Greece
c.241/40 ARATOS of Sicyon seizes Cynaetha Arcadia. 241/40 CAH 7.1
c.240 ARATOS of Sicyon breaks a truce with Macedonians by raiding Athens and the Piraeus, several times, though always unsuccessfully. 240
CAH 7.1-255, atl3
c.240 ARATOS of Sicyon plots to murder Aristomachus, tyrant of Argos.  Fails. 240 TAG 404, atl3
c.240 LYKEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 241, ends.  POLYSTRATOS succeeds until 239. 240 wikEA
c.240 ARISTOMACHOS-I, tyrant of Argos from 250, killed by one of his servants.  ARISTIPPOS succeeds until 235, and proves an even worse tyrant. 240
TAG 404, atl3, rcPl
c.240 ARATOS of Sicyon marches to Argos with all Achaeans able to bear arms, in order to support the citizens, whom he thinks ready to assert their liberty.  But they had been long accustomed to the yoke, and were willing to be slaves; insomuch that not one of them joined him. Plutarch:
Life of Aratus 25:4
early 240 TAG 404
c.240 ARISTIPPOS, tyrant of Argos 240-35, attacked by 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE, complains to Achaean government of this attack in peacetime. 240 CAH 7.1-255, TAG 404, atl3
240 May ARATOS of Sicyon, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 241, suspended until ?. May 240 TAG 404
c.240 ALEXANDER-II former king of Epirus 272-64, king of Molossia from 264, dies.  Widow Olympias-II assumes regency for their son PYRRHUS-II, who succeeds until 237.  Other son is Ptolemy. 242 frH, wikA2E
240 CAH 7.1, OCD 41, rcSB2
c.240 ARATOS of Soli, didactic poet, physician grammarian, philosopher, dies in Pella Macedonia. 240 CDCC 63, wikArt
c.240 Aetolians devastate Laconia, and take 50,000 captives. 240 atl3
c.240 CLEOMENES, son of Leonidas-II Agiad king of Sparta 254-45, marries AGIATIS, widow of Agis-IV. 240 atl3
c.240 SPHAEROS of Borysthenes, Stoic philosopher, in Greece from 265, moves to Sparta until 222. 240 CHHΦ
c.240 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE, having attacked Argos during a declared peace, arraigned before a Mantinean court and required to pay 30 minae damages. 240 CAH 7.1-255, TAG 404, atl3
c.239 Son of Demetrius-I, ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas dies.  king of Greece from 283, Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, age 80, dies.  Son DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus succeeds unchallenged until 229. 240/39 CAH 7.1-255, TAG 409
239 B76 III-456, 1-991, 8-381, BHS 1-236 CAH 7.1-446, 8, CDCC 52, DGRBM 1-189, 965, Dur 2-556, 560, GHH, OCD 69, 70, OHG, RAH 387, anan, atl3, bk, frH, hifi, lvG, wikA2G, wikD2A
c.239 DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia 239-29, allies with Epirus, divorces wife from 257 STRATONICE, dau of Antiochus-I.  No male children.  Demetrius-II marries PHTHIA, dau of Alexander-II of Epirus.  (or Stratonice walks out on him after he marries Phthia.)  Demetrius-II protects Epirus from Aetolians. 239 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1, DGRBM 3-925, OCD 325, wikD2A
239/8 dau of A-2 Theos: wikS2     238 atl3
c.239 STRATONICE-II, dau of Antiochus-I, recently divorced, sails from Macedonia to Syria. 239 DGRBM 3-925
c.239 POLYSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 240, ends.  ATHENODOROS succeeds until 238. 239 wikEA
c.239 AETOLIAN LEAGUE under Pantaleon, pro-Macedonian from ?, joins anti-Macedonian 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE under Aratos.  War against DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia, until 229. 239 B76 I-117, 479, 8-383, CAH 7.1, CDCC 63, DGRBM 3-113, OCD 92, OHG, wikAS
239/8 CAH 7.1
238 LEWH 91, atl3
c.239 DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia 239-29, enters Boeotia, moves down the isthmus.  Takes MEGARA and ARGOLIS, driving a wedge between ACHAEAN & AETOLIAN LEAGUES. 239 B76 8-383 237 CAH 7.1
239 May ARATOS of Sicyon becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League until May 238. May 239 CAH 7.1
239 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia joins 2nd Achaean League. 239 b76 I-479, DGRG 1-15
239 MENIPPOS of Gadara, Cynic, satirist, in Thebes from ?, dies. 239 atl3     no date: wikMn
239 New springs of water suddenly appear at Aidepsos in Euboea and Methana on east coast of Peloponnese. 239 atl3
239 Egyptian bean plants start growing spontaneously in part of Thesprotia on coast of Epirus. 239 atl3
c.239 Aetolians attack west (Epirote) Acarnania, which Epirus had received as its share in the dismemberment of Acarnania. 239 CAH 7.1-446
c.239 2nd Achaean League continues to attack Athens and Argos. 239 CAH 7.1
c.238 ATHENODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 239, ends.  LYSIAS succeeds until 237. 238 wikEA
c.238 AETOLIAN LEAGUE rejects a Roman embassy sent on behalf of Acarnania. 238 atl3
c.237 PYRRHUS-II, king of Epirus from 255, dies.  Bro PTOLEMY succeeds until 234. 237 wikPr2 234 frH
c.237 LYSIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 238, ends.  ALCIBIADES succeeds until 236. 237 wikEA
c.237/6 MolossiaOpos in Opuntian Locris leaves Aetolia and joins Boeotia. 237/6 or before 228/7
CAH 7.1
236 May DIOETAS becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League until May 235. 236 CAH 7.1
c.236 ALCIBIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 237, ends.  CIMON succeeds until 235. 236 wikEA
c.236 ARGOS joins 2nd Achaean League. 236 DGRG 1-15
c.236 HERAEA  Arcadia taken by Achaeans. 236 CAH 7.1-449
c.236 War between Sparta and 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE begins. 236 TToH     235 bk
