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c.300 WESTERN SAHARA, mostly unoccupied from 3000, occupied by various Berber tribes until 790CE. 300 rcNA
c.300 Mauritania becomes more desiccated.  Settlements begin to decline, most likely relocating to Koumbi Saleh. 300 wikA
c.300 MANDE civilization in west Africa from 900, peaked at 600, begins to decline. 300 wtA
c.300 Jenne on the Niger River in west Africa begins to be settled, producing iron and with sizable population, evidenced in crowded cemeteries. 300 wikA, wikDjen
c.300 ANNICERIS, pupil of Antipater, flourishes.  He endorses typical Cyrenaic hedonism, but splits off from the school of Cyrene and establishes the Anniceraioi. 320-280 CDΦ 26
c.300 CYRENE, independent from 312, recovered by PTOLEMY-I, who puts his stepson MAGAS in charge until 275 or 253. 308 rcNA     306 OCD 307 300 CAH 7.1, atl4
298 B76 15-181
no date: OCD 307
c.300 IRON is mined in west Africa. 300 B76 19-762
c.295 HAMILCAR BARCA becomes chief general in Carthage until 275. 295 hifiC, rcNA
c.295 CONVEX LENSE used in Carthage. 300-291 TTS
c.279 Rome / Carthage defensive alliance against Pyrrhus.  Also renews provisions of former treaties. 279 DGRG 1-540
c.278 Rome / Carthage Λ 4th treaty Romans to stay out of SicilyCarthaginians to stay out of Italy.  Renew alliance to oust PYRRHUS of Epirus from SicilyCarthage agrees to naval suport. 279 DGRG 1-540, MWΦ 199
279/8 CAH 7.2 278 MWΦ 129
c.275 HAMILCAR BARCA, chief general in Carthage from 295, shares power with HANNIBAL the RHODIAN until 259. 275 hifiC, rcNA, wikBr
c.275 Stepson of Ptolemy-I, MAGAS, governor of Cyrene 298-53, allies with Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, starts independent kingdom of CYRENE until 255. 276 wikKC, wikMC
275 lvG, lvPt2
274 OCD 307
258 LEWH 96
c.275 CYRENE, under Magas from 300, becomes independent kingdom until 255.
c.274 ZELALSEN, king of the Massylii (Eastern Numidia) from 344, ends.  GALA succeeds until 207. 274 wikKNm
c.274 MAGAS, stepson of Ptolemy-I, governor of Cyrene 298-53, marries APAMEA, dau of Antiochus-I. 274 OCD 307
c.274 MAGAS, governor of Cyrene 298-58, invades Egypt, and is expelled.  Bad relations until 252. 274 CAH 7.1, TAG 263, lvFSW, wikPt2
Punic possessions
Punic possessions before 1st Punic War     Pub dom
c.264 1st PUNIC WAR begins until 241Consul CLAUDIUS CAUDEX with 2 legions, invades Sicily. 265 MCAW     264 B76 15-1091, BCoC 497, CAH 7.1, Dur 3-20, 44, GHH, OHG TAWH 17, TToH, TTPC, bk, hifiC, lvG, lvS
c.262 HANNO, Punic general with elephants, sails to Sicily. 262 MCAW
c.262 Hannibal son of Gisco sent with fleet to Sardinia. 262 CAH 7.2
c.259 HANNIBAL the RHODIAN, one of 2 chief generals in Carthage from 275, ends.  HAMILCAR continues alone until 250. 259 hifiC, rcNA
c.259 HANNIBAL son of Gisco, in Carthage from 260, sent with a fleet to defend Sardinia. 259 DGRBM 2-332
c.258 MAGAS, stepson of Ptolemy-I, governor of Cyrene 298-53, ally of Antiochus-I from 274 makes peace with Ptolemy-II.  Magas' dau by Apama, BERNICE is betrothed to Ptolemy son of Ptolemy-II. 258 BHS 1-178
c.256 Consuls VULSO and REGULUS, sail to Africa, land at Aspis fortress (called Clupea by Romans) east of Carthage, take it.  Punic generals Bostar, Hamilcar, and Hasdrubal stupidly retreat to the mountains, where their cavalry and elephants are useless.  Carthaginians are defeated near Adis.  15,000 Carthaginians killed in battle, and 5,000 men, 18 elephants captured.  Bostar, Hamilcar, and Hasdrubal are captured. 256 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-501, 3-643, 1285, DGRG 1-242,
Dur 3-44, GHH, LdHR 1-307, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 1134, OHG, wikLRB
256 Consuls VULSO and REGULUS capture TUNIS (not necessarily modern Tunis), offer severe terms.  By order of the senate, Manlius Vulso returns to Rome with half the army in fall. 256 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-501, 3-643, 1285, DGRG 1-242, Dur 3-44, GHH, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 1134, OHG, SORH, wikLRB
c.256 Hasdrubal and ??? are sent from Carthage to oppose Regulus. 256 DGRBM 2-354
c.256 Hamilcar (not Barca) returns from Heraclea Minoa Sicily to Carthage, as ordered. 256 DGRBM 2-327
