Greece
c.275 PYRRHUS king of Epirus, away from Epirus since 280, in Italy from 276, returns with only 8,000 inf and 500 cav to Epirus.  He can't even pay them without resorting to new wars. 275 BCoC 485, CAH 7.1-221, 7.2, Dur 3-38, LEWH 91, MCAW, OHG, RAH 385, TToH     274 B76 1-991, DGRBM 3-614, LdHR 2-6, bk
c.275 CLEONYMOS, Spartan noble, banished from Sparta. 275 OCD 251
c.275 CLEONYMOS, banished Spartan noble, calls in PYRRHUS of Epirus for help against Areos-I, Agiad king of Sparta 309-265. no date: LEWH 91
c.275 PHILOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 276, ends.  OLBIOS succeeds until 274. 275 wikEA
c.275 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, dies.  His son gets a statue erected in his honor, containing a record of his public services: a better management of state finances (after his return in 287) and successful begging missions to rulers of Egypt and Macedon. 275 wikDmc
c.275 AEGION (Aegium) on coast of Achaea, seat of the shrine of Zeus Homarios, joins 2nd Achaean League. 275 CAH 7.1, atl3 275/4 CAH 7.1-244
c.275 Achaea and CERYNIA (both of which had been under tyrants) join 2nd Achaean League. 275 DGRG 1-15, atl3 275/4 CAH 7.1-244
275 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-39 loses 3 of his remaining Achaean towns, Aigion, Bura, Cerynia.  His remaining 3 are probably lost in the war with Pyrrhus. 275 TAG 205
c.275 BURA Achaea kills its tyrant, and joins Achaean League. 275 DGRG 1-457, atl3 275/4 CAH 7.1-244
c.275 Gymnasium built by Ptolemy-II at Athens near Temple of Theseus. 275 DGRG 1-258
c.275 CRANTOR of Soli, pupil of Xenocrates, friend of Polemo, supporter of older Academy philosophy, dies of dropsy, leaving 12 talents to Arcesilaos of Pitane. 276/5 wikCr
274 atl3
c.275  HIBAH PAPYRUS  mentions 27 Athenian religious festivals. 275 wikAGUM
c.275 PANTHOIDES, Megarian dialectician and philosopher, flourishes.  Writes  On Ambiguities .  Says everything that has happened must be true, therefore nothing is possible which can never be true.  Teacher of Lyco of Troas. 280-75 CHHΦ     275 wikPn
c.275 ARCHIDAMOS-IV Eurypontid king of Sparta from 305, with Agiad Areos-I, ends.  Son EUDAMIDAS-II, succeeds to 245. 275 OCD 1007, lvG, wikKS
c.275/4 ATHENS, now firmly under Antigonus-II Gonatas:  Pro-Macedonians pass decree honoring one of their most prominent men, Phaidros of Sphettos.  His father Thymochares had been a devotee of Cassander, to whom he had rendered many services on sea and land as commander of Athenian contingents aiding Cassander against Antigonus-I. 275/4 TAG 45, 218
c.274 PYRRHUS king of Epirus hires Celt mercenaries for plundering campaigns - payment contingent on victory.  He is successful enough to tackle Macedonia. 273 DGRBM 3-614, TAG 260
c.274 MACEDONIA, under Antigonus-II, invaded by PYRRHUS king of Epirus in force by way of the Aoos pass.  He defeats Antigonus and wins over the Macedonian army.  Antigonus flees to Thessaloica. 274 CAH 7.1-221, GHH, atl3
273 DGRBM 3-614, TAG 264
c.274 Upper MACEDONIA, under Antigonus-II from ?, taken by PYRRHUS king of Epirus until 272. 274 B76 1-991, CAH 7.1, LEWH 91, 96     273 DGRBM 3-614
c.274 Royal sepulchers at Agae plundered by Epirotes. 274 GHH
c.274 Lower MACEDONIA is saved for now by Antigonus-II's system of mercenary garrisons, and of governors appointed by himself.  Here Antigonus begins to collect an army. 273 TAG 264
c.274 AGAE Macedonia resists PYRRHUS king of Epirus, and is taken and sacked.  His Gallic mercenaries plundered the tombs of the kings, stealing gold and scattering the bones.  Pyrrhus neither hinders nor punishes.  He turns south to Thessaly. 274 atl3 273 TAG 264
c.274 THESSALY, under Antigonus-II from ?, taken by PYRRHUS king of Epirus. 274 B76 1-991, LEWH 91, 96
c.274 Ptolemaeos son of Pyrrhus sails a small force to reduce Corcyra. 274 DGRBM 3-566
c.274 OLBIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 275, ends.  EUBULOS succeeds until 273. 274 wikEA
c.274 Panatheneia games at Athens, suspended in 278 because of Celt invasion, resumed. 274
TAG 218
c.274 ALEXIS of Thurii, leading Middle Comedy poet dies. 274 atl3
c.273 Pyrrhus leaves son Ptolemaeos in charge of Macedonia until 273/2, and returns to Epirus. 273 TAG 265
c.273 ODROES and ADAEOS kings of Odrysians in Thrace from 280, end.  SKOSTODOS succeeds until 260, alone until 265. 273 frH, rcSB2
c.273 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas collects troops from his garrisons, recruits more Gauls, attacks Ptolemaeos, and is so completely defeated that he escapes with only 7 companions. 273 CAH 7.1, TAG 265, atl3
c.273 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, expelled by Ptolemaeos.  PYRRHUS of Epirus, owns Macedonia until 272. 273 DGRBM 1-189, MCAW 273, frH
c.273 Poet ARATOS of Soli, at court of Antigonus-II Gonatas from 276, goes over to Antiochus-I Soter until ?. 273
TAG 223
c.273 THRACE, under Lysimachus from 323, comes under Celts until 213. 273 rcEB
c.273 CHERSONESE, under Thrace from 323, officially comes under Seleucids until 272, but still occupied by Celts. 273 rcT
c.273 EUBULOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 274, ends.  GLAUKIPPOS succeeds until 272. 273 wikEA
c.273 Acrotatos, son of Spartan king Areos-I, seduces Chelidonis, wife of Cleonymos. 273 DGRBM 3-614
c.273/2 Ptolemaeos son of Pyrrhus in charge of Macedonia 273, leaves Macedonia to look after itself and returns to Epirus. 273/2 TAG 266
c.273/2 ATHENS:  under Pro-Macedonian government from 276/5, replaced by a confused coalition with a moderate policy until 273. 273/2 TAG 267
c.272 LEUCAS Island west of Acarnania, annexed to Acarnania from 283/2, back in Acarnanian League until 167. 272 rcSB3
c.272 CHERSONESE, under Seleucids from 273, comes under Ptolemies until 213. 272 rcT
c.272 CLEONYMOS, a Spartan of royal blood, hated among fellow Spartans, asks Pyrrhus of Epirus to attack Sparta and enthrone him.  King Areos-I then being in Crete.  Cleonymos recruits an army in Megalopolis. 273 DGRBM 3-614, GHH 272 DGRBM 1-16, 799, atl3, wikA2G, wikPyr
c.272 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72 with 25,000 inf, 2,000 cav, 24 elephants passes thru Aetolia.  Sons Ptolemaeos and Helenos are with him. With Aetolian aid, he ships his army across to Achaea in Peloponnese. 272
CAH 7.1-224, OCD 70, TAG 266, atl3, bk, wikA2G