c.235 TERES-IV king of Odrysians in Thrace 250-13, accepts ADEOS as co-king until 213. 235 frH
c.235 EPIROTE LEAGUE revived until 165. 235 rcSB2
c.235 Grandson of Cleomenes-II, LEONIDAS-II dies.  Agiad king of Sparta 254-45, 241-35.  Son CLEOMENES-III succeeds until 221.  Begins to restore traditional Spartan discipline and weakening the influence of the ephors. 236 DGRBM 1-794, 2-752, GHH
235 B76 II-989, 8-382, CAH 7.1, CDCC 489, MRDK, OCD 250, 1007, OHG, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS     234 atl3
c.235 CIMON, eponymous archon of Athens from 236, ends.  EKPHANTOS succeeds until 234. 235 wikEA
c.235 ARATOS of Sicyon sneaks Achaean troops into Argos by night to overthrow tyrant Aristippos.  The Argives watch to see who wins.  Aratos is wounded and his attack fails. 235
CAH 7.1-447, atl3
c.235 ARATOS of Sicyon and ARISTIPPOS of Argos have an indecisive battle near river Chares. 235 atl3
c.235 ARATOS of Sicyon siezes CLEONAE (between Sicyon & Argos) in Argolis, adds it to 2nd Achaean League, causes the Panhellenic Nemean games to be celebrated there. 235 CAH 7.1, atl3
c.235 NEMEAN GAMES, every 2 years at Argos 270-?, interrupted by ARATOS of Sicyon, who captures athletes and sells them into slavery if they don't tranfer to Cleonae. 235 sapgh
c.235 LYDIADES, tyrant of Megalopolis from 243, threatened by 2nd Achaean League, negotiates an amnesty, abdicates tyranny, and joins it.  Elected general 234, 32, 30.  Megalopolis joins 2nd Achaean League until 146. 235 B76 8-383,
CAH 7.1-449, OCD 92, 223, 629, atl3, rcPl
c.235 Arcadian cities Tegea, Mantinea, Orchomenos and Caphyae join Achaean League. 235 CAH 7.1
c.235 Tegea, Mantinea, and Orchomenos, having joined Achaean League, are treacherously siezed by Cleomenes-III of Sparta.  They accept Spartan rule. no date: DGRBM 1-794
c.235 ARISTIPPOS, tyrant of Argos from 240, ambushed and killed by Aratos of Sicyon.  Bro ARISTOMACHOS-II succeeds until 229. 235 CAH 7.1, MRDK, atl3     234 rcPl
c.234 PTOLEMY, king of Epirus from 237, dies of illness.  Son PYRRHUS-III succeeds and is murdered.  His cousin DEIDAMIA (Laodamia) succeeds until 233. 235 MRDK, wikP3
234 CAH 7.1, wikPtE 230 frH
c.234 EKPHANTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 235, ends.  LYSANIAS succeeds until 233. 234 wikEA
c.234 BOEOTIA, under Aetolia from ?, invaded and siezed by DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia 239-29. 235 CAH 7.1-450
234 atl3     233 CAH 7.1
c.234 MolossiaOpuntian LOCRIS defects to Macedonia, comes under control of Boeotia (which is also under Macedonia) until 228. post-235
CAH 7.1-450
234 May LYDIADES of Megalopolis becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League until May 233. 235 atl3
c.234 LYDIADES, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, attempts an expedition against Sparta. 235 CAH 7.1-449
c.234 ALIPHEIRA in west Arcadia under 2nd Achaean League from ?, given by Lydiades to Elis. 235 atl3
c.234 MANTINEA, under Aetolian League from 244, back under 2nd Achaean League until 233. 234 rcPl
c.234 TIGRIS, mistress of Pyrrhus-II, former king of Epirus 255-37, murdered by his mom, Olympias. 234 atl3
c.234 OLYMPIAS, dau of Pyrrhus-I, widow of Alexander-II, mom of Pyrrhus-II, dies. 234 CAH 7.1
c.233 MANTINEA, under 2nd Achaean League from 234, back under Aetolian League until 229. 233 rcPl
c.233 LYSANIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 234, ends.  Successor unknown until 232. 233 wikEA
c.233 Illyrian pirates begin ravaging Adriatic coast. 233 DGRG 2-38
c.233 DEIDAMIA (Laodamia), dau of Pyrrhus-II, queen of Epirus from 234, last surviving member of the Epirote royal house, hated by the Epirotes, takes refuge at the altar of Artemis in Ambracia, murdered.  Aeacid dynasty ends.  Republic established until 229.  EPIROTE LEAGUE also established. 233 CAH 7.1-452, wikD2E    232 CAH 8-86, CDCC 325, atl3 231 bk     230 OCD 2
c.233 Macedonia is attacked from north by the DardaniDEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia is recalled from Greece to defend it. 233 LEWH 91, atl3
c.233 DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia is defeated by the Dardani. 233 atl3
c.233 BITHYS, general under Demetrius-II, having shipped an army to Argos, invades Achaean territory by land. 233 CAH 7.1-450
c.233 BITHYS, general under Demetrius-II, defeats Aratos of Sicyon at Phylacia 10 miles south of Tegea. 233 CAH 7.1-450, atl3
c.233 ARATOS raids Attica, attacks Athens, gets as far as the Academy before retiring. 233 CAH 7.1-450, atl3
c.233 TEGEA  Arcadia again joins Aetolian League until 228. 233 rcPl
c.233 ARISTYLLOS, Greek astronomer, flourishes.  Wrote a book on fixed stars which will be used by Hipparchos and Ptolemy. 233
DGRBM 1-345
c.232 CLEANTHES of Assos, head of the Stoa at Athens from 261, dies.  His famous prayer:  "Lead me, O Zeus, and you, O Destiny wheresoever I am appointed by you to go; for I will follow without delay.  And though I be unwilling to go, because I have fallen into wrongdoing, I will follow nonetheless."  CHRYSIPPOS of Soli succeeds until 207. 240 GHH     233 S2S 119     232 B76 II-981, CAH 7.1,
Dur 2-556, OCD 234, 248, 1015, OHG, MWΦ 2-109, 121 231 atl3     230 lvG, wikCl 230/29 CHHΦ
no date: IDB 2-497
232 May LYDIADES becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League (2nd time) until May 231. 232 May CAH 7.1, atl3
