Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
ANATOLIA is now called ASIA (not Asia Minor) by Macedonians.  It is still called ANATOLIA here to avoid confusion with greater Asia.
c.275 CELTS in Anatolia are defeated by ANTIOCHUS-I with elephants.  They are settled into a buffer state: GALATIA, an independent kingdom until 25 BCE.  They will keep their tribal organization, language and culture well into the common era. 278 vrb     277 BNTH 273
276 OHG, bk     275 B76 I-423, IV-383, 1-824, IDB 2-336, LEWH 93, RAH 382, TToH, anan, lvA1, wikA1   275/4 B76 8-380     275 or 70 CAH 7.1-416     270 CAH 7.1
c.275 ANTIOCHUS-I, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61 is named SOTER (Savior) by the Anatolians. 275 B76 I-423, wikA1
c.275 ANTIOCHUS-I Soter, king of Syria/Babylonia 281-61 grants land in the Troad to Aristodicides of Assos. 275 CAH 7.1
c.275 ARATUS of Soli Cilicia, Greek didactic poet, flourishes, writes  Phaenomena , 1st half of which is a versification of a treatise on stars by Eudoxos of Knidos.  It describes constellations and other celestial phenomena.  The 2nd half is called Diosemeia ("Forecasts"), and is chiefly about weather lore.  Aratus is patronized by Antigonus-II Gonatas. 275 Dur 2-555 270 MCAW
250 CDCC 272
c.275 CRANTOR of Soli Cilicia, Platonic philosopher of Old Academy, pupil of Xenocrates, teacher of Arcesilaus, dies of dropsy in Cilicia.  Leaves property (including 12 talents) to Arcesilaus. 276/5 CHHΦ     275 EoΦ 3-383, OCD 294
270 B76 14-539
no date: B76 III-221
c.275/4 COINS struck by Philataeros, Seleucid gov of Pergamum 282-63, bearing his name, but Seleucus' picture.  Obverse has pic of Athena, patron goddess of Pergamum. 275/4
CAH 7.1-427
c.273/2 CILICIA, under SELEUCUS-I from 296/5, west is taken by PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus until 255SELEUCUS-I keeps east Cilicia until ?. 273/2 B76 I-423     272 TTPC 25
no date: LEWH 93, 96
c.272 CARIA, under Ptolemies from 296/5, comes under Seleucids until 189. 281 hifi     273/2 B76 I-423     272 rcT
c.272 LYCIA, under Ptolemies from 296/5, comes under Seleucids until 189. 272 rcT
c.272 Eastern PAMPHYLIA, under Ptolemies from 295, comes under Seleucids until 188. 272 rcT
c.266 SINOPE on Black Sea, independent republic 266-183, resists attack by Ariobarzanes-III of Pontus. 266 GHH
c.266 MITHRIDATES-II Ktistes dies.  King of Pontus from 302.  Son ARIOBARZANES-III succeeds until 250.  Kings stop making gold coins. 266 BHS 1-172, CAH 9-131,
DGRBM 1-286, GHH, OCD 695, anan     266/5 CAH 9-1023, frH, rcT
c.264 NICOMEDIA founded by Nicomedes-I king of Bithynia as his capital. 265 OCD 734     264 BHS 1-155, CAH 7.1-425, CDCC 613, DGRG 1-248     260 B76 8-381
c.263 EPHESUS, under Seleucids from 281, comes under Ptolemies until 260. 263 rcT, wikEΦ
262/1 CAH 7.1-418
c.263 CYZICUS under Seleucids from 301, comes under Pergamum until 133. 263 rcT
c.263 PHILATAEROS, gov of Pergamum from 301, under Seleucids from 282, defects to Ptolemy-. 263 B76 VII-939
c.263 PHILATAEROS, gov of Pergamum from 301, age 80, dies.  Adopted neph EUMENES-I, son of Attalus of Tius, succeeds until 262. 263 B76 I-634, III-993, VII-873, 939, 1-825, CAH 7.1-483, 8, CDCC 660, DGRBM 2-90, 3-266, IDB 3-733, LEWH 93, OCD 415, OHG, anan, frH, hifi, rcT, wikΦlt     263/2 BHS 1-157, TAG 314
c.263/2 EUMENES-I, gov of Pergamum from 263, under Antiochus-I, incited by Ptolemy-II, rebels, absorbs PITANE and ATARNEUS.  EUMENES-I becomes ruler of Pergamum until 241, but does not take title of king.  PERGAMUM, under Seleucids from 282, independent until 133. 263 lvA1     263/2 TAG 314
262 Dur 2-578, LEWH 96, bk
c.262 ANTIOCHUS-I Soter marches from Syria to Anatolia until death 261. 262 wikA1
c.262 EUMENES-I, ruler of Pergamum 262-41, attacked by ANTIOCHUS-I Soter, defeats A-I near Sardis. 263 GHH     262 GHH, OCD 415, frH, lvA1, wikA1
c.262 ARIARAMNES-II, king of Cappadocia 280-30, Seleucid vassal, makes son ARIARATHES-III co-king. 255 lvA
no date: OCD 107
c.262/1 PTOLEMAEOS son of Lysimachus & Arsinoe-II, in Egypt from ?, sent by P-II to Miletos Caria where tyrant Timarchus is in charge. 262/1 wikP1E