c.272 PYRRHUS enters Peloponnese.  Most of Antigonus' allies fall away.  Pyrrhus occupies Megalopolis.  But Antigonus' had never lost Corinth or the coastal cities.  They are strongly garrisoned and governed and supported by his fleet.  He must during winter and spring have recovered part of the country. 272 DGRBM 2-372, 3-566, 614,
GHH, TAG 266
c.272 MACEDONIA, under Pyrrhus from 273, recovered by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas until 239. 272 TAG 271
c.272 GLAUKIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 273, ends.  LYSITHEIDES succeeds until 271. 272 wikEA
c.272 At Megalopolis Spartan envoys meet Pyrrhus, who says he has no plans to attack Sparta.  Spartans don't buy it.  A messenger is sent to recall king Areos from Crete. 272
TAG 270
c.272 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas ships all his available troops to Corinth. 272 TAG 271
c.272 TROZEN Argolis, under Spartans from 278, expells Spartans. 272 CAH 7.1-231
c.272 PYRRHUS, king of Epirus 297-72 arrives at Sparta, and is repulsed by Acrotatos son of Areos.  So he attacks and besieges it. 272 mid CAH 7.1, DGRBM 3-614, GHH, TAG 271
c.272 Antigonus' general AMEINIAS, having marched from Corinth, arrives at Sparta to help defend it. 272
TAG 271
c.272 AREOS-I, Agiad king of Sparta 309-265, helping Gortyn in Crete from ?, returns with 2,000 Cretans plus auxiliaries to stop Pyrrhus, immediately allies with Argos, which draws Pyrrhus off Sparta to attack Argos. 272 DGRBM 1-279, OCD 70, 104, TAG 271, atl3
c.272 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Greece 283-39, Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, (and son Haycyoneos) sails from Macedonia to Greece to oppose PYRRHUS of Epirus. 272 DGRBM 2-325, wikA2G
c.272 PYRRHUS of Epirus besieging Sparta, is asked to intervene in a civic dispute in Argos between Aristeas and Aristippos, a partisan of Antigonus-II. 272 DGRBM 3-615, Dur 2-568
c.272 PYRRHUS of Epirus withdraws from Sparta northward.  In a pass in the hills Pyrrhus is ambushed by Areos and the SpartansPyrrhus' rear-guard cut up.  He sends his son Ptolemaeos to help them. 272 TAG 272
c.272 PTOLEMAEOS, eldest son of Pyrrhus, withdrawing from Sparta, killed by a Cretan fighting for Sparta. 272 DGRBM 3-566, 615, TAG 272, atl3
c.272 AREOS-I, Agiad king of Sparta 309-265 defeats Pyrrhus. 272 CAH 7.1, Dur 2-568, atl3, wikA2G
c.272 PYRRHUS of Epirus, defeated by Areos-I plunders Peloponnese. 272 wikA2G
c.272 ARGOS besieged by Pyrrhus of Epirus. 272 GHH
c.272 Antigonus-II Gonatas, takes a strong position on high ground near Argos.  Pyrrhus encamps about Nauplia (on coast between Argos & Asine) and challenges Antigonus to come down and fight on the plain.  Antigonus says he would choose his own moment to fight. 272 DGRBM 3-615,
Dur 2-568,
TAG 272
c.272 At night Aristeas opens a gate to Argos.  PYRRHUS of Epirus leaves his son Helenus with the main army and enters Argos with a detatchment.  The Aristippos faction learns of it and siezes the citadel.  Antigonus-II Gonatas learns of it. 272 mid CAH 7.1-229, DGRBM 3-615, DGRG 1-832, Dur 2-568, atl3, wikA2G
c.272 HALCYONEOS, son of Antigonus-II Gonatas, is sent with troops into Argos to oppose Pyrrhus, who is caught in a confused battle in narrow streets.  An old woman on a rooftop throws a tile which stuns him, allowing Zopyros, a mercenary in Antigonus' service to behead Pyrrhus. 272 mid CAH 7.1-229, DGRBM 3-615, DGRG 1-832, Dur 2-568, TAG 273, atl3, DGRBM 2-325, wikA2G
c.272 PYRRHUS dies.  King of Epirus from 297, beheaded at Argos.  The head is sent by Halcyoneos to Antigonus who chastises Halcyoneos for it.  Helenos surrenders to Halcyoneos, who leads him to Antigonus, who treats Helenos kindly, and sends him back to Epirus with Pyrrhus' ashes.  Pyrrhus' son ALEXANDER-II succeeds until 264, keeping what Epirus had prior to 274. 272 B76 III-926, 1-991, 8-381, CAH 7.1-229, CDCC 737, DGRBM 1-116, 2-372, Dur 2-555, GHH, LEWH 91, MCAW, MRDK, OCD 41, OHG, TAG 274, atl3, bk, frH, lvG, rcSB2, wikA2E
c.272 Pyrrhus' whole army and camp surrenders to Antigonus-II Gonatas, greatly increasing his power. 272 TAG 274, wikA2G
c.272 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas gains control of cities in Peloponnese. 272 atl3
c.272 ARISTOTIMOS, son of Demaratos, supported by mercenaries and Antigonus-II Gonatas, becomes tyrant of Elis for 6 months until 271.  Terrorizes Elis, causing 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians. 272
CAH 7.1-231, atl3
c.272 CLEON, tyrant of Sicyon from ?, murdered.  Democracy established until ?. 274 TAG 279 272 atl3
c.272 MolossiaOpuntian Locris annexed by Boeotia until 245. 272
CAH 7.1-249
c.272 HERAEA in west Peloponnese section of Arcadia refounded by Spartan Cleonymos, populated with inhabitants of 9 surrounding villages. 272 atl3
c.272 MACEDONIA, under Pyrrhus from 273, recovered by Antigonus-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39. 272
TAG 271
c.272 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE, begun 280, completed.  10 cities with federal center at Zeus Homarios, includes most of Peloponnese.  Headed by 2 generals until 255.  Ends 146. 272
B76 8-381
c.271 CRATERUS-II, governor of Corinth and Peloponnese for Antigonus-II 280-55 tries to help ARISTOTIMOS tyrant of Elis. 271
OCD 296
c.271 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas spends this year in Macedonia. 271 TAG 286
c.271 ARISTOTIMOS, tyrant of Elis for 6 months from 272, murdered in a temple, his daughters are forced to suicide, entire family is liquidated. 272 CAH 7.1-231 271 atl3
c.271 CHALCIS Euboea, recovered by Antigonus-II until 253. 271 CAH 7.1
c.271 LYSITHEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 272, ends.  PYTHARATOS succeeds until 270. 271 GHH, wikEA
c.271 EPICHARES elected hipparch at Athens until ?. 271 atl3
c.271 TIMON of Phlios (in Argolis), satirist, flourishes. 271 Dur 2-555
c.271/0 PIRAEUS, under Antigonus-II Gonatas from 287 recovered by Athens. 271/0 CAH 7.1-230
c.270 MONUNIUS-I, king of Dardanians from 290, ends.  MYTILUS succeeds until 2??, or possibly just chieftain of Dyrrachium. 270 wikLRI
c.270 SPARTA establishes friendly relations with Jews. 270 IDB 3-52
c.270 PYTHARATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 271, ends.  SOSOSTRATOS succeeds until 269. 270 wikEA
c.270 EUBOEA recovered by Antigonus-II, again placed under Craterus. 270
TAG 286
c.270 CRATERUS-II, governor of Corinth and Peloponnese for Antigonus-II 280-55 holds territory including the Isthmus, Euboea, and several key cities and fortresses. 270
CAH 7.1-232
