Greece
c.220 TIBOETES, uncle of Prusias I, king of Bithynia, living in Macedonia, is sent for by the Byzantines to set him up as competitor for the throne of Bithynia, but he dies enroute from Macedonia. 220 DGRBM 3-1124
c.220 EUPHORION of Chalcis, student of Lacydes and Prytanis, poet, gramarian, flourishes mostly in Athens, but is now invited by ANTIOCHUS-III Megas to the court of Syria. 221 GHH, wikEC
220 CAH 7.1
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos expels Illyrian opponents from Dimale Illyria, fortifies and garrisons Dimale against possible Roman attack, leaves to defend Pharos. 220 wikDΦ
219 CAH 8-92, wikDml
c.220 PharosDEMETRIUS of Pharos stations 6,000 troops on Pharos island. 220 wikDΦ
c.220 History of Aratos ends here.  History of Polybius (40 books) begins until 146. 220 DGRBM 3-445, GHH
c.220 AMYNAS (Amynander) becomes king of Athamania until 178. 220 wikAθm
c.220 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, at Corinth. 220 CAH 7.1
c.220 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, at Tegea, receives assurance of fidelity from Spartan rep Omias. 220 DGRBM 3-26
c.220 Petraeos, envoy of Philip-V sent to Sparta to receive assurance of submission, and confirm alliance. 220 DGRBM 3-213
c.220 AEGEIRA Achaea is surprised by a party of Aetolians, who had sailed from Oeantheia in Ozolian Locris.  They are driven out by the Aegiratans. 220 DGRG 1-32
c.220 CYNAETHA, northernmost town of Arcadia, taken and sacked by Aetolians helped by Illyrian chief Scerdilaidas.  Aetolian Euripidas is made governor until ?. 220 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 2-103, atl3
c.220 Achaean assembly declares war on Aetolians. 220 CAH 7.1, atl3
c.220 Aetolians DORIMACHOS and SCOPAS, based in Phigalea on the Arcadia/Messenia border, invade the Peloponnese. 220 DGRBM 1-1067
220 May TIMOXENOS strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 221 declines to act against Aetolians.  ARATOS resumes (13th time) and takes office 5 days early until May 219. 220
CAH 7.1-474, atl3
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos island and Illyrian commander Scerdilaidas sail Adriatic south of Lissos Illyria with 90 small ships in violation of treaty.  This begins 2nd ROME / ILLYRIA WAR until 219. 220
CAH 7.1, 8-91, wikDΦ, wikIW
219 GHH, SORH
c.220 Taurion, Macedonian general over Peloponnese, co-operates with Aratos against the inroads of the Aetolians. 220 DGRBM 3-984
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos island and Illyrian commander Scerdilaidas join in a predatory expedition against the Achaeans, and conclude a  treaty  with Aetolians against Achaeans. 220 DGRBM 3-739
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos island and Illyrian commander Scerdilaidas assault Pylos in Messenia, fail, separate their forces.  Demetrius sails with 50 ships round the Peloponnese and plunders the CycladesScerdilaidas with 40 ships returns north. 220
CAH 8-92, wikDΦ, wikIW
c.220 Illyrian commander SCERDILAIDAS docks at Naupactos with 40 ships, encouraged by bro-in-law Amynas, king of the Athamanes, to join the Aetolians in their planned invasion of Achaea. 220 wikDΦ
c.220 BYZANTIUM imposes tolls on shipping passing thru Bosporus. 220 atl3
c.220 BYZANTIUM vs. RHODES + BITHYNIA War begins until 219. 220 OCD 893
c.220 SPARTA, in Hellenic League from 222, defects to Aetolian League, tries to recall Cleomenes-III from Egypt. no date: LEWH 92
c.220 ADEIMANTOS, a pro-Macedonian Spartan ephor, is murdered. 220 atl3
c.220 Aetolian League led by DORIMACHOS and SCOPAS invade Messenia, ravage territories. 220 DGRBM 3-753
c.220 ARATOS and Achaeans come to aid of Messenia. 220 DGRBM 3-753
c.220 THRASYPHON becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 219. 220 wikEA
c.220 2nd Achaean LEAGUE under Aratos of Sicyon, allied with Macedonian general Taurion, tries to expel Aetolian League from Peloponnese.  Aratos orders an attack on the better positioned Aetolians led by DORIMACHOS and SCOPAS at Caphyae Arcadia.  Aratos is defeated.  2,000 Achaean soldiers flee the field. 220 CAH 7.1-474, DGRBM 1-1067, 3-753, 984, DGRG 1-505, atl3, wikAS, wikSA
c.220 Aetolian army led by DORIMACHOS and SCOPAS leaves Peloponnese. 220 atl3
c.220 Achaean assembly sends out ambassadors to seek aid from allies, including Philip-V of Macedonia. 220 atl3
c.220 ARISTON, strategos of Aetolian League from ?, ends.  Kinsman SCOPAS elected until 219. 220 DGRBM 3-753, atl3, wikSA
c.220 HELLENIC LEAGUE, on orders of Philip-V, meets at Corinth, declares war on Aetolian League because of their piracy and defeat of Aratos and Achaeans at Caphyae Arcadia. 220 CAH 8-94, DGRBM 3-753, OCD 997, atl3
no date LEWH 92
c.220 Aetolian MACHATAS is envoy to Sparta to get Spartans to join Aetolians against Philip-V and Achaeans.  Sparta, now a republic with its king in Egypt, declines. 220
DGRBM 2-885
c.220 SOCIAL WAR begins until 217.  Aetolian League + Sparta + Elis vs. 2nd Achaean League + Macedon. 220 CAH 7.1, CDCC 829, DGRBM, Dur 2-561, GHH, MCAW, atl3
c.220 DYME on coast of Achaea taken by Eleans under Aetolian Euripides until 219. 220 DGRG 1-795 219 DGRBM 2-103
c.220 AETOLIAN LEAGUE receives funds from ATTALUS-I of Pergamum for help against Philip-V. 220
OCD 144
c.220/19 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, allies with Illyrian chief Scerdilaidas. 220 DGRBM 3-739, atl3 220/19 CAH 7.1
c.219 Consuls L. AEMILIUS PAULUS and M. Livius SALINATOR are sent to the Adriatic and Illyria.  Romans 2nd intervention in Balkans. 220 MCAW     219 B76 V-304, CAH 8-35, 93, CDCC 829, DGRBM 1-965, 3-153, 694
c.219 Roman consul L. Aemilius Paulus prepares to besiege Dimale Illyria but is able, with local help, to take it by assault within 7 days, then goes to Pharos island.  All Illyrian towns in the area submit to Roman protection. 219 wikDΦ, wikDml
c.219 DEMETRIUS of Pharos, chieftain of Illyria, defeated on Pharos island by consul Aemilius Paulus, flees to court of Philip-V, advocates anti-Roman policy. 219 B76 III-457, 8-383-4,
mid CAH 7.1-478, 7.2, 8-32, DGRBM 1-965, 3-370, GHH, HRR, OCD 325, 928, SORH, bk, wikLRI     218 wikDΦ
c.219 PharosPHAROS Island comes under Rome. 219 Jun
CAH 8-36, DGRBM 1-965
c.219 ILLYRIA becomes protectorate of Rome until 395CE.  PINNES is confirmed as king of Illyria at Scodra.  Tribute is imposed. 219 B76 8-383-4, CAH 7-848, 8-32, DGRBM 3-370, HRRP 1-509, OCD 928, rcWB
c.219 BYLAZORA, capital of Paeonia, under Macedonians from 231, taken by Longaros king of Dardania until 217. 219 wikLng
c.219 DYRRHACHIUM (formerly Epidamnus) on coast of Illyria, comes under Rome until 395CE. 219 rcWB
c.219 BYZANTIUM vs. RHODES + BITHYNIA War from 220 ends. 219 DGRG 1-658
c.219 2nd ROME / ILLYRIA WAR from 220 ends. 219 atl3, wikIW
c.219 PIERIA province of south Macedonia invaded without opposition and ravaged by Aetolian League under Scopas, thus leaving Aetolia vulnerable to attack by Philip-V. 219 CAH 7.1, spring
DGRBM 3-753 spring wikSA
c.219 Temple of Zeus at Dodona Epirus burnt by general Dorimachos of Aetolian League, sacred oaks cut down.  But the oracle continues to exist and be consulted until 3rd cent. CE. 219 CDGRA 451, DGRA 840, wikDd
Λ   suspicious similarity   V
c.219 DIUM (Dion) in Pieria province sacked and destroyed by Aetolian League under Scopas.  Temple of Zeus burnt.  Dium is immediately rebuilt by Philip-V 219 DGRBM 3-753, GHH, atl3, wikDP, spring wikSA
c.219 THRASYPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 220, ends.  MENECRATES succeeds until 218. 219 wikEA
c.219 Aetolian Euripidas, with army of Elea, ravages land of Dyme, Pharai, Tritaia. 219 DGRBM 2-103
c.219 Aetolian Euripidas, with army of Elea, defeats Miccos, lieutenant of Achaean League. 219 DGRBM 2-103
c.219 SCOPAS, strategos of Aetolian League from 220, ends.  DORIMACHOS elected until 218. 219 DGRBM 3-753, GHH
c.219 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 with 5,700 troops, invades Aetolia. 219 DGRBM HRRP 2-19
c.219 ELAEOS Aetolia, under Calydon from ?, taken by Philip-V. 219 DGRG 1-810
c.219 News of CLEOMENES-III death in Alexandria arrives at Sparta.