256/5 Consul M. Atilius REGULUS and Carthage negotiate unsuccessfully.  Regulus makes ridiculous demands. 256/5 CAH 7.2, LdHR 1-308
c.255 Spartan XANTHIPPUS sails from Greece to Carthage to help Carthage against Romans. 256 GHH     255 CAH 7.2
c.255 Consul M. Atilius REGULUS commander in Africa, fails to reconnioter, encounters superior Punic force (including 4,000 cav and 100 elephants) on ground chosen by their leader XANTHIPPUS, Spartan mercenary30,000 Romans are killed.  500 Romans are captured, including Regulus until 249.  His remaining 2,000 men flee to Aspis fortress (called Clupea by Romans) and are besieged. 256 Dur 3-44
255 B76 VIII-484, 15-277, 1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-1205, 3-643, GHH, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 1140, OHG, SORH, bk, wikLRB
c.255 HASDRUBAL son of Hanno with a large army and 140 elephants is sent to Sicily. after Regulus defeat: DGRBM 2-354
c.255 Consuls M. AEMILIUS PAULUS and Ser. Fulvius Paetinus NOBILIOR sail 2nd FLEET (300 ships) from Rome to rescue survivors at Aspis fortress in Africa (called Clupea by Romans). 255 DGRBM 2-1205, 3-153
c.255 2nd Roman fleet, reduces Cossura island southwest of Sicily, defeats Punic fleet near the Hermaean promontory (Cape Bon Tunisia), sinks 114 Punic ships. 255 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-1205, SORH, atl3
c.255 2nd Roman fleet under consuls Aemilius and Fulvius, evacuates remnant of REGULUS' army from Aspis fortress (called Clupea by Romans). 255 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-242, LEWH 99,
no date: Dur 3-44
c.255 2nd Roman fleet, built 255, sails from Africa. 255 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-456, 1205, DGRG 1-487 LEWH 99, MCAW     no date: Dur 3-44
c.255 DEMETRIUS the Fair, ½ bro of Antigonus-II, sent by A-II from Greece to take Cyrene from PTOLEMY-II. 255 OCD 325
c.255 CYRENE, capital of Cyrenaica, independent from 275, taken without fight by DEMETRIUS the Fair, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes until 246. 255 OCD 325 250 wikKC
c.254 Carthage punishes Numidian disaffection. 254 CAH 7.2
c. 253 3rd Roman FLEET under consuls Blaesus and Caepio raids east Tunisia, gathers much loot, but accomplishes nothing noteworthy.  Thru pilot ignorance they run aground, and escape by turn of tide only by throwing all non-essentials overboard.  they return to Panormus Sicily. 253 DGRBM 1-491, 533, CAH 7.2, LdHR 1-310
c. 253 MAGAS dies.  King of Cyrene from 275, suffocates from his own fat.  Having no son, widow Apama-II repudiates alliance with Antiochus-I, and friendship with Ptolemies, to whom their dau Bernice-II is betrothed, gives crown to her uncle, the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, DEMETRIUS the FAIR, who marries Bernice-II, and succeeds without opposition until 249. 258 DGRBM 2-899, rcNA     253 OCD 307     250 CAH 7.1, wikKC, wikMC
250/49 lvG, lvPt2, wikDtF
c.252 Cyrene / Egypt relations, bad from 275, re-established by Demetrius the Fair and Philidelphus. 253-1
CAH 7.1
c.250 HAMILCAR (not Barca), chief general in Carthage from 259, ends.  HANNO the Great succeeds until 247. 250 hifiC, rcNA
c.250 DEMETRIUS the Fair, king of Cyrene, has affair with wife's mother Apama-II. no date: wikDtF
c.250 Mande city of JENNE on the Niger River in west Africa, settled from 300, is a large, thriving market town consisting of 40 mounds within a 4km radius.  It is occupied until c.800CE. 250 wikA, wikMnd
c.249 Consul M. Atilius REGULUS, prisoner of Carthage from 255, allowed to return to Rome to persuade senate to abandon 1st Punic War, on condition that Regulus will return if senate votes for war. 251 GHH
250 DGRBM 3-643 249 MCAW
no date: Dur3-45
c.249 M. Atilius REGULUS dies.  Returns to Carthage, where he is tortured to death by disputed means. 250 DGRBM 3-643, GHH
249 MCAW, OCD 911
no date: Dur 3-45
c.249 Son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, DEMETRIUS the Fair dies.  King of Cyrene from 253, stabbed to death by wife Berenice-II, dau of Magas. 258 rcNA     253 OCD 307
250 CAH 7.1     250/49 wikDtF 249 wikKC
c.249 Philostephanus of Cyrene, pupil of Callimachus, flourishes.  Writes  history of Cyprus . 249 GHH