c.261 ANTIOCHUS-I Soter dies.  Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia from 281, age 64, killed fighting Celts in Galatia.  Son age 24, ANTIOCHUS-II succeeds until 247. 262 Dur 2-555     262/1 BHS 1-168, TAG 315     261 B76 I-423, 8-380, 11-989, CAH 7.1-212, 8, CDCC 803, DGRBM 1-196, DGRG 1-928, GHH, IDB 1-149, OHG, anan, bk, hifiSl, lvA1
c.261 MILETOS Caria, under PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus 279-257, attacked by Antigonus-II Gonatas. 261 CAH 7.1
c.260 2nd SYRO / EGYPT WAR 266-54/3, suspended from 261, resumed by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos until 254/3 to regain land lost by father.  Attacks Ptolemaic outposts in Anatolia.  Eumenes-I of Pergamum is allied with Ptolemy. 260 B76 15-182, CAH 7.1, CDCC 857, LEWH 93, 96, MCAW, OHG, lvA, lvPt2, lvSSW, wikSW
c.260 EPHESUS, under Ptolemies from 263, rebels, comes under Seleucids until 197. 260 bk
258 CAH 7.1
c.260 EUMENES-I, ruler of Pergamum 262-41, allies with Ptolemy-II Philadelphus against Antiochus-II. 260 lvPt2 259 lvSSW
c.260 SAMES-I, satrap of Commagene from 290, ends.  ARSAMES-I succeeds until 228. 260 frH, wikLrC
c.259/8 MILETOS Caria, under tyrant Timarchus from ? and Ptolemaeos son of Lysimachus from 262/1, rebels against Ptolemy-II until 258. 259/8 wikP1E
c.259/8 ANTIOCHUS-II, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 261-47, liberates Miletos from tyrant Timarchos, awarded the surname "Theos" by Meletians. 259/8 lvA, lvA2, lvSSW
c.258/7 MILETOS Caria, under PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus from 279, taken by Antigonus-II Gonatas. no date:
CAH 7.1, wikSW
c.258/7 PTOLEMAEOS son of Lysimachus & Arsinoe-II, in Miletos Caria from 262/1, given his own vassal kingdom by Ptolemy-II at Telmessos in Lycia until 240. late 258 wikP1E
c.257 ARIARATHES, son of Ariaramnes-II, king of Cappadocia 280-30, marries STRATONICE-III dau of Antiochus-I Soter. 257 lvA
c.256 CARIA, under PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus from ?, taken by Antigonus-II Gonatas. 256 GHH
c.255 ARIARAMNES-II, ruler of Cappadocia, Seleucid vassal, from 280, goes independent until 230, ARIARAMNES-II recognized as king.  Becomes ally of Seleucus-I. 255 CAH 7.1-426, OCD 203
c.255 ARIARAMNES-II, king of Cappadocia 280-30, independent 255, makes son ARIARATHES-III co-king. 255 bk, lvA     255-51 frH
c.255 IONIA from Miletos north, under Ptolemy-II Philadelphus from 273, recovered by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos until ?. 255 bk
no date: LEWH 93
c.255 Western CILICIA, under Ptolemy-II from 273/2, recovered by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos. 255 LEWH 93, 96, bk
c.255 Western PAMPHILIA, under Ptolemy-II from ?, recovered by ANTIOCHUS-II Theos. 255 LEWH 96
c.255 BITHYNIA, under king Nicomedes-I, 279-50, comes under control of his son ZIAELAS until 230. 255 CAH 7.1-425, wikLRB
c.255 STRATONICE-I, dau of D-I Poliorcetes, wid of Seleucus-I 299-81, mother of Antiochus-II, Stratonice-III, dies in Sardis. 255 lvSt1
c.254/3 2nd SYRO / EGYPT WAR from 266, resumed from 260, ends until 246.  ANTIOCHUS-II Theos, having regained most of Anatolian coastland, but not Pergamum, Caria, Lycia, south Syria, quits fighting.  Treaty 252. 255 LEWH 96, TAG 325
255-3 B76 8-380
253 B76 15-182, CAH 7.1, CDCC 857, MCAW, OCD 72, 896, OHG, lvA, lvA2, lvSSW, wikSW
c.253 Antigonus-II sails to Anatolia to bring home his son's bride Stratonice-II. Antigonus-II receives her from her mother, his sis Stratonike-I, whom he had probably not seen for 24 years. 253 TAG 349
c.251 ANTIOCHUS-II, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 261-47, threatens war on Byzantium, but dispute is settled without fighting. 251 atl3
c.250 ARIOBARZANES-III dies.  King of Pontus at Heraclea from 266.  Young son MITHRIDATES-III succeeds until 220. 255 anan, frH     250 BHS 1-194, CAH 9-131, 1023, OCD 695, rcT 240 DGRBM 2-1217, GHH
c.250 PARCHMENT made in Pergamum. 250 TToH
c.250 LAODICEA on the Lycus in Phrygia founded by Antiochus-II Theos and named for his wife over an older city called Rhodas. 250