c.270 ATHENS, under moderates from 273/2, comes under pro-Macedonians until 267.  Antigonus' vague suzerainty is again recognized. 270
TAG 290
c.270 ELEPHANTS, used by Macedonians in Greece from ?, are discontinued in Greece. 270
CAH 7.1-232
c.270 PYRRHO of Elis, pupil of Anaxagoras, founder of Skeptics, dies in Elis.  Wrote nothing.  Asserted that for any statement, the contradictory may be asserted with equal justification.  Therefore since nothing can be known, the proper attitude is ataraxia, "freedom from worry". 288 GHH
275-70 CHHΦ     272 B76 VIII-325 270 B76 14-450, EoΦ 7-36, S2S 125, wikPr
c.270 EPICURUS, Athenian philosopher, age 72, dies of prostatitis in Athens.  HERMARCHOS of Mytilene becomes head of Epicurean school until 250. 271 GHH, OHG 423, TAG 309, TToH 271/0 CHHΦ     270 B76 6-915, BNTH 41, CAH 7.1, CDCC 318, DGRBM 2-34, 409, IDB 2-122, 498, LEWH 88, SHWC 96, atl3, wikHrm
c.270 STRATO of Lampsacus, head of Aristotle's Lyceum from 286, dies of illness.  Pupil LYCON of Troas succeeds to 225.  Rival of Hieronymos.  Encourages athletics as well as mental exercise.  Writes on the boundaries of good & evil.  Importance of the Lyceum declines. 272 DGRBM 2-847
270 Dur 2-555
270 interpolation OCD 112, 627
270-68 CHHΦ     269 CAH 7.1-326, EoΦ 8-24, OHG 423, wikLC     268 atl3
c.270 POLEMO, Stoic follower of Panaetius, geographer, head of Platonic Academy from 314, dies of natural causes.  His attention to inscriptions earn him the nickname "monument-tapper".  CRATES of Athens succeeds to 269. 276 OHG 423     273 DGRBM 3-434, GHH     270 B76 III-223, CHHΦ, Dur 2-555, EoΦ 3-383, OCD 850
269 atl3     268/7 TAG 309
268-5 CAH 7.1     267 CDΦ 4
no date: B76 III-223
c.270 DEMOCHARES, neph of Demosthenes, Athenian historian, orator, statesman dies. 270
B76 III-458
c.270 Athenians confer honors on Demochares and his family, at request of his son Laches.  It is carefully worded so that no Antigonid or even Macedonia is alluded to. 271/0 CAH 7.1-231, TAG 289     270 atl3
c.270 METROCLES, Cynic philosopher, follower of Crates, suicides (legends say by suffocation).  Author of moral anecdotes about Diogenes and other Cynics. 270 atl3
c.270 Village of CONOPA in Aetolia refounded as town of ARSINOE (sis/wife of Ptolemy-II). 270 atl3
c.270 PANHELLENIC GAMES (held every 2 years in honor of Opheletes) at Nemea (8km southeast of Phlios) from ?, transferred to Argos. -
c.270 ALEXANDER-II king of Epirus 272-64, fights MITYLUS king of Illyrians. 270 atl3
c.270/69 Athenian decree votes honors for Callias of Sphettos, who, as a Ptolemaic mercenary captain, had helped liberate Athens at the democratic rising in 287 against Demetrius-I Poliorcetes. 270/69
CAH 7.1-231
c.269 CRATES of Athens, head of Platonic Academy from 270, dies.  SOCRATIDES is elected successor, but gives way to ARCESILAOS, who succeeds until 241.  He converts the Academy to skepticism.  Old Academy from 348/7 ends.  Middle Academy begins until 155. 270 OHG 423
269 Dur 2-555-6
268-5 CAH 7.1
268-4 CHHΦ, wikCA
266 wikMA     265 CDΦ 4, atl3
no date: B76 III-223, OCD 95
c.269 TIMON of Phlius, skeptic philosopher, pupil of Pyrrho, in Chalcedon from ?, moves to Athens until death 230. 269 atl3
no date: wikTP
c.269 SOSOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 270, ends.  PEITHIDEMOS succeeds until 268. 269 wikEA     268 CAH 7.1
c.268 PEITHIDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 269, ends.  DIOGEITON succeeds until 267. 268 wikEA
c.268 DORIS, a small mountainous district between Malis and Phocis, annexed by Aetolia. 268 atl3
c.267 Athenian hipparch EPICHARES put in charge of coastal areas of Attica. 267 atl3
c.267 DIOGEITON, eponymous archon of Athens from 268, ends.  MENECLES succeeds until 266. 267 wikEA
c.267 CHREMONIDES, Athenian nationalist statesman carries a law by which Athens (supported by Ptolemy-II) joins Peloponnesians against Antigonus-II Gonatas. 268 fall CAH 7.1
267 wikA2G
267/6 MCAW, OCD 231 266 TAG 295
c.267 ATHENS:  under pro-Macedonians from 270, comes under nationalist party until ?. 267
Dur 2-560
c.267 RAMNOS on coast of Attica held by Athens and allies. 267 CAH 7.1
c.267 AREOS-I, Agiad king of Sparta 309-265 unites with Ptolemy-II Philadelphus in unsuccessful attempt to save Athens from Antigonus-II Gonatas. 267 DGRBM 1-279
c.267 Athenian traitors help pirates allied to Antigonus-II Gonatas. 267 CAH 7.1
c.267 1st Spartan expedition to isthmus. 267 CAH 7.1
c.267 Antigonus-II Gonatas and Patroclus invade Attica. 267 CAH 7.1, atl3
c.267 CHREMONIDEAN WAR begins until 261.  Ptolemy-II persuades and pays Athens & Sparta to rebel against Antigonus-II Gonatas. 268 CAH 7.1-236     268/7 CDCC 189     267 B76 1-991, CAH 7.1, OCD 70, OHG, bk, frH     266 B76 8-381, Dur 2-556, LEWH 91, 96
267/6 Epicurean Hermarchos debates rhetorical questions with Megarian philosopher Alexinos. 267/6 CHHΦ, wikAl
c.266 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, invades Attica with a large force. spring 265 TAG 298
c.266 MENECLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 267, ends.  NIKIAS (Otryneus) succeeds until 265. 266 wikEA
c.266 2nd Spartan expedition to isthmus.  AREOS-I easily reaches Corinth. But Craterus' lines, based on the citadel of Corinth (Acrocorinth), stretch from sea to sea; the position could neither be attacked nor turned. 265
TAG 298
c.266 2nd Spartan expedition checked at isthmus. 266 CAH 7.1
c.266 CRATERUS-II, gov of Corinth & Peloponnese 280-55 for Antigonus-II Gonatas, checks AREOS king of Sparta at the isthmus. 266 CAH 7.1, OCD 296
c.266 Egyptian fleet, under its new admiral Patroclos, son of Patron, a Macedonian, Callicrates' successor, reaches Attica, finds the booms down across the harbor of Piraeus, and the town strongly held by Antigonus' garrison.  Patroclos positions his troops at a little island off Cape Sunion so as to co-operate with Areos, but does not attack Macedonians. 265 TAG 298
c.266 ARGOS, independent republic from 379, comes under tyrant ARCHINOS until 265. 266 rcPl
c.266 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, under Macedonia from 362, comes under tyrant ARISTODAMOS until 255. 266 rcPl
c.266 Athens signals her change of government by again sending a representative to the Amphictyonic Council at the autumn meeting. 266
TAG 298
c.266 Galatian mercenaries under Antigonus-II Gonatas at the isthmus mutiny and are suppressed. 266 CAH 7.1, atl3
c.266 Pharsalos Thessaly joins Aetolian League. 266 lvG
c.265 PHILEMON, New Comedy poet/dramatist, rival of Menander, Athenian citizen from 306, age @99, dies. 267-63 OCD 813   264 B76 VII-939 263 TToH, atl3     262 DGRBM, wikΦlm