c.232 West ACARNANIA, including Ambracia, Amphilochia and land north of Ambracian Gulf, under Epirus from 243, goes independent, but are soon threatened by Aetolians, who move in around the Gulf of Ambracia, including the city of Ambracia. 232 CAH 7.1-452 no date: wikAI
c.232 Epirotes centered at Pyrrhus' old capital, Ambracia, crowded by Aetolians, establish a new center at PHOENICE until 230. no date: wikAI
c.232 MEDION Acarnania, besieged by Aetolians, ask help from Demetrius-II, king of Macedonia, who is too busy fighting Dardani, and therefore asks ally Agron to help Medion. no date: wikAI
c.232 MNESEIDES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 231. 232 wikEA
c.231 AGRON, king of the Ardiae, sends a force which defeats Aetolians near Medion, takes spoils, and returns to illyria. 232/1 wikAI
231 B76 V-304, CAH 7.1, atl3
c.231 AGRON dies.  King of the Ardiae of Illyria from 250, parties so hard in victory celebration that he dies.  Widow TEUTA regent until 228 for son by a previous wife, PINNES. 232 DGRG 2-68     231 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-82, 3-370, 1014, LdHR 1-324, MCAW, OCD 1048, atl3     230 CAH 8-87, wikAI, wikDΦ, wikLRI
c.231 LONGAROS becomes king of the Dardani until 206. 231 wikLng
c.231 TEUTA regent of Illyria 231-28, vexes Epirus, directs Illyrian pirates to attack Roman merchant ships. 231
OCD 1048
231 May LYDIADES strategos of 2nd Achaean League (2nd time), suspended.  ARATOS succeeds (8th time) until May 230. May 231 CAH 7.1
c.231 DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia is still occupied against the Dardani. 231 CAH 7.1
c.231 MNESEIDES?, eponymous archon of Athens from 232, ends.  JASON? succeeds until 230. 231 wikEA
c.231 BYLAZORA, capital of Paeonia, taken by Macedonians until 219. 231 wikLng
230 May ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League (8th time), ends.  LYDIADES resumes (3rd time) until May 229. May 230 CAH 7.1
c.230 DROPION, son of Leon, king of Paeonia from 250, ends. 230 wikPn
c.230 Achaeans and Aetolians send help to Epirus against the Illyrians.  Epirotes ally with Illyrian regent Teuta. 230 CAH 7.1
c.230 All Adriatic islands except Issa come under Teuta. 230 LdHR 1-324
c.230 Illyrian raiders, sent by regent Teuta, attack Elis and Messenia. 230 CAH 7.1-452
c.230 Illyrian raiders sent by Teuta under Scerdilaidas march south, thru passes of Atintania. 230 CAH 7.1-452, DGRBM 3-739
c.230 PHOENICE, Epirote capital from 232, taken by Illyrian raiders with help of treacherous Gaul mercenaries until later 230. 230 CAH 7.1-452, atl3
c.230 Roman ambassadors C. & L. CORUNCANIUS go to Illyria, demand satisfaction for murders of Italian merchants by Illyrian pirates protected by regent TEUTA.  Teuta replies that she could not control private affairs of her subjects, though she was willing to control the public sphere.  Lucius Coruncanius replies, in a virtual declaration of war, that Rome would teach her the necessity of also controlling their private affairs.  As the Coruncanii are about to sail away, Teuta orders Illyrian agents to kill Lucius Coruncanius.  They do so.  Rome declares war. 230 CAH 7.2,
Dur 3-20,
OCD 293, 1048, SORH, atl3, bk
228
DGRBM 1-861
c.230 ROME war on ILLYRIAN PIRATES.  Intervenes in Illyria until 228. 230 Dur 3-20, bk 229 wikTt
c.230 ILLYRIAN COAST partly taken by Romans. 230 Dur 3-47
c.230 JASON?, eponymous archon of Athens from 231, ends.  Successor unknown until 228. 230 wikEA
c.230 SALAMIS Island in Saronic Gulf, under Macedonia from 318, restored to Athens by Aratos until ?. 230
OCD 945
c.230 West ACARNANIA, independent 243-?, acquires LEUCAS Island from Epirus until ?. 230 OCD 2
c.230 ACHAEANS and AETOLIANS help Epirus against Illyria. 230 CAH 7.2
c.230 Epirus allies with Teuta of Illyria. 230 CAH 7.2, atl3
c.230 TIMON of Philus, student of Pyrrho, in Athens from 269, dies. 235 CHHΦ
230 EoΦ 8-139, atl3
c.229 While Teuta has troops committed in Epirus, LONGAROS king of the Dardani raids her north border. 229 wikLng, wikLRI
c.229 Scerdilaidas defeats an Epirote army, and penetrates as far as Phoenice Epirus, when he is recalled by Teuta to oppose the Dardanians. 230 DGRBM 3-739 229 wikLng, wikLRI
c.229 ISSA island in Adriatic besieged by TEUTA regent of Illyria. 230 LdHR 1-324
229 OCD 368, 1048, wikDP
c.229 LYDIADES, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, tries to bring Argos into League for personal profit. early 229
CAH 7.1-456
229 May LYDIADES strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 230, ends.  ARATOS succeeds (9th time) until May 228.  Aratos has the Argos issue postponed. May 229 CAH 7.1
229 Nearly all Peloponnese and part of central Greece has joined 2nd Achaean League. 229 HRRP 2-11
c.229 CORCYRA Island, independent from 255, but allied to Athens, siezed by DEMETRIUS of Pharos working for TEUTA, regent of Illyria, under Teuta until 228.  Demetrius is in charge of her garrison. 229 B76 III-149, DGRBM 3-1014, OCD 289, 1048, rcSB3, wikCrf
c.229 CORCYRA appeals to Achaea and Aetolia. 229 CAH 7.1
c.229 EPIRUS, republic from 230, annexed by TEUTA, regent of Illyria until 228. 229 wikDΦ
c.229 Achaea sends 10 ships to help Corcyra against Illyrian pirates. 229 DGRBM 2-945
c.229 ISSA island in Adriatic besieged by TEUTA, regent of Illyria 231-28 until 228, appeals to Rome for help. 230 atl3
229 OCD 368, 1048
c.229 EPIDAMNUS, on coast of Illyria, besieged by TEUTA regent of Illyria until later 229. 229 CAH 8-87, DGRBM 3-1014, OCD 368, 1048, atl3