SPARTA, republic from 221, returns to dual monarchy.  Grandson of Cleombrotos-II, AGESIPOLIS-III becomes last Agiad king of Sparta (a puppet) until 215.  The claim of Eurypontid Chilon is ignored.  Lycurgos, a rich man with no royal blood, buys off the ephors, and is chosen Eurypontid king LYCURGOS until 210.
220
DGRBM 2-857, GHH
219 CAH 7.1-476, MRDK, OCD 1007-8, atl3, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.219 CHILON, a passed over Eurypontid, attempts a coup, promises to divide property with the poor, gathers only 200 followers.  They surprise the ephors at supper and murder them, then attack house of Lycurgos, who escapes to Pellene.  Chilon flees to Achaea. 220
DGRBM 1-691, atl3
219 CAH 7.1-476 218 atl3
c.219 Aetolian MACHATAS is again envoy to Sparta to get Spartans to join Aetolians against Philip-V and Achaeans.  This time Sparta agrees. 219 DGRBM 2-885
c.219 Sparta allies with Aetolia against Philip-V and Achaeans, declares war on 2nd Achaean League. 220/19 CAH 7.1
219 DGRBM 2-885 219 atl3
219 May ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 220, ends.  His son ARATOS-II succeeds until May 218. 219 GHH, atl3
c.219 LYCURGOS Eurypontid king of Sparta 219-10, attacks the Argolid and seizes the Athenaeum near Belbina. 219 spring CAH 7.1
219 3 cities withdraw from 2nd Achaean League. 219 HRRP 2-19
c.219 AEGERIA Achaea taken by Aetolians led by DORIMACHOS and others, who are soon expelled. 220 DGRBM 1-111     219 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-1067, atl3
c.219 EpirusDODONA in Epirus raided by Dorimachos strategos of Aetolian League.  Shrine of Zeus sacked and destroyed.  It never recovers. 219 CAH 7.1,
fall DGRBM 1-1067, DGRG 1-782, HRRP 2-11, OCD 358, atl3
c.219 DYME on coast of Achaea raided by Aetolians. 219 atl3
c.219 DYME, under Eleans from 220, recovered by Philip-V and restored to Dymeans 218. 219
DGRG 1-795
c.219 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, at Larissa Thessaly. 219 CAH 7.1
c.219 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 with 15,000 inf and 800 cav, goes to Epirus.  He is quickly joined by all Epirotes and Acarnanians. 219 mid CAH 7.1, DGRBM 3-280
c.219 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 from Epirus to Acarnania. 219 mid CAH 7.1
c.219 AMBRAKIA fortress on coast of Acarnania besieged and taken by Philip-V. 219 atl3
c.219 Bridge over Alpheios river near Heraea Arcadia restored by Philip-V. 219 DGRG 1-1051
c.219 Gortys Arcadia taken by Aetolian Euripidas, general of Elis. 219 DGRG 1-1006
c.219 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, with 6,000 men, appears at Corinth, defeats Euripidas general of Eleans near Stymphalos. 219 atl3
219/8 CAH 7.1-477
c.219 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 invades Elis. 219 DGRBM, GHH
c.219 Aetolian Euripidas, with 2,200 inf and 100 cav of Elea, advances from Psophis Arcadia to invade Sicyonia. late 219
DGRBM 2-103
c.219/8 Aetolian Euripidas, with 2,200 inf and 100 cav of Elea, returning to Psophis Arcadia, encounters some Macedonians, deserts his troops, escapes with a few cavalry to Psophis.  His Elean troops are annihilated.  PHILIP-V then advances to Psophis and forces it to surrender.  Elis is reduced.  Euripidas is allowed to return to Aetolia. 219 GHH     219/8 DGRBM 2-103
c.219/8 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 marches to a rendezvous with the Achaean army at Caphyae Arcadia. 219/8
CAH 7.1-477
c.219/8 PHILIP-V winters at Argos. 219/8 CAH 7.1-477, DGRBM
c.219/8 POLYSTRATOS, head of Epicurean Kepos (Garden) in Athens from 250, dies.  DIONYSIUS of Lamptrai succeeds until 205. 240 atl3     219 wikDL     219/8 CHHΦ, wikPE
c.218 PSOPHIS fortress on the Erymanthus in southern Elis taken by PHILIP-V, who then ravages Elis, penetrates southern Elis and Triphylia (just south of it), which he conquers in 6 days. 219/8
CAH 7.1-477, LEWH 92
218 atl3
c.218 early Aetolian PHILIDAS sent by Dorimachos to help Elis against Philip-V in Triphylia (coastal area between Elis & Messenia). early 218 DGRBM 3-363
c.218 TRIPHYLIA (south of Elis) taken by PHILIP-V, its towns garrisoned.  Placed under pro-Macedonian Ladicus of Acarnania. 219/8
CAH 7.1-477, LEWH 92
c.218 MENECRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 219, ends.  CHAEREPHON succeeds until 217. 218 wikEA
c.218 EPITALION, a town of Triphylia, taken by PHILIP-V. 218 DGRG 1-843
c.218 PHILIP-V joined by Macedonian general Taurion, now has 7,500 men, invades and devastates Laconia in Peloponnese. 218 CAH 7.1,
DGRBM 3-984, HRRP 2-19, atl3
c.218 early Aetolian PHILIDAS, having failed against Philip-V, goes to Lepreon Triphylia, but finds inhabitants hostile.  As Philip-V approaches, Philidas flees, loses all his baggage, but escapes to Samicon Triphylia.  Philip-V besieges Samicon.  Philidas surrenders.  He and his men are allowed to leave with their weapons. early 218 DGRBM 3-363
c.218 PHILIP-V's 219/18 campaign opens a west coast route thru Epirus, western Ambracia and Acarnania.  To carry that route thru to the Peloponnese Philip needs a port and a navy. 219 CAH 7.1-478
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 equips a fleet. mid 218 CAH 8-94
c.218 PHILIP-V is tricked by royal advisor Apelles into supporting Eperatos of Pherae, rival of Aratos of Sicyon. 218 atl3, wikAS
c.218 Illyrian chieftain SCERDILAIDAS rises to fill the vacancy left by Demetrius of Pharos 219, becomes king of the Ardiae until 206. 218 wikLRI, wikSc
c.218 Illyrian chieftain SCERDILAIDAS sends a small squadron to support Philip-V, but renders little assistance, either then or any subsequent occasion during the war. 218 DGRBM 3-739
218 May ARATOS-II, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 219, ends.  ARATOS of Sicyon, main ruler of 2nd Achaean League from 245, declines to run, lets Timoxenos go in his place.  But Timoxenos loses election to rival EPERATOS of Pherae, who succeeds until May 217. 218 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 2-25, GHH, atl3, wikAS
c.218 No longer threatened by Macedonian invasion, 2nd Achaean League dissipates.  Aetolians use this situation to pillage the Peloponnese again, now with Spartan help. 218 wikAS
c.218 SCOPAS is sent with a mercenary force by Dorimachos, strategos of Aetolian League, to help Elis, but there is no account of what comes of it, and Scopas does not reappear until 211. 218 DGRBM 3-753, wikSA