c.265 MEGARA, independent from 280, taken by Antigonus-II Gonatas until 243. 265 atl3
c.265 ALEXINOS, Megarian philosopher, disciple of Eubulides, dies.  Dealt in logical puzzles. 267/6 CHHΦ 265 wikAl
c.265 NIKIAS (Otryneus), eponymous archon of Athens from 266, ends.  EUBULOS succeeds until 264. 265 wikEA
c.265 SPHAEROS of Borysthenes, Stoic philosopher, goes to Athens, studies under Zeno of Citium, then under Cleanthes.  in Attica until 240, in Greece until 222. 265 CHHΦ
c.265 3rd Spartan expedition to isthmus. 265 CAH 7.1
c.265 SKOSTODOS king of Odrysians in Thrace 273-65, accepts ORSOALTIOS as co-king until 260. 265 frH
c.265 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, defeats AREOS-I king of Sparta near Corinth. 265 B76 1-991, CAH 7.1, TAG 298, atl3     264 TAG 301
c.265 HALCYONEOS, son of Antigonus-II Gonatas, dies. 265 atl3
c.265 ATHENS begieged by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas until 262. 266 CAH 7.1     265 B76 1-991 no date LEWH 91
c.265 AREOS-I dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 309, with Eudamas-II from 275, killed outside Corinth.  Son ACROTATOS-II succeeds to 262. 265 CAH 7.1-238, CDCC 74, DGRBM 1-16, 279, IDB 3-603, LEWH 91, OCD 104, 1007, atl3, lvG, wikAc2, wikKS 264 MRDK, TAG 301, rcPl
c.265 ARGOS, under tyrant ARCHINOS from 266, back under independent republic until 250. 265 rcPl
c.265 MENEDEMOS, pupil of Colotes the Epicurean, cynic philosopher of Anatolia founds Eretrian school of philosophy, in Eretria from ?, is exiled from Eretria, and dies. 277 AΨΨ 83     265 atl3     261/0 wikMn
c.264 EUBULOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 265, ends.  DIOGNETOS succeeds until 263. 264 CAH 7.1, GHH, wikEA
c.264 CLEINIAS, ruler of Sicyon from ?, murdered by ABANTIDAS, son of Paseas, who succeeds as tyrant until 252, and banishes or kills the remaining friends and relations of Cleinias.  ARATOS, age 7, son of Clienias, flees to Argos to the house of Soso, Abantidas' sis, who is married to Prophantus, Cleinias' bro. 264
CAH 7.1-243, DGRBM 1-1, 782, TAG 279, 361, wikAb
c.264 ALEXANDER-II king of Epirus 272-64, backed by Ptolemy-II, attacks Macedonia. 264 LEWH 96 261 CAH 7.1
c.264 ALEXANDER-II king of Epirus from 272, defeated at Derdia by DEMETRIUS-II, son of Antigonus-II Gonatas.  Deposed as king of Epirus until 261, remains king of Molossia until 240.  Sis/wife OLYMPIAS-II assumes an unofficial regency of Epirus on behalf of their sons, Pyrrhus-II and Ptolemy. 264
B76 III-456, OCD 41, 325
261 CAH 7.1 260 wikO2E
c.263 EPIRUS:  Republic set up by DEMETRIUS-II, son of Antigonus-II Gonatas until 255. 263 OCD 41-2
c.263 DIOGNETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 264, ends.  ANTIPATROS succeeds until 262. 263 wikEA
c.263 ZENO of Citium, founder of Stoics 300, in Athens from 313, dies.  CLEANTHES of Assos succeeds as head of the Stoa until 232. 264 CDCC 249, CMoG3 249, EoΦ 8-19, 368, SHWC 97     263 B76 II-981, X-874, 1-992, BNTH 44, DGRBM 1-779, GHH, IDB 2-497, OCD 248, 1015, 1145
262 S2S 119, OHG     262/1 CHHΦ
261 CAH 7.1, Dur 2-556, TAG 309, atl3
c.263/2 ATHENS begieged by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas 265-2, siege pressure increased in winter. 263/2
TAG 305
c.262 Son of Areos-I, ACROTATOS-II dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 265, with Eudamas-II, killed in battle with Aristodemos, tyrant of Megalopolis.  Son, age 8, AREOS-II succeeds to 254.  Leonidas becomes regent. 265 DGRBM 1-16
262 MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG, rcPl, wikKS, wikAc2 255 atl3
c.262 ATHENS, besieged by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas from 265, falls, Antigonus-II maintains a garrison in Athens until 229, imposes a moderate oligarchy.  Athens is never again a political force in the world. 263/2 B76 1-991, OCD 231
262 CAH 7.1, CDCC 104, LEWH 91     262/1 TAG 306 261 Dur 2-556, MCAW
c.262 ANTIPATROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 263, ends.  ARRHENEIDES succeeds until 261. 262 wikEA
c.262 Antipater archon until 261. 262 CAH 7.1
c.262 CHREMONIDES, Athenian nationalist statesman responsible for getting Athens into war, flees, with associate Glaucon, to Egypt, protected by Ptolemy-II. 262 DGRBM 2-274, OCD 231, TAG 306
c.262/1 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas garrisons all Attic forts, removes all existing magistrates and religious officials and nominates the new ones, but does not change the form of government.  Abolishes Athens' right to mint coins.  Replaces Athens' well-known coins with Athena and her owl with Antigonus' silver tetradrachms with Pan's head on a Macedonian shield. 262/1 TAG 306-8
c.261 ALEXANDER-II former king of Epirus from 264, restored until 261. 261 CAH 7.1
c.261 ALEXANDER-II king of Epirus, invades Macedonia, but is defeated by DEMETRIUS-II, son of Antigonus-II Gonatas. 261 atl3
c.261 Epirus and Antigonus-II Gonatas make peace. 262/1 TAG 312
c.261 ARRHENEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 262, ends.  [?]SINOS succeeds until 260. 261 wikEA
c.261 CHREMONIDEAN WAR from 266 ends.  ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, defeats and maintains control of Greece, but Ptolemy-II continues to intervene. 263 DGRBM 2-844, wikA2G
262 B76 8-381, LEWH 91, OHG, frH     261 B76 II-893, 1-991, CAH 7.1, CDCC 189, Dur 2-556, bk
c.261 ATHENS, besieged again by ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas.  Falls. 262/1 CAH 7.1-239 261 CAH 7.1, atl3
c.261 ATHENS makes peace with ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas. 262 atl3     261 CAH 7.1
c.261 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas leaves a garrison in Athens under Italian Greek LYCINOS. 263 DGRBM 2-844
c.261 ANTIOCHUS-(I or II?) returns to Athens some statues which had been removed by Xerxes-I. 261 atl3
c.261 ALEXANDER-II king of Epirus 261, is driven out of Epirus until 260, flees to Acarnania. 261 atl3
c.261 DIONYSIUS of Heraclea (aka Metathemenos "the renegade"), leaves Stoic school, joins Cyrenaic school of philosophy. 263 GHH 261 atl3
c.261 PHILOCHOROS, historian, executed by Antigonus-II Gonatas for having supported Ptolemy-II. 261 wikΦl 259 atl3
c.260 PLEURATOS-II becomes king of the Illyrian Ardiae until 250. 260 wikLRI
c.260 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, allies with ANTIOCHUS-II Theos against PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus.
