Qin Dynasty Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.221 WARRING STATES Period of China ends. Began 481.
QIN Dynasty from 778 begins rule until 207.
221 B76 4-305, 10-54, 14-1, CHAC 16, TTPC, frie, scar, tcgEZ, tcgQ, wikHC, wikQi, wikW, wikWS
c.221 ANCIENT Period of Chinese philosophy ends.
MIDDLE Period begins until 960CE.
EoΦ 2-87
c.221 120,000 rich and powerful families are moved to Xianyang.  Carefully copied reproductions of their original homes are built along the north bank of the Wei River, above and below the capital. 221 CHC 63, 96
c.221 Qin  Law Code , probably dating from Shang Yang, is made standard for the entire empire. 221
CHC 58
c.221 YIYANG county founded on the north bank of the Yi River in Changsha. 221 wikYy
c.221 Qin transitions from state to empire. 221 CHC 59
c.221 Qin empire divided into 36 commanderies, with Xianyang in Shansi as capital. 221 B76 16-664, CHC 96, qnwu
c.221 Qin unification of China pushes Xiongnu influence back farther north. 221 CHEIA 120
c.221 Qin expeditions to FUKEIN, GUANGDONG, KWANGSI, north VIETNAM begin until 214. 221 GHCC 126
c.220 Kanchuan Palace built at Yunyang by Shih Huang Ti. 220 HFHD6 115
c.220 SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin 221-10 begins 1st of many inspection tours, this one to the west borderlands.  Proceedes from Xianyang 300 miles to southern Gansu, then turns northeast clockwise back to the capital. 220
B76 4-428, CHC 68, IUG 4.1
c.220 Xiongnu under ruler Tou Man 240-09 begin raids into the Ordos region until 215. 220 spks
c.220 GREAT WALL, begun 350 as defense against Xiongnu from Yellow Sea to Turkestan, construction resumes until 214. 220 bk 215 spks
c.220 1st Chinese  Encyclopedia  "Mirror for the Emperor" made.  Provides authoritative ideological foundation for Qin dynasty. 220
B76 3-1083
c.220 LI SI (Ssu) becomes Qin chancellor until ?. 219 B76 8-1127
c.220 STANDARDIZATION of law, writing, weights, and measures thruout entire empire.  Qin chancellor Li Si standardizes writing system with Small Seal Script characters. 221 CHC 59 220 wikT
Qin crossbow
QIN CROSSBOW     Qiushufang
c.219 Emperor Shih Huang Ti goes to Mt. I, near south border of Shandong, then to Mt. Tai, the sacred mountain of eastern China, to perform sacrifices to Tian.  Afterwards, he has a monument erected inscribed with an account of his virtues and accomplishments. 219
CHC 68, 664,
IUG 4.1
c.219  Inscription  set up at Langye:  "For the first time he united all under Heaven in such a way that none did not submit." 219 CHAC 999 214 CHC 76
c.219 Emperor Shih Huang Ti has 1st encounter with magicians.  One of them, Xu Shih, begs to be allowed to explore the sea in search of 3 supernatural island-mountains supposedly inhabited by immortals.  The emperor, at considerable expense, sends him, with hundreds of young boys and girls, on a sea expedition from which they never return. 219 CHC 78
c.219 2 attempts to kill Shih Huang Ti fail. 219 ICMH 100
c.219 Qin expedition to "eastern islands" looking for the "Blessed Isle of Penglai" fails. 219 B76 4-428 CHAC 981
c.219 CHAO TO, Qin general, sent by Shih Huang Ti to subjugate southern Yue. 218
LEWH 145
c.219 YUE invaded by Qin armies, forced into submission.  New precinct of Minzhong is established. 219
ICMH 100
c.219 XU FU from Qi tells Emperor Shih Huang Ti of the islands of the immortals, and that the elixirs of everlasting life can be distilled from herbs that grew on Penglai.  Xu Fu asks funds for a sea voyage to bring these back. He said that for such a voyage to be successful, it would be necessary to sail with a large retinue of young boys and girls.  The emperor eagerly gives him funds adequate to sustain several thousand young people on the trip. 219 IUG 4.1
c.219 Lingqu CanalLINGQU CANAL "MAGIC CANAL" is engineered and begun by Shi Lu.  It links Xiang river (flowing north into the Yangzi), and Li Jiang river (flowing south into the Gui River).  1st canal in the world to connect 2 river valleys, oldest contour canal (i.e. follows a contour line). 219 CHC 65, TTS, TTT, wikSLC
215 B76 VI-240 214 B76 10-550, wikLC, wikQSH, wikT
c.218 Shih Huang Ti makes 2nd tour to east, initially to Mt. Chihfu, where he erects his 4th inscription, thence to Langye. 218 CHC 68, 76
c.218 Assassination attempt on Shih Huang Ti.  On a trip east he reaches Bolangsha (east of Xingyang).  2 men ambush the procession, but emperor is in one of several identical carriages.  Assassins attack wrong carriage, kill a driver, and escape.  10 days search thruout the whole empire fails to find them.  One of the assassins is Ji Liang from Hann.  He changes his name to Zhang Liang and hides in Xiapi (in Jiangsu Province). 218
CHC 45, 89, R2T 13, 33, bk, wikZL
c.217 Almanacs and legal codes buried in a tomb of a Qin officer at Shuihudi in Chu territory note 2 calendrical systems:  that of Xia, which was used by Chu, and that of Zhuan Xu, which was used by Qin. 217
CHAC 1014, IUG 4.2
c.216 People of Qin are allowed to evaluate their own agricultural land for tax purposes. 216
CHC 59
c.216 SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin 221-10, travels incognito at night in Xianyang accompanied only by 4 soldiers.  Thieves threaten him until they are killed by his escort.  A 'great search' was made for 20 days around the capital. 216
CHC 89
c.215 Qin general MENG TIAN with at 300,000 troops drives Xiongnu (formerly Rong and Di barbarians) out of the Ordos Bend area beyond the Yellow River into Inner Mongolia, a pre-emptive strike to prevent fulfillment of a prophesy saying the Xiongnu would cause the downfall of Shih Huang Ti's dynasty.  Meng Tian colonizes the Ordos Bend area.  Causes widespread dislocation of Xiongnu tribesmen. 215
CHAC 892, 964, GHCC, ICMH 100, R2T 192, wikHXW     215/4 spks
c.215 SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin 221-10 makes 3rd tour to the east, this time farther north to Mt. Chiehshih in Hopei, where his  5th inscription  is erected.  He again sends a magician, Master Lu, followed by 3 other magicians, on voyages in search of the elixir of immortality. 215
CHC 68, 78
c.215 SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin 221-10 having toured the northern border region, returns to capital Xianyang by way of Shang Province. 215 spks
c.215 SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin 221-10 dispatches Han Zhong, Lord Hou, and Master Shi to search for the immortals and their herbs of everlasting life. 215 spks
c.215 XUNZI dies.  (aka Xun Kuang, Xun Qing, Xun-Tzu), retired in Lanling in Chu from 238.  Teacher of Li Si and Han Feizi. 233 TToH     230 wikXnz 215 CHAC 16, 791, 969 213 CHAC 643, EoΦ 4-66
c.215 At Xianyang Master Lu, having returned from his fruitless voyage, presents to the emperor a magical text which contains the words: "That which will destroy Qin is Hu." The emperor interprets this hu as one of several designations of the Inner Asian barbarians, and so sends general Meng Tian, with 300,000 troops, to attack the Hu along the northern frontier. 215 CHC 79, 97
