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Mitanni, Assyria, Babylon
c.1595 KASSITES under AGUM-II invade Babylonia, take Babylon. 1650 FHBC 74
1595 ISBE 1-385, RAI2 197, 202, 208, Sag 74, hifi     1593 CAH 2.1-270
1525 B76 19-521
1500 SOTS 24
AGUM-II ascends as 1st king of Kassite dynasty of Babylon until 1585.
KASSITE PERIOD of Babylon begins until 1235.
Chronologies:  High = 1651, Middle =1595, Low = 1531
c.1592 GULKISHAR, 6th king of SEALANDS from 1618, ends.  A king of unknown name succeeds to 1580. 1592 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1590 MARI, under Hittites from 1595, back under Babylon until 1350. 1590 rcS
c.1586 Son of Sharma-Adad II, IRISHUM-III ends.  King of Ashur from 1598.  Son SHAMSHI-ADAD-II succeeds to 1580. 1586 CAH 2.1, RAI3, kidA     1585 hifi
c.1585 AGUM-II ends.  King of Kassites at Mari from 1602, 1st king of Kassite dynasty of Babylon from 1595.  BURNABURIASH-I succeeds to 15??. 1585 RAI2
1545 hifi
1530 MQB
Kassite genealogy & chronology get complicated until 1470.
c.1580 Son of Irishum-III, SHAMSHI-ADAD-II ends.  King of Ashur from 1586.  Son ISHMI-DAGAN-II succeeds to 1563. 1580 CAH 2.1, RAI3, kidA     1579 hifi
c.1580 PESHGALDRAMASH becomes king of SEALANDS to 1530. 1580 hifi
c.1575 ZODIAC discovered in eastern Mesopotamia. 1600-1551 TTS
c.1563 Son of Shamshi-Adad-II, ISHMI-DAGAN-II, ends.  King of Ashur from 1580.  Son SHAMSHI-ADAD-III succeeds to 1547. 1564 CAH 2.1 1563 hifi
c.1550 MIDDLE BRONZE AGE in Mesopotamia ends.  Began 1900.
LATE BRONZE AGE begins until 1200.
1550 wikBA
c.1550 CUT GLASS V evidenced by fragments found in Mesopotamia.  Glass indusrty continues strong until 1200.   (See Egypt 1550) 16-1500 thgi, vs2fr
1500 txgls
c.1547 Son of Ishme-Dagan-II, SHAMSHI-ADAD-III ends.  King of Ashur from 1563.  Bro ASHUR-NIRARI-I succeeds to 1522. 1548 CAH 2.1
1547 RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
c.1530 PESHGALDRAMASH, king of SEALANDS from 1580, ends.  ADARAKALAMMA succeeds to 1502. 1530 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1522 Son of Ishme-Dagan-II, ASHUR-NIRARI-I ends.  King of Ashur from 1547, ends.  Son PUZUR-ASHUR-III succeeds 1521-1498. 1522 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA     1521 hifi
c.1502 ADARAKALAMMA, king of SEALANDS from 1530, ends.  EKURDUANNA succeeds to 1476. 1502 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1500 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1585, establish kingdoms in northwest Mesopotamia.   Most important is MITANNI until 1320, capital:  Washukkanni.  A chief of one group of Hurrians, PARATTARNA dies.  KIRTA succeeds until 1490. 1550 SHWC 21
1500 B76 VI-942, X-564, 11-980, anan, hifaA, stmaM, wikH
c.1500  BORDER TREATY PUZUR-ASHUR-III king of Ashur 1521-1498 and BABYLONIA. 1490
B76 11-981
c.1500 IRON SMELTING V improved by Hittites and Mitannians. 1500 TTT
c.1500 HORSES, in Mesopotamia from 1740, maintained by Assyrian kings in elaborate stables by professional trainers. 1500
B76 8-1092
c.1500 SAUSAGE made in Mesopotamia by stuffing animal guts with spiced meat. 1500 EOET 396
c.1500 SUNDIAL used in Babylonia.   (See Egypt 1475) 1500 wikSnd
c.1500 Λ GLASS V ornament and vessels appear in Mesopotamia.   Much more glass after 1500, molding, cutting, core winding.   Earliest examples of painted glass.  Soon brought to Egypt. 1500 SHT 1-311, 337, 341, TTT
1400-1351 TTS
c.1500 Ziggurat of Ur, originally built of sun-dried brick, has its steps replaced with burnt brick. 1500 B76 3-163
c.1498 Son of Ashur-Nirari-I, PUZUR-ASHUR-III ends.  King of Ashur from 1521, ends.  Son ENLIL-NASIR-I succeeds to 1483. 1498 CAH 2.1, RAI3, frN, kidA     1497 hifi
c.1490 KIRTA ends.  Chief of Hurrians at Washukkanni from 1500.  SUTTARNA succeeds until 1480. 1550 MRDK
1490 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1483 Son of Puzur-Ashur-III, ENLIL-NASIR-I ends.  King of Ashur from 1498, ends.  Son NUR-ILI succeeds to 1475. 1485 CAH 2.1 1483 hifi
c.1480 SUTTARNA ends.  Chief of Hurrians at Washukkanni from 1490.  PARATTARNA succeeds and becomes 1st known king of Mitanni until 1455. 1530 RAI3, frN
1480 RAI2, Sag 78
1470 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1476 EKURDUANNA, king of SEALANDS from 1502, ends.  MELAMKURKUKKA succeeds to 1469. 1476 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1475 Single-tube SEED DRILL used by Sumerians, a sowing device that precisely positions seeds in the soil and then covers them. 1500 wikSD
1500-1451 TTS, TTT
c.1475 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Kassites from 1750, comes under Mitanni until 1329. 1475 rcM
c.1475 ASSYRIA becomes vassal to MITANNI until 1365. 1500 RAI3 256
1475 hifi     1472 aina
c.1475 NUR-ILI, son of Enlil-Nasir-I, king of Ashur from 1483, ends.  Son ASHUR-SHADUNI succeeds as vassal to Mitanni until 1472. 1475 hifi
1473 CAH 2.1
c.1472 Son of Nur-ili, ASHUR-SHADUNI ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1475, ends.  Son of Enlil-Nasir-I, ASHUR-RABI-I succeeds to 1452. 1472
CAH 2.1, hifi
c.1470 PARATTARNA, king of Mitanni 1480-55, conquers KIZZUWATNA, Anatolia, independent kingdom from 1540, under king Pillaya from ?. Pillaya becomes vassal of Mitanni until ?. no date: hinf
Peak of Hurrian westward expansion.