c.247 HANNO defeats Numidians at Hecatompylus (probably Capsa in south Numidia). 247 CAH 7.2
c.247 HANNO the Great ends.  Chief general in Carthage from 250.  HAMILCAR BARCA succeeds until 229. 247 Dur 3-45, GHH, MCAW 241 hifiC, rcNA
c.247 HAMILCAR BARCA invades Sicily until 241. 249 Dur 3-20, OHG     247 B76 IV-871, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-327
c.246 CYRENE & CYRENAICA, under Demetrius the Fair from 255, recovered by PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus.  Under Ptolemies until 205. 250 CAH 7.1     248 LEWH 96 246 B76 VIII-280, rcNA, wikKC
c.246 BERENICE in Cyrenaica founded and populated with people from nearby Euesperides. 246 CAH 10-628
c.241 HAMILCAR BARCA in Sicily from 247, returns to Africa until 237. 241 B76 IV-871, DGRBM 2-269, 328
c.241 Carthage sues for peace. 241 Dur 3-45
c.241 1st PUNIC WAR from 264 ends.  Catulus negotiates peace with Hamilcar Barca.  Carthaginians agree to evacuate Sicily, keep warships out of Roman waters, 440 talents annual indemnity for 10 years, drop restrictions on Roman trade. 241 B76 15-1091, BCoC 498, DGRBM 2-328, DGRG 1-542, Dur 3-20, 45, LEWH 99, MCAW, OHG, TToH, bk, hifiC, lvG
c.241 Army of Carthage (almost all mercenaries) returns to Carthage seeking back pay.  Government can't afford it, stalls, tries to dispurse them.  Mercenaries rebel. 241 B76 13-148, DGRBM 2-269, Dur 3-46, GHH     240 MCAW
c.241 War of Mercenaries begins until 237.  Mercenaries under Campanian Spendius and Libyan Matho vs. Carthage under Hamilcar Barca. 241 B76 13-148, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-971, 3-893, Dur 3-20, GHH, SORH, bk     240 CAH 7.1, MCAW
c.241 TUNIS (not necessarily modern Tunis), siezed by 20,000 mercenaries. 241 DGRBM 2-269
c.241 Vassals of Carthage, long overtaxed during Punic War, join mercenary revolt. 241 Dur 3-46
c.240 20,000 rebel mercenaries led by Libyan freeman MATHO and Campanian slave SPENDIUS, besiege Carthage.  Others join them. 240 Dur 3-46, SORH
c.240 Mercenaries assemble at Sicca.  Hanno is sent from Carthage to offer them part of the money they are owed. 240 DGRBM 2-343
c.240 Mercenaries take Utica and Hippo Regius on coast west of Carthage. 240 CAH 7.2
c.240 Merchants of Carthage ask native Carthaginian HAMILCAR BARCA to rescue them.  Hamilcar hesitantly agrees, gathers army of 10,000 Carthaginians, chases mercenaries into mountains. 240
Dur 3-46
c.240 HAMILCAR BARCA with 8,000 inf, 2,000 cav, and 70 elephants defeats 15,000 mercenaries under Campanian Spendius plus 10,000 others at the Bagradas. 240 CAH 7.2, wikBBR
c.240 CYRENAICA, under Ptolemies 248-205, put under ECDELOS briefly, then DEMOPHANES until ?. 240 rcNA
c.239 Mercenary force crushed at Prion by Hamilcar Barca. 239 CAH 7.2
c.238 GAYYA becomes king of western Numidia until 220. 238 rcNA
c.238 HAMILCAR BARCA traps 40,000 mercenaries in a canyon.  Starves them to cannibalism.  They send out an envoy, who is crucified and trampled by elephants. 238
Dur 3-46
c.238 AUTARITUS, leader of Gallic mercenaries in Carthaginian army, crucified by Hamilcar Barca. 238 DGRBM 1-446
c.237 MATHO, Libyan leader of mercenaries, captured by HAMILCAR BARCA, beaten to death by Carthaginians. 237
Dur 3-46
c.237 War of Mercenaries vs. Carthage from 241 ends.  Mercenary leader Spendius is taken prisoner by Hamilcar Barca, and crucified by his orders before the walls of Tunis. 238 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-329, bk     237 B76 13-148, CAH 7.1, Dur 3-46     236 Dur 3-20
c.237 Rome, with no pretense of justification, forces Carthage to surrender SARDINIA, and pay an extra 1,200 talents indemnity. 238 DGRBM, SORH
237 CAH 8-24, 27, Dur 3-46
c.237 HAMILCAR BARCA, Punic commander 247-29, takes 1st son HANNIBAL, age 9, to the altar of Baal Haman, makes him swear to avenge Carthage against Rome.  Hannibal will repeat this story many times. 237 DGRBM 2-333,
Dur 3-47
c.237 HAMILCAR BARCA asks Carthage for troops and funds to recover Spain.  Landed aristocracy fears another war.  Merchants, having lost their foreign markets, support him. 237
Dur 3-46