c.229 Consul Gn. Fulvius CENTUMALUS with 20,000 inf, 2,000 cav sail from Italy in 200 ships for Corcyra, thinking it still besieged.  DEMETRIUS of Pharos betrays Teuta, delivers the Illyrian garrison to Centumalus Demetrius and Corcyrans place themselves under Romans, for protection from IllyriansCentumalus sails for Apollonia.  CORCYRA becomes Roman naval base until at least 189. Polybius
Histories 2:11
230 MCAW
229 DGRBM 3-1014 HRRP 1-508, OCD 325, SORH, atl3, wikDΦ
228 OCD 289
c.229 1st ROME / ILLYRIA WAR begins until 228.  Romans attack Illyria until 228. 229 B76 III-356, 15-1091, CAH 7.2, 8,
CDCC 10, 253, IDB 2-681, LEWH 99, OCD 928, wikIW     229/8 CAH 7.1
c.229 Consuls Gn. Fulvius CENTUMALUS and L. Postumius ALBINUS with 20,000 inf, 2,000 cav meet at Apollonia. Polybius Histories 2:11 229 HRRP 1-508
c.229 APOLLONIA Illyria joins Romans, comes under Rome as a free city until ?. 229 OCD 83, SORH
c.229 ISSA island, besieged by Illyrians 229 relieved by Romans. 229 atl3
c.229 EPIDAMNUS, besieged by Illyrians 229 relieved by Romans, allies with Rome. 229 SORH atl3
c.229 TEUTA ends.  Regent of Illyria 231-28, flees from Romans to Rhizon in Dalmatia, remains queen of some Illyrians until 181.  Scerdilaidas becomes ruler of parts of her kingdom without title of king. 229
DGRBM 3-739, atl3, wikDΦ     228 GHH
c.229 PharosDEMETRIUS of Pharos island, supported by Romans, succeeds Teuta, as regent of Illyria for king Pinnes. 229 SORH, wikDΦ
c.229 Consuls Gn. Fulvius CENTUMALUS and L. Postumius ALBINUS return to Epidamnus.  Centumalus leaves 40 ships at Epidamnus and sails for Italy. Polybius Histories 2:11
229 atl3
c.229 DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus, king of Macedonia 239-29 tries to take part of Dardania.  He is defeated by LONGAROS king of the Dardani 231-06. 229 wikLng
c.229 DEMETRIUS-II Aetolicus dies.  King of Macedonia from 239, defeated by Dardanians on north frontier, dies.  His son Philip-V is age 9Son of Demetrius the Fair, ANTIGONUS-III Doson elected regent by army until 227, marries dead kings widow PHTHIA. 230/29 BHS 1-205
229 B76 III-456, 8-383, CAH 7.1-453, 483, 8, CDCC 52, DGRBM 1-189, Dur 2-556, GHH, LEWH 91, MCAW, OCD 70, 325, anan, atl3, bk, frH, lvG 229/8 CAH 7.1
c.229 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, regent of Macedonia 229-27, expells Dardanians, recovers most of Thessaly from Aetolians until 229/8, but renounces Phthionic Achaea and influence south of Thermopylae. 229
B76 8-383, OCD 70
c.229 AMBRACIA, under Aetolians from 232, joins Aetolian League until 189. 229 rcSB2
c.229 ACHAEANS & AETOLIANS defeated off Paxos (14km south of Corcyra) by IllyriansGeneral Margos of Cerynia of 2nd Achaean League is killed.  This is the last joint action by Achaeans & Aetolians. 229
CAH 7.1-244, 453, 7.2
c.229 Alliance of AETOLIAN and ACHAEAN Leagues from 239 ends. 229 B76 I-117
c.229 ARATOS of Sicyon, honcho of 2nd Achaean League 251-13, frees Athens. 229 Dur 2-556
c.229 Athens joins 2nd Achaean League. 229 GHH
c.229 PIRAEUS, under a Macedonian garrison from ?, liberated by Macedonian consent. 229 CDCC 684 228 atl3
c.229 Aetolian League invades western Thessaly until 228. Thessaly 229 atl3 229/8
CAH 7.1
c.229 ACHAE, PHTHIOTIS, THESSALIOTIS, HISTIAEOTIS (all regions of Thessaly), under Macedonia from ? siezed by Aetolian League until 229/8. 229
B76 8-383
c.229 METHONE, on west coast of Messenia, raided by Illyrians. 229 atl3
c.229 ARISTOMACHOS, pro-Macedonian tyrant of Argos from 234, expelled. 229 DGRBM 1-307, LEWH 91,
OCD 92     228 B76 8-383     227 rcPl
c.229 ARGOS, under Macedonia from ?, independent until 225.  Joins 2nd Achaean League until 226. 229 B76 I-479, 506, LEWH 91, CAH 7.1, DGRG 1-204, OCD 92, atl3
228 B76 8-383
c.229 Conflict between 2nd Achaean League and Sparta begins until 22?. 229 B76 II-989
c.229 ARISTOCREON, Stoic philosopher, neph of Chrysippos, arrives in Athens until 190. 229 CHHΦ, wikArs
c.229/8 DIOGENES, Macedonian governor of Athens sells Athens its freedom, withdraws Macedonian garrison. 229 B76 8-382, LEWH 91
229/8 CAH 7.1
228 mid CAH 7.1
c.229/8 PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I supports Greeks in their war against Macedonia until 222, but is unable to keep out of internal quarrels of Greeks. 229/8 lvPt3
c.229/8 CLEOMENES-III Agiad king of Sparta 235-21, sent by ephors, seizes BELBINA (Belmina?), a town claimed by Megalopolis, on the border between Arcadia and Laconia.  Cleomenes fortifies the temple of Athena nearby. 229 atl3, wikCW 227
DGRBM 1-794
c.229/8 ORCHOMENOS and CAPHYAE in Arcadia, under Aetolian League from ?, received (perhaps at their own request) by Cleomenes-III Agiad king of Sparta 235-21. 229 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1-451, 456, OCD 250, wikCW
229/8 CAH 7.1
c.229/8 TEGEA  Arcadia in Aetolian League from 233, (perhaps at its own request) taken by Cleomenes-III, comes under Sparta until 218. 229 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1-451, 456, OCD 250, wikCW     229/8 CAH 7.1     228 rcPl
c.229/8 MANTINEA, under Aetolian League from 233, (perhaps at its own request) comes under Sparta until 227. 229 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1-451, 456, OCD 250, rcPl, wikCW 229/8 CAH 7.1
c.229/8 ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, makes no complaint of the Spartan seizure of Belbina, but tries a night attack to recover Tegea and Orchomenos from Spartans.  But the Achaean League conspirators in these towns chicken out. 229/8 CAH 7.1, wikCW       227 DGRBM 1-794
CONFUSION ALERT!  ORCHOMENOS is a city in Boeotia and another in Arcadia.