c.1470 KASSITE BABYLON, under insignificant rulers from 1550, KASHTILIASH-III ascends as king of Babylon until 1460. 1470 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1469 MELAMKURKUKKA, king of SEALANDS from 1476, ends.  An unknown person succeeds and ends.  EA-GAMIL succeeds to 1460. 1469 hifi
no date: brKB, stmaB, wikB
c.1460 KASHTILIASH-III dies.  Kassite king of 3rd dynasty of Babylon from 1470.
Bro ULAMBURIASH succeeds to 1440.
1470 MQB     1460 RAI2
1450 Sag1 79
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1460 EA-GAMIL, king of SEALANDS from 1469, conquered by ULAMBURIASH, Kassite king of Babylon 1460-40.
BABYLONIAN "SEALANDS" (Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Larsa, maybe Lagash), all independent from 1721, end.  Babylonia reunited until ?.
1460 brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
no date: Sag
c.1460 KISH, under Sealands from 1732, comes under Babylonia. 1460 hifi
c.1457 THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh of 18th (Theban) dynasty 1504-1436 (8th campaign) crosses Euphrates into Mitanni, surprising Mitannian king, who flees.  T-III captures 30 harem girls and hundreds of troops.  T-III then conquers Mitannian cities unopposed.  Returns to Aram. 1457 MCAW 32
T-3 yr 33 B76 18-366, GEoP 194, T-3
c.1455 PARATTARNA ends.  Hurrian king of Mitanni from 1480.  PARSATATAR succeeds to 1440 - or he may be the same man. 1500 RAI3     1480 B76 VI-942, frN
1455 RAI2, Sag
1450 MRDK, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1452 Son of Enlil-Nasir-I, ASHUR-RABI-I ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1472.  Son ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-I succeeds to 1432. 1453 CAH 2.1 1452 hifi
c.1450 King of Mitanni conquers vassal Assyria.   Carries off golden gates of Ashur. 1472 aina
1450 king not named: MCAW 32
c.1450 MITANNI becomes most powerful state in Mid East until 1360. 1450 wikH
c.1440 PARSATATAR ends.  (maybe = PARATTARNA), Hurrian king of Mitanni from 1455.  SAUSHATAR succeeds to 1410. 1500 RAI3     1480 B76 VI-942
1455 RAI2, Sag 78
1440 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1440 MITANNI under SAUSHATAR extends from Mediterranean to Zagros Mts. including Alalakh, Nuzi, & Arapkha. 1440
B76 11-980
c.1440 ULAMBURIASH ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1460.  AGUM-III succeeds to 1420. 1460 MQB     1451 MRDK 373
1450 MRDK     1440 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1432 Son of Ashur-Rabi-I, ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-I ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1452.  Bro ENLIL-NASIR-II succeeds to 1426. 1433 CAH 2.1 1432 hifi
c.1428 WASSUKANNI, city in Mitanni, conquered by Tudhaliya-II.  Annexed to Kizzuwatna until ?. 1370 bk
no date: hinf
c.1426 Son of Ashur-Rabi-I, ENLIL-NASIR-II ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1432.  Son ASHUR-NIRARI-II succeeds to 1419. 1427 CAH 2.1 1426 hifi
c.1420 AGUM-III ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1440.  KARA-INDASH succeeds to 1405. 1445 RAI2 203
1450 Kadashman-Harbe succeeds: MRDK       1420 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1419 Son of Enlil-Nasir-II, ASHUR-NIRARI-II ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1426.  Son ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU succeeds to 1410. 1420 CAH 2.1
1419 hifi
c.1415 ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU king of Ashur 1419-10 makes  border treaty  with Babylonia. 1415 B76 11-981
c.1410 Son of Ashur-Nirari-II, ASHUR-BEL-NISHESHU ends.  King of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) from 1419. 1411 CAH 2.1
1410 hifi
c.1410 SAUSHATAR ends.  King of Mitanni from 1440.  ARTATAMA-I succeeds to 1400. 1430 CAH 2.1-680, RAI3, frN
1420 RAI2, Sag 78
1410 anan hifaA, stmaM
c.1405 KARA-INDASH ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1420.  KADASHMAN-HARBE-I succeeds to 1400. 1427 RAI2 203
1405 RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1402 Son of Ashur-bel-Nisheshu, ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-II ascends as king of Ashur (vassal to Mitanni) until 1393. 1402 B76 11-981, CAH 2.1, hifi
c.1400 ARTATAMA-I ends.  King of Mitanni from 1410.  SHUTTARNA-II succeeds to 1385. 1400 RAI2, RAI3, Sag 79, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1400 AMORITE LANGUAGE, in Mesopotamia from 2200, in Levant from 2100, disappears in Mesopotamia, becomes dominant in Levant. 1400+/-100 B76 I-321
c.1400 Linguistic evidence proves that Indo-Aryan speech forms older than the oldest known Avestan or Sanskrit exist in Cappadocia and Syria.  Aryans principalities now appear in Syria and Mesopotamia. 1400
HCIP 1-209, 222
c.1400 UMBRELLA invented in Mesopotamia as an extension of the fan for protection from the sun.   (See Egypt 1200) 1400 EOET 318
c.1400 KADASHMAN-HARBE-I ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1405.  KURIGALZU-I succeeds to 1376. 1415 B76 11-980
1400 MRDK, RAI2, Sag
no date: brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1393 Son of Ashur-bel-Nisheshu, ASHUR-NADIN-AHE-II ends.  King of Assyria (vassal to Mitanni) from 1402.  Bro ERIBA-ADAD-I succeeds 1392-66. 1393 B76 11-981, CAH 2.1, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA
1392 CAH 2.2, hifi
1380 absA, lexA
MIDDLE ASSYRIAN Kingdom begins until 912 V .