c.215 KOREI TENO, son of Koan, legendary 7th emperor of Japan from 290, ends.  Son KOGEN succeeds 214-158. 215 wikLEJ
214 JBE 2178
c.214 Qin general MENG TIAN dispatched north to supervise construction of unified defenses. 215 CHC 79 214 CHAC 1021
c.214 Southern YUE conquered by Qin general Chao To. 214 LEWH 145
c.214 LINGNAN, area composed of Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, Hainan Island, and Vietnam, annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin. 214 wikHC, wikSeHd
c.214 ZHEJIANG coastal region, under Qin from 221, annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin, organized into Minzhong precinct. 214 wikHC
c.214 Qin general MENG TIAN crosses Yellow River into formerly Zhao controled areas, expelling Xiongnu, occupies Gaoque, Mt. Tao, Beijia. 214 CHEIA 119, ICMH 100
c.214 Qin general MENG TIAN dispatches 100,000 troops against the Xiongnu in the Ordos region. 213
GHCC 108
c.214 Qin general Meng Tian captures the Ordos from the Xiongnu.  Immediately after that Qin connects, repairs, and extends the 3 separate walls of Qin, Zhao, and Yen which had been built in the Warring States period. 214 CHEIA 119
c.214 Xiongnu under ruler Tou Man 240-09, retreats from Yuzhong north across Gobi Desert into Yin Mountains north of the Ordos region until 207. 214 CHEIA 119, ICMH 101, spks
c.214 Qin chancellor LI SI proposes to destroy political and historical literature. 214 CHAC 999
c.214 GREAT WALL construction from 220 completed by deportees under Meng Tian, general of Shih Huang Ti.  Existing walls are connected into a single system with towers.  Extended 100. 220 wikT     215 TToH
214 B76 IV-704, LEWH 145, MCAW, T1H, TTPC, TTT     213 CHC 66     210 bk
c.214 Qin expedition to NANYUE (region of Guangzhou and Hanoi). 214 GHCC
c.214 500,000 criminals transferred to NANYUE. 214 GHCC
c.214 Xiang commandery is established until 76. 214 HFHD7 36
c.214 500,000 criminals sent to invade Luliang County in Shanxi province. 214 bk
c.213 Qin armies reach the south sea near Guangzhou, build 3 forts. 213 ICMH 101
c.213 CONFUCIAN SCHOLARS in China continue to advocate return to old feudal order in opposition to emperor Shih Huang Ti. 213
B76 IV-428
c.213 Philosophers in China debate justice of Shih Huang Ti laws. 213 CHAC 974
c. 213 At a banquet in the imperial palace, many po-shih "scholars of wide learning" come to wish the emperor long life.  One praises him for bringing peace to the world and for having converted the former states into commanderies and counties.  Another scholar, Shunyu Yueh from Qi (a traditional center of Confucianism), voices a contrary opinion:  The reason why the Shang and Zhou dynasties had lasted so long, he argues, was that their kings had given fiefs to their sons, younger bros and meritorious ministers, which Shih Huang Ti has not done.  Li Si responds in defense of the emperor's policies, and recommends that all records in the bureau be burned, all copies of the  Book of Songs, Book of Documents , and writings of the various philosophical schools, aside from copies in the bureau of the academicians, be brought to the governors of the commanderies for burning.  Persons daring to discuss forbidden books among themselves are to be executed. 213 CHC 69
c.213 Shih Huang Ti outlaws all schools of thought except the legalist school. 213 scar
c.213 LI SI authors 1st Emperor's edict ordering destruction of historical records and literature including Confucian texts. 213 CHAC 808, wikLS
c.213 BOOK BURNING begun by emperor Shih Huang Ti on suggestion of Li Si.  Includes all books except those on agriculture, medicine, prognostication, and those in the imperial library.  Ban lasts until 191. 233 MCAW     213 B76 IV-428, 3-1083, 4-1104, BHM 198, GHCC 109, ICMH 101, IUG 4.1, LEWH 145, EoΦ 2-90, scar, wikT
c.213 Book burning, followed by execution of 460 opponents of emperor at Xianyang, including 346 Confucian scholars.  The term used for the Confucian execution has been translated "buried alive". 213 GHCC 109, scar
212 CHC 71, 95
c.212 700,000 men forced to build emperor's palaces. 212 bk
c.212 EPANG PALACE begun in Xianyang within Shanglin Park south of the river by Shih Huang Ti. 212 CHC 64, wikEP
c.212 TOMB of Shih Huang Ti, planned from 246, is begun at the foot of Li Mountain near Xianyang.  30,000 families are sent there.  "700,000 men" supposedly make the mausoleum and throne hall, a figure that is more than double the 300,000 used by Meng Tian for his combined military, road, and wall-building. 212 CHC 64, 66
c.212 Emperor Shih Huang Ti learns that some of his most valued fangshi (technical specialists), fearing his whims, have fled.  He is furious to hear that some fangshi are speaking ill of him and that others whom he had sent off on missions in search of magic herbs had never returned or sent word.  Xu Fu, still complaining about a fish which shielded the isle of Penglai, is asking for more money. 212 IUG 4.1
c.212 The heir apparent tries to remonstrate with his father about the growing unpopularity of his severe policies.  The Emperor orders him to travel to the northern borders to supervise the wall-building of General Meng Tian. 212 IUG 4.1
c.212 More "reprobates" are sent to the frontiers. 212 CHC 66
c.211 30,000 Qin families transferred to Beihe (Inner Mongolia's Urja river), and Yuzhong to colonize it. 211 CHAC 965, CHC 66
c.211 A METEOR lands in Dongjun in lower Yellow River area.  On it, someone inscribes "The First Emperor will die and his land will be divided."  The emperor sends a secretary to investigate this prophecy.  No one would confess to the deed, so all people living nearby are killed.  The stone is pulverized. 211 CHC 79, 97, bk, wikQSH
c. 211 SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin, begins 5th and last tour, 4th tour to his eastern lands, starting southeastward.  Youngest son Huhai and Chancellor Li Si go with him.  They eventually reach Mt. Kuaichi south of Shaoxing, where he sacrifices to the Great Yu (mythological conqueror of the primeval flood and alleged founder of the Xia dynasty).  He erects his 6th inscription, then proceedes north.  Inscription contains, "A woman who has a child, if she remarries, disobeys the dead and is unchaste," affecting neo-Confucian morality for 13 centuries. 211 Oct CHC 68, 76, R2T 13