c.229/8 CLEONYMOS, tyrant of Phlius, lays down tyranny and joins 2nd Achaean League. 229/8
CAH 7.1-456
c.229/8 XENON, tyrant of Hermione Argolis lays down tyranny and joins 2nd Achaean League. 229/8
CAH 7.1-456
c.229/8 AEGINA island joins 2nd Achaean League. 229 atl3     229/8 CAH 7.1-456
c.229/8 Thessaly, under Macedonia from 229, rebels. 229/8 CAH 7.1
c.229/8 Thessalian regions THESSALIOTIS, HISTIAEOTIS, under Aetolian League from 229 recovered by Antigonus-III Doson, but Aetolians retain ACHAE PHTHIOTIS. Thessaly 229/8
CAH 7.1
c.229/8 PERRAEBIA, northeast district of Thessaly, recovered by Antigonus-III Doson.  Major cities of Perraebia are: Pythion, Doliche, Azoros, Oloosson and Phalana. 229/8
CAH 7.1
c.229/8 Boeotia and Phocis ally with 2nd Achaean League. 229/8 CAH 7.1
c.228 L. Postumius ALBINUS, consul 229, becomes proconsul to conclude peace treaty with Illyrians. 228 wikLPA
c.228 1st Roman embassy to Greece arrives in Aetolia. 228 GHH, SORH
c.228 HELIODOROS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 227. 228 wikEA
c.228 Roman embassy goes to Achaea. 228 SORH
c.228 EPIDAMNUS Illyria renamed DYRRHACHIUM by Romans.  Dyrrhachium was originally the headland under which the city Epidamnus was located.  It now becomes the name of the city itself. 300 OCD 367 228 atl3
c.228 TEUTA, still queen of Ardiae Illyrians 229-181 at Rhizon, makes peace with Rome represented by proconsul L. Postumius Albinus, agrees to give up most of her dominions (most to stepson Pinnes), restrain her subjects from raiding Greek states, and not sail south of Lissos island. 229 SORH     228 B76 V-304, DGRBM 3-1014, HRR, atl3
227 wikLRI
c.228 1st ROME / ILLYRIA WAR from 229 ends.  Illyrians withdraw from conquests.  Romans, in Illyria from 230, mostly withdraw, but still occupy part of Illyrian coast. 229 B76 15-1091
228 B76 8-383, CAH 7.2, OCD 928, OHG, bk, wikIW
c.228 CLEOMENES-III Agiad king of Sparta 235-21, invades ARCADIA, provoking war with 2nd Achaean League. 228 OCD 250
c.228 2nd Achaean League declares war on Sparta. 229 wikCW     229/8 CAH 7.1-457 228 atl3     227 DGRBM
c.228 CLEOMENES-III Agiad king of Sparta 235-21, responds to war declaration by ravaging Achaea. 229/8 wikCW
c.228 ATHENAEUM fortress built on the borders of Arcadia in Belbina. 228 GHH
c.228 CLEOMENES-III Agiad king of Sparta 235-21, sent by ephors, seizes the Athenaeum, a fortress of disputed ownership on the borders of Arcadia in Belbina. 229 wikCW
229/8
CAH 7.1-457
c.228 1st Roman ambassadors to Corinth and Athens. 228 CAH 8, HRR, TToH, atl3
c.228 CAPHYAE Arcadia seized by Aratos, strategos of 2nd Achaean League until 225. 228 CAH 7.1-457
228 May ARATOS strategos of 2nd Achaean League (9th time) from 229, ends.  ARISTOMACHOS of Argos succeeds until May 227. May 228 CAH 7.1, atl3, wikCW
c.228 MolossiaOpuntian LOCRIS under Boeotia from 234, taken by Antigonus-III Doson. 228 CAH 7.1
c.228 Romans are invited by Athens to participate in Eleusinian mysteries. 228 MCAW
c.228 Romans are admitted to Isthmian games at Corinth, and diplomatically allowed to win. 228 CAH 7.1-258, 7.2, 8-90, 426, DGRA 646, LdHR 1-325, SORH, atl3     225 GHH
c.228 Western Thessaly, under Aetolian League from 229 recovered by Antigonus-III Doson. 228 atl3
c.228 Son of Agis-IV, EUDAMIDAS-III ends.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 241, with Cleomemes-III from 235.  Uncle ARCHIDAMUS-V succeeds. 228 MRDK, OCD 1007-8, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.228 CLEOMENES-III Agiad king of Sparta 235-21, in Arcadia from 228, recalled by ephors. 228 atl3
c.228 ARCHIDAMUS-V dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 228, murdered by the faction which had killed Agis 241, but it is blamed on Agiad Cleomenes-III, who makes his bro EUCLEIDAS co-king to 221.  EURYPONTID dynasty ends.  Began 890. 228 MRDK, OCD 1008, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
228 atl3
c.227 Macedonian army at Pella threatens mutiny against regent Antigonus-III Doson. 228 CAH 7.1, OCD 70
c.227 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, regent of Macedonia from 229 for Philip-V, proclaimed king until 221, but remains loyal to Philip-V. 227 B76 I-419, 8-383, CAH 7.1, LEWH 91, OCD 70, atl3
c.227 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21 invades CARIA, gains lands there and in Aegean, and alliances in Crete.  In Ionia until 227/6 227 B76 8-383,
CAH 7.1-429, 460, CDCC 674, OCD 70
c.227 Antiochus HIERAX, failed in Syria and Mesopotamia, flees to Thrace (a part of it under Ptolemaic troops), lives as prisoner until escape 226. 227 B76 I-424, LEWH 93, OCD 72
c.227 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, resumes Spartan custom of ravaging Peloponnesian cities.  2nd Achaean League intervenes. 227 wikAS
c.227 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, with 5,000 Spartans, confronts ARISTOMACHOS leading Achaean army of 20,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry at Pallantium.  Aratos persuades Aristomachos that the odds are not favorable enough for battle. 228 atl3, wikCW
227 DGRBM 2-860
227 May ARISTOMACHOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 228, suspended.  ARATOS resumes (10th time) until 226. May 227 CAH 7.1-457, atl3
c.227 HELIODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 228, ends.  LEOCHARES succeeds until 226. 227 wikEA
c.227 ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, leads Achaean army against Elis, but is stopped by Cleomenes-III on Mt. Lycaeum (Lycaeos) in Arcadia, and defeated.  Aratos flees, and is presumed dead. 227 B76 II-989, spring CAH 7.1-457, GHH, OCD 92, bk, wikCW
226 DGRBM 1-794
c.227 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, defeats 2nd Achaean League at Ladoceia in Arcadia near Megalopolis. 227 B76 II-989, CAH 7.1,
OCD 92, 250, atl3
c.227 LYDIADES, son of Eudamas, Megalopolitan in 2nd Achaean League from 235, disobeys orders of Aratos of Sicyon, leads cavalry charge at Ladoceia Arcadia, routs Spartans, but pursues too far, and is killed. 227 CAH 7.1, OCD 92, 629, atl3
c.227 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22 captures Alea and Heraea Arcadia. 227 CAH 7.1
c.227 Achaeans blame Aratos for death of Lydiades, and deny him access to public funds. 227 atl3