Macedonia / Egypt war begins until 255.
260
OCD 70 259 lvPt2
c.260 HIERONYMUS of Cardia, general, historian of the period from the death of Alex-III to the war with Pyrrhus (323272), age 104, dies at court of Antigonus-II Gonatas. 260 OHG
250 CAH 7.1-229, atl3
no date: wikHC
c.260 SKOSTODOS and ORSOALTIOS kings of Odrysians in Thrace from 265, end.  CERSIVALOS and COTYS-III succeed until 250. 260 frH
c.260 ALEXANDER-II former king of Epirus 261, exiled in Acarnania from 261, recovers throne until 255. 261
CAH 7.1-239
c.260 [?]SINOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 261, ends.  PHILOSTRATOS succeeds until 259. 260 wikEA
c.260 DEMETRIUS, grandson of Demetrius of Phalerum, appointed by Antigonus-II Gonatas to be a magistrate at Athens. 260 atl3
c.260 NEW COMEDY period ends.  Began 323.  Situation comedy and comedy of manners.  64 dramatists.  Best is Menander.  Next are Philemon, Diphilos, Philippides, Posidippos, and Apolodoros of Carystos.  Substantial fragments survive, but no complete plays. 260 DGRA 345, wikAGC
260/59 Delphi passes a decree honoring Areos-II of Sparta. 260/59 TAG 347
c.259 PHILOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 260, ends.  PHILINOS succeeds until 258. 259 wikEA
c.258 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39 defeats fleet of PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus off Cos, gains control of Aegean, takes Cyclades. 258 or 56 AΨΨ 83, LEWH 91, 96
possibly during Chrem. War:
B76 1-991, OCD 70
c.258 PHILINOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 259, ends.  ANTIPHON succeeds until 257. 258 wikEA
c.257 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, makes son DEMETRIUS-II co-king. 257 CAH 7.1
by 257/6 CAH 7.1-446
c.257 ANTIPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 258, ends.  THYMOCHARES succeeds until 256. 257 wikEA
c.256 THYMOCHARES, eponymous archon of Athens from 257, ends.  ANTIMACHOS succeeds until 255. 256 wikEA
c.256 Byzantines defeat Callatia in a dispute about Tomis (both Greek cities on east coast of Thrace). 256 atl3
c.255 CORCYRA Island, under Epirus from 281, independent until 229. 255 rcSB3, wikCrf
c.255 DEMETRIUS the Fair, ½ bro of Antigonus-II, marries BERENICE of Cyrene. 255
B76 1-991
c.255 ALEXANDER-II, king of Epirus 261, and from 260, ends.  Son by Olympias-II, PYRRHUS-II succeeds until 237. 255 wikPr2
c.255 ANTIMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 256, ends.  KLEOMACHOS succeeds until 254. 255 wikEA
c.255 ACROTATOS, son of Areos, attacks Megalopolis and is defeated and killed. 255
CAH 7.1-231
c.255 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, under tyrant ARISTODAMOS from 266, freed, comes under 2nd Achaean League until 250. 255 CAH 7.1, rcPl
c.255 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39 nominally restores freedom to Athens. 256/5 CAH 7.1-241 255 TToH, atl3
c.255 CRATERUS-II, son of C-I, gov of Corinth & Peloponnese from 280 for Antigonus-II Gonatas, dies.  Son ALEXANDER succeeds until 250. 255 OCD 296
250 CAH 7.1-247
no date: OCD 42
c.255 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE 280-146, under 2 generals from beginning, put under 1 general elected for 1 year with no immediate re-election.  Margos of Cerynia is general until 254. 255 CAH 7.1-244, DGRA 5, DGRG 1-15, 593, OCD 3, atl3
c.255 AETOLIAN LEAGUE, meeting at shrine of Zeus Homarios outside Aegion (Aegium) Achaea from 290, now meets in Aegion itself until ?. 255
CAH 7.1-244
c.255 ARGOS, under Antigonus-II Gonatas from ?, freed. 255 CAH 7.1
c.255 DEMETRIUS the Fair, ½ bro of Antigonus-II, sent by A-II to take Cyrene from PTOLEMY-II. 255 OCD 325
c.255 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39, ally of ANTIOCHUS-II Theos against PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus from 260, makes separate peace with P-II. 255 B76 1-991, 15-182, OCD 70
c.255 Macedonia / Egypt war from 260, ends. 254 lvSSW
255 Spartan XANTHIPPUS sails to Carthage to help them against Romans. 256 GHH     255 CAH 7.2
c.255 ERATOSTHENES, in Athens ??-246, invents the ARMILLARY SPHERE, a model of objects in the sky (the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth. 255 GHH, wikErt
c.254 AETOLIAN LEAGUE expands into Phocis. 254 LEWH 91
c.254 KLEOMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 255, ends.  PHANOSTRATOS succeeds until 253. 254 wikEA
c.254 Son of Acrotatos-II, AREOS-II ends.  Agiad king of Sparta from 262, with Eudamas-II.  Grandson of Cleomenes-II, LEONIDAS-II succeeds to 242. 256 DGRBM 2-751 254 MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.253 New FLEET of Antigonus-II is ready.  He sails to Anatolia to bring home his son's bride Stratonice-II. 253 TAG 349
c.253 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-II, marries STRATONICE-II, dau of Antiochus-I and Stratonice-I. 253 TAG 348, atl3
c.253 PHANOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 254, ends.  PHEIDOSTRATOS succeeds until 252. 253 wikEA
c.253/2 ALEXANDER son of Craterus, under Antigonus-II from ?, rebels, and proclaims himself king in his viceroyalty, Corinth and Euboea. 253/2 TAG 355
c.252 ARATOS of Sicyon, in Argos from ?, returns by night with a few men, slip into Sicyon quietly, capture the guards, and spreads news of the revolt to locals so they might join.  Palace is burnt. 251 wikAS
c.252 PHEIDOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 253, ends.  KALIMEDES succeeds until 251. 252 wikEA
c.252 ABANTIDAS, tyrant of Sicyon from 264, attends a philosophical discussion in the agora, murdered by Deinias, probably the historian, and Aristoteles, a philosopher.  Father PASEAS gets allegiance of Abantidas' mercenaries and succeeds until 251. 252
CAH 7.1-243, TAG 361, atl3, wikAb, wikPs
c.251 PASEAS, tyrant of Sicyon from 252, murdered by NICOCLES, who succeeds until 251. 251 atl3, wikPs