c. 210 At Langye, the magicians, worry that the emperor would blame them for their previous failures.  They tell him that a huge fish had prevented them from reaching the immortal isles.  They propose that a crossbowman be added to their group so that he could shoot the fish when it appears.  Soon after this the emperor has a dream about fighting a sea deity in human form.  The dream is interpreted by one of the academicians as meaning that the emperor, by praying, sacrificing, and concentrating, would be able to drive away the evil sea spirits and induce good ones to come.  The emperor proceeds north along the coast, armed with a crossbow.  At Chihfu, the coastal mountain where in 218 the 4th inscription was erected, he claims to see a huge fish, shoots, and claims to have killed it. 210 CHC 79
c. 210 SHIH HUANG TI dies.  King of Qin from 246, 1st emperor of Qin from 221, while touring in Shandong gets sick at Pingyuan, then dies age 49 in palace in Shaqiu (now Guangzong, Hebei Province).  1st son Fusu is supposed to be successor.  Chancellor Li Si and chief eunuch Zhao Gao conceal emperor's death, conspire to kill Fusu because Fusu's favorite general is Meng Tian, whom they dislike.  Li Si and Zhao Gao forge a letter from emperor ordering both Fusu and general Meng Tian to suicide, and that the army be handed over to General Wang Li, Wang Jian's grandson.  Prince Huhai goes along with all of it. 210 B76 II-743, 4-308, 428, CHAC 621, 808, 965, CHC 68, 81-2, GHCC 103, ICMH 101, IUG 4.1, LEWH 144, MCAW, PW 17, July R2T 13, bk, ckQn, rcC, spks, wikQn, wikCM
209 TToH, friC
c.210 Prince FUSU, residing with general Meng Tian on the northern frontier, suicides as ordered in forged letter.  General Meng Tian refuses and is arrested along with his bro Meng Yi. 210 B76 4-308, 428, CHAC 621, 808, 965, GHCC 103, ICMH 101, LEWH 144, MCAW, PW 17, R2T 16, bk, ckQn, rcC, wikQn, wikCM     209 TToH, friC
c.210 Body of Shih Huang Ti arrives with entourage at Xianyang.  Only now is the death of the emperor announced publicly.  Li Si champions emperor's youngest and incompetent son Huhai age 21, who succeeds as ERH SHIH HUANG until 206. 210 B76 4-308, 428, CHAC 621, 808, 965, GHCC 103, ICMH 101, LEWH 144, MCAW, PW 17, R2T 16, bk, ckQn, rcC, wikQn, wikCM     209 TToH, friC
c.210 SHIH HUANG TI is buried in a colossal tomb at the foot of Li Mountain near Xianyang.  Many of his concubines and many workers who had worked on his tomb, are buried with him to prevent disclosure of the secrets of his tomb.  (human sacrifice 384) 210
CHC 32, Sep. R2T 16, scar, wikT
c.210 ERH-SHIH HUANG-TI emperor 210-06, dominated by chancellor Li Si and chief eunuch Zhao Gao, purges the royal family and nobility. 210
ICMH 101
c.210 DAI (northwest Zhao) a Qin commandery from 222, becomes part of Zhao kingdom until 206. 210 bril
c.210 Chief eunuch ZHAO GAO writes memorial to 2nd emperor.  Cites precedents showing dangers of trusting advisors (like Zhao Gao). 210 CHAC 975 208 CHAC 975
c.210 Qin general MENG TIAN dies, forced to suicide.  This paralyzes Qin military. 210 CHAC 965, CHEIA 121
c.210 JIAODONG, part of Langye commandery from ?, incorporated into Qiguo until 206. 210 bril
c.210 JINAN, part of Qi commandery from ?, incorporated into Qi kingdom until 206. 210 bril
c.210 TOU MAN, chief of Xiongnu 240-09, leads his people back across the Yellow River into the Ordos Bend area, sends elder son Baghur to the Yuezhi as hostage to ensure the peace. after Meng Tian dies: R2T 193
c.210 TOU MAN, chief of Xiongnu 240-09, attacks Yuezhi so that the King of Yuezhi will kill Tou Man's son Baghur, so that his younger son will be Tou Man's heir.  Baghur escapes back to Xiongnu land. after Meng Tian dies: R2T 193, spks
c.210 ZhongshanZHONGSHAN (Chungshan), within commandery of Handan from ?, becomes part of Zhao until 154. 210 bril
c.210 A call to restore the kingdom of Chu gets popular support. 210 CHAC 1001
c.210 CHANGSHA Commandery 222-202 assigned to Chu Huai Wang. 210 bril
c.210 HuaiyangHUAIYANG, part of Chu commandery from ?, becomes independent kingdom until 206. 210 bril
c.210 SwordsBronze double-edged (jian) SWORDS of the Qin period.  Bronze jians reach over 90cm long.  The handle is extended for two-handed use.  Chromium oxide used as an anti-corrosion coating.  This process originated c.700 BC.  This invention was long lost for 2,000 years before modern similar processes develop in 1937 by Germans, and the 1950s by Americans.  Steel jians 1m or longer continue. 221-207 wikCS

Picture: pub dom
c.209 MAUSOLEUM of Shih Huang Ti at the foot of Li Mountain near Xianyang is finished, surrounded by over 8,000 terracotta soldiers.  Men who build it are buried alive. 209 Sep. R2T 16
c.209 ERH SHIH HUANG TI emperor 210-06 orders his Treasurer to free the convicts and "born male slaves" working at Li Mountain and send them out to fight the invaders. 209 SDFH 128, 130
c.209 ERH SHIH HUANG TI emperor 210-06 makes an imperial tour to the east, during which he adds supplemental texts to the stone tablet inscription erected by his father. 209 CHC 83
c.209 LIU BANG escorts a convoy of 100 criminals from Pei County Shandong to work at Li Mountain.  In 10 days 30 of them escape.  According to Qin law, Liu Bang will be executed even if he gets the rest of them to the destination.  Liu Bang releases them and becomes a fugitive in Mang-Dang Mountains.  About 10 prisoners join him. 209
R2T 17-18, SDFH 75
c.209 Qin governor of Pei County learns that Liu Bang had freed the criminals and run away.  He has Liu Bang's wife Lu Zhi arrested. 209
R2T 20
c. 209 900 poor people in Chu territory are conscripted to serve as frontier guards in Yueyang.  They are gathered stationed in Daze Village (now in Suxian area of Anhui Province.  Chen Sheng and Wu Guang are appointed leaders to get the people to Yueyang at an appointed time.  But rains delay their departure.  No matter how fast they march, they cannot get there on time.  Qin law says anyone who misses a deadline is executed.  Realizing that he has nothing to lose, Chen Sheng convinces his colleague to transform their convict band into a private army and rebel on the pretext of upholding the claims of Fu-su, Heir-apparent of Qin, who had been killed, but whose death was not generally known.  They fabricate some false miracles to legitimize themselves. 209
CHC 83, 88, 112, HFHD 22, IUG 4.1, R2T 22
c.209 Insurrections in Chu begin under minor officials CHEN SHENG and WU GUANG, soon followed by XIANG family of Chu.  Their small revolt initiates a gradual but massive and uncoordinated revolt on several fronts against Qin authority until 202. 210 GHCC 102, wikChu, wikT
209 CHC 88, GHCC 109, HFHD 22, ICMH 102, IUG 4.1, bk, spks, wikEGH
c.209 DAZE VILLAGE UPRISING:  900 men under leadership of peasants from former Chu state, CHEN SHENG and Wu Guang, kill their Qin military overlords.  They attack and take Daze village.  Army grows to 10,000 with cavalry & chariots. 210 wikChu
209 ICMH 103, R2T 22, qnwu, wikChu, wikYB
c. 209 ChuBandit YING BU joins rebel leader Wu Rui and rallies several thousand men.  He marries Wu Rui's daughter.  After the Daze uprising is crushed by Qin general Zhang Han, Ying Bu leads followers north to attack Qin, defeats Qin at Qingbo, then move east.  When Ying Bu learns that Xiang Liang had amassed a large rebel force in Kuaiji, Ying Bu leads his own followers to join Xiang Liang. 209 wikYB