c.1385 SHUTTARNA-II dies.  King of Mitanni from 1400.  Son ARTASHUMARA succeeds to 1380. 1390 RAI3, Sag1 80
1385 RAI2, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1380 ARTASHUMARA dies.  King of Mitanni from 1385, murdered by Uthi, who installs another son of Shuttarna-II, TUSHRATTA who succeeds to 1350, with Uthi as regent until ?. 1390 B76 11-980, 4nel
1385 frN
1380 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1380 MITANNI splits.  Homeland south of Lake Van breaks away under Tushratta's younger bro, ARTATAMA, who is called king of the Hurrians. no date: RAI3, RAI2, Sag 81
c.1380  TREATY  made by marriage alliance:
Hittites and Mitanni, kings not named.
1400 B76 9-346, NLEM 326
1380 B76 19-1171, MCAW 36
no date: FLAP 165
c.1380 BABYLONIAN PHYSICIANS sent by Tushratta of Mitanni to Egypt. no date: CWH 9
c.1376 KURIGALZU-I ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1400.  KADASHMAN-ENLIL succeeds to 1375. 1391 hifi     1390 B76 11-980
1377 brKB     1376 RAI2, Sag
no date: stmaB, wikB
c.1375 KADASHMAN-ENLIL ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn. of Babylon from 1376.  BURNABURIASH-II succeeds to 1347. 1376 RAI2, RAI3, Sag, stmaB
1375 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, frN, hifi     1370 IDB 1-270
1361 brKB     1360 wikB
c.1370 ARTATAMA, king of the Hurrians, aided by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites, attacks bro TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni unsuccessfully. no date: Sag 81
c.1370 Western MITANNI taken by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites, some of it only until 1352. no date: hinf
c.1370 WASSUKANNI, city in Mitanni, plundered by Suppiluliuma-I. 1370 bk     no date: hinf
c.1366 Son of Ashur-bel-Nisheshu, ERIBA-ADAD-I ends.  King of Assyria (vassal to Mitanni) from 1392.  Son ASHUR-UBALLIT-I succeeds 1365-30. 1366 CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-271, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA
1365 B76 I-582, hifi
1353 absA, lexA
c.1365 ASSYRIA, vassal to Mitanni from 1475, breaks free under ASHUR-UBALLIT-I.  Assyria independent until ?. 1400 frN     1365 aina
1360 RAI3 256
c.1360 MITANNI, most powerful state in Mid East from 1450, power broken by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites.  Washukkanni, capital of Mitanni, plundered. 1370 IDB 4-533     1355 B76 X-564     1350 wikH     1340 B76 1-818     no date: hinf
c.1360  TREATY ASHUR-UBALLIT-I, king of Assyria 1365-30 with BURNABURIASH-II, king of Babylon 1375-47. no date: Sag
Kara-Indash, son of Burnaburiash, marries dau of Ashur-Uballit.
c.1352 TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni 1380-50, recovers much western territory taken by Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites, in 1361. no date: MCAW
c.1351 TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni 1380-50, bids for alliance with AKHENATEN & fails.  Angers pro-Assyrian faction, which causes his death. no date: Sag 81
c.1350 TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni from 1380, murdered by son and pro-Assyrian faction.  Son SHUTTARNA-III succeeds to later in 1350. 1360 B76 VI-942, RAI2 213, RAI3 259, bk     1350 MCAW 36, Sag1 81, anan, 4nel, frN, hifaA, stmaM
1340 B76 11-980
c.1350 MATTIWAZA (aka SHATTIWAZA), son of Tushratta, escapes from Mitanni to Babylonia.  Fails to get help there, and flees to Anatolia, where he gets support from Suppiluliuma. no date Sag1 81
c.1350 SHUTTARNA-III, king of Mitanni, shifts allegiance to Assyria.
Some sources say he was defeated in battle by ASHUR-UBALLIT-I, king of Assyria 1365-30.