IDB 3-70
c.250 NICOMEDES-I dies.  King of Bithynia from 279.  Leaves his kingdom to his current wife and infant sons, placing them under protection of Ptolemy and Antigonus of Byzantium, Heraclea, and Cius.  Son by a previous wife, Ziaelas (Zeilas, Zielas), who had been living in Armenia, appears with an army of Galatians.  ZIAELAS succeeds until 230.  Family feuds begin. 255 OCD 734, anan, rcT, wikLRB     250 B76 VII-332, BHS 1-173, CAH 7.1-425, 9, DGRBM 2-1196, 3-1310, IDB 1-443, bk     250-42 frH 246 GHH
c.250 ARTEMIDOROS Daldianus, professional diviner of Ephesus, flourishes.  Wrote  Oneirocritica  "Interpretation of Dreams". 250 CHHΦ, wikArt
c.249 Heraclitus of Halicarnassus, elegiac poet, flourishes. 249 GHH
c.248 DIONYSIUS of Heraclea (aka Metathemenos "the renegade"), prolific writer of Stoic school, old, ill, and in pain, suicides by starvation. 250 wikDR 248 OCD 351
c.246 ANTIOCHUS-II Theos dies.  Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia from 261 poisoned in Ephesus by 1st wife Laodice-I, who hides his death until she has her son Seleucus lined up to take charge.  SELEUCUS-II succeeds until 226.  S-II and his younger bro Antiochus Hierax live in Ephesus. 247 Dur 2-556, hifiSl
246 B76 I-423, 8-380, BHS 1-179, CAH 7.1-208, 212, 420, CAH 8, CDCC 803, DGRBM 1-194, 2-718, 196, 3-773, IDB 1-149, Jud 3-73, LEWH 93, MCAW, OCD 72, RAI2, RAI3, bk, frH, lvA2, lvTSW
From A-II's 2nd marriage, with Berenice Phernephorus, he has a son Antiochus (age 5); they live in Antioch.
c.246 CILICIA, under Seleucids organzed as a province. 246 BHS 1-235
c.246 SELEUCUS-II, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, counterattacks PTOLEMY-III Euergetes, leaving Antiochus HIERAX to become independent ruler in Anatolia. 246 CAH 7.1, OCD 72
c.246 Ptolemy III reaches Ephesus. 246 CAH 7.1
c.246/5 Ptolemy III marches from Ephesus to the Euphrates. 246 CAH 7.1
c.245 ANTIOCHUS HIERAX, independent ruler in Anatolia, allies with Celts. 245 GHH
c.245 Ptolemaic forces active on west and south coast of Anatolia until 241. 245 CAH 7.1
c.245 NYMPHIS of Heraclea Bithynia writes a history down to the accession of Ptolemy-III. 245 atl3     240 GHH
c.245 MITHRIDATES-III, king of Pontus 250-20, marries LAODICE, sis of Seleucus-II, receives Phrygia as dowry, becomes Seleucid ally. 245 lvTSW
c.245 SELEUCUS-II, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, crosses south over Taurus mountains, forces Ptolemaic army to retreat. 245 lvTSW 244 TAG 386
c.244 Ptolemy-III and Antigonus-II make peace.  Ptolemy keeps the southern limit of the Aegean, with a ring of posts at Methana, Thera, perhaps Astypalaia, and SamosPtolemy is free to do what he wants in the Seleucid sphere, or any sphere not claimed by Antigonus, i.e. along the coasts of Anatolia and Thrace. 244 TAG 387
c.242/1 ANTIOCHUS HIERAX is made co-ruler with Seleucus-II, controls lands west of Taurus Mountains. 242/1
CAH 7.1-428
c.241 EUMENES-I dies.  Ruler of Pergamum from 262, dies.  Adopted son, and natural son of a cousin of Eumenes, ATTALUS-I succeeds to 197. 241 B76 I-634, III-993, 1-825, CAH 7.1-428, 483, 8, CDCC 660, DGRG 1-928, GHH, IDB 3-733, LEWH 93, MCAW, OCD 144, 415, OHG 367, RAH 383, anan, bk, frH, hifi, rcT     241/0 BHS 1-196
c.241 ANTIOCHUS Hierax ruling part of Anatolia with mother LAODICE 246-?, sends army into Syria, supposedly to help Seleucus-II, but actually to sieze Syria. 242 CAH 7.1-208 241 B76 I-424
c.240 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, defeats Galatians. 241 CAH 7.1-92
240 IDB 2-337     238 OHG 367
c.240 PTOLEMAEOS son of Lysimachus & Arsinoe-II, in his own vassal kingdom under Ptolemies at Telmessos in Lycia from 258/7, dies. Feb. 240 wikP1E
c.240 LYCIA, under Ptolemies from 295, annexed to Egypt until 198. 240 hifi
c.240 ARATUS of Soli Cilicia, Greek didactic poet, dies. 240 B76 10-1093, wikArt
c. 240/39 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, tries to recover Anatolia.  defeated by bro, ANTIOCHUS HIERAX and Celt allies near ANCYRASeleucus retires to Cilicia.  War of the Brothers begins until 236.  Hierax is successful but loses his territories to Attalus-I of Pergamum. 240 lvS2