c.209 Rebel leader Chen Sheng marches to Chen, defeats a Qin army, and occupies Chen.  Chen Sheng proclaims himself  "king YIN of Zhang Chu", resides at Chen until 208. 210 wikChu
209 GHCC 109, HFHD 19, 22, ICMH 103, R2T 22
c.209 Chen Sheng "king YIN of Zhang Chu", appoints Wu Guang Acting King of Chu, appoints Wu Chen general, and appoints former Zhao residents Zhang Er and Chen Yu captains to invade and take former Zhao territory. 209
HFHD 23, R2T 23
c.209 Qin emperor Er Shih Huang summons the Erudits and scholars and asks them what to do about the rebellion.  Shu-sun Tung alone flatters the Emperor and is made an Erudit.  The other scholars blame him, so Sun-shu Tung flees home to Xieh. 209 HFHD 177
c.209 LU ZHI, wife of Liu Bang, is abused in jail, and is therefore released by the Qin governor of Pei.  She gets her children, goes to the Mang-Dang Mountains and finds Liu Bang.  Many people of Pei County join Liu Bang.  Soon he has about 100 men. 209 R2T 20
c.209 Uprisings erupt throughout Qin empire. 209 GHCC 109, scar, spks
c.209 While Wu Chen overruns Zhao, Kuai Tong gets the magistrate of Fanyang to surrender to Wu Chen.  Kuai Tong speaks for him. 209
HFHD 105
c.209 YEN state revived by rebels. 209 HFHD 227
c.209 Chu general WU GUANG sent by Chen Sheng against Xingyang, capital of Sanchuan Precinct, under governor Li You.  Stalemate. 209 HFHD 23, ICMH 103
no date: R2T 23
c.209 City of TAN in Qi besieged by mob under Chu rebel Qin Jia. 209 ICMH 103
c.209 Governor of Pei County considers rebelling against Qin.  On advice of Zhou Ke and Cao Shen, he sends dog-butcher Fan Kuai (Liu Bang's relative) to invite Liu Bang and his followers to Pei to support him.  By the time Liu Bang and his party reach Pei, the governor has changed his mind and denies Liu Bang entry into Pei city.  Zhou Ke and Cao Shen escape and join Liu Bang. 209 Oct. HFHD 99, Sep. R2T 25     wikCS, wikEGH
c.209 City of PEI in Qi kills its Qin governor, and opens gates to LIU BANG, who is popularly proclaimed "Duke of Pei".  He is joined by Zhou Ke, Cao Shen, Fan Kuai, Xiahou Ying, Ren Ao, Lu Wan, Zhou Bo, Yong Chi.  Xiahou Ying becomes Liu Bang's carriage driver and commander of chariot troops. 209
ICMH 103, R2T 26-7
c.209 LIU BANG becomes Lord of Pei until 206. 208 HFHD 141
c. 209 ChuYIN TONG, Qin governor of Kuaiji in Wu, decides to join the rebellion, wants Chu aristocrat Xiang Liang and fugitive Huan Chu to lead his army.  Xiang Liang tells governor that Xiang Yu is the only person who can find Huan Chu.  Xiang Yu is summoned to see Yin Tong.  Yin Tong is beheaded by Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu.  All the officials panic.  Some resist.  Xiang Yu kills nearly 100 of them.  Xiang Liang proclaims himself Grand Administrator of Kuaiji and ally of Chen Sheng.  Xiang Liang tells the gentry that he will rebel against Qin.  All express support for him.  An army of 8,000 is raised. 209
CHC 113, HFHD 77, ICMH 103,
R2T 28, wikXL
c.209 XIANG YU of Xiaxiang is appointed Major-General by uncle Xiang Liang, occupies Kuaiji Prefecture. 209 ICMH 103, R2T 28, wikXL
c.209 TOU MAN dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 240, "accidentally" shot with an arrow and killed by son Baghur (called Mao Tun by Chinese).  BAGHUR succeeds, massacres all rivals, and rules as chanyu until 174.  He founds the empire of the steppe until 48 CE. 209 B76 VI-589, 9-597, CHAC 886, 893, 965, CHEIA 120, GHCC 119, R2T 194, rcN, wikT, wnck 207 ICMH 114     202 icX
c.209 Lord JIAO of Wei deposed by Qin emperor Er Shih Huang 209 HFHD 215, WeiSA
c.209 ZHANG AO, son of Zhang Er, made marquis of Chengdu by Chen Sheng. 209 HFHD 6
c.209 ZHOU WEN made a general by Chen Sheng at Chen and sent with 1,000 chariots and 10,000 men to invade Qin. 209 HFHD 38, R2T 23
c.209 ZHOU WEN marches west, gathering recruits enroute, reaches Hangu Pass with 1,000 chariots and over 300,000 men. 209 R2T 23, SDFH 261
c.209 Qin treasurer ZHANG HAN advises emperor Er Shih Huang that it is too late to mobilize armies from other lands.  Rather free the convict laborers at Li Mountain, and organize them as an army.  Emperor does so and puts this army under Zhang Han. 209
R2T 25, SDFH 261
c.209 sent by Chen Sheng to take areas of and Qi. 209 HFHD 39, R2T 23-24
c.209 TIAN DAN, a descendant of the former king of Qi, helped by cousins Tian Rong and Tian Heng, kills the Qin governor of Di.  TIAN DAN proclaims himself King of Qi. 209
R2T 24
208 spks
c.209 reaches Di, opposed and defeated by Tian Dan, who then moves east and pacifies Qi. 209
R2T 24
c.209 defeated at Di, regroups forces and goes to . 209
R2T 24
c.209 WU CHEN, general sent by Chen Sheng, crosses Yellow River at Baima, marches into Zhao.  Zhang Er and Chen Yu call on local gentry to rise against Qin.  Local gentry raises armies and join Wu Chen.  Wu Chen's army expands from 3,000 to 50,000. 209
HFHD 105,
R2T 23
c.209 ZHOU WEN, with over 300,000 men armed with sticks, reach Xian (in Shaanxi Province), threatening Xianyang. 209 R2T 23 208 ICMH 104
c.209 ZHOU WEN gets thru Hangu Pass, and is ready to attack Qin armies. 209
SDFH 261
c.209 Qin treasurer turned general ZHANG HAN meet ZHOU WEN's army at Xian and defeats Zhou Wen, who retreats thru Hangu Pass to Caoyang (near Loyang).  Zhang Han pursues and defeats Zhou Wen again. 209 Nov HFHD 38, R2T 25, SDFH 261 208 ICMH 104
209/8 Liu Bang suporters ZHOU KE and cousin CAO SHEN recruit 3,000 men in the area of Pei. 209/8 R2T 27
209/8 Qin general ZHANG HAN marches from Caoyang (near Loyang) to relieve the siege of Xingyang by Wu Guang. 209
R2T 25
209/8 Qin generals SIMA XIN and DONG YI are sent to reinforce Zhang Han.  Together they defeat Zhou Wen at Mianci County, Henan Province.  Zhou Wen suicides. 209 HFHD 38, R2T 25
208 ICMH 104
c.208 XINCHENG, capital of Hann, besieged and taken by Chu force under general Xiang Yu.  Inhabitants massacred. 208
ICMH 104
c.208 10 Zhao cities murder their Qin governors. 208 ICMH 104, spks
c.208 WU CHEN, envoy of Chen Sheng, leads 30,000 rebels against Fanyang, succeeds, marches on Handan, former capital of Zhao, takes it, declares himself king of Zhao until later 208. 209 HFHD 220, wikKZ
208 ICMH 104, R2T 23
c.208 WU CHEN, defacto king of Zhao 208, appoints CHEN YU chief general and ZHANG ER chancellor of Zhao. 208 R2T 23
c.208 WU CHEN, defacto king of Zhao, sends General Han Guang to occupy former Yen. 208 R2T 24
c.208 WU CHEN, defacto king of Zhao 208, sends Li Liang with 5,000 men to occupy Changshan.  Li Liang does so and returns to Handan. 209 R2T 29 208 R2T 24
c.208 JI (Beijing), capital of Yen, taken by Zhao general HAN GUANG who declares himself King of Yen, and rules until 206.
