Levant
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.1400 JOPPA comes under Egypt until 1200. 1400 rcHL
c.1400 HAZOR under Egypt 1600-1200, sacked and burned by unknown aggressors. 1400 hifiHz
c.1400 BEYRYT Lebanon, under Gebal from 1600, independent until 1000. 1400 rcLeb
c.1400 JOSHUA's conquest reach apex. 1230 WBANE 40
c.1400 HEBREW APLHABET has stabilized to 22 consonants by now. 1400 WBANE 58
c.1400 A fragment of GILGAMESH EPIC found at Megiddo shows that the Mesopotamian version is current in Palestine. 1400 B76 12-918
c.1400 PROTO-CANAANITE Λ ALPHABET V splits off from Proto-Sinaitic script.   (See China 1475) 1400 wikHW
c.1400 SPOKED WHEELS, in Aram from 2000, 6 spoked wheels appear in Hittite and Aramean chariots. 1400
SHT 1-213
c.1400  RAS SHAMRA TEXTS  (aka UGARIT TEXTS) written in Ugaritic. ENBD 70, IDB 1-328
c.1400 BAAL, diety introduced by Phoenicians c.3000, now replaces EL as chief diety of west Semites.  In Ras Shamra (Ugarit) texts, Baal = Hadad (storm god).
A stele from Ugarit shows Baal standing on pedestal with 2 levels. Smaller figure godesses in front facing same direction standing on pedestal which appears to have a lid (similar to Ark of the Covenant).
1400
DBANE 149, ENBD 70,
IDB 1-328,
NLEM 75
c.1400 BAAL DIES and RESURRECTS:
tablet 5, column 5, lines 5-20:   Mot (Death) commands Baal to descend to the underworld.  Baal obeys.  [missing lines]
column 6, lines 5-10:  Messengers report to El that they found Baal's dead body.
lines 11-32:  El and Anat mourn Baal's death.
tablet 6, column 1, lines 8-17:  Anat descends to retrieve Baal's body, carries him to Mt. Zaphon and buries him.  [missing lines]
column 2, lines 23-58:  Wanting Baal returned, Anat kills Mot.  [missing lines]
column 4, line 60:  Baal had died, and is now alive.
1400
KTU 1.1-1.6
no date: ANET 138-140
c.1400 ARAMEANS, called Sutu or Sutiu in Akkadian records from 2700, now called AKHLAME (confederates) in Akkadian records. 1400
IDB 1-190
1400
+/- 100
AMORITE LANGUAGE, in Mesopotamia from 2200, in Levant from 2100, disappears in Mesopotamia, becomes dominant in Levant. 1400
B76 I-321
c.1400 LATE BRONZE-1 ends.  In Canaan from 1525.
Late Bronze-2 begins until 1200.
Late Bronze-2a begins until 1300.