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, campaigns against Aetolians in the Adriatic, attacks Cephallenia island. mid 218 CAH 7.1-479, 8-94, atl3
c.218 Megaleas, secretary to Philip-V, and Leontius, captain of the peltasts, incite mutiny among Macedonian troops at Corinth.  It is soon quelled. 218 DGRBM 2-1007
c.218 Aetolian general Pyrrhias sent to take command in Elis while Philip-V is absent. 218 DGRBM 3-608
c.218 LYCURGOS king of Sparta invades Messenia. 218 DGRBM 2-857
c.218 Messenian GORGOS sent as ambassador to Philip-V now besieging Palos in Cephallenia, to ask him to help Messenia against Lycurgos king of SpartaPhilip-V prefers the advice of the Acarnanians to invade Aetolia, and orders Achaean general Eperatos to help the Messenians. 218 DGRBM 2-286, 857
c.218 DORIMACHOS strategos of Aetolian League, invades Thessaly, hoping to draw Philip-V away from besieging Palos in Cephallenia. 218 DGRBM 1-1067, 2-857
c.218 Aetolian PHILIDAS sent with 600 men by Dorimachos to help the Eleans.  He marches to Triphylia (south of Elis) and occupies fortresses of Lepreon and Samicon, but is driven out of Triphylia by Philip-V. 218 DGRBM 3-268
c.218 Petraeos, general of Philip-V successfully opposes Dorimachos in Thessaly. 218 DGRBM 3-213
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, is forced to abandon Cephallenia island, because of Dorimachos and treachery of Leontius.  Philip is now free to attack Aetolia, now that Dorimachos is away. 218
CAH 7.1-479, DGRBM 1-1067, atl3
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, goes from Acarnania to Aetolia. 219 DGRBM, atl3
c.218 PHILIP-V invades Aetolia, sacks capital Thermum (Thermae), molests its sanctuary (retaliation for Dium 219). 219 GHH     219/8 CAH 7.1-477, LEWH 92     218 CAH 7.1,
DGRBM 1-1067, DGRG 1-66, atl3
c.218 PHILIP-V campaigns in Aetolia successfully. mid 218 DGRBM 1-891
c.218 GUARDIANS of Philip-V are accused of sabotaging his naval policy.  Megaleas is fined and released on bail provided by Leontius.  Meanwhile Apelles had gone to Chalcis, where he used his authority to hold up supplies from that base. 218
CAH 7.1-479, 8-94, atl3
c.218 Macedonian advisors CRINON and MEGALEAS are imprisoned by Philip-V until someone pays 20 talents to free them. 218
DGRBM 1-891
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, fires his now unwanted council of guardians.  Megaleas, Leontius and Apelles are executed on suspicion of treason. 218 mid
CAH 7.1-479, 8-94, atl3
c.218 PHOCIS occupied by Philip-V, put directly under a Macedonian commander, and remains so until 198. 218 fall
CAH 7.1-479
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, and Aratos are reconciled at assembly of Achaean League. 218 atl3
c.218 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, sails to Limnaea Acarnania. mid 218 atl3
c.218 LYCURGOS Eurypontid king of Sparta 219-10, fearing the ephors, leaves Sparta for Aetolia until 217. 218 atl3
c.218 TEGEA  Arcadia, under Sparta from 228, in 2nd Achaean League until ?. 218 rcPl
c.218/17 Eleans invade western Achaea. 218/17 CAH 7.1-480
c.217 Incompetence of Achaean strategos Eperatos allows Aetolian general Pyrrhias to lead a raid into Achaea. 217 atl3
217 May EPERATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 218, ends.  ARATOS resumes until May 216. 217 CAH 7.1-480, DGRBM 1-255, GHH, atl3
c.217 ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, establishes a mercenary force of 8,000 inf, 500 cav, and an elite citizen corps of 3,000 inf, 300 cav, of whom 500 inf and 50 cav each are to be furnished by Argos and Megalopolis.  3 ships are to cruise off the Argolid and 3 in the Corinthian Gulf. 217 CAH 7.1-480
c.217 CHAEREPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 218, ends.  CALLIMACHOS succeeds until 216. 217 wikEA
c.217 CYNAETHA, northernmost town of Arcadia, attacked unsuccessfully by Aratos strategos of 2nd Achaean League. 217 atl3
c.217 BYLAZORA, capital of Paeonia, commanding the pass from Dardania to Macedonia, under Dardanians from 219, recovered by PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179. 217 CAH 7.1-454, 480, wikBlz, wikLng
c.217 PHOCIS comes directly under a Macedonian commander, remains so until 198. 217 CAH 7.1-454, 479
c.217 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, attacks Melitaea Thessaly unsuccessfully. Thessaly 217 CAH 7.1-480, atl3
c.217 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, besieges THEBAE in Phthiotis Thessaly for 15 days, takes it. 217 mid
CAH 7.1-480, atl3
c.217 LYCURGOS Eurypontid king of Sparta 219-10, in Aetolia from 218, recalled by ephors to Sparta. 217 DGRBM 2-858, atl3
c.217 Aetolian general Pyrrhias plans with Lycurgos king of Sparta to invade Messenia, but Pyrrhias is repulsed by the Cyparissians before he could join with Lycurgos.  Pyrrhias returns to Elis. 217 DGRBM 3-608
c.217 LYCURGOS Eurypontid king of Sparta 219-10, back in power, invades Messenia, expecting to be joined by Aetolian general Pyrrhias, who is thwarted.  Lycurgos achieves nothing and returns. 217 DGRBM 2-858, atl3
c.217 Pyrrhias, strategos of Aetolian League from ?, relieved at request of Eleans.  Euripidas succeeds until ?. 217 DGRBM 2-59, 103, 3-608
c.217 Civil dissension at Megalopolis quashed by Aratos. 217 atl3
c.217 Achaeans under Lycos of Pherae defeat Eleans and Aetolians under Euripidas.  Physsias of Elis is captured. 217 DGRBM 3-364
c.217 Euripidas strategos of Aetolian League attacks Tritaea on Elis/Achaea border. 217 DGRBM 2-859
c.217 Mercenary leader Lycos of Pharae, sub-strategos of Achaean League, defeats Aetolians under Euripidas near Leontium in Achaea. 217 DGRBM 2-59, 2-859, atl3
c.217 Mercenary leader Lycos of Pharae, sub-strategos of Achaean League, invades Elis, kills 200 Eleans, takes 80 prisoners. 217 DGRBM 2-859
c.217 Elean Evanoridas taken prisoner by Lycos of Pharae, sub-strategos of Achaean League, who defeats Aetolians near Leontium in Achaea. 217 DGRBM 2-59
c.217 Allies Elis and Aetolian League raid their opponents' territory. 217 atl3
c.217 AGETAS, strategos of Aetolian League, ravages Acarnania and Epirus. 217 DGRBM 1-71
c.217 Roman SENATE sends embassy to Philip-V, asking for delivery of Demetrius of Pharos, which Philip refuses. 217
CAH 8-95
c.217 Roman SENATE sends embassy to Pinnes king of the Illyrian Ardiaei, reminds him that an installment of indemnity is late, offers to accept hostages, if Pinnes can't afford it.