1350
B76 11-981, hifaA
c.1350 MARI, under Babylon from 1590, comes under Arameans until 1250. 1350 rcS
c.1350 NUZI, under Hurrians from ?, taken by Assyrians. 1350 hifaA
c.1350 MATTIWAZA, son of Tushratta, supported by Suppiluliuma-I, invades Mitanni, overthrows SHUTTARNA-III.  MATTIWAZA succeeds as king of Mitanni and vassal of Suppiluliuma until 1320. 1350 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1347 BURNABURIASH-II ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1375.  Pro-Assyrian son KARA-INDASH succeeds, but is killed by anti-Assyrian faction.  Usurper NAZI-BUGASH succeeds to 1346. 1347 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB     1340 IDB 1-270
1333 brKB, wikB
c.1346 NAZI-BUGASH ends.  Kassite king of 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1347, deposed by ASHUR-UBALLIT-I, who liquidates entire anti-Assyrian party. 1346 Sag     1345 hifi
1333 wikB     1331 brKB
c.1345 Pro-Assyrian Kassite KURIGALZU-II ascends as king of 3rd dyn of Babylon until 1324.  Installed by ASHUR-UBALLIT-I. 1345 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, ISBE 1-393, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB 1332 wikB     1306 brKB
c.1330 Son of Eriba-Adad-I, ASHUR-UBALLIT-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1365.  Son ENLIL-NIRARI succeeds 1329-20. 1330 B76 I-582, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-271, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA     1329 hifi     1327 FLAP 169     1318 absA, lexA
c.1329 KURIGALZU-II, king of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon 1345-24, vassal of Assyria, contends with ENLIL-NIRARI for throne of Assyria.  Civil war weakens Babylon. 1329 Sag
1328 B76 11-981,
c.1329 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Mitanni from 1475, comes under Assyria until 609. 1329 rcM
c.1327 KURIGALZU-II, Kassite king of Babylon, temporarily occupies ELAM. 1320 wikE
c.1324 KURIGALZU-II ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1345.  NAZI-MURUTTASH succeeds 1323-1298. 1324 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, ISBE 1-393, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB     1308 wikB
1306 brKB
c.1320 MITANNI, a Hurrian kingdom from 1500, vassal state to Suppiluliuma-I, king of Hittites from 1350, broken by Suppiluliuma.  Last king, MATTIWAZA is overthrown.  Mitanni continues in a reduced form under its Assyrian name, HANIGALBAT until 1300.  SHATTUARA-I rules until 1300. 1370 GEoP 198
1360 B76 VI-942
1350 SHWC 20 1340 B76 X-564, MCAW 38, frN
1320 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1320 ENLIL-NIRARI, son of Ashur-Uballit-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1329.  Son ARIK-DEN-ILI succeeds 1319-08. 1320 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2,
IDB 1-289, RAI3, Sag     1319 frN, hifi, kidA     1308 absA, lexA
c.1310 AKHLAMU, Arab nomads, migrate into Aram and Mesopotamia. 1310 LEWH 46
c.1308 ARIK-DEN-ILI, son of Enlil-Nirari ends.  King of Assyria from 1319.  Son ADAD-NIRARI-I succeeds 1307-1275. 1308 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2,
IDB 1-289, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA
1307 hifi     1296 absA, lexA
c.1300 ADAD-NIRARI-I, king of Assyria, claims that SHATTUARA-I, ruler of Hanigalbat, attacked him.  Adad-Nirari invades Hanigalbat, captures Shattuara, brings him back to Assur, makes him take an oath of vassalage, releases him. 1330 frN
1250 SOTS 90
no date: Sag 82, hinf
c.1300 HANIGALBAT, the residue of Mitanni from 1340, becomes vassal state to Assyria until 1270. 1250 SOTS 90
no date: Sag 82, hinf
c.1300 SHATTUARA-I, ruler of Hanigalbat from 1340, vassal of Assyria, ends.  WASHASATTA succeeds to 1280. 1300 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1298 NAZI-MURUTTASH ends.  king of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1324.  KADASHMAN-TURGU succeeds 1297-80. 1298 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB
1282 wikB     1280 brKB
c.1282 WASHASATTA, ruler of Hanigalbat, vassal of Assyria 1300-1280, rebels against Adad-Nirari I.  Seeks Hittite aid.  Hittites accept his gifts, but never help him. no date: hinf
c.1281 ADAD-NIRARI-I, king of Assyria, invades Hanigalbat, takes capital, Taite, and many other cities.  WASHASATTA, ruler of Hanigalbat, retreats to Irrite.  Adad-Nirari takes Irrite and destroys it, annexes part of Hanigalbat. no date: hinf
c.1280 WASHASATTA, ruler of Hanigalbat, vassal of Assyria, from 1300, ends.  SHATTUARA-II succeeds to 1270. 1280 anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1280 KADASHMAN-TURGU ends.  king of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1297.  KADASHMAN-ENLIL-II succeeds 1279-65. 1280 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, hifi, stmaB
1264 wikB     1262 brKB
c.1275 Son of Arik-Den-Ili, ADAD-NIRARI-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1307.  Son SHALMANEZERI-I succeeds 1274-45. 1276 MCAW 40     1275 B76 9-831, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, frN, kidA     1274 ISBE 4-444, Sdl 3-311, hifi