YEN, under Qin from 222, reverts to a kingdom until 195.
209 HFHD 71
no date: R2T 24
c.208 WU GUANG, acting king of Chu, besieging Xingyang, capital of Sanchuan precinct, killed by one of his subordinates.  His army is destroyed by Qin general Zhang Han. 208 wikWG
no date:
R2T 24, 31
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN, having defeated Wu Guang, is given 10,000 reinforcements under generals Sima Xin and Dong Yi. 208 R2T 31
c.208 Rebel forces begin attacking each other.  Old states Zhao, , Qi, and Chu begin to revive. 208
ICMH 105
c.208 TIAN DAN of Di claims to be king of Qi, lasts until later 208. 208 ICMH 105, spks
c.208 People of WEI want to enthrone general ZHOU SHI, who declines in favor of royal descendant WEI JIU, who becomes king of Wei until later 208. 208 ICMH 105, spks
c.208 Chu city Shu (Dongyang in Anhui province) revolts, kills its prefect, chooses former prefect CHEN YING ruler until ?.  They want to make him a king, and raise an army of 20,000 men with blue caps. 209
ICMH 105
c.208 ChuQin general ZHANG HAN, with Sima Xin and Dong Yi, arrives at Chen, now held by pretender Chen Sheng and Chu general Zhang He.  Zhang He is defeated in battle and killed.  Chen Sheng flees for Ruyin (in northwest Anhui Province). 208 CHC 113, Dec. R2T 31
c.208 CHEN, capital of Zhang Chu (renewed Chu) from 209, taken by Qin general Zhang Han, under Qin until 207. 208 ICMH 105, R2T Dec. 31, Jan. 35
c.208 YIN (Chen Sheng), pretender king of Chu at Chen from 209 flees from Ruyin for Chengfu, but is murdered by his carriage driver Zhuang Jia enroute.  Zhuang Jia conceals the murder, surrenders to Zhang Han and is allowed to live in Chen. 209 wikChu
208 CHC 83, HFHD 23, 44, ICMH 105-6, IUG 4.3, Dec. R2T 32, wikChu, wikEYC, wikXL
c.208 Though nobody knows Chen Sheng is dead, Chu general Qin Jia (formerly under Chen Sheng) sets up royal descendant Jing Ju as king JIA of Chu.  Qin Jia and Jing Ju move their army to Liu (25km south of Pei).  Jing Ju has no popular support. 208 HFHD 9, 35, 126, ICMH 105-6, R2T 37, wikChu 208/7 R2T 32
c.208 LIU BANG, Lord of Pei 209-06, orders older bro Liu Chung and Shen Yiji to stay and care for his father.  Liu Gu, Xiao He, Cao Shen, and others follow Liu Bang to see Jing Ju king of Chu. 208
HFHD 126, 127
c.208 LIU BANG, Lord of Pei 209-06, is made marquis of Wu-an by Huai-II king of Chu. 208
HFHD 120
c.208 ZHAO PING, a Chu general sent by Chen Sheng to take Guangling (in Jiangsu Province), learns that Chen Sheng is defeated and the Qin Army is coming.  Zhao Ping crosses the Yangtze to see Xiang Liang in Wu, appoints him First Pillar of State in Chu, persuades him to attack Qin armies. 208
HFHD 77, R2T 35
c.208 Chu generals Xiang Liang and nephew XIANG YU, with 8,000 troops in Wu from 209, (accompanied by Liu Bang and his subordinates) cross the Yangtze, march west to attack Qin armies. 208
HFHD 77, 126, R2T 35
c.208 Chu ruler CHEN YING, who has 20,000 men at Shu (Dongyang), joins Xiang Liang and XIANG YU, with their 8,000 troops.  They continue west to Huai River. 208 HFHD 23, 77, R2T 36
c.208 YING BU, a former subordinate of Xiang Liang with over 1,000 men, rejoins Xiang Liang at Huai River.  General Pu also leads an army to join Xiang Liang at the Huai.  Xiang Liang's army grows to 60,000 at Xiapi. 208
HFHD 78, R2T 36
c.208 Chu general Qin Jia marches on Qin forces besieging Dingtao. 208/7 ICMH 105-6, wikChu, R2T 32
c.208 LIU BANG Lord of Pei, tries and fails to take Huling and Fangyu (south of Jining), withdraws to Feng (formerly in Jiangsu Province). 208
R2T 27
c.208 LIU BANG besieged in Feng by Qin general PingLiu Bang defeats Ping in battle.  Ping flees.  Liu Bang sends Zhou Ke and Xiahou Ying to chase Ping to Huling.  Ping surrenders.  Huling comes under Liu Bang. 208
R2T 30
c.208 LIU BANG leaves general Yong Chi to defend Feng, marches his main force to Xue (in south Shandong Province) to attack Zhuang, Qin governor of Sishui Prefecture.  Zhuang is defeated and flees to Qi, but is caught and killed. 209
HFHD 230
208 R2T 30
c.208 LIU BANG marches to Kangfu (south of Jining) and camps in the area of Fangyu. 208 R2T 30
c.208 FENG, under Liu Bang's general Yong Chi, is attacked by .  Yong Chi is persuaded by Chou Fu to defect to Liu Bang learns of it and marches to Feng.  He fails to recover Feng, and withdraws to Pei. 209/8
HFHD 230
208 HFHD 39, R2T 30
c.208 LIU BANG marches 3,000 men from Pei for Liu to ask Qin Jia and Jing Ju for help in recovering Feng.  Enroute he meets Hann captain Zhang Liang, also bound for Liu.  They begin a friendship. 208/7 R2T 32
c.208 Qin Jia and Jing Ju at Liu say they want to help Liu Bang recover Feng - specifically for Chu, but they are too busy fighting Qin. 208/7 R2T 32
c.208 Qin Jia and Liu Bang march to west of Deng (in Anhui Province), cannot defeat Qin armies, retreat back to Liu. 208/7 R2T 35
c.208 LIU BANG with 3,000 men attacks and besieges Deng. 208 Feb. R2T 35
c.208 DENG, under 6,000 Qin troops, surrenders to Liu Bang with 3,000 troops.  Liu Bang now has 9,000 troops. 208
R2T 35
c.208 LIU BANG with 9,000 troops, attacks and takes Xiayi (in Anhui Province), pursues defeated Qin army to Yu (west of Dangshan County), then goes back to Feng. 208 Feb. R2T 35
c.208 Xiang Liang decides that Chen Sheng (whereabouts unknown) is rightful king of Chu, and that Jing Ju is a usurper.  Xiang Liang decides to oppose Jing Ju and his general Qin Jia. 208
HFHD 78, R2T 37
c.208 JING JU, king of Chu 208, and his general QIN JIA, are defeated in battle by Xiang Liang.  Jing Ju and Qin Jia are killed. 208 HFHD 35, 37, 44, R2T 37
c.208 ChuChu leader Xiang Liang sets up a descendant of last king of Chu, shepherd Xiong Xin as puppet king HUAI-II of Chu until 206, capital at Xuyi (in Jiangsu Province).  Chen Ying is appointed chancellor of Chu. 208 HFHD 30, 44, 92, ICMH 107, Jun. R2T 38, wikChu, wikEGH, wikEYC, wikXL
c.208 XUYI briefly becomes capital of King Huai-II of Chu. 208 HFHD 91
c.208 XIANG YU is sent by uncle Xiang Liang to take Xiangcheng.  Spends a month there. 208 Apr.