After 217 Pinnes is not mentioned again.  Scerdilaidas and his son Pleuratus are the only recognized powers in Illyria.
217
CAH 8-95
c.217 Macedonian general Taurion is sent, together with Aratus, to deal with the Aetolians at Naupactos. 217 DGRBM 3-984
c.217 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, forces Aetolians to make peace based on status quo.
SOCIAL WAR from 220: Aetolian League + Sparta + Elis vs. 2nd Achaean League + Macedon, ends with Peace of Naupactos.  Both keep what they had.  Terms favor Philip-V, who acquires Triphylia, Phthiotic Achaea, and Zakynthos island, with garrisons in Orchomenos and Heraea, and with Phocis under a Macedonian commander.  Aetolians at peace with Macedonia until 212.
218 DGRBM 1-68 217 B76 I-117, 479, 8-383,
Sep CAH 7.1, 7.1-481, 8-95, CDCC 829, DGRBM, LEWH 92, OCD 92, 997, RAH 388, SORH, bk, wikAS
CONFUSION ALERT!  ORCHOMENOS is a city in Boeotia and another in Arcadia.
c.217 ZAKYNTHOS island west of Peloponnese siezed by Philip-V in prepatation to fight either Rome or IllyriaUnder Macedonia until 211. 217
CAH 7.1-481
c.217 AGELAOS becomes strategos of Aetolian League. 217 GHH, atl3
c.217 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 goes to Argos for the Nemean games, receives report of victory of Hannibal at Trasimene (June).  Informs new adviser, Demetrius, who urges him to end the Aetolian war and invade Illyria. 218 GHH
217 mid CAH 7.1, 8-94, HRRP 1-636
c.217 Illyrian chief SCERDILAIDAS turns against Philip-V (now in Peloponnese), begins raiding in the Adriatic, captures by treachery some of Philip's ships, and attacks Macedonian border districts of Dassaretis and Pelagonia, where he takes several Macedonian frontier towns. 217 CAH 8-95, DGRBM 3-739
c.217 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 prepares for war against Illyrian chief Scerdilaidas. 217
CAH 7.1
c.217 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 invades Illyria. 217 DGRBM 3-739, atl3
c.217 Before winter PHILIP-V recovers territories which had been occupied by Scerdilaidas earlier in 217 and captures some more towns. 217 CAH 8-95, DGRBM 3-739
c.217 Illyrian chief SCERDILAIDAS appeals to Rome. 217 DGRBM 3-739
c.217 Philip's first letter to Larissa Thessaly on filling the citizen-body. 217 CAH 7.1
c.217-6 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, builds a fleet of 100 Illyrian-type lembi ships. winter 217-6 CAH 8-96, DGRBM 3-281, 739
216 May ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 217, ends.  TIMOXENOS elected until May 216. 216 atl3
c.216 Roman envoys (including Q. Fabius Pictor) goes to Delphi to get advice from oracle after Roman defeat at Cannae. 216 CAH 7.2-5, 8-427, atl3, wikQFP
c.216 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, deploys his fleet of 100 Illyrian-type lembi ships in the Adriatic.  Scerdilaidas informs the Senate, and the Senate sends a mere 10 ships.  But it is enough to cause Philip-V to abandon his plans to take Apollonia and retires, with his whole fleet, to Cephallenia island. 216
CAH 8-96, DGRBM 3-281, 739
c.216 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, makes abortive naval expedition against Illyria. 216 MCAW, atl3
c.216 ENCHELANES on west shore of Lake Lychnitis, in Dassaretia Illyria taken by PHILIP-V. 216 DGRG 1-826
c.216 BOEOTIA:  Law and order breaks down. 216 atl3
c.216 CALLIMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 217, ends.  Successor unknown until 215. 216 wikEA
c.216 AGESIPOLIS-III, Agiad king of Sparta 219-15, expelled by LUCURGOS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 219-15. 216 atl3
c.215 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 in the Peloponnese. 215 CAH 8
c.215 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 intervenes in Messenia, leading to a massacre of the oligarchic party. 215 DGRBM 3-281
c.215 PHILIP-V proposes alliance with HANNIBAL, makes a vague treaty agreeing to supply Illyrian troops to Italy.  If successful, Illyria is given to Demetrius and Roman possessions in Epirus go to Philip. 216 TToH     215 B76 8-384, CAH 7.1-226, 8, CDCC 541, 674, DGRBM 3-281, Dur 2-662, 3-20, GHH, HRR, IDB 3-784, LdHR 2-12, MCAW, MWΦ 140, OHG, atl3, lvG     214 Dur 3-85
c.215 LUCURGOS Eurypontid king of Sparta from 219, ends. 215 OCD 1007-8, lvG, wikKS
c.215 AGESIPOLIS-III, last Agiad king of Sparta from 219 deposed by Lycurgos.  AGIAD DYNASTY from 930, ends. 215 MRDK, OCD 1008
c.215 AETOLIAN LEAGUE suspects that Philip-V plans to conquer Greece with aid of Carthage.  Refuses to help Philip-V against Rome. 214
Dur 3-85
c.215 HAGNIAS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 214. 215 wikEA
c.215 LACYDES of Cyrene, head of Platonic Academy from 241, forced to resign due to ill-health.  He made no contribution but to continue the teachings of his predecessors.  A council led by Evander and Telecles succeeds.  No single leadership until 160. 226/5 or 224/3 CHHΦ     224/3 B76 V-979
at least as late as 223 OCD 576
215 DGRBM 2-59, wikLC
c.214 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 launches 120 Macedonian lembi (light ships) into the Adriatic. 214 spring CAH 8-98, DGRBM 3-281
c.214 Praetor M. Valerius LAEVINUS is made Roman fleet commander in Adriatic until 211, patrols Illyrian coast.  His quinqueremes far outclass Philip-V's lembi. 215 LEWH 92, 100
214 B76 VI-442, DGRBM 2-710, Dur 2-556, 3-20, OCD 928
c.214 Oricon in northern Epirus, hassled by Philip-V's ships, appeals to Roman fleet commander M. Valerius Laevinus for help, then falls to Philip. 214 CAH 8-98, DGRBM 3-281, LdHR 2-13
c.214 Roman fleet commander M. Valerius Laevinus sails to Epirus and easily recovers Oricon. 214 LdHR 2-13
c.214 APOLLONIA Illyria, besieged by 120 Macedonian lembi (light ships), relieved by Q. Naevius Crista, an officer under M. Valerius Laevinus. 214 CAH 8-98, DGRBM 3-281, SORH, atl3
c.214 Roman fleet commander M. Valerius Laevinus sails to Apollonia, secretly enters Apollonia with 2,000 troops. 214 LdHR 2-14
c.214 PHILIP-V burns his 120 Macedonian lembi (light ships) at the mouth of the River Aous and retreats over mountains to Macedonia. 214 CAH 8-98, DGRBM 3-281, LdHR 2-14
c.214 1st MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 205.  Rome sends a few troops to keep Philip-V from joining Hannibal. 215 CAH 7.1-432, LEWH 92, 100 214 B76 I-634, VI-442, CAH 8, Dur 2-556, 3-20, HRR, OCD 928, OHG, SORH, frH