240/39 CAH 7.1-219, 423-4, 429
239 B76 I-424,
OCD 72
c.239 ANTIOCHUS HIERAX, ruling part of Anatolia with mother LAODICE from 246, takes royal title. 239
CAH 7.1
c.239/8 Seleucid princess Stratonice II, who had been queen of Macedonia (married to Demetrius-II) returns to SyriaSeleucus-II refuses to marry her; she attempts an insurrection but is killed. 239/8 lvS2
c.238 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria/Babylonia 246-26, defeats ANTIOCHUS Hierax near Ancyra. 238 bk
c.238 Galatians defeated. 238 frH
c.238 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, claims title of king. 241 B76 VII-873     238 wikA1     230 B76 I-634, OCD 144, brit
c.236 ANTIOCHUS Hierax ruling part of Anatolia with mother LAODICE 246-?, allied with Bithynia, Pontus, Galatia, defeats bro Seleucus-II at Ancyra.  War of the Brothers from 240/39 ends.  Seleucus-II acknowledges Hierax' claims in Anatolia. 237 B76 IX-41, CAH 7.1 236 B76 I-424, IX-747, DHA 91, LEWH 93
c.232 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, stops paying tribute to Celts of Galatia. pre-230 B76 I-634, OCD 144
c.230 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, attacked by Celts of Galatia, supported by Antiochus Hierax, defeats them, drives them back. 239 GHH     238 B76 8-380
pre-230 B76 I-634, OCD 144
230 Dur 2-578, LEWH 93, MCAW, anan, hifi
c.230 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, given the title SOTER (savior). 230 B76 I-634, OCD 144
c.230 ZIAELAS dies.  King of Bithynia from 250, killed by Galatians.  Son PRUSIAS-I succeeds until 182. 230 CAH 7.1-425, 9, OCD 734, bk     228 anan, rcT     230-27 frH
228 DGRBM 3-1310, GHH, wikLRB
c.230 ATTALUS-I, king of Pergamum 230-197, wars with Antiochus Hierax until 228 for helping Galatians. 236 B76 I-424 230 OCD 72
c.230 ARIARAMNES-II ends.  King of Cappadocia from 280, with son Ariarathes-III from 255.  ARIARATHES-III sole rule until 220. 255 lvA     250 frH, rcT     248 GHH     230 awCap, grft
c.230 Dying GaulDying Gaul, Roman copy (1st cen. BCE) of an Ionic Greek statue commemorating victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia.  Neither sculptor is known. 230 wikAn

photo antmoose
c.229/8 ANTIOCHUS Hierax, independent ruler in Anatolia 246-28, attacks Attalus-I of Pergamum.  There are 4 battles, 2 in Lydia, 1 in Caria, 1 by Lake Coloe. 229/8 BHS 1-202
c.228 GALATIA:  12 Tetrarchies period begins until 183. 228 frH
c.228 ANTIOCHUS Hierax, independent ruler in Anatolia 246-28, defeated by Attalus-I of Pergamum at Lake Coloe and Harpasus river. 228 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-410
c.228 ANTIOCHUS Hierax, independent ruler in Anatolia from 246, expelled by Attalus-I of Pergamum.  Goes to Syria, tries to raise rebellion against Seleucus-II. 228 LEWH 93, OCD 72
c.228 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, gets control of all Seleucid land in Anatolia, except Cilicia until 223. 228 B76 I-634, 1-825, DGRBM 1-410, OCD 144
c.228 ARSAMES-I, satrap of Commagene from 260, ends.  XERXES of Armenia succeeds until 201. 228 frH, wikLrC
c.227 Nicophanes and Cercidas of Megalopolis, go as envoys to Antigonus-III Doson get help from Macedonia. 227
CAH 7.1-461
c.227 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21 invades CARIA, gains lands there and in Aegean, and makes alliances in Crete.  In Ionia until 227/6. 227 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1-429, CDCC 674, OCD 70
c.227/6 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21 makes treaties with Eleutherna and Hierapytna. 227-25
CAH 7.1
c.227/6 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, in Ionia from 227, returns to Macedonia. 227-25
CAH 7.1
c.226 1st son of Antiochus-II, SELEUCUS-II Callinicus dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 246 dies of a fall from his horse.  Son by Laodice-II, SELEUCUS-III Soter succeeds until 223. 227/6 BHS 1-203     226 Dur 2-556, IDB 4-267, LEWH 93, RAI2, RAI3, anan, bk, hifiSl     226/5 CAH 7.1-429, CAH 8, CDCC 803     225 B76 8-380, lvS2, wikP