R2T 38
c.208 LIU BANG learns that Xiang Liang had reached Xue with a big army, decides to join him. 208 Apr. CHC 114, Apr. R2T 37, wikEGH
c.208 LIU BANG, now reinforced with troops from Xiang Liang, returns to Feng and takes it.  Yong Chi flees to WeiLiu Bang leaves troops to defend Feng, and leads the main force to rejoin Xiang Liang at Xue. 208 HFHD 230, May R2T 37-8
c.208 XIANG YU takes Xiangcheng, slaughters everybody in it. 208 May R2T 38
c.208 XIANG YU rejoins Xiang Liang at Xue.  Meets Liu Bang. 208 Jun. R2T 38
c.208 Hann general Zhang Liang asks Xiang Liang to create a puppet king for Hann as he had done in Chu.  Xiang Liang agrees and asks, "Who?"  Zhang Liang suggests royal descendant Hann Cheng. 208
R2T 39
c.208 HAN CHENG is appointed king of Hann until 206 by Xiang Liang.  ZHENG CHANG is chancellor.  Xiang Liang gives Hann Cheng 1,000 men to recover Hann and allows Han Cheng to attack Qin garrisons at Yingchuan (area from south of Xinzheng to the Ying River, Henan Province). 209 HFHD 65, wikHC 208
R2T 39
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN leaves Qin general Yi to finish pacifying Chu.  Zhang Han then turns north. 208 ICMH 107-8, R2T 35
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN defeats a /Qi force under and Tian Dan at Linzi.  is killed. 208 HFHD 39, 193, ICMH 107-8, R2T 35, 39
c.208 King of Qi 208, TIAN DAN dies.  He goes to Linzi to rescue Wei Jiu and is defeated in battle and killed by Zhang Han. 208 HFHD 193,
ICMH 107-8, R2T 39
c.208 , flees to Linzi, where he is besieged by Qin general Zhang Han, and burns himself to death.  Zhang Han takes Linzi. 208 HFHD 215-6, ICMH 108, R2T 40
c.208 Younger bro of the last king of Qi before Qin conquered Qi, TIAN JIA is made king of Qi by populace.  Tian Jiao becomes chancellor.  Tian Jian becomes chief general.  Tian Rong gathers scattered troops of Qi, and retreats to Donga. 208
ICMH 108, R2T 40
c.208 Zhang Han marches on Donga in Qi and besieges. 208 HFHD 78,
ICMH 108, R2T 40
c.208 flees to Chu.  King Huai-II of Chu gives several thousand men to recover . 208 R2T 40
c.208 CAO SHEN, soldier under Liu Bang, is 1st over the wall at Kangfu. 208
HFHD 199
c.208 Xiang Liang, Xiang Yu, and Liu Bang, now attacking Kangfu (south of Jining), learn that Qin general Zhang Han is besieging Donga, all abandon Kangfu and go to rescue Tian family rulers in Donga. 208
R2T 40
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN, besieging Donga, is routed by Xiang Liang, Xiang Yu, and Liu BangZhang Han retreats to Puyang (in Henan Province). 208 ICMH 108, R2T 41
c.208 Recent pretender to Qi throne at Donga, TIAN JIA is overthrown by Qi general Tian Rong, who enthrones a son of Tian Dan, TIAN SHE as king of Qi until 206, with Tian Jia as chancellor.  Former chancellor Tian Jiao flees to Zhao.  Tian Jian, already in Zhao, remains there. 208
HFHD 191 ICMH 108, R2T 41
c.208 TIAN JIA, chancellor of Qi, figures he will be killed by general Tian Rong, flees to Chu leader Xiang Liang.  Tian Rong becomes chancellor.  Tian Heng becomes commander of the Qi army. 208
ICMH 108, R2T 41
c.208 Qi chancellor TIAN RONG asks both Xiang Liang and King Huai-II of Chu for the head of Tian Jia.  They refuse.  Qi then refuses to help Chu against Qin.  Tian Rong also asks the king of Zhao (Wu Chen or Zhao Xie?) to kill his Tian fugitives.  King of Zhao refuses. 208
ICMH 108, R2T 41
c.208 Xiang Liang sends generals XIANG YU and LIU BANG to take Chengyang on Hann/Chu border.  They take it, slaughter inhabitants, then defeat a Qin relief army. 208
ICMH 108, R2T 41
c.208 Chu generals XIANG YU and LIU BANG formally become brothers.  Xiang Yu is militarily superior, but younger than Liu Bang.  They then march from Chengyang to Puyang (in Henan Province). 208
ICMH 108, R2T 41
c.208 XIANG YU and LIU BANG fight against Zhang Han, and defeat him east of Puyang.  Zhang Han withdraws into Puyang city, an easily defended position. 208
R2T 42
c.208 XIANG YU and LIU BANG can't take Puyang, turn south to attack Dingtao. 208
R2T 42
c.208 Chu generals XIANG YU and LIU BANG attack Qin forces in Dingtao, and are repelled, march west, attack Yongqui, under a Qin army.  They kill the commander and governor of Sanchuan.  Qin army scatters. 208
ICMH 108, R2T 42
c.208 Chu generals XIANG YU and LIU BANG go from Yongqui to attack and besiege Waihuang (in Henan Province). 208 ICMH 108 R2T 42-3
c.208 Chu leader Xiang Liang leaves Donga in Qi, attacks Qin forces in Dingtao and besieges it. 208 ICMH 108, R2T 43, wikEGH, wikXL
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN, secretly reinforced by more Qin troops, silently marches from Puyang to Dingtao where Xiang Liang besieges it. 208 Sep.