c.214 HAGNIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 215, ends.  DIOCLES succeeds until 213. 214 wikEA
c.214 DEMETRIUS of Pharos, former chieftain in Illyria, sent by Philip-V, tries to take Messene in Peloponese, killed there. 214 B76 III-457,
DGRBM 3-281, atl3, wikDΦ
c.214 After Demetrius of Pharos dies, PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 invades Messenia, devastates the land. 214 DGRBM 3-281
c.214 Philip-V is balling the wife of Aratos of Sicyon. 214 DGRBM 3-281
c.214 Aratos of Sicyon persuades Philip-V to spare Messene. 214 atl3
c.214/3 M. Valerius LAEVINUS is reappointed pro-praetor until 211, remains fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 winters at Oricon in northern Epirus. 214 DGRBM 2-710 214/3 CAH 8-98, DGRBM 2-710, LdHR 2-14
c.213 CHERSONESE, under Ptolemies from 272, comes under Seleucids until 185. 213 rcT
c.213 Kingdom of PAEONIA (Vardar Valley area in north Macedonia, and west Bulgaria), under Celts from 286, comes under Thrace until 208. 213 rcEB
c.213 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 crosses Pindus Mountains again, takes control of the Parthini, Dimale, and the Atintanes in Illyria. 213
CAH 8-98
c.213 LISSOS, Greek fortress city on Illyrian coast, surrenders to Philip-V of Macedon.  Lissos, which may have been part of Scerdilaidas' territory.  This puts a land-barrier between Scerdilaidas and the Roman base at Oricon.  A large part of Illyria submits to Philip. 213
CAH 8, 8-98, DGRBM 3-281, LdHR 2-14, atl3 211 wikL
c.213 DIOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 214, ends.  EUPHILETOS succeeds until 212. 213 wikEA
c.213 M. Valerius LAEVINUS, pro-praetor 214-11, in Aetolia and Achaea, watches Philip-V until 211. 213 DGRBM 2-710
c.213 ARATOS of Sicyon, main strategos of 2nd Achaean League (now called Hellenic League 224) dies at Aegion (Aegium) Achaea of a slow poison given him by instigation of Philip-V thru Macedonian general Taurion.  PHILOPOEMEN succeeds (1st of 8 times ending in 183). 214 DGRBM 3-984 213 B76 I-479, CDCC 63, DGRBM 1-255, 3-281, GHH, OCD 92, OHG, atl3, wikAS, wikΦlp
c.213 MESSENIA ravaged by Philip-V. 213 atl3
c.213 THRACE, under Celts from 273, independent until 208. 213 rcEB
c.213 OdryssiansTERES-IV and ADEOS kings of Odrysians in Thrace from 235, end.  SEUTHES-IV, son of Rascouporis, succeeds until 175, independent until 208.  RASCOUPORIS-I is king of part until ?. 215 wikLRTD 213 frH, rcSB2
c.213 Conference at Naupactos.  Aetolian delegate AGELAOS appeals for Greek unity. 213
Dur 2-662
c.212 EUPHILETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 213, ends.  HERACLEITOS succeeds until 211. 212 wikEA
c.212 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11 negotiates military alliance with Aetolians against Illyria and Philip-V:  Aetolians to immediately begin war on Philip by land.  Romans to provide not less than 25 quinqueremes.  As far north as Corcyra, any cities conquered by Romans belong to the Aetolians; moveable property (including persons and animals) belong to Romans.  Cities conquered jointly by Aetolians and Romans go to the Aetolians, loot divided.  Romans to help Aetolia to conquer Acarnania.  Elis, Sparta, Attalos of Pergamum, Pleuratus, and Scerdilaidas, might also co-operate.
Treaty is not ratified by senate until 210, but war proceeds as if it had been ratified at once.
212 CAH 8-85 212/11
CAH 8-99-100 OCD 576
211
B76 8-384, DGRBM 3-281, 739, LdHR 2-14
c.212 Cavarus, king of Thracian Gauls, assists Byzantium in wars with Thracians and Bithynians. 212 atl3
c.212 Celtic kingdom of Tilis, in Thrace from ?, ends. 212 CAH 7.1-423
c.212 OENIDAE in Acarnania taken by M. Valerius LAEVINUS. 212 CAH 8
c.211 M. Valerius LAEVINUS, fleet commander in Adriatic 214-11, drives Macedonians from Zakynthos island and from Oenidae and Nasos in Acarnania. 211 DGRBM 2-710
c.211 P. (probably an error for M.) Valerius takes hostages from Epidauros in Argolis. 211 atl3
c.211 HERACLEITOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 212, ends.  ARCHELAOS succeeds until 210. 211 wikEA
c.211 AETOLIAN LEAGUE allies with Thracians, Pleuratos, king of Illyria, & Attalus of Pergamum against Philip-V, king of Macedonia 221-179. 212/11 CDCC 31
211 DGRG 1-66, LEWH 100, OHG, SORH, atl3, wikSA
c.211 SINTIA, Dardanian city, and the northern area of Pelagonia taken by PHILIP-V. 211 wikLng
c.211 SCOPAS, strategos of Aetolian League, presides in Aetolian assembly, which allies with praetor, M. Valerius Laevinus, on promise of help conquering Acarnania Laevinus now heads the whole coalition.  War with Philip-V until 205. 212/11 CDCC 31
211 DGRBM 1-1067, 3-413, 753, DGRG 1-66, LEWH 100, OHG, atl3, wikSA
c.211 ZAKYNTHOS island west of Peloponnese, under Macedonia from 217, siezed by Romans until ?. 211
B76 X-853
c.211 Aetolian envoy Chlaenos sent to Sparta to get help against Philip-V. 211 DGRBM 1-695
c.211 SCOPAS, strategos of Aetolian League, assembles forces for invasion of Acarnania.  But Acarnanian resistance, and advance of Philip-V to their relief, thwarts him. 212/11 CDCC 31
211 DGRBM 3-753, OHG, atl3, wikSA
c.211 M. Valerius LAEVINUS fleet commander in Adriatic from 214, returns with most of his fleet and army to Rome.  SULPICIUS GALBA succeeds as commander of a reduced fleet and commander in Greece until 206. 211 CAH 8, OCD 454 210 DGRBM 2-710, LdHR 2-14
c.211 Acarnanian LYCISCOS sent to Sparta to urge them to ally with Philip-V, or at least not to join the Romans or Aetolian League. 211 DGRBM 2-845
c.211  Treaty  between M. Valerius Laevinus and Aetolia against Philip-V negotiated by Sulpicius Galba. 211 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.210 ANTICYRA on coast of Phocis, distracted with civil dissent, besieged by Aetolians under Scopas and fleet commander M. Valerius Laevinus. 210 DGRBM 3-753
c.210 ANTICYRA taken by M. Valerius LAEVINUS & Aetolian League under SCOPAS.  Anticyra comes under Aetolian League until ? 211 CAH 8     210 CAH 8-102, DGRBM 2-710, 3-281, 753, atl3, wikSA
c.210 The Dardani and Thracian Maedi are defeated by Philip-V. 210 atl3
c.210 ARCHELAOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 211, ends.  AESCHRON succeeds until 209. 210 wikEA
c.210 AEGINA Island captured and looted by SULPICIUS GALBA commander in Greece.  By treaty with Rome, it comes under Aetolia. 210 CAH 8-102, DGRBM 2-204, GHH, OCD 454, rcAg
c.210 AEGINA Island, under Aetolia, sold for 30 talents to Attalus of Pergamum.  Under Pergamum until 133 210 CAH 8-102, rcAg 200 rcAg