c.226 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, becomes master of Anatolia west of Taurus Mts. until 223. 226 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-410
c.225 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 230-182, is among those sending earthquake relief to Rhodes. 217 DGRBM 3-559
c.224 SELEUCUS-III marches from Syria to Anatolia to fight Attalus-I of Pergamum. 226 GHH
224 guess
c.224 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, wars with SELEUCUS-III until Seleucus dies 223, and his successor until 221. 224
c.223 Son of Seleucus-II, SELEUCUS-III dies.  King of Syria/Babylonia from 226 poisoned in a conspiracy in Phrygia by members of his army.  Bro age 15 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas succeeds until 187.  Carian HERMEIAS is civil and financial administrator and main power behind throne until 220. 223 B76 1-825, 993, 8-380,
BHS 1-205, CAH 7.1-434, 8, CDCC 803, DGRBM 2-410, DHA 91, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-149, 4-267, Jud 3-73, OCD 72, OHG, RAH 383, bk, hifiSl, wikP     222 CDCC 53, RAI3, lvS3
c.223 ACHAEUS son of Andromachus, Syrian general under Antiochus-III, appointed to command all Anatolia west of Mt. Taurus. 223 DGRBM 1-8
c.223 ACHAEUS begins to recover Anatolian lands lost in 228 to Attalus-I, of Pergamum. 223 B76 1-825,
CAH 7.1, OCD 4, lvA
c.223 SARDIS restored to order by Syrian general Achaeus, who resides there. 223 lvA
c.223/2 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, despite Ptolemaic help, is deiven back to Pergamum by Syrian general Achaeus. 223/2 CAH 7.1-431, 434
c.222 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, marries cousin LAODICE-III, dau of Mithidates-II of Pontus. 222 DGRBM 2-719, 1095, GHH, lvA3, lv4SW, wikA3, wikLd3
c.222 ACHAEUS, Syrian general under Antiochus-III, has recovered most Anatolian lands lost in 228 to Attalus-I, of Pergamum, starts to act independently. 222
c.221 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, war with Seleucids from 224 ends.  Attalus-I is restricted to his original borders. 221 LEWH 93, DGRBM 1-410 by 220 B76 1-825
c.221 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, marches east against rebels in Media and Persis. 221 CAH 7.1-434, wikA3
c.220 Son of Ariarmnes, ARIARATHES-III dies.  King of Cappadocia from 255, sole rule from 230.  Child son ARIARATHES-IV Eusebes succeeds until 163. 220 CAH 9-1023, GHH, OCD 107, awCap, frH, lvA, rcT
c.220 RHODES, aided by Prusias-I of Bithynia, declares war on BYZANTIUM to keep straits open.  Byzantium has been extracting tolls on all ships going thru straits.  Attalus of Pergamum sides with Byzantium.  Byzantines try to set up Tiboetes, uncle of Prusias, as rival for Bithynian throne.  Prusias seizes Byzantine Anatolian possessions, while Thracians press Byzantium from EuropeBYZANTIUM vs. RHODES + BITHYNIA War lasts until 219. 220
B76 8-381, CAH 7.1-431, DGRBM 3-559, GHH, OCD 893, lvA 219 RAH 383
c.220 MITHRIDATES-III, king of Pontus 250-20, makes war on Sinope. 220 DGRBM 2-1095, GHH
c.220 ZIPOETES, uncle of Prusias-I, king of Bithynia, living in Macedonia, is sent for by the Byzantines to set him up as competitor for the throne of Bithynia, but he dies enroute from Macedonia. 220 DGRBM 3-1124
c.220 SINOPE on Black Sea, independent republic 280-183, resists attempt by MITHRIDATES-III to take it. 220
CAH 8-328
c.220 Son of Ariobarzanes, MITHRIDATES-III dies.  king of Pontus from 250.  Son MITHRIDATES-IV? succeeds until 185. 220 OCD 696, anan, frH, rcT
c.220 ACHAEUS, Syrian general under Antiochus-III from 223 in Anatolia, declares independence.  A mutiny in his army ensues. 220 B76 1-993, CAH 7.1-431, GHH, OCD 4, wikA3
c.220 ACHAEUS proclaimed king in Laodicea Phrygia, rules until 213.  Has rapprochement with AttalusAchaeus makes no attempt to take advantage of Antiochus' war with Egypt to attack Syria. 220 CAH 7.1-431, fall 7.1, 8-248

APOLLONIOS of PERGA (capital of Pamphilia), mathematician, flourishes.