1400
IDB 1-207
c.1400 Kingdom of MOAB begins until 581. 1300 vsbblv
c.1398









c.1398
12 tribes of Israel Canaan divided among 12 tribes. 1399 ds
1398/7 bivu
c.1390 JOSHUA, leader of Hebrews from 1405, dies.  CALEB succeeds until ?. 1442 trubi     1399 btl
1390 bivu, kical     1350 bica
1200 Sdl 2-282
c.1381 CUSHAN-RISHATHAIM  (Mitanni or some other Hurrian power) oppresses Israel until 1373. Jg 3:8       1469 lgbt     1437 trubi 1389 kical     1388 ds    1385 CBCOT     1381 bivu     1350 bomb
c.1375
May 3
SOLAR ECLIPSE at Ugarit:  "On the day of the new moon, in the month of Hiyar, the Sun was put to shame, and went down in the daytime, with Mars in attendance." 1375 May 3 nasa
c.1375 RUB ADDA becomes king of Gebal until 1355. 1375 wikLKB
c.1374 HALAP (under Mitanni) attacked unsuccessfully by SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1380-40. soon after ascension: RAI3 257
c.1373 OTHNIEL, son of Kenaz, defeats Cushan-Rishathaim, becomes 1st judge of Israel until 1334.  Israel at peace until 1334. 1461 lgbt     1435 trubi     1382 kical
1380 biti, ds     1377 CBCOT
1375 bihi     1373 HCC, bivu
1351 btl     1350 bica     1343 bomb 1220 WBH 24
c.1370 Levant, under Amenhotep-III, attacked by enemies including "HABIRU" (bandits).  Hazor is accused of siding with the Habiru.  A-III takes no action. 1371-58 hifiT     1370 MCAW 36
c.1370 RIB-ADDA prince of Gebal assures Pharaoh that Gebal is as Egyptian as Memphis. 1370 AYGC 221
c.1370 DAN, a tribe of Israel between Ephraim and Judah, migrates to north of Naphtali. Jg 17:18 1370 HCC
c.1370 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1380-40, 1st campaign into ARAM (now owned by Mitanni & Egypt).  Conquers from Mediterranean to Euphrates as far south as Lebanon.  Gebal & Kadesh remain loyal to Egypt. 1370 MCAW 36
1365 B76 17-935
c.1365 ABI-MILKI becomes king of Tyre and vassal of Egypt until 1315. 1369-60 hifiT
c.1361 ARAMEAN CITIES (Halap, Alalakh, Qatna, Kadesh) now under or oppressed by Suppiluliuma-I, are instigated to rebel by Tushratta of Mitanni 1380-50. no date:
B76 17-936
c.1360  Legend of King Keret  written in Ugaritic cuneiform.  King Keret of Hubur had 7 wives, who all died or left him childless.  He prayed and dreamt of god El, who told Keret to attack the kingdom of Udum, and demand the daughter of its King Pubala as wife.  Keret promises goddess Athirat much tribute if he succeeds.  Keret succeeds.  His new wife bares 2 sons, 6 daughters.  Keret renegs on promise to Athirat.   [gap]   Keret's children are grown.  Athirat gives Keret a bad illness.  Family prays to El, who takes Keret's side and cures him.  Keret's oldest son demands Keret's abdication.  Keret curses son.  Rest is lost.
A temple of Asherah at Tyre is mentioned.
15-1200 wikLK
1375-50
ANET 142
c.1360  Tale of Aqhat  written in Ugaritic cuneiform.  Story of Danel and son Aqhat, who refuses seduction attempts by goddess Anath, and is cursed by her.  Rest of story lost.
Λ Composite bow mentioned.
1375-50 ANET 149
c.1360 BENJAMIN, a tribe of Israel, nearly destroyed. Jg 19:21
1360 HCC, bivu
c.1355 RUB ADDA king of Gebal from 1375, ends.  Successor unknown until 1250. 1355 wikLKB
c.1350 KADESH, vassal to Egypt from 1448, independent until 1325. 1350 rcCan
c.1350 ABDIHEBA, king of Jerusalem, vassal to Egypt, letter to Akhenaten reports attacks by Milkilu, Labayites, Kushites, & HABIRU.  Says he needs military aid or Jerusalem will no longer be under Egyptian rule. El Amarna Letter #287
1360 ATGC 138
no date: DOTT 39
c.1350 ABDIHEBA follow up letter reports Egyptian possessions are lost to Habiru and others.   Enemies inhabit land from Seir to Gath Carmel.   Turbazu and Yaptihadda were killed at Zilu.   Zimrida of Lachish was killed by servants who defected to the Habiru. El Amarna Letter #288
no date: DOTT 43
c.1350 CANAAN, under Egypt from 1427, and PHILISTIA, under Egypt from 1479, lost to various invaders until 1290, and in chaos until 1274. -
c.1350
Ugaritic stele
Ugaritic stele found at the acropolis in Ras Shamra.  Limestone 142cm x 50cm.  Shows Baal with club and thunderbolt.