c.227 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, deposes Spartan ephors until 222, executes 4 of the 5 ephors, cancels debts, raises citizen body to 4,000 by radical land redistribution, introduces Macedonian military tactics. 227 B76 II-989, 8-383, fall CAH 7.1-459, LEWH 91, atl3, bk     226 GHH     225 LdHR 2-7     226-24 Dur 2-556
c.227 MANTINEA, under Sparta from 229, captured by Aratos, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, who instals 300 Achaean settlers and a garrison of 200 mercenaries.  Mantinea comes under League until 226. 227 CAH 7.1-457, atl3, wikAS
226 DGRBM 1-794
c.227 ORCHOMENOS Arcadia besieged by Aratos, strategos of 2nd Achaean League. 227 CAH 7.1-457
c.227 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, advances into territory of Megalopolis, takes Leuktra.  In response, an Achaean army arrives, relieves Leuktra, and defeats the Spartan army based nearest the city walls.  Cleomenes retreats with his troops across a series of ravines. 227 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1, LEWH 91, atl3, bk
226-24 Dur 2-556
c.227 MEGALOPOLIS taken by CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta, and garrisoned. 227 wikAS 223 GHH
c.227/6 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, in Ionia from 227, returns to Macedonia. 227/6
CAH 7.1-459
c.226 ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League 227-6, defeats a Spartan force near Orchomenos Arcadia, taking prisoner Megistonous, Cleomenes' step-father (he is later ransomed). 227/6 CAH 7.1-463 226 CAH 7.1-463, DGRBM 2-1010, atl3
c.226 ANTIOCHUS HIERAX, son of Antiochus-II & Laodice-I, virtual prisoner in Thrace from 227, escapes to mountains of Thrace, killed by Celts.  Since this part of Thrace is Ptolemaic controled, some sources say he died in Egypt. 227/6 BHS 1-202
226 B76 I-424, 634,
CAH 7.1-429, LEWH 93, OCD 72, atl3
killed by robbers in Egypt. 226 DGRBM 1-194, wikAH
c.226 CERCIDAS of Megalopolis, sent by Aratos of Sicyon to ANTIGONUS-III Doson at Pella Macedonia, to ask for help against Cleomenes-III. 227/6 CAH 7.1 226 OCD 223, atl3
226 May ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 227, ends.  HYPERBATAS succeeds until May 225. May 226
CAH 7.1-463
c.226 LEOCHARES, eponymous archon of Athens from 227, ends.  THEOPHILOS succeeds until 225. 226 wikEA
c.226 Council of 2nd Achaean League decides against alliance with Antigonus-III Doson, because it would mean surrendering Corinth. fall 226 atl3
c.226 MANTINEA, under 2nd Achaean League from 227, but helped by a pro-Spartan party within, taken at night by Cleomenes-III, back under Sparta until 223.  Achaean mercenary garrison is expelled, Achaean settlers executed. 226 B76 II-989
CAH 7.1-463, atl3, rcPl
c.226 After Mantinea Cleomenes-III goes to Tegea, then into north-west Achaea. fall 226 CAH 7.1, wikCW
c.226 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22 approaches 2nd Achaean League at Dyme Achaea. 226
CAH 7.1
c.226/5 At the Hecatombaeum near DYME, Hyperbatas, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, challenges Cleomenes-III to battle, and is badly defeated.  Cleomenes seizes the border fortress of Lasion, and gives it to Elis.  The 2 sides negotiate a truce and, under pressure from a peace party in Achaea, Cleomenes is invited to a conference to discuss hegemony, but this is postponed until 225. 226 B76 II-989, GHH, wikDG, atl3
226/5
CAH 7.1-463
224
DGRBM 2-537
c.226/5 Athenian embassy to Antigonus-III Doson at Pella includes philosopher Prytanis of Carystos. 226/5 CAH 7.1-455 225 CHHΦ
c.225 PHILO of Byzantium, engineer, flourishes, mostly in Alexandria.
Designs a chain drive to repeat-load a catapult, advocates bronze springs in catapults.
Experiments on expanding air by means of heat.
280-20 wikPB
260-41 TTS
225 CAH 7.1-359
200 OHG 443
c.225 CATAPULT design improved by Philo of Byzantium.
2 types:  euthytone (stretched-straight),  palintone (stretched-back).
225 CAH 7.1-358 description: lgn24
225 May HYPERBATAS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 226, ends.  Aratos stands down in favor of supporter, TIMOXENOS, who succeeds until May 224. May 225
CAH 7.1-463, atl3
c.225 THEOPHILOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 226, ends.  ERGOCHARES succeeds until 224. 225 wikEA
c.225 LYCON of Troas, head of Lyceum from 270, rival of Hieronymos, dies of gout age 74.  Encouraged athletics as well as mental exercise.  Wrote on the boundaries of Good & evil.  ARISTO of Ceos succeeds to 190, a man of taste and elegance, deficient in content and energy. 230 DGRBM 1-310
226 GHH       225 OCD 112, wikLC
226/5 or 24/3 CHHΦ     224 atl3
c.225 ARGOS, independent from 229, in 2nd Achaean League from 229, siezed by CLEOMENES-III of Sparta, under him until 224. 226 rcPl
225 OCD 250
223 B76 I-506, DGRBM 2-1010
c.225 A postponed conference between Cleomenes-III and Achaeans reconvenes at Argos.  Achaeans offer Cleomenes leadership of Achaean League, but negotiations break down over conditions which Aratos wants to impose. mid 225
CAH 7.1-464, atl3
c.225 After conference breakdown, Cleomenes-III marches over the mountains, seizes Pellene, Pheneos and adjacent citadel of Penteleium.  Cleonae and Phlius defect to Cleomenes. 225 atl3
no date
B76 II-989, CAH 7.1-465
c.225 SICYON under Aratos, besieged by Macedonians 4 months, surrenders. 225/4 CAH 7.1 224 wikAS
c.225 CAPHYAE Arcadia, under 2nd Achaean League from 228, defects to Cleomenes. 225 atl3
no date CAH 7.1-465
c.225 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, institutes reforms. 225 DGRBM
c.225 ARATOS of Sicyon, honcho of 2nd Achaean League 251-13, sees league dissolving, fears social revolution, sends an embassy to ANTIGONUS-III Doson of Macedonia requesting help against Cleomenes-III. 226 wikAnt3
225 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1, LEWH 92, atl3     224 DGRBM
c.225 ANTIGONUS of Carystos, writer, flourishes.  Chief work is  Successions of Philosophers  drawn from personal knowledge. 225 GHH
no date: wikAC
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, moves south. 224 CAH 7.1
