds, horehound juice, crab claws & oyster shells for flavor.   (See Ninkasi 1800) 1600 brhst, drbr, skthr
c.1567 Manetho's 16th DYNASTY ends.   At Thebes from 1650. 1567 CAH 2.1
c.1566 SOBEKEMSAF-II becomes king of Thebes (17th Dyn) until 1559. 1610 pic     1566 ktut, friM, nar     1557 ae
c.1559 SOBEKEMSAF-II ends.  King of Thebes (17th Dyn) from 1566.   TAO-I SEAKHTENRE succeeds until 1558. 1663 Clay     1650 Shaw
1601 pic     1559 ktut, friM, nar 1550 ae     1548 nar
c.1558 TAO-I SEAKHTENRE ends.  King of Thebes (17th Dyn) from 1559.   Son TAO-II SEKENENRE succeeds until 1554. 1591 pic     1558 DMoN, ktut, friM, wikP    1545 nar
c.1555 HYKSOS domination peaks in reign of Aauserra Apepi. 1555 Shaw 180
c.1554 TAO-II SEKENENRE killed.  Son of Tao-I, king of Thebes (17th Dyn) from 1558, killed, aparently in battle with Hyksos king Ipepi.   Son? KAMOSE succeeds until 1550. 1590 MCAW 28     1576 pic
1554 ktut, friM, wikP
1553 DMoN     1545 ae
1540 nar
c.1550 KAMOSE, king of Thebes 1554-50, resumes war with Hyksos.  Pushes them out of Theban territory. 1580 MCAW 28     1570 Sdl 2-105
yr 3 DMoN 74, Shaw 199
1567 mxfld
c.1550 GLASS V:  1st useful glass objects made in Egypt.  Metal rods are attached to silica paste cores, which are dipped repeatedly into molten glass to produce small bottles.  Cores are then removed.  Glass indusrty continues strong until 1200.   (See Mesopotamia 1550) 1550 glslk 1500 asgs, txgls
Data for the end of the 2nd Intermediate Period is contradictory.  I have arbitrarily assigned a date of 1550 to it all.  1570 is equally plausible.
c.1550 Son of Tao-II, KAMOSE dies leaving no heir.  Last pharaoh of 17th Dyn from 1554,
17th DYNASTY ends.   At Thebes from 1650.
1580 BHoE 225, RAH 73, RAI2     1576 RAI3
1575 CWH, GEoP 443, Sag   1570 B76 17-934, Clay, JIAE, Murn, Sdl 2-74, pic, resh, scar, tig     1570, 60, or 51 Grim 193     1558 SHWC 22     1550 CVK, Shaw, ktut, phou, wikP     1549 DMoN     1540 ae     1539 treg     1534 nar
Noble of Upper Egypt, AHMOSE succeeds to 1546.
c.1550 HYKSOS, dominant in delta from 1750, at Avaris from 1720, expelled from Egypt by Ahmose. 1580 BHoE, DHJ 64, RAI2 221     1570 B76 6-470, FLAP 107, IDB 2-247, Sdl 1-24, WPOT 224, bk     1567 CAH 2.1-64, TAWH 16, WPOT 88     1565 IDB 1-584     1560 B76 18-261, wikHk     1550 SOTS 44
Ahmose yr 22 Shaw 172     1540-30 AYGC 57
c.1550 2nd INTERMEDIATE PERIOD ends.  Began 1786. 1580 BHoE, RAH 72, SHWC 21     1575 GEoP
1570 B76 17-934, Clay, FLAP, IDB 2-243, Murn, PW 15, Sdl 1-24, TTPC, resh, tig
1567 B76 11-896, JIAE, WPOT     1552 FHBC 218, Grim     1550 Shaw, ktut, phou, pic, wikP
1546 SOTS 44, WERE     1540 ae     1534 nar
NEW KINGDOM begins until 1070.
c.1550 18th DYNASTY begins until 1293.
Located at Thebes until 1390.
1580 RAI2, BHoE 225     1576 RAI3
1575 Sag, GEoP 443, CWH
1570 B76 17-934, Clay, lveg, pic
1567 CAH 2.1, JIAE     1552 Grim, MRDK 1550 CVK, Shaw     1540 ae     1534 nar

NEW KINGDOM
V