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Aegean Sea Go to Europe Go to Europe Go to Anatolia Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Egypt Go to North Africa Go to North Africa
c.2000 CYCLADIC civilization in eastern Mediterranean from 3200 is replaced by MINOAN. 2000 TAWH 16, mxfld
c.2000 City of Phylakopi on Melos Island in Cyclades trades in OBSIDIAN, volcanic glass found there for 5,000 years. 2000 TTPC
c.2000 ROADS:  A road of blocks is on Skyros Island in Aegean. 2000 SHT 1-714
c.2000 Minoan SHIPS begin roaming unchallenged on the Aegean Sea for the next 500 years.  Ships sail from Mediterranean to north Scotland. 2000
SHT 2-569, mxfld
c.2000 THASOS Island in north Aegean, under Phoenicians from ?, colonized by Thracians until 1600. 2000 rcAg
c.2000 CRETE:  EARLY MINOAN period ends.  Began 2700.  MIDDLE MINOAN (Old Palace) period begins until 1600.
MIDDLE MINOAN-I begins until 1850.
2100 B76 VI-920, RAH 121
2000 B76 16-677, 19-274, MCAW 15 & 20, TAWH 16
Minoans build boats using ribs & planking on both sides, joined on both ends.  Sail used.
c.2000 PLUMBING:  Minoan nobility have bathtubs filled and emptied by vertical stone pipes cemented at their joints.  Sewage systems appear.  Palace at Knossos has exquisite potteries and tiles, bath rooms with running water, toilets with drainage systems and evidence of rich jewelery. 2000
EOET 200, TTT, mxfld
c.2000 Crude LENSES appear in Anatolia and Crete. 2000 B76 18-97
c.2000 States form.  1st palaces constructed at Knossos, Malia, Zakro, Phaistos.   Each palace is the center of a town.  They all last until 1700. 2000 B76 19-274, MCAW 21, PW 140, mxfld, wik20
c.2000 Minoan JEWELRY develops hammered relief design, ornamentation by tiny metal balls, gemstone inlays. 2000
B76 19-275
c.2000 Population of Knossos is 80,000. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 Short paved roads appear at Knossos. 2000 SHT 1-714, TTT
c.2000 Solid wheeled vehicles appear in Crete, Asia, Europe, Aram, and Egypt.   (See  Anatolia 1800) 2000 SHT 1-211
1250 SHT 1-719
c.2000 MALTA:  Bronze age culture of 2400 suddenly ends because of invasions.   Replaced by south Italian culture until 800. 2000 B76 11-391, rcSI
c.2000 BOATS:  Minoans use ribs and planking on sides, joined on both ends. 2000 B76 16:677, TAWH 16
c.2000 SQUARE SAILS assist Cretan & Phoenician oarsmen on ships in Aegean Sea and East Mediterranean. 2000 TAWH 16, TTPC, mxfld
c.2000 EARLY CYPRIOT period from ?, transitions peacefully to MIDDLE CYPRIOT period, which lasts until ?. 2000 B76 19-274
c.1950 POTTER'S WHEEL:  Evidence of pivoted disks in Greece, Crete, Uruk, and Egypt.  Foot wheels also in Greece and Crete. 2000 SHT 1-203 1950 MCAW 21
1800 SHT 1-200
c.1900 NURAGIC AGE begins in Sardinia until 730.  A nuraghe is a beehive shaped megalithic building made of many layers of stones whose size diminishes with height. 1900 wikNrg
1600 wikB
c.1900  CRETAN HIEROGLYPHIC , oldest form of Cretan writing V, begins until 1600.   (never deciphered)
(See Arabia 2000, Mesopotamia 2000, Egypt 1800)
1900 B76 1-838, PW 14
evidenced 1625 wikCH
c.1850 CRETE:  MIDDLE MINOAN-I ends.  Began 2000.
MIDDLE MINOAN-II begins until 1700.
1950 RAH 121     1850 B76 16-677, MCAW 15 & 20     1800 CAH I-2
c.1850 MIDDLE CYPRUS Period-1 begins until 1800. 1850 CAH 2.1-165
c.1800 MIDDLE CYPRUS Period-1 ends.
MIDDLE CYPRUS Period-2 begins
until 1700.
1800 CAH 2.1-165
c.1800 BRONZE appears on Sardinia. 1800 B76 19-278
c.1800 A dagger blade of 1800 found in the Lasithi plain of eastern Crete is the earliest known predecessor of ornamented dagger blades from Mycenae.  Engravings show a fight between 2 bulls and a man spearing a boar. 1800 B76 11-1096
c.1800 A temple for the dead near Arkhanes south of Knossos contains a noble woman's grave, which includes a gold signet ring with a cult scene confirming that Minoans believed in a dying and resurrecting god. 1800 mxfld
Exact repros of a Cretan Skyphos (left) and a Prochus "beak shaped" (right).
c.1700 CRETE:  MIDDLE MINOAN-II period ends.  Began 1850.