c.210 ATTALUS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, having bought Aegina Island, supports Aetolian League with fleet & troops against Philip-V king of Macedonia until 207. 210
CAH 8-102, OCD 144
c.210 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 besieging Echinos Thessaly (east of Phalara), resists Aetolians and Sulpicius Galba's attempts to rescue it. Thessaly 210 DGRBM 2-204, 281
c.210 ECHINOS Thessaly (east of Phalara) taken by PHILIP-V. 210 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-281
c.210 Celtic Kingdom of TILIS in Thrace from 279, ends. 212 CAH 7.1-423
210 LEWH 90     200 frH
c.210 LYCURGOS Eurypontid king of Sparta from 219, dies.  Young son PELOPS succeeds until 206.  MACHANIDAS is regent/tyrant until 207. 212 lvG
210 DGRBM 2-858, MRDK, rcPl, wikKS
c.210 MACHANIDAS, regent/tyrant of Sparta 210-06, listens to speeches by Claenias of Aetolia and Lyciscos of Acarnania, prompting him to ally with Aetolians. 210 CAH 8, LEWH 92, atl3
c.210 SPARTA, MANTINEA, ELIS joins Roman / Aetolian alliance against PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179.  They clash until 207. 210 LEWH 92, OCD 144
c.210 PHILOPOEMEN, mercenary leader, in Crete from 221, returns to Greece until 200.  Immediately appointed commander of Achaean cavalry.  Introduces reforms: Rich people can no longer send substitutes to the cavalry. 210 B76 VII-951, DGRBM 3-319, wikΦlp
208 LdHR 2-15
c.209 AMYNAS, king of Athamania 220-178, and other neutral parties try ineffectively to mediate between Philip-V and Aetolians. 209 CAH 8-102, OCD 56
c.209 PTRRHIAS becomes strategos of Aetolian League until ?. 209 GHH
c.209 Aetolians under Pyrrhias supported by 1,000 Romans sent by Galba and some Pergamese defeated by Philip-V of Macedon at 1st & 2nd battles of Lamia Thessaly.  Aetolians have 1,000 casualties in 1st battle 214 GHH
209
DGRBM 2-204, wik1BLwikLRB
c.209 Carthaginian admiral Bomilcar arrives at Corcyra. 209 CAH 8-102
c.209 AESCHRON, eponymous archon of Athens from 210, ends.  Successor unknown until 207. 209 wikEA
c.209 Achaean League under Philopoemen, supported by Philip-V, campaign against Spartans, Messenians, and Eleans unsuccessfully. 209 DGRBM 3-282
c.209 Pyrrhias becomes strategos of Aetolian League until ?. 208 DGRBM 3-608
c.209 Aetolian League under Pyrrhias, supported by Attalus and Roman praetor Sulpicius, advances to Lamia to oppose the passage of Philip-V towards the Peloponnese. 208 DGRBM 3-608
c.209 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 marches south thru Thessaly, defeats Aetolian general Pyrrhias and allied Roman troopsPyrrhias retreats to Lamia.  Philip-V forces the pass at Thermopylae. 209 DGRBM 3-282
208 DGRBM 3-608
c.209 PHILIP-V enters Peloponnese. 208 DGRBM 3-608
c.209 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 visits Argos and attends Nemean Games, where he is made president of them. 209 DGRBM 3-282, atl3
208 DGRA 795
c.209 Rhodians, Chians, Athenians, and agents of Ptolemy-IV offer gifts and peace petitions to Philip-V.  Negotiations including Achaean League open at Aegion (Aegium) Achaea, but are dashed by extravagant demands of Aetolians. 209 DGRBM 3-282, LdHR 2-15
c.209 SULPICIUS GALBA based at Naupactos, sends 15 ships to north coast of Peloponnese.  Romans plunder the country. 209 DGRBM 2-204
c.209 Philip-V stops at Dyme Achaea enroute to Elis.  Chases Romans back to Naupactos. 209 DGRBM 2-204
c.209 Philip-V, supported by Achaean League under Philopoemen, invades Elis, and is defeated at the city walls.  Philopoemen again distinguishes himself, personally killing Elean commander Demophantos. 209 DGRBM 3-282, 319, GHH, atl3
c.209 Epirus in anarchy. 209 GHH
c.209 DARDANIANS invade Macedonia. 209 atl3
c.209 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 learns of Dardanian invasion, forced to return to Macedonia.  He leaves generals Menippos and Polyphantas with 2,500 troops to protect the Achaeans. 209 DGRBM 3-282, atl3 208 DGRBM 2-1041, DGRBM 3-468
c.209 PHILOPOEMEN becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League 1st time, enlarges Achaean army, reorganizes entire military, updates soldiers' equipment and battle tactics.  Heavy armor replaces light armor.  Longer spears, larger shields, Macedonian phalanx and tactics. 209 atl3, wikΦlp 208 B76 VII-951, DGRBM 3-319, atl3
c.209 Now that Philip-V is back in Macedonia, SULPICIUS GALBA moves headquarters from Naupactos to Aegina Island. 209 DGRBM 2-204
c.209/8 SULPICIUS GALBA and ATTALUS of Pregamum both winter on Aegina island. 209/8 DGRBM 2-204 208/7 DGRBM 1-410
c.209/8 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 active defending allies. 209/8
B76 8-384
c.208 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 is surrounded by enemies:  Illyrian princes Scerdilaidas and Pleuratus and Thracian Maedi threaten west and north borders, Attalus of Pergamum and proconsul Sulpicius attack from east by sea. 208 DGRBM 3-282
c.208 LONGAROS king of Dardania 231-06, invades north Macedonia, occupies region of Orestida, takes 20,000 prisoners, reaches the plain of Argestes. 208 wikLng
c.208 Acarnanian and Boeotian allies of Philip-V beg for support against Aetolians and Spartans. 208 DGRBM 3-282
c.208 THRACE, independent from 213, comes under Macedonia until 183. 208 rcEB
c.208 SEUTHES-IV king of Odrysians in Thrace 213-175, becomes Macedonian vassal until 183. 208 frH, rcSB2
c.208 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 makes headquarters at Demetrias Thessaly. 208 DGRBM 3-282
c.208 POLYPHANTAS sent with a small force by Philip-V to help Boeotians and Phocians. 207 DGRBM 3-468
c.208 PHILOPOEMEN strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 209, succeeded by CYCLIADAS until 207. 208 DGRBM 1-908, GHH
c.208 Attalus of Pergamum and proconsul Sulpicius sail from Nicaea east of Thermopylae to OREOS (occupied by a Macedonian garrison) on north coast of Euboea, which Sulpicius captures and sacks.  Attalus proceeds to Opuntian Locris. 208 DGRBM 3-282, atl3 207 DGRBM 1-410
c.208 SULPICIUS GALBA tries to take Chalcis Euboea from Philip-V, fails, sails to Cynos in Opuntian Locris. 208 DGRBM 2-204, 3-282
c.208 AMYNAS, king of Athamania, mediates between Philip-V and the Aetolians. 208 DGRBM 1-154
c.208
Molossia
Opos, chief city of Opuntian Locris, taken and sacked by Attalus of Pergamum, who is then attacked by Philip-V, and barely escapes with his ships.