R2T 44
c.208 Chu leader Xiang Liang, besieging DINGTAO, surprised at night by Zhang Han and massacred.  XIANG LIANG is killed in action.  Few Chu troops escape. 208 HFHD 78, 86, ICMH 108, R2T 43, Sep. 44, wikEGH, wikXL
208 Sep. 208BC is a Chinese leap year, and therefore has 2 Septembers. R2T 50
c.208 Chu generals XIANG YU and LIU BANG besieging Waihuang, learn of Xiang Liang's death at Dingtao, attack Chenliu unsuccessfully, then join Lu Chen at Pengcheng. 208
ICMH 108, R2T 44
c.208 After Dingtao, military power in Chu falls to King Huai-II and some generals. 208 wikEGH
c.208 King Huai-II of Chu thinks his base at Xuyi is not safe because Zhang Han might attack it, moves with his court to Pengcheng. 208
R2T 44
c.208 King Huai-II of Chu appoints Xiang Liang's nephew Xiang Yu "Marquis of Chang'an", appoints Liu Bang governor of Dang Prefecture and "Marquis of Wu'an", appoints Lu Chen minister in charge of civil affairs, and Lu Qing, Lu Chen's father, chancellor. 208
HFHD 220, R2T 44, spks
c.208 GuanzhongKing Huai-II promises that whoever enters Guanzhong (heartland of Qin) first will be granted the title of "King of Guanzhong".  Xiang Yu and Liu Bang are the only generals to ask for the opportunity to go for it.  Huai-II doesn't want to send Xiang Yu because of his brutality.  Therefore he delays sending anyone. 208
R2T 44, 48, spks, wikEGH
c.208 Zhao rebel LI LIANG, sent by king Wu Chen, takes Changshan, marches toward Taiyuan capital of Zhao, blocked by Qin army at Jing Gorge.  Li Liang turns back to Handan to ask for more troops.  He stupidly kills king Wu Chen's sister, then decides he might as well rebel against Wu Chen. 209 Nov. R2T 29 208 ICMH 109
c.208 Zhao rebel LI LIANG attacks and easily takes Handan. 209 R2T 29
208 ICMH 109
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN assumes Chu armies no longer a threat, crosses Yellow River into Wei preparing to attack Zhao. 208 R2T 44
c.208 King Huai-II sends general Song Yi aided by Xiang Yu to attack Qin forces and help Zhao. 208 wikEGH
c.208 WU CHEN dies.  Recent king of Zhao at Handan, killed by his own general Li Liang.  A friend of Zhang Er rushes to inform Zhang Er and Chen Yu.  They escape from Handan to Xindu and set up a descendant of the last king, ZHAO XIE as king of Zhao until 206. 209 HFHD 15-16, 220, R2T 29
208 ICMH 109, wikKZ
CONFUSION ALERT!  WU CHEN, king of Zhao 209/8 is not WU CHEN, king Cheng of Changsha 201-194.
c.208 Qin general ZHANG HAN assumes Wei pacified, Marches into Zhao, retakes Handan, transplants inhabitants to Henei (Henan), levels Handan. 208 ICMH 109
c.208 Zhao rebel LI LIANG pursues Zhao survivors to Xindu, but is defeated, joins Qin army under Zhang Han. 208 ICMH 109
c.208 Zhao fugitives ZHANG ER and CHEN YU gather 50,000 scattered Zhao troops to support king ZHAO XIE. 209/8
R2T 29
c.208 LIU BANG reaches Chengwu (in Shandong Province), now under Qin general Wang Li.  Wang Li attacks Liu Bang's army and is defeated.  Wang Li retreats north and joins Qin general Zhang Han now enroute to Zhao. 208 Sep. R2T 50
c.208 ZHAO XIE, recent pretender king of Zhao, flees to Julu, besieged by Qin generals Wang Li and She Jian until Jan/Feb. 208 HFHD 213, ICMH 109, R2T 49
c.208 An envoy from Zhao goes to king Huai-II, tells him everything that happened in Zhao until Zhao Xie fled to Julu, requests help for Zhao Xie.  Xiang Yu wants command so he can take vengeance on Zhang Han.  But Huai-II appoints Song Yi commander-in-chief, Xiang Yu 2nd in command, and Fan Zeng 3rd. 208
R2T 49 207 ICMH 109
c.208 XIANG YU granted title "Duke of Lu" by King Huai-II of Chu. 208 wikXY
From this point, some sources appear to confuse Xiang Yu with Song Yi, who are sometimes treated as the same person.
c.208 SONG YI, Chu General, is sent by Xiang Yu to relieve the siege of Julu, but delays 46 days at Anyang. 208
HFHD 181
c.208 Zhao general CHEN YU slips away from Xindu, goes to Changshan, recruits at least 20,000 former Zhao troops, marches to north of Julu, camps, harasses Qin besiegers. 208
ICMH 109, R2T 49
c.208 Zhao general serving Qin, ZHAO TUO, is made commander of Nanhai province in far south China to oppose rebels. 208
ICMH 109
c.208 Qin ministers advise emperor to lighten up on demands.  Eunuch Zhao Gao persuades emperor to have all ministers arrested, including chancellor from 237 Li Si. 208
ICMH 106
c.208 LIU BANG marches north to Chengyang (in Shandong), attacks and defeats a Qin army in Gangli County near Chengyang. 208 Dec. R2T 50
c.208 LI SI, disciple of Xun-Tzu, chancellor of the Left from 237, cut in 2 at the waist in the marketplace of Xianyang.  All his relatives are executed by instigation of eunuch Zhao Gao, who succeeds until 207.  This destabilizes Qin as rebellions become widespread. 208 CHAC 969, CHC 44, 84, HFHD 116, LEWH 57, bk, wikT
207 ICMH 111
c.208 LI YU, son of Li Si, administrator of Sanchuan Commandery, is beheaded by Liu Bang and Xiang Yu. 208
HFHD 117
c.208 Qi general TIAN JIA rebels against Tian Rong, brings his troops to Xiang Yu to aid in raising the siege of Julu. 208 late HFHD 194
208/7 Xiang Yu sends Ying Bu and General Pu with 20,000 Chu men as vanguards.  They cross the Zhang River and march quickly to relieve Julu.  They defeat Qin general Wang Li. 208/7 HFHD 78
208/7 Chu general LIU BANG appointed governor of Dang Province by king Huai-II, and ordered to expel Qin garrisons from Chu and Liang.  Liu Bang makes Zhou Bo Magistrate of Xiang-fei, and goes from Pencheng to Deng. 208 HFHD 40, Sep. R2T 50 207
ICMH 109-10
c.207 Chu generals XIANG YU and LIU BANG defeat a Qin army. 207 B76 4-30, tcgQ
c.207 XIONGNU, pushed back into Yin Mountains from 214, now under Baghur, re-occupy Ordos region north of the Wall. 207
ICMH 114
c.207 TIEN AN subjugates several cities of Jibei, and surrenders and joins Xiang Yu in his expedition to raise the siege of Julu. 207
HFHD 191
c.207 CHEN, former capital of Zhang Chu, under Qin from 208, taken by Chu general Lu Chen, who finds Zhuang Jia (murderer of Chen Sheng) and executes him. no date: R2T 32
c.207 Chu capital, at YING from 208, moved by king HUAI-II to PENGCHENG until ?. 207
ICMH 109
c.207 Chu general SONG YI is sent to rescue Zhao Xie King of Zhao in Julu, reaches Yin on south bank of Yellow River.  Song Yi orders army to halt.  Xiang Yu advises crossing the river to attack Qin.  Song Yi ignores him, preferring to move after Zhao and Qin exhaust each other from fighting.  They wait 46 days. 208 Sep.