14th cen. wikStl
15-1300 wikBTL



Photo pub dom
c.1342 RIB-ADDA, king of Gebal, complains to overlords in Egypt that Aziru, king of Amurru, is trying to overthrow him and force others to join the pro-Hittites.  Pharaoh gains a temporary respite when Aziru dies, as Rib-Adda quickly renews his feud with Aziru's sons in Amurru.  Rib-Adda also complains about Yapa-Hadda of Biruta, accusing him of plotting or committing crimes. 1340 hifiBb
c.1340 CARCHEMISH, after 8 day siege, submits to Suppiluliuma-I.  Comes under Hittites until 1260. 1340 B76 1-818,
IDB 4-533, MCAW 38
c.1340 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king Hittites 1380-40, crushes Aramean rebellion.  Goes as far south as Damascus (which is under Egypt).  Controls all Aram until 1315. 1370 B76 1-818
1360 B76 17-936
1340 IDB 4-533, mxfld
c.1340 TELEPINUS becomes king of Halap under Hittites. 1340 B76 1-818
c.1340 PIYASILIS becomes king of Charchemish under Hittites. 1340 B76 1-818
c.1340 DAMASCUS, under Egypt from ?, taken by Suppiluliuma-I, under Hittites until 1259.  All Aram is now under Hittites until ?. no date:
B76 17-936
c.1340 RIB-ADDA, king of Gebal, reports to Egyptian overlords that his kinsman, the king of Tyre, and his family have been murdered in a coup. 1320 hifiT
c.1340 RIB-ADDA, king of Gebal, is temporarily forced to flee his city and seek protection from Ammunira king of Biruta in the face of Hittite raids. 1320 hifiBrt
c.1340 GEBAL (later called Byblos), ally of Egypt from 1550, defects to Suppiluliuma-I.  Under Hittites until 1286. no date:
B76 17-936
c.1334 OTHNIEL, 1st judge of Israel from 1373, dies. 1390 trubi     1367 lara     1351 btl     1346 kical     1341 biti     1340 ds     1337 CBCOT 1334 HCC, bivu     1304 bomb     1302 bica
c.1334 EGLON, king of Moab, oppresses Israel until 1316. Jg 3:12     1421 lgbt     1389 trubi 1345 kical     1337 CBCOT
1334 HCC, bivu     1325 bomb
c.1325 KADESH, independent from 1350, comes under Hittites until ?. 1325 rcCan
c.1316 EGLON, king of Moab from 1334, murdered by EHUD ben Gera. Jg 3:15-       1372 trubi     1340 ds     1329 kical     1319 CBCOT     1316 HCC, bivu     1308 bomb     1130 hifiI
c.1316 EHUD ben Gera becomes 2nd judge of Israel until ?.  Israel at peace until 1257. Jg 3:15-       1372 trubi     1329 kical
1319 CBCOT     1316 HCC, bivu
1308 bomb     1302 bica     1200 WBH 26
c.1315 ABI-MILKI, king of Tyre and vassal of Egypt from 1365 ends. 1319-10 hifiT
c.1315 TETTE, king of Nuhasse in Aram, encouraged by pharaoh Horemheb, and aided by En-urta of Barga, rebells against Mursili-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295.
AITAKKAMA, king of Kadesh, also opposes Mursili.
1330 MCAW 38
no date: hinf
c.1310 AKHLAMU, Arab nomads, migrate into Aram and Mesopotamia. 1310 LEWH 46
c.1300 AMMONITES occupy area east of Jordan river south of Jabbok R. until 580. 1300 IDB 1-108
c.1300 Oldest DAM still in use built on Orontes river. 1300 B76 5-441
c.1300 LATE BRONZE-2a ends.  In Canaan from 1400.
Late Bronze-2b begins until 1200.