MIDDLE MINOAN-III begins until 1600.
MIDDLE MINOAN-IIIa begins until 1660.
1800 RAH 121 1700 B76 5-252, 16-677, 19-274, CAH I-2, II-1-141,
MCAW 24, TTPC 6, mxfld, pczy
1st Minoan palaces at Knossos, Zakro, Phaistos, & Mallia from 2000, destroyed probably by EARTHQUAKE.  3 crushed skeletons found at Minoan temple in Anemospilia.  Cities rebuilt c.1650.
Snake Goddesses
"Snake Goddess" figures from Knossos.
1700 B76 19-274, wikComFM
c.1700 MIDDLE CYPRUS Period-2 ends.  Began 1800.
MIDDLE CYPRUS Period-3 begins until 1600.
1700 CAH 2.1-165
c.1660 CRETE:  MIDDLE MINOAN-IIIa ends.  Began 1700.
IIIb begins until 1600.
1660 CMoG 3-69
c.1650 Λ CRETAN WRITING V LINEAR-A  begins on Crete until 1450, in CYCLADES until ?.   (See Egypt 1800) 1700 B76 VI-238   1650 PW 14, SHT 1-759     1600 B76 1-838
by 1400 B76 8-392
Apa swords
Picture by Dbachmann
APA type SWORDS appear in Black Sea and Aegean areas as a further development of the dagger.  Previous swords were usually 60-80cm long.  Apa swords reach over 100cm.  Technology to produce blades this long developed using alloys of copper and tin or arsenic c.1700. 
17-1600 wikBAS
c.1628 THERA Island in Cyclades:  Cretan settlement destroyed by volcano.   Rains ash on Crete.  Tidal wave over 100 ft high.  Causes famine in Egypt.
Evidence of this appears in Greenland, Ireland.
late 17th cen: crnl
1628 wikME     1650-25 wikHP 1520 TTPC     1500 B76 IX-943, MCAW 32, OCD 1060, TAWH 66, mxfld, wikMG
c.1600 CRETE:  MIDDLE MINOAN (Old Palace) period ends.  Began 2000. 1650 MCAW 26
B76 19-275, MCAW 28,29,31, RAH 121, TTPC
B76 VI-920, LEWH 20
MIDDLE MINOAN-IIIb ends.  Began 1660.
LATE MINOAN period begins until ?.
LATE MINOAN-I (New Palace-2) begins until 1450.
Palaces at Knossos, Phaistos, Malia, Zakro.   Snake Goddess figures at Knossos & elsewhere show "Mother Earth" goddess worship.   Bull leap frescos at Knossos.   Human and animal sacrifices.
c.1600  CRETAN HIEROGLYPHIC , oldest form of Λ Cretan writing V  from 1900, ends.   (never deciphered)
(See Linear-B 1500 Ugaritic 1500)
1600 B76 1-838
1500 wikCH
c.1600 Mainland Greece renews contact with Crete. 1600 B76 19-276
c.1600 CORSICA & SARDINIA occupied by Celto Ligurians from southern Gaul. 1600 mxfld
c.1600 SARDINIA:  occupied by permanent settlements from 6000, shows first evidence of trade with Aegean. 1600 wikSrd
c.1600 Mycenean SHIPS now compete with Minoan shipping, which has been without competition from 2000. 1600 mxfld
c.1600 MINOAN civilization peaks. 1600 RAH
c.1600 THASOS Island in north Aegean, under Thracians from 2000, no longer under them. 1600 rcAg
c.1600 MIDDLE CYPRUS Period-3 ends.  Began 1700. 1600-1550 CAH 2.1-165
c.1550 Mycenean trading posts appear in Sicily and Aeolian Islands just north of Sicily. 1600-1500 PAE 134
c.1500 SARDINIA:  Villages begin to be built around round tower-fortresses, which are often reinforced and enlarged with battlements. 1500 wikSrd
c.1500 AEGEAN:  Polished stone ax heads mostly superseded by bronze. 1500 SHT 1-504
by 1500 OIL LAMPS made in Crete by throwing a bowl, then pinching it to form the spout to hold the wick.