1273 IDB 1-289     1264 absA, lexA
c.1275 URARTU, between Lakes Van & Urima, suffers intermittent invasions by Assyrians until 840. 1275
B76 18-1039
c.1270 SHATTUARA-II, last ruler of HANIGALBAT from 1280, rebels against overlord Shalmanezer-I, who conquers and deposes him.  HANIGALBAT is annexed to Assyria, except for a remnant in the northwest, where ILI-IPADA rules until 1240. 1270 Sag 82, anan, hifaA, stmaM
c.1270 After capturing Mitannian Λ IRON making centers, the Assyrians fail to make sensible use of it until c.900. 1100 TTT
c.1265 KADASHMAN-ENLIL-II ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1280.  KUDUR-ENLIL-II succeeds to 1256. 1265 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, frN, hifi, stmaB     1255 wikB
1254 brKB
Kashtiliash-IV succeeds: Sag
c.1260 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites from 1340, taken by Shalmanezer-I, king of Assyria 1274-45.  Under Assyria until 1190. 1276 MCAW 40
c.1256 KUDUR-ENLIL-II ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1265.  SHAGARAKTI-SHURIASH succeeds 1255-43. 1256 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI3
1255 frN, hifi, stmaB
1246 wikB     1245 brKB
c.1250 MONEY:  In this century, SILVER is the medium of exchange thruout Anatolia, Mesopotamia, & LevantBabylonian shekel (8.4g) is basic weight unit.  60 shekels = 1 mina. 1250 MCAW 41
c.1250 Flow of Tigris and Euphrates begins falling rapidly, reaching low point c.1150. 1250 pczy
c.1250 MARI, under Arameans from 1350, comes under Assyria until 1200. 1250 rcS
c.1249 SHALMANEZER-I, king of Assyria 1274-45, temporarily takes BABYLON.  Removes statue of Marduk until 1134. 1250 ISBE 1-385 1249 MCAW 40, 43
c.1245 Son of Adad-Narari-I, SHALMANEZER-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1274.  Son TUKULTI-NINURTA-I succeeds 1244-08. 1257 MCAW 40     1246 Sdl 1-429
1245 B76 9-832, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-272, 301, ISBE 4-444, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, kidA     1244 B76 X-173, ISBE 4-444, Sdl 3-311, hifi     1242 IDB 1-289
1234 AYGC 161, absA, lexA
c.1243 SHAGARAKTI-SHURIASH ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1255.  KASHTILIASH-IV succeeds 1242-35. 1243 CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI3, frN, hifi, stmaB
1233 wikB     1232 brKB
c.1240 ILI-IPADA, ruler of the northwest end of Hanigalbat from 1270, rebels against overlord Tukulti-Ninurta-I, who conquers and annexed his land to Assyria. 1240 hifaA
c.1240 KASHTILIASH-IV, king of Kassite Babylon 1242-35, caught between 2 enemies:  Tukulti-Ninurta-I of Assyria, Kiddin-Khuntran of Elam. soon after 1250 RAI2 216
c.1238 KASHTILIASH-IV, king of Kassite Babylon 1242-35, fights, Unpatar-Naprisha of Elam unsuccessfully. 1230 wikE
c.1235 Kassite 3rd Dynasty of Babylon ends.  Began 1595.  Conquered by Assyria. 1235 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, MRDK, RAI3, frN, hifi, stmaB
1232 AYGC 161
1231 Sdl 1-429     1225 wikB
1224 brKB
Kash-III: IDB 1-270
Kash-V: Sag
KASHTILIASH-IV ends.  King of Kassite 3rd dyn of Babylon from 1242, taken in chains to Assyria.
BABYLON comes under Assyrian governors until 1227.
c.1230 KASSITES defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1230 hifi 1224 wikE
c.1227 BABYLONIA, under Assyria from 1235, back under Kassites until 1157.  ENLIL-NADIN-SHUMI reigns as an Assyrian puppet until 1224.
Assyrians
will not directly rule Babylonia again until 729.
1228 CAH 2.2
1227 RAI3, hifi
1224 brKB, wikB
c.1225 ASTRONOMY V:  Babylonians have an instrument to determine when a star or planet is due south. 1250-01 TTS
c.1224 ENLIL-NADIN-SHUMI Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1224 wikE
c.1224 ENLIL-NADIN-SHUMI, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) from 1227, ends.  KADASHMAN-HARBE-II succeeds to 1221. 1225 CAH 2.2
1224 hifi, wikB
1221 brKB
c.1221 KADASHMAN-HARBE-II, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) from 1224,ends.  ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA succeeds to 1218 1225 CAH 2.2
1222 hifi, wikB
1221 brKB
c.1220 ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet), defeated in battle by KIDDIN-KHUTRAN, king of Elam. 1222-17 wikE
c.1218 ADAD-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon (Assyrian puppet) from 1221, ends.  ADAD-SHUMA-USUR succeeds to 1189. 1219 CAH 2.2     1218 B76 11-980, frN, stmaB     1217 hifi
1216 hifi, wikB     1215 brKB
c.1208 Son of Shalmaneser-I, TUKULTI-NINURTA-I dies.  King of Assyria from 1244, killed by son ASHUR-NADIN-APLI, who succeeds 1207-03. 1208 B76 X-173, 9-831, 11-981, CAH 2.2, CWH, IDB 1-272, 301, ISBE 4-444, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, kidA
1207 Sdl 1-425, hifi     1197 absA, lexA
c.1203 Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-I, ASHUR-NADIN-APLI ends.  King of Assyria from 1208.  Son ASHUR-NIRARI-III succeeds to 1197. 1204 CAH 2.2, Sag
1203 hifi     1194 absA, lexA
no date: kidA
c.1200 MARI, under Assyria from 1250, comes under Babylon until 750. 1200 rcS
c.1200 LATE BRONZE AGE ends in Mesopotamia from 1550.