c.224 ARATOS of Sicyon meets ANTIGONUS-III Doson at Pegae.  Antigonus had brought 20,000 soldiers plus 1,300 cavalry.  Aratos trades Corinth for military aid.  They sware reciprocal fidelity. 224 atl3, wikAS
c.224 CORINTH, under 2nd Achaean League from 243, is given to ANTIGONUS-III Doson to secure his support against the Aetolians and Cleomenes-III. 224 atl3, wikAS
223 DGRG 1-677
c.224 ACROCORINTH (citadel of Corinth) given to Hellenic League, garrisoned with Macedonians. 224 B76 15-1093
c.224 Spartan MEGISTONOUS, trying to prevent Argos from being captured by Aratos and Antigonus-III Doson, dies. 224 bril
224 May TIMOXENOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League from May 225, ends.  ARATOS resumes (11th time) until May 223.  Provided with a Sicyonian bodyguard, invested with judicial authority to investigate alleged cases of disaffection in Sicyon and Corinth. May 224
CAH 7.1-463
no date
CAH 7.1-465
c.224 ARATOS escapes with his bodyguard from Corinth to Sicyon, attends a meeting of Achaeans at Aegion (Aegium) Achaea. 224 Apr CAH 7.1-463, OCD 250, RAH 387
c.224 CLEOMENES-III traverses Argolis by way of Hermione, Troezen and Epidauros, taking these cities en route. 224 Apr CAH 7.1-463, OCD 250, RAH 387
c.224 ERGOCHARES, eponymous archon of Athens from 225, ends.  NICETES succeeds until 223. 224 wikEA
c.224 CORINTH besieged by CLEOMENES-III of Sparta, who threatens to shatter the 2nd Achaean League. 224 OCD 250, RAH 387
c.224 ATHENAEUM fort in south Arcadia built by Cleomenes-III. 224 DGRG 1-308
c.224 ARISTOMACHOS of Argos is captured by Achaeans and drowned in the sea off Cenchrae Argolis. 224 CAH 7.1-468, atl3
c.224 A new HELLENIC LEAGUE is created by ANTIGONUS-III Doson of Macedonia with him in charge, before attacking Sparta.  Achaea, Epirus, Phocis, Boeotia, Thessaly, Acarnania, Opuntian Locris, Euboea, and of course including Macedonia.  Each state must ratify decisions. 224 B76 I-419, Sep CAH 7.1, bk, wikAnt3
224/3
CAH 7.1-226
c.224 2nd Achaean LEAGUE from 280, permitted by Aratos of Sicyon to join HELLENIC LEAGUE under ANTIGONUS-III Doson of Macedonia.  This arrangement lasts until 194. 224 B76 8-383, CAH 7.1, OCD 3, 70, 92
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, leading his Hellenic League, advances to isthmus of Corinth to confront Cleomenes-III besieging Corinth. 224 B76 8-383, atl3, OCD 70
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, fails to penetrate Cleomenes-III's lines near Corinth. 224 B76 II-989
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, invades Peloponnese, drives Spartans out of Argos, takes some forts belonging to Cleomenes-III, near Aegys and Belbina on the Arcadia/Laconia border. 224
CAH 7.1, atl3, wikΦlp
c.224 ARGOS, under Cleomenes-III from 225, scared by Macedonians at isthmus, rebels, independent until 198. 224 B76 8-383,
CAH 7.1, OCD 250, atl3
c.224 MEGARA, under 2nd Achaean League from ?, goes over to Boeotia. 224 CAH 7.1-450
c.224 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, retreats to home state of Laconia. 224 B76 8-383
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, advances against Laconia, but Cleomenes had blocked all mountain passes except for one near Sellasia, where Cleomenes waits with his army. 224 wikΦlp
c.224 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, sends his mother as a hostage to Egypt in excange for financial and military aid. 224 atl3
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, attends Council of Achaean League at Aegion (Aegium), and is elected hegemon (commander-in-chief) of league of Greek states. 224 fall
CAH 7.1-468, atl3
c.224 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, goes into winter quarters between Corinth and Sicyon. 224 late
CAH 7.1-468
c.224/3 TRIBES of Athens, 12 from 306, increased to 13 by addition of Ptolemias.  Remain 13 until 200. 224/3 stoa
c.223 Northern EPIRUS conquered by Illyrian fleet. 223 vrb
c.223 ARCADIA, ally of Cleomenes-III of Sparta from ?, defects to ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia. 223
B76 8-383
c.223 While Cleomenes-III attacks Megalopolis, Antigonus-III emerges from winter quarters and takes Tegea, returns to take Orchomenos then Mantinea. 223
CAH 7.1-470, atl3
CONFUSION ALERT!  ORCHOMENOS is a city in Boeotia and another in Arcadia.
c.223 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia taken at night by Cleomenes-III.  Philopoemen puts up a heroic defense while most of the population escape into Messenia.  Cleomenes fails to persuade the rest to join him.  He destroys Megalopolis and takes its valuables to Sparta. 224 DGRBM 3-1022 223 spring CAH 7.1-470, OCD 250, atl3     222 B76 8-383, DGRBM 3-318
c.223 NICETES, eponymous archon of Athens from 224, ends.  ANTIPHILOS succeeds until 222. 223 wikEA
c.223 THEARIDAS and Lysandridas are taken prisoner by Cleomenes-III in Megalopolis.  They persuade Cleomenes to offer favorable terms to citizens who had escaped to Messene.  But the Megalopolitans refuse his overtures, and denounce Lysandridas and Thearidas as traitors. 224 DGRBM 3-1022
c.223 MANTINEA, under Sparta from 226, taken by Antigonus-III, sacked, population massacred or enslaved, under Macedonia until 168. 223 CAH 7.1-470, rcPl     222 DGRBM
223 May TIMOXENOS becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League until May 222. 223 DGRBM 3-1151
223 ARGOS taken by TIMOXENOS strategos of 2nd Achaean League, who resists efforts of Cleomenes-III to recover it. 223 DGRBM 3-1151
c.223 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21 goes from Mantinea into western Arcadia, receives surrender of Heraea and Telpusa. 223
CAH 7.1-470, atl3
c.223 Orchomenos and Heraea receive Macedonian garrisons which remain until 199/8Antigonus then sends his Macedonian troops home for winter until next spring. 223
CAH 7.1-470
c.223 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22 liberates 6,000 helots who pay 5 minas each for freedom, thus raises 500 talents and acquires additional heavy troops. 223
CAH 7.1-470, atl3
c.223 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, attends another Council of Achaean League at Aegion (Aegium). 223 atl3
c.222 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22, marches into Argolis, ravages the countryside without resistance up to the walls of Argos, before returning to plunder Arcadia. 222 spring CAH 7.1-471, atl3