(See Europe 2000, Egypt 2000)
1500 wik
by 1500 Mycenean Greeks have strong influence in Crete. 1500 B76 5-253
c.1500 SPOKED WHEELS, in Asia from 2000, in Canaan and Egypt from at least 1600, appear in Crete and Greece. 1500
SHT 1-212
c.1500 BEAM PRESS using a lever to press liquid from olives & grapes invented in Aegean area. 1500 TTT
Cretan Ware
Exact repros of CRETAN WARE with approx. dates by
c.1475 MYCENEANS of Greece invade and conquer eastern CRETE. 1475 vrb
early 15th cen.: PAE 134
c.1450 CRETE:  KNOSSOS & other cities destroyed by quake (or possibly Thera eruption). 1450 B76 5-253, CMoG3 145
1425 vrb
c.1450 Λ CRETAN WRITING:   LINEAR-A  script from 1650, ends.  Mycenean script (Linear-B) begins.  88 symbols (combination of a consonant and a vowel) each denoting a syllable used here until 1150, and in Greece.  Used only for administrative purposes.  Shows agricultural prosperity, especially in number of sheep.  Grain rations go to Earth Mother Goddess as well as people.
(See Linear-B 1500, Ugaritic 1500, Veracruz 1000 )
1600 B76 VI-238 1500 TAWH 16
1450 MCAW 33, SHWC 26, vrb, wikCH
B76 8-392, 9-431, MCAW 33-37,
SHT 1-759
c.1450 CRETE comes under Mycenean Greeks until 1100. 1450 B76 19-276
1400 IDB 4-915, wikMG
c.1450 CRETE:  A CHARIOT is drawn by two GOATS. 1450 SHT 1-729
c.1450 CRETE:  LATE MINOAN-1 (New Palace-2) period ends.  Began 1600.  Destroyed by earthquakes and Mycenean invasion. 1500 RAH 121
1450 B76 5-253, 19-275, CAH 2.1, MCAW 32,34, LEWH 60, PW 15, TAWH 16
1400 CMoG3 145
1100 LEWH 20
Knossos becomes the only government center.   Myceneans build palace at Knossos.
MYCENEAN PERIOD (Late Minoan-2) begins until 1400.
c.1450 CRETE:  MYCENEAN PERIOD has more formalized pottery style.  Light hearted Minoan art is replaced by focus on religion. 1450 MCAW 35
1300 MCAW 41
c.1450 Mycenean colony on RHODES. 1450 CMoG3 145
c.1450 CYPRUS:  already full of Minoan culture, receives influx of Myceanized Minoans. 1450 MCAW 34 1400 B76 5-406
Cretan Ware
Exact repros of CRETAN WARE with approx. dates by
c.1435 MARBLES played on Crete by Minoan kids with polished jasper and agate. 1435 EOET 368
c.1425 Mycenean colony on COS Island. 1425 CMoG3 145
c.1405 PAPHOS Cyprus founded by Kinyras Paphitis. 1405 wikAGhC
c.1400 The palace of Knossos yielded the earliest records of Greek Linear B script, based on the previous Linear A of the Minoans. 1400 wikMG
c.1400 CRETE invaded by Achaeans again, Knossos burned, palace of Minos burned. 1400 BCoC 259, CWH, LEWH 60
1380 CAH 2.1-543   1375 B76 19-275
c.1400 CRETE:  MYCENEAN PERIOD ends.  Began 1450.
LATE MINOAN-3 (Post Palace-1) begins until 1260.
Palace at Knossos destroyed by earthquake.
1405 CMoG 3-69
1400 MCAW 36,37, RAH 127, pczy
c.1400 CYCLADES, under Minoans from 17th century, comes under Myceneans until 1000. 1400 OCD 304
c.1400 Mycenean colonies begin thruout Aegean Sea. 1400 PAE 134
c.1400 MYCENEAN civilization peaks. 1400 RAH
c.1400 MYCENEANS, on Crete 1475-1100, sail to CYPRUS. 1400 vrb
c.1400 CYPRUS:   Cypro-Mycenean script  begins.  Never disciphered. 1400 IDB 4-915
c.1400 A figure of a lyre player is carved on a sarcophagus in Ayia Triadha Crete.  Its long sleve tunic is adopted from Myceneans.  A priest bringing offerings wears fur skirts. 1400 B76 5-1020
c.1375 Cretan SEAL ENGRAVERS phase out. 1375 B76 19-275
c.1350 PIRATES become a significant menace in eastern Mediterranean. 14th cen. PAE 158
c.1350 King of Alasiya (Cyprus) complains to pharaoh Akhenaton of raids by barbarian Luka. 1350 PAE 158
Uluburun ship
Wooden model of ship           GNU FDL
ULUBURUN SHIPERECK:  SINKS 50m off eastern shore of Uluburun, and 9.7km southeast of Kas in southwest Turkey.  It was 15-16m long, constructed by the shell-first method, with mortise-and-tenon joints like later Graeco-Roman ships, carried 24 stone anchors.  It was built with planks and keel of Lebanese cedar and oak tenons.  The keel is more of a keel-plank than a traditional keel.  The cargo was mostly raw materials - trade items, known from ancient texts or Egyptian tomb paintings, similar to royal gifts listed in the Amarna letters.