METAPHYSICS:  Writes  On the Burning Mirror  on optics.  Shows that parallel light rays striking a mirror would not be reflected to the center of sphericity.

GEOMETRY:  Writes  Conics , 4 vols, contain systematic princilpes based on Euclid, Aristaeus, Menaechmus.  Coins terms: elipse, parabola, hyperbola.
Writes  Cutting Off of a Ratio, or On Proportional Section .
Writes  Tangencies , Given 3 things, each of which may be a point, straight line, or circle, construct a tangent to each.

ASTRONOMY:  Endorses Λ GEOCENTRIC THEORY V.  Explains motion of sun, moon & planets around earth in terms of eccentric epicyclic motion. i.e. Orbits of planets revolving around Earth have vertexes which also revolve around Earth.

Improves the SUNDIAL by using a surface of conic section on which hour lines are inscribed.
B76 4-743
236 CAH 7.1
235 OHG
Dur 2-556
no date:
B76 I-448, 8-941,
OCD 84-5, wikAP
c.219 BYZANTIUM vs. RHODES + BITHYNIAN WAR from 220 ends. 219 DGRBM 1-656
c.218 PRUSIAS-I, king of Bithynia 230-182, defeats Galatian invaders.  Nearly all their women and children are massacred. 218 OCD 893     216 DGRBM 3-559, DGRG 1-928, GHH
c.218 Selga Pisidia besieges Pednelissos, which appeals to Achaeus. 218 BHS 2-3
c.218 Selgans besieging Pednelissos Pisidia repelled by Garsyeris, general under Achaeus, driven back to Selga, and besieged. 218 BHS 2-3, DGRBM 2-796
c.218 A Selgian ambassador to Garsyeris secretly offers to betray Selga to him.  Garsyeris informs Achaeus.  Achaeus arrives, and tries to seize Selga by a sudden attack, which fails, but convinces Selgians to make peace.  Selga pays a fine and releases their Pednelissian prisoners. 218 BHS 2-3
c.218 Achaeus now terrorizes the mountain region between Lycia and Cilicia, establishes authority over Milyas and the greater part of Pamphylia. 218
BHS 2-4
c.218 While Achaeus is busy in Pisidia, ATTALUS-I of Pergamum hires Celt mercenaries and regains lost territory, siezes Greek cities of north Ionia, Aeolis and Troas and Mysia to the Macestos river. 218 BHS 2-4, CAH 7.1-431, 440, DGRBM 1-410
c.218 Cyme, Smyrna and Phocaea are first to join Attalus-I of Pergamum.  Agae and Temnos in Aeolia submit.  Teos and Colophon send envoys.  Attalus promenades thru the kingdom of Achaeus, taking the fortress of Didyma-Teiche.  Attalus camps on afternoon of Sept. 1, near Megistus river. 218 BHS 2-4
c.218 ATTALUS-I of Pergamum forced by Celt mercenaries return to Pergamum. 218 BHS 2-4
Sep. 1
LUNAR ECLIPSE frightens Attalus' Celt mercenaries, who clamor to return to Europe. 218 Sep. 1 BHS 2-4
c.217 ARIARATHES-IV, king of Cappadocia 255-163, begins war with TIRIDATES-I, chief of the Parni 248-11. 217 GHH
c.216 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187 crosses Taurus Mts. into Anatolia, in Anatolia until 213. 216 BHS 2-5, CAH 7.1-440, wikA3
c.216 ATTALUS-I ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, and ANTIOCHUS-III Megas ally against Syrian rebel ACHAEUS in Anatolia until 213. 216 BHS 2-5, CAH 8-248, CHJ 2-68, DGRBM 1-410, GHH, lvA3
c.216 ALEXANDRIA TROAS sends 4,000 men against a Galatian horde. 216 BHS 1-160
c.215 ACHAEUS, Syrian general in Anatolia, is cornered by Antiochus-III Megas and driven back to Sardis. 216 GHH     215 BHS 2-5, CAH 7.1-440
c.215 SARDIS besieged by Antiochus-III Megas. 215 DGRBM 2-712, GHH
214 BHS 2-5
c.215 LAGORAS, Cretan mercenary working for Antiochus-III Megas, points out an unguarded part of the wall of Sardis. 215 DGRBM 2-712
c.215 THEODOTOS, general under Antiochus-III, supports the project of Lagoras to scale the walls of Sardis, the success of which seems to have been due to his ability. 215 DGRBM 3-1073
c.215 SARDIS, taken by Antiochus-III Megas, lower city burnt.  Achaeus holds out in the citadel until 213. 216 IDB 4-222, lvA3 215 CAH 8, GHH 214 bk, wikA3
c.214 ATTALUS-I of ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, allies with Rome against Macedonia until 205. 214 frH
c.213 BOLIS, a Cretan agent of Sosibus, is given much money to help Achaeus escape from Sardis.  Bolis conspires with Cambylos, commander of Cretan mercenaries, and tells Antiochus-III of the plan. 213 DGRBM 1-588