1300 IDB 1-207
c.1290 SETI-I, 2nd pharaoh of 19th Dyn 1291-79, campaigns in Aram, confronts Hittites at KADESH, but does not seek battle, captures Amurru and Kinza, forces BENTISHINA, king of Amurru, vassal of Hittites, to switch loyalty until 1284. 1308 MCAW 38 1300 MCAW 40, bk early in reign of Muwatalli-II: hinf
c.1286 SETI-I 2nd pharaoh of 19th Dyn 1291-79, campaigns in Levant, storms KADESH, probably takes it, marches north, fights Hittites in Orontes valley (1st battle between a pharaoh and Hittites).  Outcome unknown.  Returns to Thebes. no date: BHoE 412
c.1286 GEBAL (later called Byblos), under Hittites from 1340, back under Egypt until 1200. guess
c.1285 HAZOR under Egypt 1600-1200, sacked and burned by pharaoh Seti-I. 1285 hifiHz
c.1285 Balance of power between Hittites and Egyptians is restored in Levant.  KADESH remains under Hittites.  Coastland south of Litany River under Egypt until 1200. Seti-I yr 6 DMON 121
no date: BHoE 413
c.1284 BENTISHINA, king of Amurru, vassal of Egypt from 1290, defects back to Hittites until 1275. no date: hinf
c.1280 Λ  EXODUS - late date 1290 AYGC 159, B76 12-487, FLAP 60     1275 TTPC, bk     1266 ds     1250 FHBC 203, WBH 20     1235 MCAW 40     1230-15 DHJ 421
c.1276 CANAAN:  under Egypt from 1290, rebels. Ram-II yr 3 BHoE 465
c.1275 RAMSES-II, pharaoh of 19th Dyn, 1279-13, invades Canaan until ?, to fight Hittites (and possibly Sea Peoples). yr 4 BHoE 424, DMoN 124, Grim 253, nar
yr 5 IDB 4-11
c.1275 BENTISHINA, king of Amurru, vassal of Hittites from 1284, surprised by RAMSES-II, defects back to Egyptians. no date:
Grim 253, hinf
c.1275 RAMSES-II, returns to Egypt until 1274. yr 4 Grim 253
c.1274 ASKALON, under Egypt from ?, rebels unsuccessfully. 1280 Jud 3-713
c.1274 MUWATALLI-II, king of Hittites 1295-72, marches into Aram to recover Amurru. no date: hinf
c.1274 RAMSES-II, pharaoh of 19th Dyn, 1279-13, caught unprepared by strong chariot force of Hittites & allies near KADESH.  In great danger.  Keeps enemies at bay until reinforcements arrive from Amurru and elsewhere, and then dispurses enemies. 1300 WPOT 205 1299 WPOT 92
1288 RAH 82
yr 5 DMoN 126, IDB 2-51, 4-11
c.1274 BATTLE of KADESH:  Draw battle, but Hittite political victoryRamses-II, pharaoh fails to take Kadesh, and withdraws.  Hittites retain Aram.
CANAAN:  in chaos from 1350, is back under Egypt until 1200.
1300 B76 17-936, WPOT 205
1299 WPOT 92     1298 LEWH 50
1296 Sdl 1-29, 97     1288 RAH 84, 4nel     1287 IDB 3-802
1286 SOTS 91
1285 MCAW 40, CWH, RAI2
1274 nar     yr 5 IDB 2-51
c.1274 LUKKA, precursors of Lycians, appear as allies of Hittites against Ramses-II. 1286 WPOT 57
c.1274 BENTISHINA, king of Amurru, ally of Egypt from 1275, deposed by Mursili-II, who appoints SHAPILI to succeed until ?.  AMURRU comes back under Hittites until 1271. no date: Flap 103, hinf
c.1272 RAMSES-II, pharaoh of 19th Dyn, returns to Canaan.  Half of his troops are under his son Amon-hir-hepeshef, who chases the Shasu tribes across the Negev to the Dead Sea, captures Edom-Seir, then captures Moab.  Rameses attacks Jerusalem and Jericho, then enters Moab and joins his son. yr 7
DMoN 127,