208 DGRBM 2-204, 3-282
207 DGRBM 1-410
no date: wikAt1
c.208 ATTALUS-I Soter, king of Pergamum 241-197 sails from Oreos Euboea to Anatolia to meet attack of Prusias of Bithynia. 209/8 B76 8-384
208 DGRBM 2-204, atl3 207 DGRBM 1-410
c.208 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 marches on Heraclea in Trachis Thessaly. 208 atl3
c.208 Kingdom of PAEONIA (Vardar Valley area in north Macedonia, and west Bulgaria), under Thrace from 213, comes under Macedonia until 180. 208 rcEB
c.208 Carthaginian admiral Bomilcar, based at Corcyra from 209, sails to mouth of Corinthian Gulf, decides not to risk a battle with the Romans. 208
CAH 8-102
c.207 CYCLIADAS strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 208, succeeded by NICIAS until 206. 207 GHH
c.207 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 gets jealous of Philopoemen and tries to have him murderd.  The plot is exposed, winning Philip the contempt of all Greeks. after Mantinea: DGRBM 3-319
c.207 MACHANIDAS regent/tyrant of Sparta 210-07 invades Elis. 207 DGRBM 2-884
c.207 PHILOPOEMEN, leader of 2nd Achaean League, defeats MACHANIDAS of Sparta between Mantinea and Tegea. 208 DGRG 1-16, bk
207 B76 VI-581, VII-951, 8-384, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-884, 3-319, LEWH 92, wikΦlp
c.207 CALLISTRATOS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 206. 207 wikEA
c.207 MACHANIDAS regent/tyrant of Sparta from 210 for minor Eurypontid king Pelops, killed in single combat by Philopoemen at MantineaSyrian NABIS is made dictator to 206. 208 GHH
207 B76 VII-157, DGRBM 2-1133, 3-319, Dur 2-570, LEWH 92, atl3, wikKS, , wikNb, wikΦlp
c.207 TEGEA  Arcadia, taken (soon after Mantinea) by Philopoemen, who then moves his army as far as the Eurotas River. 207 wikΦlp
c.207 PHILOPOEMEN, leader of 2nd Achaean League, stages a military display at Nemean Games. 207 atl3
c.207 General MENIPPOS sent by Philip-V, to defend Chalcis Euboea against Romans and Attalus-I. 207 DGRBM 2-1041
c.207 CHALCIS Euboea, under Philip's general Menippos, attacked unsuccessfully by Romans, under Sulpicius Galba and Attalus of Pergamum. 207 DGRG 1-600
c.207 OREOS Euboea, under Philip's general Plator, betrayed to the Romans, under Sulpicius. 207 DGRBM 3-405
c.207 PELOPS, last Eurypontid king of Sparta from 210, overthrown (or killed) by regent NABIS, who claims descent from deposed Eurypontid Demaratos, usurps throne until 192. 207 CDCC 603, Dur 2-556, GHH, MCAW, lvG, wikNb     206 CAH 8, MRDK, rcPl, wikKS
no date: DGRBM 2-1133
c.207 NABIS, attempted usurper of Sparta, institutes radical policies. 207 bk
c.207 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, lands at Erythrea near Eupalium in Aetolia, raids Aetolia, destroys sanctuary at Thermum (Thermae), and then attends council of 2nd Achaean League. 207 CAH 8, DGRG 1-875, atl3
c.207 EUBOEA taken by P. Sulpicius Galba. 207 SORH
207/6 P. SULPICIUS GALBA and Attalus of Pergamum winter in Aegina. 207/6 SORH
c.206 LONGAROS king of the Dardani from 231, ends.  Son BATO succeeds until 176. 206 wikBt, wikLng
c.206 CALLISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 207, ends.  PANTIADES succeeds until 205. 206 wikEA
c.206 AETOLIANS, allied with Rome against Philip-V from 210, make separate peace with Philip until 202 206 B76 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-103, CDCC 31, LEWH 92, 100, atl3     205 GHH
c.206 CHRYSIPPOS of Soli, head of the Stoa from 232, dies.  No succesor until 204. 207 B76 11-60, CAH 7.1, DGRBM, Dur 2-556, GHH
206 EoΦ 2-109, 8-19, OHG 424, atl3, bk     208-04 CHHΦ
c.206 SCERDILAIDAS, king of the Illyrian Ardiae from 218, dies.  Son PLEURATOS-III succeeds until 181. 206 wikLRI, wikSc
no date: DGRBM 3-739
c.206 P. SULPICIUS GALBA Roman commander in Greece from 211, returns to Rome.  P. SEMPRONIUS TUDITANUS succeeds with 10,000 inf, 1,000 cav, and 35 warships until 204.  The force is inadequate to fight Philip-V by itself and cannot have been intended to operate alone. 206 OCD 454
205 CAH 8-104, DGRBM 3-1181 204
DGRBM 2-204
c.205 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 marches to Apollonia Illyria to face a Roman force led by P. Sempronius Tuditanus. 205 atl3
c.205 1st MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 214 ends.  Proconsul Tuditanus makes treaty ( Peace of Phoenice or Dyrrhachium ) with PHILIP-V in order to deal with Hannibal.  Terms favorable terms for Macedonia.  Philip to give up the Parthini and Dimale, and the west coast of Epirus, but Philip retains the Atintanes.  Bargullum and Eugenium (locations unknown) to be Roman.  Otherwise Philip keeps his conquests.  Critical harbor towns, Corcyra, Oricon, Apollonia, Epidamnus, remain Roman friends.  Romans now leave Greece. 205 B76 I-634, VII-157, CAH 7.1-432, 8-104, 431, DGRBM 3-1181, Dur 2-556, 662, 3-20, GHH, HRR, MCAW, OHG, SORH, frH, lvG, atl3
204 DGRBM 2-1134
c.205 ATINTANIA, a mountainous district in Illyria, north of Molossis and east of Parauaea, assigned to Philip-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 by treaty. 204 DGRG 1-311
c.205 PHILIP-V, sees chance to defeat Rhodes, allies with Aetolian and Spartan pirates who begin raiding Rhodian shipsCRETAN WAR begins until 200.
Philip-V, Aetolian League, several Cretan cities (Olous and Hierapytna are most important) and Spartan pirates against Rhodes, and later Attalus-I of Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens and Knossos.