c.251 Tyranny of SICYON in Peloponnese, backed by Antigonus-II from ? overthrown by Aetolians.  Tyrant Nicocles is deposed by ARATOS, who takes over until 213.  Only 1 citizen is killed.  Nicocles escapes thru an underground passageway.  Aratos recalls exiles, whether banished by Nicocles or by earlier tyrants. 253 B76 1-991,     252 LEWH 91 251 B76 I-479, CAH 7.1-244, DGRA 5, DGRBM 1-254, Dur 2-556, GHH, LEWH 91, MCAW, OCD 3, 92, OHG, TAG 363, atl3, wikA2G , wikAS
c.251 ARATOS, boss of Sicyon, joins Sicyon to 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE. 251 CAH 7.1, DGRBM, GHH, wikAS     250 atl3
c.251 KALIMEDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 252, ends.  THERSILOCHOS succeeds until 250. 251 wikEA
c.251 SICYON, under local tyrants from 282, comes under 2nd Achaean League until 146. 251 rcPl 249 bk
c.251 ARISTODEMOS, tyrant of Megalopolis, dedicates a temple and other dedications. 251 atl3
c.251 ARISTODEMOS, tyrant of Megalopolis, murdered in a plot organized by Ecdemos and Demophanes, democracy established. 252 TAG 358 251 atl3
c.251 Spartans attack Megalopolis, but their siege machines are destroyed in a storm. 251 atl3
c.251 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE (11 cities of Achaea) 280-146 revived by admission of SICYON under Aratus, adopts anti-Macedonian policy until 225.  Aratos dominates policy. 251 B76 8-381, LEWH 91, MCAW, OCD 3, 92, RAH 385
c.251 ARATOS boss of Sicyon, visits Egypt until 250, gets promise of subsidy for Achaea. 251 CAH 7.1, wikAS
c.251 A combined army of Arcadians and Achaeans defeats Spartans at Mantinea. 251 atl3
c.251 MANTINEA, under Arcadian League from ?, comes under 2nd Achaean League until 244. 251 rcPl
c.251 LYDIADES, son of Eudamas, is Megalopolitan commander against Sparta. 251
OCD 629
c.250 PLEURATOS-II, king of Ardiaeans of Illyria from 260, ends.  Son AGRON, succeeds until 231. 250 wikAI, wikLRI
c.250 LEON king of Paeonia from 278, ends.  Son DROPION succeeds until 230. 250 wikPn
c.250 CERSIVALOS and COTYS-III kings of Odrysians in Thrace from 260, end.  TERES-IV succeeds until 213, alone until 235. 250 frH
c.250 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39 tries to establish friendship with Athens. 250 atl3
c.250 HIERONYMOS of Cardia, general and historian, dies age 104 at court of Antigonus-II Gonatas.  None of his work survives. 250 CAH 7.1-229 no date: wikHoC
c.250 THERSILOCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 251, ends.  POLYEUKTOS succeeds until 249. 250 wikEA
c.250 ECCLESIA in Athens starts meeting in the Theater of Dionysus. 250 CDGRA 625
c.250 ARISTO of Ceos, student of Lycon, Stoic philosopher, flourishes in Athens. 250 OHG
c.250 LYCOPHRON of Chalcis, tragic poet, grammarian, commentator on comedy, flourishes in Alexandria. 280 CAH 7.1     285-47 wikLc 259 GHH     250 Dur 2-556
c.250 ERATOSTHENES, in Athens ??-246, invents the "SIEVE", an efficient method to find prime numbers in arithmetic progression.
To find all prime numbers less than or equal to a given integer n by Eratosthenes' method:
1.  Create a list of consecutive integers from 2 through n: (2, 3, 4, ..., n).
2.  Initially, let p equal 2, the first prime number.
3.  Starting from p, enumerate its multiples by counting to n in increments of p, and mark them in the list (these will be 2p, 3p, 4p, etc.;  p itself should not be marked).
4.  Find the first number greater than p in the list that is not marked.  If there was no such number, stop.  Otherwise, let p now equal this new number (which is the next prime), and repeat from step 3.
250 B76 13-266
no date: wikSoE
c.250 HERMARCHOS, head of Epicurean Kepos (Garden) in Athens from 270, dies in house of Lysias.  POLYSTRATOS succeeds until 219/8. 250 CHHΦ, wikHrm, wikPE
no date: DGRBM 2-409
c.250 ARATOS boss of Sicyon, gets financial support from Ptolemy-II for 2nd Achaean League. 250 atl3
c.250 ALEXANDER, son of Craterus-II, neph of Antigonus-II, his regent in Corinth & Peloponnese from 255, rebels, with help from Ptolemy-II.  Declares himself king.  Holds CORINTH and CHALCIS (2 chief garrison towns) until death 245.  Makes Peloponnese independent of Macedonia. 253 B76 1-991
252 LEWH 91
250/49 OCD 42, 70 249 CAH 7.1-247, atl3
c.250 CHALCIS Euboea, under Antigonus-II from 271, comes under Alexander king of Corinth. no date:
B76 1-991
c.250 ARGOS, independent republic from 265, comes under tyrant Aristomachos-I until 240. 250 rcPl
250-48 CAH 7.1
c.250 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, under 2nd Achaean League from 255, comes under LYDIADES until 235, but not as tyrant until 243. 250 rcPl
c.250 SHIELDS:  Greek cavalrymen only now begin carrying shields. 250 wikRC
c.250 THUREOS SHIELD becomes standard for Hellenistic armies.  A large oval shield with a metal boss and a vertical spine adopted from the Galatians probably first by Illyrians, then by Thracians before becoming common in Greece. 3rd cen. wikθr
c.250 CLEARCHOS of Soli, peripatetic philosopher, dies. 250 B76 II-981
c.250 BION of Borysthenes, Cynic philosopher, bucolic poet, at Chalcis Euboea from ?, dies.  Satirized the foolishness of people, attacked religion, eulogized philosophy. 250 wikBB 245 atl3     100 atl2
c.250 AETION, sculptor of Amphipolis, flourishes.  Makes a statue of Asclepius in cedar. mid 3rd wikAet
c.250 Apotheosis of HomerHOMER is promoted to god status.  The Apotheosis of Homer is a common scene in classical and neo-classical art.  This marble relief is presumed to be by Archelaus of Priene.  It shows Ptolemy-III and his wife or sister Arsinoe-III standing beside a seated poet, flanked by figures from the Odyssey and Iliad, with the 9 Muses standing above them and a procession of worshippers approaching an altar, believed to represent the Alexandrine Homereion.  Apollo appears, along with a female figure tentatively identified as Mnemosyne, mother of the Muses.  Zeus presides over the proceedings. photo pub dom



3rd cen. wikTAH
c.249 POLYEUKTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 250, ends.  HIERON succeeds until 248. 249 wikEA