Grim 256, hinf
c.1272 RAMSES-II and son Amon-hir-hepeshef, march north to Hesbon, Damascus, Kumidi, then recapture Apa district. yr 7 hinf
c.1271 Egyptian army sent into Canaan and Syria until 1270.  Occupies Acco, moves north to Dapur and erects a statue of Ramses-II, reach Tunip (northwest Hamath), where no Egyptian had been for 120 years, recovers Kadesh and northern Amurru. yr 8 Grim 256
c.1271 SHAPILI, king of Amurru, under Hittites from 1274 overthrown by former king BENTISHINA helped by Egyptians. Ram-II yr 8 Grim 257
c.1261 Egyptian army sent into Edom and Moab, suppresses local rebellions, returns via Canaan. Ram-II yr 18 Grim 257
c.1260 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites from 1340, taken by Shalmanezer-I, king of Assyria 1274-45.  Under Assyria until 1190.. 1276 MCAW 40
c.1260 SHAMGAR becomes judge of Israel until 1250. Jg 3:31       1275 bomb
1260 CBCOT, biti     1180 WBH 26
c.1260 JERICHO, under Caanites from 1900, comes under Israelites until ?. 1260 rcCan
c.1259 DAMASCUS, under Hittites from 1340, taken by Ramses-II, under Egypt until 1200. 1259 wikD
c.1258  TREATY   HATTUSILI-III & RAMSES-II:  non-aggression pact because of rise of Assyria.  Establishes borders in Aram.  North Aram & Amurru remain under Hittites; South Aram & Canaan remain under Egypt. 1289 IDB 1-280
1284 B76 17-936, RAI3, WPOT 33
1280 FLAP 167, Sdl 1-29, 132, SOTS 91
1272 BHoE 437, IDB 3-802, RAH 84, TTPC 8     1270 IDB 2-51     1269 B76 1-819, CWH, IDB 4-11, MCAW 40, RAI2 1258 hifi, nar       Ram-II yr 21 DMoN 127, FLAP 167, hinf, phou
c.1257 ISRAEL, at peace from 1316, oppressed by JABIN, king of Hazor until 1237. 1323 lgbt     1291 trubi    1279 bomb
1259 CBCOT     1257 HCC, bivu
1204 bica     1125 hifiI
c.1256 SHAMGAR, judge of Israel from 1250, ends. Jg 3:31     1256 biti     1250 CBCOT
c.1250 MONEY V:  In this century, SILVER is the medium of exchange thruout Anatolia, Mesopotamia, & LevantBabylonian shekel (8.4g) is basic weight unit.  60 shekels = 1 mina. 1250 MCAW 41
c.1250  PHOENICIAN ALPHABET  written on royal inscription of king Shaphatbaal of Gebal. 1250
BBP 14
c.1250 IRON V workers reported at Joppa. 1250 TTT
c.1250 TOB, east of Sea of Galilee, under Egypt from 1500, comes under Bashan until 1200. 1250 rcCan
c.1240 APHEK, Canaanite royal city, sacked by Philistines, comes under Ashdod until 990. 1240 rcCan
c.1237 ISRAEL, oppressed by Jabin of Hazor from 1257, delivered by DEBORAH and BARAK, who rout Jabin's man Sisera at Taanach, and judge Israel until 1199.  Israel at peace until 1198. Jg 4-5       1303 lgbt     1302 bica
1293 kical     1271 trubi     1260 bomb 1242 ds     1237 HCC, bivu     1240 bihi, htc     1239 CBCOT     1193 bitl
1180 WBH 26     1125 IDB 2-540, hifiHz
c.1230 SEA PEOPLES begin raiding Levant and Egypt. 1230 vrb
c.1230 LACHISH violently destroyed. 1230 Sdl 2-259
c.1209 CANAAN:  under Egypt from 1274, rebels. 1223 BHoE 465
yr 3 BHoE 465
c.1209 MERNEPTAH, pharaoh of 19th Dyn 1213-03, puts down disorder in Canaan. 1224 MCAW 42     1223 IDB 4-563
yr 3 BHoE 465
c.1207  ISRAEL STELE  erected by MERNEPTAH. Mrnpt yr 5 Grim 258

Levant 1200-1000
V