c.237 To re-establish control of Spain, HAMILCAR BARCA, Carthaginian commander 247-29, with son Hannibal, son-in-law Hasdrubal, and a small army, lands at Gadir, in Spain until 229. 238 DGRBM 2-354, Dur 3-20, 46, TToH, bk     237 B76 17-402, CAH 7.2, 8-23, DGRG 1-1079, Dur 3-20, GHH, IDB 4-104, MCAW, MWΦ 129, 235, OHG, TTPC, hifiC, rcIb     236 LEWH 99
c.23? HASDRUBAL son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca recalled from Spain to Africa to deal with a Numidian rebellion.  He quells the rebellion, and returns to Spain before 229. no date: DGRBM 2-354
c.231 Carthaginian 440 talents annual indemnity to Rome from 241 ends.  But there remains an extra indemnity from 237. 231
CAH 8-24
c.229 HAMILCAR BARCA dies.  Chief general of Carthage from 247, drowns crossing a river in SpainSon-in-law HASDRUBAL succeeds until 221. 229 B76 15-1091, CAH 8-27, DGRBM 2-330, Dur 3-47, MCAW, MWΦ 129, rcNA     229/8 B76 8-625     228 LEWH 99, MWΦ 235, TTPC, hifiC, wikBr
c.221 HASDRUBAL dies.  Chief general of Carthage from 229, murdered in Spain1st son, age 26, HANNIBAL succeeds until 195. 221 B76 8-625, 15-278, 1091, CDCC 414, CAH 7.1-473, 8-32, Dur 3-47, LEWH 99, MCAW, MWΦ 129, 235, OHG, TTPC, hifiC, rcNA, wikBr
c.220 GAYYA ends.  King of western Numidia from 238.  OZALCES succeeds and ends.  CAPUSSA succeeds until 215. 220 rcNA
c. 220 ERATOSTHENES of Cyrene flourishes.  Writes  Chronographae , 1st scientific attempt to fix dates of political and literary history.

Writes  Geographica , calculates circumference of Earth at 250,000 stadia.  Sun rays are directly overhead at summer solstice at Seyene, and 7 degrees off at same day at Alexandria

MATH:  Discovers sieve method of finding prime numbers.

GEOMETRY:  Writes  On Means  and  On Duplication of the Cube .

Originates longitude lines on maps.
240-31 TTS
225 OHG
no date:
B76 III-937, OCD 405
c.219 Rome sends 5 senatorial ligati under M. Fabius Buteo to Carthage, to protest Hannibal besieging Saguntum.  Carthage says Saguntum is south of the Ebro, so Rome had no right to make a treaty with it.  Hannibal continues besieging Saguntum. 219 B76 8-626, CAH 8-38, CDCC 415,
Dur 3-48, MCAW
c.219 Senatorial legates Q. Baebius Tamphilus and P. Valerius Flaccus sail from Saguntum to Carthage. 219 CAH 8,
DGRBM 3-973
c.218 2nd PUNIC WAR with Rome begins at Saguntum until 201. 219 Dur 3-20, TToH, lvG     218 CAH 7.1, 8, CHJ 2, DGRG 1-547, GHH, MWΦ 235, SHWC 108, SORH, TTPC, bk, lvG, lvS, wikHR
c.218 Q. Baebius Tamphilus, sent again by the senate delivers ultimatim at Carthage. 218 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-973
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius Geminus ravages Meninx island, spares Cercina off African coast for 10 talents, sails to Africa, raids the coast, places a garrison on Cossura island. 217 CAH 8-66, DGRBM 2-239
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius Geminus surprised by locals, loses 1,000 men, sails to Sicily. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.217 Quaestor Sempronius Blaesus and 1,000 Roman troops killed on coast of Africa. 217 DGRBM 1-491
c.216 HIMILCO sent by ephors to Spain to replace Hasdrubal.  In Spain until 215. 217 rcIb     216 CAH 8-57, DGRBM 2-355
c.216 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, with him in Italy from 218, sails from Bruttium for Carthage to bring reinforcements to Italy.  He is in Carthage until 215. 216 DGRBM 2-903, OCD 640
c.216 Carthage learns from Mago-II of victory at Cannae, orders Hasdrubal from Spain to Italy to support Hannibal, and sends Himilco with a fresh army to Spain. 216 DGRBM 2-355, 903
c.216 Decius Magius prisoner of Hannibal, sails on a ship bound for Carthage, driven by a storm to Cyrene.  Magius escapes to Egypt. 216 DGRBM 2-899
c.216 Praetor P. Furius Philus raids African coast, and is wounded. 216 CAH 8-66
c.215 King of the Numidian Masaesyli, SYPHAX becomes king of eastern Numidia until 203. 215 rcNA
c.215 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, in Carthage from 216, now has 12,000 inf, 1,500 cav, and 20 elephants ready to go to Italy.  Unfortunately, the defeat of Hasdrubal in Spain forces the ephors to send him to Spain instead. 215 DGRBM 2-355, 903
CONFUSION ALERT!  The Masaesyli and the Massylii are rival Numidian tribes:  Massylii western, Masaesyli eastern.