c.222 CLEOMENES-III, leads 2nd raid against Argos. 222 atl3
c.222 ANTIGONUS-III Doson and Macedonian army returns to Greece. May 222 CAH 7.1-471
c.222 ANTIGONUS-III Doson advances into Laconia with nearly 29,000 men, of whom 13,300 are Macedonian; the remaining 14,000 include 1600 Illyrians under Demetrius of Pharos Galatians, Agrianians and other mercenaries with troops provided by allies, among whom the 4,300 Achaeans (including 1,000 Megalopolitans) form the largest group.  They camp opposite Cleomenes at Sellasia. mid 222 CAH 7.1-471
c.222 ANTIPHILOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 223, ends.  EUXENOS succeeds until 221. 222 wikEA
c.222 PHILOPOEMEN with 1,000 inf and some cav, joins Antigonus-III before Sellasia. 221 DGRBM 3-318
c.222 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta 235-22 learns that Ptolemy-(III or IV) has cut off aid and bids him make peace with Antigonus.  This forces Cleomenes to either make peace or fight. mid 222
CAH 7.1-471, atl3
c.222 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, helped by Philopoemen and Demetrius of Pharos, defeats Cleomenes-III at SELLASIAAntigonus defeats and occupies Sparta. 222 B76 I-419, 989, 8-382-3, CAH 7.1-226, 469, 8-91, CDCC 804, DGRBM 1-795, GHH, LEWH 92, MCAW, OCD 70, 325, RAH 387, atl3, bk, wikDΦ     222/1 CDCC 3, 63, 489
221 CDGRA 471, DGRBM, Dur 2-556
c.222 LONGAROS king of Dardania 231-06, invades north Macedonia. 222 CAH 7.1-472, atl3, wikLng
c.222 MANTINEA refounded by Achaeans as ANTIGONEIA. May 222 atl3
c.222 CLEOMENES-III, Agiad king of Sparta from 235, overthrown at Sellasia, returns to Sparta, then flees to Egypt until death 220.  Bro EUCLEIDAS, continues to 221. 222 B76 II-989, 8-382-3, July CAH 7.1, GHH, LEWH 92, MCAW, OCD 70, 250, OHG, bk, lvG, wikKS     221 DGRBM, MRDK, OCD 1007-8, TToH
c.222 SPHAEROS of Borysthenes, Stoic philosopher, in Sparta from 240, accompanies Cleomenes-III to Egypt. 222 CHHΦ, wikSΦ
c.222 PHILOPOEMEN, having proven himself at Sellasia, turns down a job offer from Antigonus-III. 221
DGRBM 3-318
c.222 ANTIGONUS-III Doson, king of Macedonia 227-21, leaves Macedonian Taurion in charge of Greece, leaves Brachylles to govern Sparta until ?.  Antigonus marches north to deal with Dardanians, pauses at Tegea to make constitutional changes and attend the Nemean games at Argos. 222
CAH 7.1-472, DGRBM 1-501, OCD 70, atl3
c.222 PHOCIS in Amphictiony from 278, comes under Macedonia until 199. 222 rcSB3
222 May TIMOXENOS strategos of 2nd Achaean League from 223, ends.  ARATOS succeeds (12th time) until May 221. May 222 CAH 7.1
c.222 PharosDEMETRIUS of PHAROS extends his power over towns of Illyria. 222
LEWH 92
c.222 Spartan EPHORS deposed from 227, restored by Antigonus-III Doson. 222 LEWH 92
c.222 SPARTA forced by Antigonus-III Doson to join Hellenic League until 220. 222 LEWH 92
c.222/1 ANTIGONUS-III Doson defeats and expels Dardanians, but over-exerts himself, bursts a blood-vessel, and falls fatally ill. 222 CAH 7.1-472
221 atl3
220 DGRBM 1-189
c.222/1 PHILIP, son of Antigonus-III Doson is in the Peloponnese. 222/1 CAH 7.1
c.221 After Sellasia DEMETRIUS of Pharos island begins encroaching on Illyria.  In 221 he allies with Illyrian Histri in Istria at the north Adriatic, who interfered with Roman supply ships.  A Roman fleet soon attacks the Histri. 221
CAH 8-91, wikDΦ
c.221 ISTRIA peninsula occupied by Romans. 221 HRRP 1-521
c.221 Philosopher PRYTANIS of Carystos is appointed by Antigonus-III Doson to draw up a legal code at Megalopolis. 221 atl3
c.221 Son of Demetrius the Fair, ANTIGONUS-III Doson dies.  Regent of Macedonia 229-27, King from 227, dies of consumption.  Adopted son age 17, and rightful king, PHILIP-V, succeeds until 179.  Antigonus had appointed him guardians: Apelles, Leontius: captain of the peltasts, Megaleas:  secretary of state, Taurion: general over Peloponnese, and Alexander: commander of the bodyguard. 222 CDCC 541
221 B76 I-419, 8-383,
July CAH 7.1, 8, DGRBM 3-984, Dur 2-556, LEWH 92, MRDK, OCD 70, OHG, RAH 388, anan, atl3, bk, frH, lvG
220 DGRBM 1-189, GHH, MCAW
c.221 EUXENOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 222, ends.  Successor unknown until 220. 221 wikEA
c.221 Aetolian DORIMACHOS son of Nicostratos, goes to Phigalea on the Arcadia/Messenia border, ostensibly to defend it, but really to watch the Peloponnese for opportunities for the Aetolians to attack. 221 DGRBM 1-1067
c.221 Aetolian DORIMACHOS, based in Phigalea, begins raiding Messenia, Epirus. Achaea, Acarnania, and Macedonian controled territory. 221 CAH 7.1-474, DGRBM 1-1067
c.221 Messenian ephors fine Aetolian DORIMACHOS for encouraging brigands to attack their territory. 221 atl3
221 May ARATOS, strategos of 2nd Achaean League (12 th time) from May 222, suspended.  TIMOXENOS succeeds until May 220. May 221 CAH 7.1, GHH
c.221 Illyrian commander Scerdilaidas makes treaty of mutual non-aggression with Aetolians under Agelaos. 221
DGRBM 1-68
c.221 Aetolian aggression at Clarium near Megalopolis, in Epirus, Acarnania, Peloponnese, and on high seas. 221 fall
CAH 7.1, atl3
c.221 EUPHORION of Chalcis, student of Lacydes and Prytanis, poet, gramarian, goes from Athens to Syria. 221
DGRBM 2-97
c.221 PYTHIAN GAMES, usually at Delphi, are held at Athens because the Aetolians control the passes around Delphi. 221 CDGRA 528
221 CLARIUM, a strong fort near Megalopolis previously occupied by Aetolians, taken by Timoxenos strategos of 2nd Achaean League, who is helped by Taurion, Macedonian general over Peloponnese. 221 DGRBM 3-984
220 atl3
c.221 Aetolians DORIMACHOS and SCOPAS, based in Phigalea on the Arcadia/Messenia border, continue raiding Messenia. 221
CAH 7.1-474
c.221 PHILOPOEMEN, now a mercenary leader, sails to Crete until 210. 221 DGRBM 3-318, wikΦlp
c.221 EUCLEIDAS, Agiad king of Sparta from 222, ends.  Sparta is a republic to 219. 221 MRDK, OCD 1008, rcPl
c.221/0 Aetolian League, under Ariston & Scopas, without provocation, invades Messenia, ravages Achaean League territory. 221/0 CAH 7.1 220 B76 I-117, DGRG 1-66, GHH, spring wikSA
200 BCE

Balkan Peninsula 220-201
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