1350-00 wikUS
c.1315 Ahhiyawa seizes various islands, presumably in the Aegean. 1315 wikMG
c.1300 BEAKER PEOPLE in Balearic Islands from 2475 end. 1300 wikB
Cretan Ware
Exact repros of CRETAN WARE with approx. dates by
Mycenean territory
c.1293 SICELS form colonies in Sicily.  Dorians and Ionians settle on south and east coasts. 1293 HRR
c.1270 Part of the Ausone tribe moves from Campania Italy to Sicily. 1270 wikAsn
c.1260 CRETE:  LATE MINOAN-3 (Post Palace-1) ends.  Began 1400. 1260 MCAW 43
1100 B76 VI-920, CMoG 3-69
c.1250 Period of CLIMATIC CHANGE and MIGRATION begins in Mediterranean area until 1150. 1250 pczy
c.1240 SLASHING SWORD with a flanged hilt-grip, in central Europe from 1350, begins in central Aegean area. 1325 CMoG3 146
soon after 1250 PAE 159
c.1225 Period of many EARTHQUAKES begins in Mediterranean area until 1175.  Affects:  Mycenae, Tiryns, Midea, Thebes, Pylos, Kynos, Lefkandi, Profitis Elias, the Menelaion and Kastanas in Thessaly, Korakou, and Gla.  In eastern Mediterranean, earthquake damage appears at Troy, Karaoglun, Hattusa, Ugarit, Alalakh, Megiddo, Ashdod, and Acco. 1225 pczy
1200 BC
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
c.1200 SICILY:  under Sicani from 8000 and Elymians from ?, invaded by SICELS from Italy, forcing Sicani to central Sicily. 1200 wikS
c.1200 SICILY:  OLIVES found in a Mycenean cemetery. 1200 SHT 1-359 
c.1200 ACHAEANS, pressed by Doric and Aeolian tribes from the north, start migrating to Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia, and south Italy. 1200 vrb
c.1200 ANTIKYTHIRA Island (between Kythera Island and Crete) comes under Myceneans and Dorians until 546. 1200 rcAg
c.1200 IRON AGE begins on CRETE.
(See Anatolia 1400, Indus Valley 1300, Levant 1200, Europe 900, Africa 700)
B76 5-253
c.1200 Mycenean strongholds on Crete destroyed by fire. 1200 B76 19-276
Cretan Ware
Exact repros of CRETAN WARE dated approx. 1200 by
c.1183 Agapenor Ancaeou, king of Arcadia rebuilds Paphos Cyprus and builds a sanctuary to Aphrodite at Palaepaphos. 1183 wikAGhC
c.1182 ALASHIYA Cyprus is sacked by Sea Peoples. 1182 hifi
c.1180 SALAMIS Cyprus founded by Teucer Telemonides. 1180 wikAGhC
c.1175 Period of many EARTHQUAKES ends.  In Mediterranean area from 1225. 1175 pczy
c.1150 Period of CLIMATIC CHANGE and MIGRATION ends.  In Mediterranean area from 1250. 1150 pczy
c.1150 DORIANS, in Greece from 1200, spread to CRETE, destroy remnant of Minoan civilization.   Myceneans on Crete evaccuate, mostly to Arcadia and Attica, some to Anatolia. 1200 wikCH
1150 B76 VI-238, mxfld
1100 CWH, MCAW 50
Cretan  LINEAR-B  script from 1450 ends.
(See Linear-B 1500 Phoenician 1100, Veracruz 1000 Phoenician 950, Semitic 950
c.1150 DEMOPHON THESIDES, king of Athens, dies in Cyprus. 1150 wikAGhC
c.1100 RHODES occupied by Dorians (mainly from Argos) until 1000. 1100 B76 VIII-552
c.1100 IRON AGE begins on CYPRUS until 700. 1100 cpnt
c.1100 Mycenean civilization on Crete from 1450 ends. 1100 B76 19-276
Cretan Ware
Exact repros of CRETAN WARE dated approx. 1100 by
c.1050 MYTILENE, Lesbos founded by Penthilis family from Thessaly.  Ruled by the Penthilidae until 585. 11th cen wikLsbs 1050 B76 VI-164
c.1000 RHODES influx of Dorians (mainly from Argos) from 1100 ends. 1000 B76 VIII-552
c.1000 CYCLADES Islands, under Myceneans from 1400, occupied by Ionic speakers from Greece. 1000 OCD 304 
c.1000 MELOS Island in Cyclades colonized by Dorians from Laconia. no date: OCD 668
c.1000 CYPRUS receives influx of Iron Age PHOENICIANS. 1000 OCD 306
c.1000 PHOENICIANS become main power in Mediterranean until 700. 1100 B76 12-885 1000 PW 15     832 GHH
c.1000 SARDINIA begins to be visited by Phoenicians. 1000 wikSrd
c.1000 PHOENICIAN culture and seapower peaks. 1200-800 wikΦ

Mediterranean 1000-501