c.215 Supplies from Carthage in ships under Bomilcar sail to Italy for Hannibal. 215 DGRBM 1-499
c.215 CAPUSSA ends.  King of western Numidia from 220.  LACUMAZES succeeds and ends.  Son of Gala, MASINISSA succeeds until 206. 215 rcNA
207 CDCC 561
c.215 T. Otacilius Crassus, commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum 217-11, raids Africa, captures 7 Punic ships. 215 CAH 8-66, OCD 763
c.214 HASDRUBAL son of Gisco and an army sent to Spain until 206. 214 DGRBM 2-355, 357, 3-742
c.214 SYPHAX king of eastern Numidia 215-03, rebels against Carthage until 212. 215 CAH 8     214 CAH 8
213 DGRBM 3-964     212 MCAW
c.214 55 ships under Bomilcar arrive at Syracuse to help against Romans, outnumbered by Roman fleet, return to Africa. 214 DGRBM 1-499
c.213 3 officers under centurion Q. STATORIUS, sent by Gn. Scipio from Spain to Numidia to make alliance with Syphax.  Syphax has only cavalry, so Statorius remains in Numidia to train infantry of Syphax in Roman tactics.  Syphax sends envoys to Spain to get approval of Scipios and to persuade the Numidians in the Punic army to defect to Rome. 213 DGRBM 3-903, 964, wikRCH
c.213 SYPHAX king of eastern Numidia 215-03, allies with Scipios against Carthage. 214 or 13 CAH 8-62
213 DGRBM 2-203, SORH, wikRCH
c.213 SYPHAX king of eastern Numidia 215-03, levies a regular army, stirs up Libyans against Carthage, and defeats Carthage in the field.  Carthage therefore recalls Hasdrubal from Spain, and allies with Gala, king of the Massylians. 213 DGRBM 3-964, HRRP 1-677, SORH
c.213 GALA king of western Numidia, allies with Carthage against Syphax until ?. 213 DGRBM 2-203, 967
c.213 MASINISSA son of Gala invades eastern Numidia, defeats Syphax, chases him into Mauretania, follows him and keeps on harassing. 213 DGRBM 2-967, 3-964, SORH
c.213 HASDRUBAL Barca, bro of Hannibal, in Spain from 229, returns to Africa to deal with Syphax rebellion. 213 DGRBM 2-355 212 MCAW
c.212 SYPHAX rebellion against Carthage from 214 ends.  Carthage makes peace. 212 CAH 8, OCD 1029     211 MCAW
c.212 T. Otacilius Crassus, commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum 217-11, raids African coast around Utica, captures many grain transports. 212 CAH 8-67, DGRBM 3-64
c.211 MASINISSA, Numidian chief, ally of Carthage, in Spain from 212, returns to Africa until 210. guess
c.210 Roman fleet under prefect Manius Valerius Messalla ravages coast of Utica, gathers booty and prisoners, returns 14 days later to Lilybaeum. 210 DGRBM 2-1050
c.210 MASINISSA, son of Gala king of western Numidia, goes to Carthage, hires out to Carthage until 206, gets reinforcements, returns to Spain. 210 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-967
c.210 SYPHAX king of eastern Numidia 215-03, sends embassy to Rome. 210 CAH 8-62, DGRBM 3-964
c.210 L. Genucius and P. Popillius are ambassadors to SYPHAX king of eastern Numidia. 210 DGRBM 2-245, 3-497
c.208 MASINISSA, king of western Numidia 215-06, working for Carthage in Spain from 210, meets P.(6) Scipio secretly, defects to Romans without openly proclaiming defection from Carthage. 208 LEWH 100, OCD 206, 653     206 CAH 8-63, CDCC 561, wikNm
c.208 Naval skirmish off Clupia fortress. 208 DGRG 1-242
c.207 GALA, king of the Massylii (Eastern Numidia) from 274, ends.  OZALCES succeeds until 206. 207 wikKNm
c.207 HANNO is sent with reinforcements from Carthage to replace Hasdrubal Barca in Spain. 208 DGRBM 2-346
207 CAH 8-60, DGRBM 2-903, SORH, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.207 Roman fleet ravages coast of Utica, destroys a Punic fleet. 207 HRRP 1-687
c.206 SYPHAX visited by C.(1) Laelius, envoy of P.(6) Scipio, soliciting support.  Syphax refuses to deal with anyone but Scipio in person.  Scipio sails to Africa. 206 CAH 8-62, DGRBM 3-875, 965 SORH