c.213 ACHAEUS dies.  Besieged at Sardis by Antiochus-III from 215, betrayed by Bolis, captured, and delivered to Antiochus-III, tortured, executed.  Bolis and Cambylos are doubly rewarded.  Achaeus' widow Laodice holds out in the citadel, then surrenders. 214 B76 I-56, DGRBM 1-8, 196, 2-719, 1013, GHH, wikA3 213 B76 1-993, BHS 2-13, CAH 7.1-440, 8-248, DGRBM 1-588, OCD 4, lvA
c.213 SARDIS CITADEL, taken by Antiochus-III Megas. 213 BHS 2-13, wikA3
c.213 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas, in Anatolia from 216, returns to Syria. 213 guess
c.212 MILETOS makes mutual aid treaty with Tralles. 212 lvA
c.212/1 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 negotiates military alliance with ATTALUS-I of Pergamum against IllyriaAetolians get land, Romans get most of loot. 212 LEWH 92
212/1 OCD 576
211 DGRBM 1-410, atl3
c.210 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, buys Aegina Island from Aetolians for 30 talents, supports Aetolian League with fleet & troops against Philip-V king of Macedonia until 207. 210
CAH 8-102, OCD 144
c.210 2,000 Jewish cleruchs and their families from Babylonia deported to Phrygia by Antiochus-III to pacify it. 210 CHJ 2-189
c.209 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, allies with Rome against Philip-V king of Macedonia. 230 anan
209 DGRBM 1-410, OHG     208 GHH
c.209 MILETOS makes mutual aid treaty with Mylasa Caria. 209 lvA
c.209/8 SULPICIUS GALBA and ATTALUS of Pergamum both winter on Aegina island. 209/8 DGRBM 2-204 208/7 DGRBM 1-410
c.208 Prusias-I of Bithynia invades Pergamum. 208 GHH
c.208 ATTALUS returns from Euboea to Anatolia, specifically Pergamum, to meet attack of Prusias-I of Bithynia. 209 CAH 8     209/8 B76 8-384 207 DGRBM 1-410, 3-559
c.208 Parts of Phrygia and Mysia, under Attalus of Pergamum, are taken by PRUSIAS-I of Bithynia. 208 OCD 893
c.208 ZENO of Tarsus, philosopher, flourishes. 208 Dur 2-556 206 GHH
c.205 Servius Sulpicius GALBA, M. Valerius Falto, Cn. Tremellius Flaccus, M. Valerius Laevinus, and M. Caecilius Metellus are sent from Rome to Delphi, thence to Ionia to get support from Attalos of Pergamum for a war with Philip-V. 205 DGRBM 2-135, 205, 711, 1057, 3-1171
c.205 MAGNA MATER (Cybele), fertility goddess of Anatolia, represented by a black meteorite at Phrygian Pessinus, taken to Rome by M. V. Laevinus, assisted by Attalus of Pergamum.  An entourage of eunuch priests accompanies. 205 DGRBM 1-410, OCD 576
204 bk
c.205 LYCIAN LEAGUE fist comes together, but not formally established until 168. 205 wikLc
c.204/3 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, marches from Syria to recover western Anatolia, which had since the death of Lysimachus (281) been largely controlled by Seleucids.  This affects Rhodes and Egypt, which possessed territory in Anatolia, and Attalus of Pergamum, whose kingdom had been created at the expense of the Seleucids. 204 or 3 CAH 8-244
c.203 TEOS on Ionian coast, under Pergamum from ?, taken by Antiochus-III Megas until 201. 204 OHG
203 CAH 8-250, 279
c.203 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, interferes in Ptolomaic Caria. 203
B76 8-383-4
c.203 AMYZON, an inland Ptolemaic possession in Caria, taken by ANTIOCHUS-III Megas. 203 B76 8-383-4, spring CAH 8-250
c.203 ALABANDA east of Amyzon Caria, since the time of Antiochus-II known as "Antioch of the Chrysaoreans", taken by ANTIOCHUS-III Megas. 203 spring CAH 8-250
c.202 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, begins operations in Aegean, takes free cities in straits and Thrace to control straits and prepare for Egyptian offensiveCities taken in Thrace: Lysimacheia, Perinthos; in Anatolia: Chalcedon, Cius, Myrleia. 202 B76 8-384, CAH 8-151, 252
no date: LEWH 92
c.202 CIUS & neighboring MYRLEA, on Sea of Marmara, under Pergamum from ?, taken and destroyed by Philip-V king of Macedonia, and given to Bithynia.  Myrleia becomes APAMEA Myrleia. 202 BHS 2-32, CAH 8-252, 261, OCD 893
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are several APAMEAs:  in Phrygia:  in Lydia:  on the Euphrates:  on the Orontes:  Apamea Myriea in Bithynia.