EARLY IRON AGE begins until ?.
1200 wikBA
c.1200 Λ GLASS making:  An active industry in Egypt and Mesopotamia from at least 1550, declines in Mesopotamia until 750. 1200 txgls
c.1200 Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Earliest star catalogs in Babylonia.  Many star names are in Sumerian.  (See Egypt  1200) 1800-1751 TTS
1200 wikHA
c.1200 Λ  GILGAMESH EPIC  Akkadian version edited by Sin-liqe-unninni.  Includes long version of the Λ FLOOD story.   (See library 63?) 1300-1000 wikGFM
c.1200 MECHANICS:  Rotary motion converted to back and forth motion by Mesopotamians. 1200 TTT
c.1197 Son of Ashur-nadin-apli, ASHUR-NIRARI-III ends.  King of Assyria from 1204.  Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-I, ENLIL-KUDUR-USUR succeeds to 1193. 1198 CAH 2.2     1197 Sag, hifi     no date: kidA
1188 absA, lexA
c.1197 ENLIL-KUDUR-USUR, king of Assyria, attacks Babylonia. 1197 Sag
c.1193 Son of Tukulti-Ninurta-I, ENLIL-KUDUR-USUR ends.  King of Assyria from 1197.  Noble backed by Babylon NINURTA-APAL-EKUR succeeds 1192-80. 1193 CAH 2.2, RAI3, Sag, kidA     1192 hifi
1183 absA, lexA
c.1190 CARCHEMISH, under Assyria from 1260, recovered by Hittites.  Becomes their chief city until 1110. guess
c.1189 ADAD-SHUMA-USUR, Kassite king of Babylon from 1218, ends.  MELISHIPAK succeeds 1188-74. 1189 B76 11-980, CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB
1187 hifi, wikB     1185 brKB
c.1180 Son of Ila-Hadda, NINURTA-APAL-EKUR ends.  King of Assyria from 1193.  Son of Ashur-Nadin-Apli, ASHUR-DAN-I succeeds 1179-34. 1180 CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, absA, frN, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.1174 MELISHIPAK, Kassite king of Babylon from 1188, ends.  MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-I succeeds 1173-61. 1174 CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB
1172 B76 11-980, hifi, wikB
1170 brKB
c.1161 MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-I, Kassite king of Babylon from 1173, ends.  ZABABA-SHUMA-IDDINA succeeds to 1159. 1161 CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB
1159 hifi, wikB     1157 brKB
c.1160 ARAMEANS of north Arabia begin moving into north Aram. no date: LEWH 46
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, invades Kassite Babylonia. 1176 LEWH 52 1160 ISBE 3-4
c.1158 ZABABA-SHUMA-IDDINA, Kassite king of Babylon from 1161, killed by SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam, who installs Zababa's eldest son ENLIL-NADINSHE until 1157. 1160 CAH 2.2, ISBE 3-4
1159 RAI3, frN, stmaB
1158 hifi, wikB, wikE     1156 brKB
c.1158 SHUTRUK-NAHUNTE, king of Elam 1185-55, takes Babylon.  Pushes Kassites out.  Takes  LAW STELE of HAMMURABI  to Susa. 1176 LEWH 52     1175 FHBC 74 1173 MCAW 46     1171 RAI2
1170 WPOT 181     1162 CWH
1158 wikE     1157 RAI3
c.1157 ENLIL-NADINSHE, Kassite king of Babylon from 1159, overthrown by Shutruk-Nahunte, king of Elam.  MARDUK-KABIT-AKHESHU succeeds 1156-39. 1175 FHBC 74     1173 MCAW 46 1171 RAI2     1170 WPOT 181
1162 CWH     1157 CAH 2.2, RAI3, MRDK, frN, stmaB
1155 hifi, wikB     1153 brKB
c.1157 KASSITE BABYLON from 1227, overthrown by Shutruk-Nahunte, king of Elam 1185-55.
KASSITE activity in Mesopotamia from 1735 ends.
1175 FHBC 74     1173 MCAW 46 1171 RAI2     1170 WPOT 181
1162 CWH     1160 AYGC 162
1157 RAI3, MRDK, bk, frN, mxfld, stmaB     1155 B76 11-980, hifi, wikB     1153 brKB
MIDDLE BABYLONIAN period begins until 732.