205
CAH 8, DGRBM, wikCW
c.205 Spartan pirate DIKAIARCHOS receives 20 ships from Philip-V with orders to go pirating in the Aegean, raid the islands, and help the Cretans against Rhodes. 205 TAG 87
Greek language has only one term for pirate and privateer.    TAG 87
c.205 PANTIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 206, ends.  DIODOTOS succeeds until 204. 205 wikEA
c.205 Q. Catius, Servius Sulpicius GALBA, M. Valerius Falto, Cn. Tremellius Flaccus, M. Valerius Laevinus, M. Pomponius Matho, and M. Caecilius Metellus are sent from Rome to Delphi, thence to Ionia to get support from Attalos of Pergamum for a war with Philip-V. 205
DGRBM 2-135, 205, 711, 1057, 3-1171
c.205 LACYDES of Cyrene, former head of Academy 241-15, after a long illness, dies.  Nothing survives of his works. 206/5 CHHΦ     205 B76 V-979, atl3, wikLC
c.205 DIONYSIUS of Lamptrai, head of Epicurean Kepos (Garden) in Athens from 219/8, dies.  BASILIDES succeeds until 175. 205 wikBE, wikDL
205/4 CHHΦ
c.205/4  TREATY of PARTITION PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 and ANTIOCHUS-III Megas agree to divide the Ptolemaic Empire. 205 LdHR 2-17, lvPt5
c.204 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 plots to murder Philopoemen.  Fails. 204 atl3
c.204 DIODOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 205, ends.  APOLLODOROS succeeds until 203. 204 wikEA
c.204 STOA at Athens, leaderless from 207, ZENO of Tarsus becomes head until 180. 207 GHH
204 OCD 1145
c.204 SCOPAS and DORIMACHOS are appointed to reform the constitution of the Aetolian League, make revolutionary laws to deal with League debt.  Both are unqualified, and Scopas seeks personal gain. 204 DGRA 27, DGRBM 1-1067, 3-754, GHH, atl3, wikSA
c.204 SCOPAS, having botched the reform legislation of the Aetolian League, moves to Alexandria, remains until 201/0. 204 DGRBM 3-754
c.204 NABIS usurper of Sparta 206-192 unsuccessfully attacks Megalopolis. 204 wikNb
c.204 NABIS usurper of Sparta 206-192, kills or banishes all rich people, takes their estates. 204 atl3
no date: DGRBM 2-1133
c.203 SOPATER, general of Philip-V, with 4,000 troops and some money, sails to Africa to help Carthage. 203 DGRBM 3-864
c.203 Roman envoys:  C. Terentius Varro, C. Mamilius Vitulus, and M. Aurelius sent from Rome to investigate allied Greek complaints against Philip-V.  Greeks say Philip never compensated for ravaging their territories, also that Philip had sent 4,000 soldiers to Africa to help Carthage.  These must have been volunteers or mercenaries, since Philip would not have chosen this of all times to send his first support to Carthage.
M. Aurelius remains in the Balkans and raises troops to protect Roman allies.  Varro and Mamilius then take these compaints to Philip-V.
203
CAH 8-245, DGRBM 3-1222, 1279
c.203 APOLLODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 204, ends.  PROXENIDES succeeds until 202. 203 wikEA
c.202 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, sends OLYMPICOS to conquer Iasos Caria (good naval base). 202
CAH 8-151
c.202 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, begins operations in Aegean, takes free cities in straits and Thrace to control straits and prepare for Ptolemaic offensive.  Cities taken in Thrace:  Lysimachia, Perinthos, Sestos; in Anatolia:  Chalcedon, Cius, Myrelia. 202 B76 8-384, BHS 2-32,
CAH 8-151, 252
no date:
LEWH 92
c.202 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 and ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria/Babylonia 223-187, both now in Caria, secretly renew their 205/4 treaty against Ptolemaic Egypt, divide Ptolemaic coastal possessions between them, neither intending to keep his word. 203 CDCC 674, LEWH 92, OHG 202 CAH 8-151, OCD 72
c.202 THRACE surrenders to Methodoros, officer of Philip-V conditionally:  no tribute, no Macedonian garrisons, no troops levied from them, no interference with their laws.  Philip-V accepts their terms, then enslaves them. 202 DGRBM 2-1070
c.202 THASOS island taken by treachery by PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, returning from straits. 202
CAH 8-151
c.202 Lysippos becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League until ?. 202 GHH
c.202 PROXENIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 203, ends.  DIONYSIOS succeeds until 201. 202 wikEA
c.202 AETOLIANS ask Rome for help against Philip-V.  Rebuffed because of their "defection" in 206. 202
CAH 8-152
c.202/1 NABIS, usurper of Sparta 206-192, invades and captures MESSENE, currently his ally. 202 DGRBM 3-319, GHH 202/1 DGRBM 2-1134
201 atl3, wikΦlp
c.201 PHILOPOEMEN tries unsuccessfully to persuade Lysippos, strategos of 2nd Achaean League to rescue Messene from Nabis. 202/1
DGRBM 3-319
c.201 May LYSIPPOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 202, ends.  PHILOPOEMEN succeeds until May 200. 201 DGRBM 2-1134, wikΦlp
c.201 DIONYSIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 202, ends.  ISOCRATES succeeds until 200. 201 wikEA
c.201 MESSENE taken by Nabis usurper of Sparta. 201 wikNb
c.201 NABIS, usurper of Sparta 206-192, is forced to retreat from Messene when 2nd Achaean League army under Philopoemen intervenes and defeats him at Tegea. 202/1 DGRBM 2-1134, 3-319 201 DGRBM 3-319, atl3, wikΦlp     201/0 B76 VII-951 200 atl3
c.201 Embassy from Athens to Rome led by Cephisodorus, complains of Philip-V's activities against Athens. 201 CAH 8
no date:
CAH 8-257
c.201 Macedonian embassy to Rome asks for return of Macedonians and their leader, Sopater, who had been captured at Zama.  Also objects to M. Aurelius still in Balkan area. 201 CAH 8-245
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, defeats Rhodian fleet at LADE island near Miletos, drives them south, fails to pursue, turns and lands at Miletos, hurries toward Pergamum, fails to capture. 201 B76 8-384, CAH 8-154, 253
c.201 ATTALUS-I Soter, king of Pergamum 241-197 sides with Rhodes against Philip-V. 201 B76 I-634
c.201 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179, goes personally to Caria, in Ionia until 200. 201
CAH 7.1-461
c.201 At the Eleusinian Mysteries 2 Acarnanian boys accidentally stray into the temple of Demeter at Eleusis.  They are executed.  Acarnania, an ally of Philip-V, appeal to him for vengeancePhilip-V, now in Ionia, sanctions a raid on Attica, in which Macedonian troops participate. 202 atl3
201 Sep
CAH 8-257
c.201 SPARTA has war with the ACHAEANS. 201 CAH 8
c.201 M. Valerius LAEVINUS is made praetor and sent with fleet and army from Rome to north Greece. 201 DGRBM 2-711
c.201/0 Roman envoys:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, and M. Aemilius Lepidus arrive on Greek coast, visit Epirus, Amynas of Athamania, and the Aetolian and Achaean Leagues, all of whom are currently friendly to or allied with Macedon.  At each place they announce the terms of the senatus consultum.  Then they reach Athens. 201 DGRBM 3-1181
201/0
CAH 8-162, 258
c.201/0 Roman envoys:  C. Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, and M. Aemilius Lepidus depart for Greece to tell Philip-V of Macedonia (now in Caria) the terms of the senatus consultum on which Rome is prepared to remain at peace with him.  Philip must not attack the Greeks, must give compensation, as determined by a fair tribunal, for offences against AttalosThe legati are then to go to Egypt to announce the defeat of Carthage, to canvass support if war with Philip happens; and to try to mediate between Antiochus-III and Ptolemy-V. 201 DGRBM 3-1181, lv4SW, 201/0
CAH 8-255, 258
c.201/0 Aetolian SCOPAS, in Egypt from 204, is sent with much money to Greece, to raise mercenaries for Ptolemy-V.  He recruits over 6,000 young Aetolians and returns to Alexandria. 200 DGRBM 3-754
200 BCE

Balkan Peninsula 200-101
V