c.202 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 and ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, now in Caria, secretly renew their 205/4 treaty against Ptolemaic Egypt, divide Ptolemaic coastal possessions between them, neither intending to keep his word. 203 LEWH 92 202 CAH 8-151, CHJ 2-71, OCD 72
c.202 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, in Anatolia from 204/3, returns to Syria. 202 guess
c.202 Festival of Artemis Leucophryene at Magnesia established. 202 CAH 7.1-314
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 MAGNESIAs:  a region in Thessaly, and 2 cities in Lydia:  on the Meander near the coast, and ad Sipylum northeast of Sardis.
c.202 RHODES, frightened by fall of Samos and expulsion of Ptolemaic garrisons, allies with former rival Attalus of Pergamum. 202 CAH 8-152, OCD 144     201 BHS 2-32, DGRBM 3-283
c.202 RHODES declares war on Philip-V king of Macedonia, allies with Byzantium, Cyzicus, Chios, Cos. 202 CAH 8-152, DGRBM
c.201 TEOS Ionia, under Antiochus-III from 203, taken by Philip-V king of Macedonia. 201
CAH 8-155
c.201 ATTALUS of Pergamum and the RHODIANS ally against Philip-V. 201 GHH
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, defeats Rhodian fleet at LADE island near Miletos, drives them south, fails to pursue, turns and lands at Miletos, occupies it, hurries toward Pergamum, fails to capture, but destroys temples outside the walls. 201 B76 8-384, CAH 8-154, 253, DGRBM 1-410, GHH, SORH
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, marches inland thru Pergamene territory to Thyatira, the plain of Thebe on the Gulf of Adramyttium, and to Hiera Come. 201
CAH 8-253
c.201 ZEUXIS, Seleucid satrap of Lydia, gives Philip-V lukewarm support. 201
BHS 2-32
c.201 ATTALUS of Pergamum and the RHODIANS ask Rome for help against Philip-V king of Macedonia, tell of his plans to divide Egyptian possessions with Antiochus-III Megas. 201 B76 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-158, 257, GHH, LEWH 92, SHWC 109
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, withdraws from Pergamum, rejoins fleet, invades southern Caria, fails to take Knidos, takes Perea & Panamara. 201 B76 8-384, CAH 8-154-5, 461, howW2M
c.201 CARIA:  Embasies from Attalos and Rhodes go to Rome to complain against Philip-V. 201 fall
CAH 8-254
c.201 COMMAGENE, under satrap Xerxes of Armenia from 228, becomes Seleucid satrapy until 163, Son of king Orontes-IV of Armenia, PTOLEMAEUS becomes satrap until 163. 201 frH, wikKC, wikLrC
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, in Caria, bypasses Ptolemaic cities, takes Iasos & Bargylia on coast of Caria.  Fleets of Rhodes and Pergamum now blockade Philip in the gulf until 200. 201 BHS 2-33, CAH 8-155, 253, howW2M
c.201 CARIA:  Myus, Prinassus, Euromus, Pedasa, and possibly Stratonicea have fallen to Philip-V by autumn. 201 BHS 2-33, CAH 8-253
c.201 EUROMUS Caria renamed PHILIPPI. 201 CAH 8-254
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, blockaded in Gulf of Bargylia on coast of Caria by ATTALOS of Pergamum and Rhodians, winters in Caria. 201 CAH 8-155, 257 201/0 DGRBM, wikBrg

Anatolia 200-101