c.249 ALEXANDER, son of Craterus-II, usurper of Corinth and Chalcis has short war with Athens and Argos until ?. 249
OCD 42
c.249 ALEXANDER, usurper of Corinth and Chalcis allies with 2nd Achaean League. 249 atl3
c.249 TEGEA  Arcadia, in 2nd Achaean League from ?, joins Aetolian League until ?. 249 rcPl
c.248 HIERON, eponymous archon of Athens from 249, ends.  DIOMEDON succeeds until 247. 248 wikEA
c.248 THEBES military power broken by Aetolians. 248 B76 8-382
c.247 DIOMEDON, eponymous archon of Athens from 248, ends.  THEOPHEMOS succeeds until 246. 247 wikEA
c.246 THEOPHEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 247, ends.  PHILONEOS succeeds until 245. 246 wikEA
c.246 Aetolians reorganize the annual Delphic SOTERIA, commemorating the delivery of the shrines from the Gauls in 279, as a panhellenic festival every four years.  General acceptance of this by the Greek cities would concede Aetolians the right to control Delphi and the Amphictyonic Council, which was responsible for administering the festival. 246
CAH 7.1-248
c.246 LYCON of Troas, head of Lyceum 270-25, rejects an invitation to visit Antiochus-II. 246 atl3
c.246 CYPSELA Thrace besieged by Antiochus HIERAX, whose army contained many Thracians.  Surrenders because of friendship with besiegers. 246 atl3
c.246/5 Arcadian League breaks up. 246/5 TAG 385
c.245 PHILONEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 246, ends.  KYDENOR succeeds until 244. 245 wikEA
c.245 AETOLIAN LEAGUE defeats Boeotians at Chaeronea, splits ALEXANDER of Corinth and Chalcis in 2, expands into Boeotia. 245 B76 I-117, fall CAH 7.1, LEWH 91, OCD 42, atl3, bk
c.245 ALEXANDER, son of Craterus-II, usurper of Corinth and Chalcis from 249, dies.  Widow NICAEA succeeds until ?, and yields to Antigonus' proposal that she marry his son Demetrius-II, who would presumably discard his current wife Stratonice, sis of Antiochus-II. 249/8 TAG 370     246 LEWH 91
245 CAH 7.1-250, OCD 42, atl3
c.245 Corinth recovered by Antigonus-II Gonatas until 243.  He begins a system of tyrants. 245 CAH 7.1
244 DGRBM 2-860
c.245 Antigonus-II Gonatas establishes 2 new festivals concerned with dedication of vases at Delos: the Paneia, and the Delphic Soteria. 245
CAH 7.1-248, TAG 380
c.245 NYMPHIS of Heraclea writes a history down to Ptolemy-III. 245 atl3
c.245 Euboean League suppressed. 245 CAH 7.1
c.245 ACROCORINTH (citadel of Corinth), under NICAEA from 245, taken by trickery by Antigonus-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, who puts it under Perseus of Citium until 243. 245 OCD 70, atl3 244 B76 1-992
c.245 Triphylia and Lasion recovered by Elis with help from Aetolia. 245 TAG 382
245 May ARATOS of Sicyon elected strategos of 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE now and every other year until 235.  League's current enemies are Macedonia, which has garrisons thruout the Peloponnese, Macedonian allies, and the Aetolian League. 245 CAH 7.1-249, CDCC 63, DGRBM 1-254, Dur 2-560, MCAW, OCD 92, RAH 385, TAG 384, atl3, bk, wikAS
c.245 ARATOS strategos of 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE at once puts to sea and harries the Aetolian coast. 245
TAG 384
c.245 While Aratos wastes time, the Aetolians invade Boeotia in force. 245
TAG 384
c.245 ARATOS strategos of 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE ships federal troops across the Gulf of Corinth to aid his allies, but comes too late. 245
TAG 384
c.245 LOCRIS and city of CALYDON Aetolia laid waste by ARATOS of Sicyon. 245 atl3
c.245 BOEOTIA has no option but to join the Aetolians.  Boeotia does not become a member of the Aetolian League, but is merely an "ally".  Thereby Boeotia comes under influence of Macedonia. 245 TAG 384
c.245 MolossiaOpuntian LOCRIS, part of Boeotia from 272, now added to Aetolian League. 245
CAH 7.1-249, TAG 385
c.245 Son of Archidamos-IV, EUDAMIDAS-II ends.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 275, with Leonidas from 254, ends, but doesn't die until 235.  Son AGIS-IV succeeds to 241. 245 MRDK, OCD 1007, rcPl, wikKS     244 B76 I-139, DGRBM 1-73, lvG
244/3 CAH 7.1-252
243 atl3
c.245 The number of full Spartiates has fallen to 700. 244/3 CAH 7.1-252
245/4 First performance of new Delphic SOTERIA. 245/4 CAH 7.1-248
c.244 By the beginning of 244, Ptolemy-III is no match for all his enemies at once;  he must buy off one of them.  He chooses Antigonus-II, and sends Sostratos of Knidos as envoy. 244 TAG 386
c.244 Ptolemy-III and Antigonus-II make peace.  Ptolemy keeps the southern limit of the Aegean, with a ring of posts at Methana, Thera, perhaps Astypalaia, and Samos.  Ptolemy is free to do what he wants in the Seleucid sphere, or any sphere not claimed by Antigonus, i.e. along the coasts of Anatolia and Thrace. 244 TAG 387
c.244 KYDENOR, eponymous archon of Athens from 245, ends.  LYSIADES succeeds until 243. 244 wikEA
c.244 MANTINEA, under 2nd Achaean League from 251, comes under Aetolian League until 234. 244 rcPl
c.244 A revolution in Megalopolis Arcadia again brings Antigonus' adherents into power.  With their support, LYDIADES, honcho of Megalopolis from 250, becomes tyrant of Megalopolis until 235. 246/5 TAG 385 244 CAH 7.1 243 OCD 629
c.244 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, allies with 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE. 244 B76 8-382, OCD 27
c.244/3 LYCURGOS, partisan of Agis-IV, elected an ephor. 244/3
CAH 7.1-252
c.243 Parts of THRACE are taken by PTOLEMY-III Euergetes. 243 atl3
243 May ARATOS of Sicyon becomes strategos of 2nd Achaean League 2nd time. May 243 TAG 394
c.243 LYSIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 244, ends.  EURYKLEIDES succeeds until 242. 243 wikEA
c.243 ARATOS of Sicyon, strategos of 2nd Achaean League (in alternating years) 251-13, with 400 men, supported by Ptolemy-III, surprise attacks Macedonians in Corinth.  ACROCORINTH citadel, under Antigonid commander Perseus of Citium from 245, taken by Aratos.  Macedonian troops, occupying Corinth from 245, forced out.  Persaeus suicides. 243 B76 B76 I-479, 1-991, CAH 7.1, CHHΦ, May 229, mid 251, DGRBM 1-254, 3-203, DGRG 1-15, 677,