c.206 OZALCES, king of the Massylii (Eastern Numidia) from 207, ends.  CAPUSSA succeeds and ends.  LACUMAZES succeeds and ends.  MASINISSA succeeds until 202. 206 wikKNm
c.206 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO in Spain from 210, leaves M. Junius Silanus in charge of Spain, sails to Africa and is well received by Syphax.  He accidentally arrives at the same time as Hasdrubal son of Gisco.  Syphax pledges loyalty to Scipio, who then returns to Spain. 209 Dur 3-20
206 B76 16-396, DGRBM 3-819, GHH
no date: DGRBM 3-744
c.206 Hasdrubal son of Gisco, in Spain from 214, leaves Mago-II at Gadir, returns to Africa. 206 DGRBM 2-903
c.206 SYPHAX visited by Hasdrubal son of Gisco soliciting support.  Syphax marries Sophonisba, dau of Hasdrubal son of Gisco, becomes zealous supporter and ally of Carthage. 206 CAH 8-62, DGRBM 3-875, 964, wikNm
c.206 Punic fugitives from Spain arrive at Carthage. 206 GHH
c.206 Mago Barca and Hasdrubal son of Gisco, rulers of Carthage from ?, end. 206 hifiC, rcNA
c.206 Western Numidia, under the Massyli from?, while Masinissa is in Spain, occupied by Syphax. 206 CAH 8-63
c.206 MASINISSA, king of western Numidia from 215, in Spain from 210, ally of Rome from 208, returns to Africa too late to rescue his country. 206 B76 13-150, CAH 8-63, rcNA
c.205 C.(1) LAELIUS, sent by P.(6) Scipio, raids coast of Africa, plunders Hippo Regius on coast west of Carthage. 205 CAH 8-63, wikBU
c.205 MASINISSA, ally of Rome from 208, urges Laelius to persuade P.(6) Scipio to launch a major invasion of Africa as soon as possible. 205
CAH 8-63
c.205 CYRENAICA, under Ptolemies from 246, comes under PHILEMON until 204. 205 rcNA
c.204 Proconsul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO with 25-35,000 men, and quaestor M. Cato, sails from Italy to Lilybaeum, then lands at Fair Promontory (now Cape Farina) near Utica. 204 B76 8-627, 13-149, 15-280, 1093,
CAH 8-63, CDCC 796, 916, DGRBM 2-358, 968, early DGRBM 3-745, GHH, LEWH 100, OCD 962, OHG, SORH, wikBU     202 B76 16-397
c.204 MASINISSA immediately joins P.(6) Cornelius Scipio 204 DGRBM 3-745, SORH
c.204 Young officer HANNO sent with 500 cav by Hasdrubal son of Gisco to reconnoiter P.(6) Scipio.  They get too close and are wiped out near Salaeca. 204 DGRBM 2-346, wikBU
c.204 Proconsul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO besieges Utica.  Punic fleet never shows up to attack his exposed camp. 204 CAH 8-63, 66, GHH, fall wikBU
c.204 Hasdrubal son of Gisco is given 30,000 inf, 3,000 cav to deal with P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO 204 DGRBM 2-358, 3-745
Numbers above and below are now believed to have been exaggerated by Romans.
c.204 SYPHAX, king of eastern Numidia 215-03, with 50,000 inf, 3,000 cav, joins Hasdrubal son of Gisco. 204 DGRBM 2-358, 3-745
c.204 20 war ships under C.(1) Laelius convoys transports from Lilybaeum to Fair Promontory.  Laelius joins P.(6) Scipio 204 DGRBM 2-705
c.204 Consul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO, confronted with united forces of Carthage and Numidia, abandons siege of Utica, camps at CASTRA CORNELIA, a strong position on a peninsula on east coast of Carthaginian territory.  Hasdrubal son of Gisco and Syphax form 2 camps and watch Romans thru winter. 204 DGRBM 2-358, DGRG 1-562, SORH
c.204 MASINISSA, chief of Massyli Numidians, ally of Rome from 208, joins P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO. 204 B76 8-627, 13-150, OCD 204, 962
c.204 VERMINA son of Syphax, king of eastern Numidia, defeats Masinissa. 204 DGRBM 3-1241
c.204 MASINISSA, chief of Massyli Numidians, defeats cavalry under Hanno. 204
CAH 8-63
c.204 BOCCHAR, general under Syphax, is sent against Masinissa. 204 DGRBM 1-494
c.204 CARTHAGE, under Barcid generals from 246, comes under suffetes until 146. 204 ?