4th DYNASTY of BABYLON begins (aka 2nd DYNASTY of ISIN) until 1025.
c.1150 KUTIR-NAHUNTE-III, king of Elam 1155-50, plunders temple of Akkad. 1150 LEWH
c.1150 Flow of Tigris and Euphrates, falling rapidly from 1250, reaches low point, returning to normal after 950. 1150 pczy
c.1139 MARDUK-KABIT-AKHESHU, 1st king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1157, ends.  ITTI-MARDUK-BALATU succeeds to 1132. 1152 CWH, RAI2     1146 hifi
1139 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2, RAI3, frN, stmaB     1146 brKB, wikB
c.1138 ELAMITES, occupying and raiding Babylonia from ?, expelled. 1138 hifi
c.1134 Son of Ashur-Nadin-Apli, ASHUR-DAN-I dies.  King of Assyria from 1179.  Two sons: Mutakkil-Nusku and Ninurta-Tukulti-Ashur compete for throne.  Babylon interferes and installs NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR to 1133. 1135 aina     1134 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, hifi, kidA     1133 absA, lexA
c.1134 Statue of Marduk, in Assyria from 1249 returned to Babylon by NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR, king of Assyria. 1134 Sag
c.1134 ARAMEANS, in north and east Aram from 1160, move east.  Pressure Assyria and Babylonia. 1134 Sag
no date: IDB 1-186
c.1133 Son of Ashur-Dan-I, NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR ends.  King of Assyria from 1134.  Son of Mutakkil-Nusku, ASHUR-RESHISHI-I, succeeds to 1116. 1134 RAI3, Sag
1133 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, IDB 1-191, ISBE 4-445, absA, aina, bk, frN, kidA, lexA
c.1132 ITTI-MARDUK-BALATU, 2nd king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1139, ends.  NINURTA-NADIN-SHUMI succeeds to 1126. 1143 CWH, RAI2
1132 brKB, hifi, wikB   1131 CAH 2.2
no date: stmaB
c.1126 NINURTA-NADIN-SHUMI, 3rd king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1132, ends.  NEBUCHADREZZAR-I succeeds to 1103. 1128 LEWH 52     1126 brKB, hifi, wikB     1125 CAH 2.2, LEWH 31
1124 B76 9-831, ISBE 1-385, RAI2, RAI3, Sag     1112 ISBE 3-507
c.1120 ARAMEANS of north and East Aram, move northwest and southwest. 1120 TAWH 56
c.1120 Babylonians take some Assyrian territory on lower Tigris. by 1115 mxfld
c.1116 Son of Mutakkil-Nusku, ASHUR-RESHISHI-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1133.  Son TIGLATH-PILESER-I succeeds 1115-1076. 1116 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2,
IDB 1-272, ISBE 4-445, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, WPOT 135, bk, frN, kidA
1115 IDB 1-190, ISBE 4-849, absA, hifi, lexA     1114 SOTS 115, 165
c.1113 TIGLATH-PILESER-I king of Assyria 1115-1076, routs the Achlame Arameans. 1113 Jud 3-254
c.1112 gold cup Kuduru (boundary stone) recording a grant of 5 gur of corn-land, in the district of Edina in Southern Babylonia, to Gula-eresh by Eanna-shum-iddina, governor of the Sea-Land.  STAR and CRESCENT in combination is shown at top. photo Marie-Lan Nguyen


1125-00
wik
c.1110 MUSHKI (Meshech) people of east Anatolia first appear in records of TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, who defeats 5 of their chiefs in Kutmuhi east of Euphrates. 1100
IDB 3-357, ISBE 3-328
c.1110 TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, crosses Euphrates into Anatolia, defeats Phrygians and remnants of Hittites. 1120 wikA
1114 MCAW 48
c.1110 NEBUCHADREZZAR-I, king of Babylon 1126-03, defeats HULELUTUSH-INSHUSHINAK, king of Elam 1120-1110, captures SUSA. no date:
MCAW 46, wikE
c.1110 Λ CAMEL V:  Dromedary present at Mari from 1750, first mentioned in a non-Biblical extant document - a broken obelisk of T-P-I.  Used in caravans. 1100 IDB 1-490, 536
by 1000 SHT 1-706
c.1110 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites from 1190, taken by TIGLATH-PILESER-I.  Under Assyria until ?. 1120 wikA
c.1110 KERMES OAK, native to Anatolia, brought by Tiglath-Pileser-I to Assyria.  This is host plant to the kermes insect, from which crimson dye is made. 1100
SHT 1-246
c.1108 TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, subjugates AMURRU and Phoenicia.  Takes cedar for temples of Anu and Adad. 1120 wikA
c.1103 NEBUCHADREZZAR-I, 4th king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1126, ends.  ENLIL-NADIN-APLI succeeds to 1100. 1104 bk     1103 B76 9-831, 11-981, CAH 2.2, ISBE 1-385, 3-507, brKB, hifi, wikB     no date: stmaB
c.1100 Army of TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, reaches Mediterranean. 1103 TTPC 9, WPOT 119
c.1100  MIDDLE ASSYRIAN LAW CODE  of Tiglath-Pileser-I.  Penalties include much amputation and death.