Dur 2-556, GHH, OCD 70, 92, atl3, bk, wikA2G, wikAS, wikPr
c.243 CORINTH, under Persaeus of Citium from 245, now under Aratos, joins 2nd Achaean League until 224. 243 DGRG 1-677, GHH, LEWH 91
c.243 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, attacks Aratos of Sicyon, and is defeated. 243 DGRBM 1-73
c.243 TROZEN, and EPIDAUROS, under Antigonus-II Gonatas from ?, defect to 2nd Achaean League.  A-II makes no effort to recover them. 243 B76 1-991, CAH 7.1, DGRG 1-15, GHH, atl3
c.243 MEGARA, under Antigonus-II Gonatas from 265, defects to 2nd Achaean League until 146.  A-II makes no effort to recover it. 243 B76 1-991, CAH 7.1, DGRG 1-15, GHH, atl3, rcSB3
c.243 LYSANDER, ephor of Sparta, in support of Agis-IV, introduces relevant bills addressing heavy mortgages, large estates in single hands, and a depleted citizenry. 243 OCD 27, atl3
c.243 ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas, king of Macedonia 276-3, 272-39 allies with Aetolian League.  They agree to partition Achaea. 243 CAH 7.1, atl3
no date: B76 1-991
c.243 ACARNANIA partitioned:  ALEXANDER-II, king of Molossia 264-40, gets west, which is under Epirus until 232.  Aetolians get east. 255 OCD 2 243 B76 I-48, CAH 7.1
c.242 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, tries to reform Sparta.  Agis proposes to redistribute land into 4500 equal lots, abolish debts, grant citizenship to foreigners, and restore semi-communism of Lycurgos.  His plan, opposed by Leonidas, is rejected by 1 vote. 244 GHH
242 Dur 2-569,
OCD 1007
no date: DGRBM 1-73, LEWH 91, OCD 27
c.242 PTOLEMY-III Euergetes-I is proclaimed leader of 2nd Achaean League. 242 atl3
c.242 EURYKLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 243, ends.  PHANOMACHOS succeeds until 241. 242 wikEA
c.242 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, helps 2nd Achaean League against Aetolia. no date: OCD 27
c.242 ARATOS of Sicyon, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, (possibly backed by Ptolemy-III) invades Attica. 242 CAH 7.1-252, atl3 241 CAH 7.1
c.242 ARATOS of Sicyon raids Salamis island. 242 CAH 7.1-252 241 CAH 7.1
c.242 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, deposes new reactionary ephors. 242 OCD 27 241 atl3
c.242 Grandson of Cleomenes-II, LEONIDAS-II ends.  Agiad king of Sparta from 254, is deposed by Agis-IV and , flees to Tegea until 241.  Son-in-law, supported by Agis-IV, CLEOMBROTOS-II succeeds until 241. 243 GHH
242 MRDK, OCD 27, atl3, rcPl
241 CAH 7.1
c.241 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, cancels debts in Sparta, and proposes to extend citizenship to other Lacedaemonian cities. 241 CAH 7.1, LdHR 2-7, atl3
c.241 AETOLIAN LEAGUE, allied with ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas 242-?, sent by him to ravage the isthmus. 241 LEWH 91
c.241 ARATOS of Sicyon, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, asks for Spartan help against AETOLIAN LEAGUE. no date: DGRBM 1-73
c.241 PHANOMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 242, ends.  LYKEOS succeeds until 240. 241 wikEA
c.241 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, sets out to join Aratos at the Isthmus. 241 atl3,
fall CAH 7.1
c.241 During absence of Agis-IV, AGESILAOS alienates the poor by delaying the promised division of land.  Enemies of Agis invite Leonidas back. no date: DGRBM 1-73
c.241 LEONIDAS-II, exiled in Tegea from 242, is recalled to Sparta. 241 atl3
c.241 ARATOS of Sicyon and AGIS-IV of Sparta 245-41 ally against Aetolians, march north to the Isthmus, meet at Corinth.  Agis is eager to fight; but Aratos insists on retreat.  Possibly he is more afraid of the new ideas of the young Spartan than of the Aetolians.  Agis goes home. 241
CAH 7.1, TAG 402
c.241 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta 245-41, returns from the Isthmus, having totally wasted his time. no date: DGRBM 1-73
c.241 ARATOS of Sicyon, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, retires, cursed by his troops, fails to prevent Aetolians from crossing the Isthmus. 241 TAG 402, atl3
c.241 Pellene Achaea taken and sacked by Aetolians. 241 CDCC 63, TAG 402, atl3
c.241 AETOLIAN LEAGUE, allied with Macedonians, are in disorder and plunder-laden, therefore defeated by ARATOS of Sicyon, strategos of 2nd Achaean League, at Pellene Achaea, and expelled. 241 B76 I-479, CAH 7.1, CDCC 63, OCD 92, TAG 403, atl3
c.241 ARCESILAOS of Pitane, head of Academy from 269, dies.  LACYDES of Cyrene succeeds until 215. 242 OHG 423     242/1 CDCC 1, OCD 95     241 B76 I-485, BNTH 49, Dur 2-556, EoΦ 3-383, wikLC     241/0 B76 V-979, CAH 7.1, CHHΦ OCD 576     240 B76 14-539
c.241 CLEOMBROTOS-II, Agiad stand-in king of Sparta from 242, is deposed, flees to temple of Poseidon for sanctuary.  LEONIDAS-II, resumes until 235. 241 atl3, rcPl
c.241 AGIS-IV, Eurypontid king of Sparta from 245, flees to temple of Athena Chalcioecos, betrayed by friends, imprisoned.  Given a mock trial by ephors.  When asked if he repents, Agis says he would rather die than repent of such a glorious attempt. 240 GHH
no date: DGRBM 1-73
c.241 Son of Eudamidas-II, AGIS-IV dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 245, murdered for attempting reform.  1st king of Sparta to be executed by ephors.  His grandmom Archidameia is also executed.  His widow Agiatis is forced to marry Cleomenes, son of Leonidas.  Agis' son EUDAMIDAS-III succeeds to 228. 241 B76 I-139, 8-382, DGRBM 1-793, MRDK, OCD 27, 1007, OHG, TToH, atl3, bk, rcPl, wikKS 240 DGRBM 1-266, LEWH 91
c.241 ARCHIDAMOS, son of Eudamidas-II, and bro of Agis-IV, flees from Sparta. 240 DGRBM 1-268
c.241 2nd ACHAEAN LEAGUE makes peace with ANTIGONUS-II Gonatas and AETOLIAN LEAGUE.  It lasts the winter. 241 B76 8-383
241/0 CAH 7.1-255, OCD 70, TAG 403     240 atl3
c.241/40 ARATOS of Sicyon seizes Cynaetha Arcadia. 241/40 CAH 7.1

Balkan Peninsula 240-221
V