c.204 Gn. NAEVIUS, plebian X-soldier from Campania, dramatist in Rome from ?, having offended too many powerful men, moves to Utica Tunisia until death 201. 204 wikGN
c.204 CYRENAICA, under PHILEMON from 205, comes back under Ptolemies until 200. 204 rcNA
c.203 SOPATER, general of Philip-V, with 4,000 troops and some money, sails from Macedonia to Africa to assist the Carthaginians. 203 DGRBM 3-864
c.203 P.(6) SCIPIO & MASINISSA surprise and defeat Hasdrubal son of Gisco and Numidian ally Syphax at Bagbrades (aka Great Plains, Campi Magni).  Burns their camps. 204 GHH, OCD     203 B76 15-280, 16-397, CAH 8-63, DGRBM 3-745, 965, LEWH 100, SORH, bk, wikLRB
c.203 SOPHONISBA, wife of Syphax from 206, murdered by Masinissa. 203 GHH
c.203 Punic & allied Numidian camps simultaneously burnt.  Out of 90,000 men, Hasdrubal, Syphax, and a remnant escape, Hasdrubal to Carthage, Syphax to his own Numidians. 203 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-358, 3-745, 965
c.203 After Bagbrades, Hasdrubal and Syphax reunite, and are again defeated by P.(6) Scipio.  Syphax flees to Numidia.  Hasdrubal son of Gisco knows he will be killed if he flees to Carthage.  He gathers mercenaries from the survivors, and cooperates with Hanno son of Hamilcar. 203 DGRBM 2-358, 3-745
c.203 The king of eastern Numidia from 215, and main ally of Carthaginians, SYPHAX is captured by C.(1) Laelius & Masinissa, taken prisoner to Italy.  Son VERMINA succeeds until 201, continues loyal to Carthage. 203 B76 15-280, CAH 8-63, DGRBM 3-745, 965, 1241, GHH, OCD 1030, SORH     202 rcNA
c.203 Peace party at Carthage condemns Hasdrubal son of Gisco. 203 SORH
c.203 MASINISSA, former king of western Numidia 215-06, reinstated, does not die until 148. 203 CAH 8-63, DGRBM 2-968 203 wikKNm
c.203 CARTHAGE besieged by P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO  Rulers immolate 100 noble boys to placate god Moloch. 204 TTPC
c.203 CARTHAGE and P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO agree to 45 day truce, while Carthage sends envoys to Rome. 204 DGRBM 3-745
c.203 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO offers severe armistice terms:  Carthage is to abandon all claims to Italy, Gaul, Spain, and islands between Italy and Africa.  Carthaginian rights to expand in Africa are limited.  Massinissa gets both his own kingdom and parts of eastern Numidia.  Carthage must surrender prisoners and deserters, give up all but 20 ships, and pay indemnity.  Carthage accepts it. 204/3
B76 8-627 203
B76 16-397, CAH 8-63
c.203 Q. Fulvius Gillo and M. Sergius sent as envoys by P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO to Carthage. 203 DGRBM 2-268, 3-787
c.203 War party at Carthage recalls Hannibal and Mago, revokes the sentence against Hasdrubal, breaks off peace negotiations. 203 GHH, SHWC 108, SORH
c.203 MAGO-II dies.  Youngest bro of Hannibal, sails from Genoa for Africa, , dies enroute near Sardinia. 203 CAH 8, SORH, wikBr
c.203 HANNIBAL, in Italy from 218, returns to Africa, lands at Leptis, violates armistice terms, masses troops at Hadrumetum, tries to link up with Numidian allies. 203 B76 8-627, 13-149, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-339 202 B76 16-397
c.203 C.(1) Laelius transports Carthaginian prisoners to Rome, then returns to Africa. 203 DGRBM 2-705
c.203 VERMINA, king of eastern Numidia, ally of Carthaginians, joins Hannibal. no date: DGRBM 3-1241
203/2 HASDRUBAL son of Gisco delivers his troops to Hannibal, hides out in Carthage until his enemies find him, then suicides by poison. 202 B76 IV-938, no date: DGRBM 2-358
c.202 P.(6) SCIPIO and HANNIBAL meet in front of their armies.  Hannibal offers peace terms.  Scipio refuses. 202 CAH 8-64, MCAW
c.202 Counter-ELEPHANT tactics now employed by Romans:  Before battle scare them with trumpet blasts so they become hard to manage.  During battle clear ailes between troop units.  The elephants choose the easiest path, and don't trample anybody. 202 MCAW
c.202 C.(1) Laelius is quaestor to P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO. 202 DGRBM 2-705