(See Eshnunna 1930, Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hammurabi 1790, Hittite 1370, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
1100 AYGC 102
1075 frdu, wikSod
c.1100 Λ BOOTS:  calf high, leather laced, with a sole reinforced with metal used by Assyrian army. 1100 EOET 296
c.1100 NISIBIS founded by Arameans, independent until 896. 1100 GHH
c.1100 ARAMEANS of East Aram, begin moving into Babylonia until 900. 1100 WPOT 193 1080 TAWH 56
c.1100 ENLIL-NADIN-APLI, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1103, ends.  MARDUK-NADIN-AHE succeeds to 1082. 1100 brKB, hifi, wikB 1099 CAH 2.2
no date: stmaB
c.1094 TIGLATH-PILESER-I, king of Assyria 1115-1076, raids Aram. 1094 IDB 4-722
c.1090 Lack of rain in Assyria.  No harvests are picked. 1090 pczy
c.1082 MARDUK-NADIN-AHE, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1100, ends.  MARDUK-SHAPIK-ZERI succeeds to 1069. 1082 brKB, hifi, wikB
1081 B76 11-981, CAH 2.2
no date: stmaB
Itti-Marduk-Balati 1080 Sag
c.1080 ASSYRIA hit by flood, famine, plague.  Cannibalism reported. 1082 pczy     1080 MCAW 50
c.1080 ARAMEAN influx into Babylonia begins until 900. 1080 WPOT 193
c.1076 Son of Ashur-Resh-Ishi-I, TIGLATH-PILESER-I dies. King of Assyria from 1115.  Son ASHARID-APAL-EKUR-I succeeds to 1074. 1077 B76 IX-1006, 11-982, CAH 2.2, ISBE 4-445, 849, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, hifi, kidA     1076 FLAP 170, IDB 1-190, 272, MCAW 50, SOTS 165, WPOT 135, absA, lexA
1074 MWΦ 10, Sdl 1-417, SOTS 115
c.1074 Son of Tiglath-Pileser-I, ASHARID-APAL-EKUR-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1076.  Bro ASHUR-BEL-KALA succeeds to 1057. 1075 CAH 2.2, hifi     1074 B76 11-982, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, WPOT 137, absA, aina, frN, kidA, lexA
c.1074 Assyria starts losing territory to ARAMEANS, including cities of Tur Abdin, Haran, and Khabur. reign of Ashurbelkala: aina
c.1069 MARDUK-SHAPIK-ZERI, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1082, ends.  ADAD-APLA-IDDINA succeeds to 1046. 1069 brKB, hifi, wikB
1068 CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag     1067 ISBE 1-385, stmaB
c.1057 Son of Tiglath-Pileser-I, ASHUR-BEL-KALA ends.  King of Assyria from 1074.  Son ERIBA-ADAD-II succeeds to 1056-54. 1057 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, bk, frN, hifi, kidA
1056 WPOT 137, absA, lexA
c.1054 Son of Ashur-bel-kala, ERIBA-ADAD-II ends.  King of Assyria from 1056.  SHAMSHI-ADAD-IV succeeds to 1050. 1055 CAH 2.2, hifi     1054 ISBE 4-444, absA, lexA     omit: RAI3, frN, kidA
c.1050 Son of Tiglath-Pileser-I, SHAMSHI-ADAD-IV ends.  King of Assyria from 1054.  Son ASHUR-NASIRPAL-I succeeds to 1031. 1051 CAH 2.2, hifi
1050 B76 I-582, 11-982, ISBE 4-444, RAI3 absA, frN, kidA, lexA 1049 RAI2
c.1046 ADAD-APLA-IDDINA, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1069, ends.  MARDUK-AHE-ERIBA succeeds and ends.  MARDUK-ZER-X succeeds to 1033. 1046 CAH 2.2, ISBE 1-385, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1033 MARDUK-ZER-X, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1046, ends.  NABU-SHUM-LIBUR succeeds to 1025. 1033 CAH 2.2, brKB, hifi, wikB
1032 RAI3, stmaB
c.1031 Son of Shamshi-Adad-IV, ASHUR-NASIRPAL-I ends.  King of Assyria from 1050.  Son SHALMANESER-II succeeds to 1019. 1032 B76 I-582, 11-982, CAH 2.2, ISBE 4-444, RAI3, bk, frN, hifi, kidA     1031 ISBE 4-444, RAI2, absA, lexA
c.1025 NABU-SHUM-LIBUR, king of 4th dyn of Babylon from 1033, ends.  A new dynasty begins until 1004.  SIMBAR-SHIPAK succeeds to 1008. 1038 RAI2     1025 CAH 2.2, RAI3, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
1024 B76 11-982
c.1025 4th DYNASTY of BABYLON ends.
Began 1157  (aka 2nd DYNASTY of ISIN).
5th DYNASTY of BABYLON begins until 1004.
1038 RAI2     1025 RAI3, brKB, hifi, stmaB, wikB
c.1019 Son of Ashurnasirpal-I, SHALMANESER-II ends.  King of Assyria from 1031.  Son ASHUR-NIRARI-IV succeeds to 1013. 1020 CAH 2.2, ISBE 4-444, RAI3, frN, hifi, kidA
1019 RAI2, absA, lexA
c.1013 Son of Shalmaneser-II, ASHUR-NIRARI-IV ends.  King of Assyria from 1019.  Uncle ASHUR-RABI-II succeeds to 973. 1016 RAI3, frN, kidA   1014 CAH 2.2, hifi     1013 absA, lexA     1012 IDB 1-191, 2-507, SOTS 115, WPOT 138
1010 RAI2, Sag, Sdl 3-212
c.1008 SIMBAR-SHIPAK, 1st king of 5th dyn of Babylon from 1025, ends.  EA-MUKIN-SHUMI succeeds and ends.  KASHU-NADIN succeeds to 1004. 1022 RAI2     1008 brKB, hifi, wikB
1007 B76 11-982, CAH 2.2, RAI3, stmaB
c.1004 KASHU-NADIN, 2nd king of 5th dyn of Babylon from 1008, ends.
5th DYNASTY of Babylon from 1025 ends.
6th DYNASTY of Babylon begins until 984.

EULMA-SHAKIN-SHUMI succeeds to 987.
1004 CAH 2.2, RAI3, brKB, hifi, wikB
1003 stmaB

Syria & Urartu 1000-612         Mesopotamia 1000-612
V             V