c.202 Q. Minucius Thermus, serves under P.(6) Scipio as tribunus militum in the war against Hannibal in Africa. 202 DGRBM 3-1097
c.202 MASINISSA, king of western Numidia 203-148, with 6,000 inf, 4,000 cav, joins P.(6) Scipio. 202 DGRBM 2-968, HRRP 1-692
202 Oct. 19 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO, helped by MASINISSA completely defeats HANNIBAL at Naragra near ZAMA.  Most of Punic army is destroyed.  20,000 Punic troops to 5,000 Romans killed.   Hannibal flees the field to Hadrumentum, thence to Carthage, and tells them there is no hope. 202 B76 X-858, 13-149, 15-280, 1093, BCoC 507, CAH 8, CDCC 414, DGRBM 3-746, Dur 3-20, 53, GHH, HRRP 1-693, LdHR 1-417, LEWH 100, MWΦ 129, OHG, SHWC 108, SORH, TToH, bk, wikLRB
c.202 VERMINA, king of eastern Numidia, ally of Carthaginians, is absent from Zama, probably defending his own kingdom.  He arrives soon after the battle, but is attacked by Romans and defeated with 15,000 men slain, 1200 taken prisoner.  Vermina escapes with only a few horsemen.  He submits to Rome. no date: DGRBM 3-1241
c.202 SOPATER, general of Philip-V, and most of his troops, helping Carthaginians, captured at Zama by Romans. no date: DGRBM 3-864
c.202 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO dictates terms to Carthage:  Surrender all elephants, all but 10 warships, promise 200 silver talents annually for 50 years, no declaring war without Rome's permission, may retain African possessions as client kingdom.  Kingdom of Syphax goes to Massinissa, who is to be king of Numidia. 202 B76 15-1093, CAH 8-65, Dur 3-53, LEWH 100, MWΦ 129     201 BCoC 507, TTPC, bk
c.202 2nd PUNIC WAR 219-01 ends in Africa.  Final treaty is not made until 201. 202 B76 8-627, 15-1093, BI+N 131, DGRBM 3-746, Dur 3-20, LEWH 100, MWΦ 129, TTPC, hifiC 201 Dur 3-20, OCD 900, bk
c.202 M. Marcius Ralla, legate of P.(6) Cornelius Scipio, in Africa from 204, sent to Rome with Carthaginian ambassadors, who sue for peace. 202 DGRBM 3-640
c.202 MASINISSA chief of some Numidians, ally of Rome, receives kingdom of Syphax, becomes king of Greater Numidia until 148.  Kingdom lasts until 46. 202 CAH 8, LEWH 100, MWΦ 130, rcNA
c.202 The RIF, a 290km long mountain range in north Morocco, from 510 comes under Mauretania until 31. 202 B76 VI-160, rcNA, wikNm
c.202 LEPTIS MAGNA, city in Libya, under Carthage from 500, comes under Numidia until 111. 202 rcNA
c.201 Q. Terrentius CULLEO, former senator, prisoner of Carthage from ?, released to P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO 201
OCD 300
c. 201 2nd PUNIC WAR from 218, ends with Rome / Carthage  treaty :  permits Carthage only 10 triremes, puts Carthage in a vulnerable position by prescribing that Massinissa is entitled to any land or cities that had ever belonged to him or to his ancestors within boundaries to be assigned in the future.
Cession of all possessions in Spain and islands in Mediterranean.
Indemnity of 200 talents over 50 years.  Broken  151.  3rd war 149.
202 CAH 7.1, 8, CHJ 2, TTPC, wikHR
201 CAH 8-145, 149, DGRG 1-547, Dur 3-20, GHH, MCAW, OHG, SHWC 108, SORH, TToH, hifiC, lvG
c.201 CARTHAGE becomes a dependency of Rome. 201 IDB 4-104
c.201 PUNIC FLEET is delivered to Romans. 201 GHH
c.201 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO, in Africa from 204, returns to Rome. 201 DGRBM 3-746
c.201 VERMINA, king of eastern Numidia, sends envoys to Rome, asks forgiveness, and alliance. 200 DGRBM 3-1241
c.201 Roman envoys to VERMINA, king of eastern Numidia, grant peace, but give most of his land to Masinissa. 200 DGRBM 3-1241
c.201 VERMINA ends.  King of eastern Numidia from 203. 201 rcNA
c.201 CEUTA near Gibraltar, under Carthage from ?, comes under Mauretania until 40CE. 201 rcNA
c.201 TINGIS (later Tangier), port on Straits of Gibraltar, under Carthage from ?, comes under Mauretania until 40 CE. 201 rcNA
c.201 DJERBA island in Gulf of Gades on west coast of Spain, and KERKENAH islands, under Carthage from 510, come under Numidia until 146. 201 rcNA

North Africa 200-100