R2T 51 207 ICMH 110, wikSY
c.207 During the above 46 days, Chu general CHEN YU attacks Qin army at Julu, and is badly defeated. 207
ICMH 110
c.207 Song Yi sends his son, Song Xiang, to Qi, and accompanies his son to a party at Wuyan (in Shandong).  Chu troops are starving and freezing, while Song Yi holds great feasts.  XIANG YU gets popular support of officers, kills SONG YI, claiming that he had secret orders from King Huai-II, and seizing command of the army.  Xiang Yu sends men to kill Song Xiang (who is killed), and sends a messenger to inform king Huai-II, who has little choice but to approve Xiang Yu's command. 208
R2T 52, 54 208/7
HFHD 181 207
HFHD 78, ICMH 110, wikSY
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG captures Qin forts Chengyang and Gangli. 207 ICMH 110, Feb. R2T 57
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG goes northeast, joins rebel leader Peng Yu.  They attack Changyi (in Shandong), and are repulsed. 207 HFHD 161, ICMH 110,
Feb. R2T 57
c.207 Rebel leader Peng Yu remains in southwest Shandong.  LIU BANG marches west to Gaoyang (near Chenliu), meets Confucian scholar LI YIJI, who advises him to take Chenliu, and offers to be envoy to the governor of Chenliu. 207
HFHD 161, R2T 59-60
c.207 LI SHANG, younger bro of Li Yiji, leader of 4,000 men at his home town of Gaoyang, joins Liu Bang and accompanies him to Chenliu. 207
ICMH 110
c.207 CHENLIU taken by Chu general LIU BANG and rebel leader Peng Yu. 207 ICMH 110, R2T 60
c.207 Chu general XIANG YU crosses Zhang River, burns boats behind him, destroys all cooking utensils, orders men to carry enough food for 3 days. 207 HFHD 78, ICMH 110, Jan. R2T 54-5, wikCHC, wikXY, wikYB
c.207 Chu general XIANG YU decisively defeats 200,000 Qin troops under Zhang Han at JULUAll 200,000 surrender.  Qin general Wang Li is captured.  Qin general She Jian burns himself to death.  Chief Commandant Dong Yi urges Zhang Han to surrender.  ZHANG HAN surrenders to Xiang Yu, who has his subordinate Ying Bu burry remaining Qin generals alive at Xin'an, but allows Zhang Han, Sima Xin, and Dong Yi to join him. 207 CHC 84, 114, HFHD 208, 213, ICMH 110, 112, Jan. R2T 54-5, spks, wikCHC, wikXY, wikYB
c.207 XIANG YU is now commander-in-chief of a united army of Chu, Qi, Yen, Zhao, and Dai.  He prepares to invade Guanzhong, heartland of Qin. 207 R2T 56, wikXY
c.207 Qin army under Zhang Han is camped at Jiyuan (south of Julu).  United army of Chu, Qi, Yen, Zhao, and Dai under Xiang Yu is camped south of Zhang River in Zhangnan (also near Julu).  They are stalemated. 207 HFHD 79, Feb. R2T 65
c.207 Qin army under Zhang Han crosses Zhang River, retreats to Yinxu (in Henan Province).  Receives reprimand from emperor. 207
R2T 65
c.207 ZHANG HAN, afraid of the emperor, sends Sima Xin back to Xianyang to explain to the emperor the military situation and ask for reinforcements.  Chancellor Zhao Gao, who holds real power, doesn't trust Sima Xin, and refuses to see him.  Sima Xin returns by a different route to Yinxu, eluding troops sent by Zhao Gao to kill him.  Sima Xin reports back to Zhang Han, who now figures that even if he wins the war, he will be the enemy of Zhao Gao. 207 Apr. R2T 65-6
c.207 CHEN YU, chief Zhao general from ?, fired by Zhang Er, Chancellor of Zhao. 207 R2T 56-7
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG moves from Chenliu southwest to attack Kaifeng, under Qin general Zhao Ben.  After a battle, Zhao Ben retreats to Kaifeng, and is besieged. 207 Mar. R2T 60
c.207 While Liu Bang besieges Kaifeng, a Qin army under Yang Xiong approaches, and is defeated by Liu Bang at Quyu.  Yang Xiong escapes to Xingyang (Yingyang) in Henan Province. 207
R2T 61
c.207 Confucian scholar LI YI JI, who assisted Liu Bang in taking Chenliu, is entitled "Baronet Enlarging Our Territory". 207
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG moves south, defeats Yang Xiong again, takes Xingyang.  Hann general Zhang Liang temporarily joins Liu Bang. 207 ICMH 111, R2T 61
c.207 Zhao general SIMA ANG takes Henei (in Henan Province), moves west, intending to march into Guanzhong. 207 Apr. R2T 61
c.207 GuanzhongLIU BANG and Hann general Zhang Liang occupy the area of Yingchuan (from south of Xinzheng city to the Ying River, Henan Province).  News comes of Zhao general Sima AngLiu Bang doesn't want anybody to beat him to Guanzhong. 207 Apr. R2T 61
c.207 To prevent Zhao general Sima Ang from crossing the Yellow River into Guanzhong, LIU BANG and Zhang Liang march thru the Huanyuan Mountain area (where there are no Qin troops) to occupy Pingyin on the south bank of the Yellow River near Mengjin ferry crossing. 207
ICMH 111, Apr.
R2T 62
c.207 LIU BANG and Zhang Liang march to Loyang, where they defeat a Qin army, but cannot take Loyang. 207 ICMH 111, R2T 62
c.207 Zhao general SIMA ANG sees that he can't cross the Yellow River, turns back to Henei. 207
R2T 62
c.207 Hann general Zhang Liang splits from Liu Bang, goes to Hann to recruit more men. 207
ICMH 111
c.207 Qin general ZHANG HAN, afraid of chancellor Zhao Gao, secretly sends envoy Shi Cheng to Xiang Yu to negotiate a truce.  Xiang Yu rejects the offer, because he still hates Zhang Han for killing his uncle Xiang Liang. 207 Jun. R2T 66
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG marches from Pingyin southeast to Yangcheng, rejoined by Hann general Zhang Liang, who brings Han Cheng king of Hann with him.  It is agreed that Zhang Liang will accompany Liu Bang into GuanzhongHan Cheng also assigns general Han Xin to Liu Bang. 207
ICMH 111,
R2T 62
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG and Zhang Liang march from Yangcheng south to Nanyang (in Henan Province). 207 HFHD 11, ICMH 111
c.207 Qin general Lu Yi, governor of Nanyang Province defeated by Chu general Liu Bang near Chou city, flees to Yuan (Wan), capital of Nanyang Province, where he is besieged by Liu BangGovernor Lu Yi surrenders, and is made " Marquis of Yin", and allowed to retain his post under Liu Bang. 207 HFHD 11, 150, 228, ICMH 111, July R2T 63-4
c.207 Chu general LIU BANG marches west from Yuan.  Cities surrender to him without resistance. 207 July R2T 64
c.207 WANG LING, childhood friend of Liu Bang, general from Pei with 3,000 men, meets Liu Bang marching along the road to Danshui (in southwest Henan Province), but Wang Ling prefers to remain in the Nanyang area rather than join him. 207 July R2T 65
c.207 XIANG YU at Julu sends general PU with an army south.  They cross the Zhang River from the port of Sanhu (in Hebei Province).  General Pu occupies south bank of Zhang River.  He defeats a Qin army. 207 July R2T 66
c.207 XIANG YU marches south from Julu, attacks and defeats a Qin army on the Yushui River. 207 July R2T 66
c.207 Qin general ZHANG HAN secretly sends envoy Sima Xin to persuade Xiang Yu to accept a truce.  Xiang Yu, short on food, consults his officers and takes their advice to accept it. 207 Jun. R2T 66-7
c.207 Liu Bang goes southeast to Huyang (in Zhoukou area of east Henan Province), meets Mei Xuan, a general sent by Wu Rui, Lord of Po (ruler of barbarian areas south of the Yangtze).  They march west and take Li (northwest of Nanyang).  Then Liu Bang marches west, takes Xixia south of Danyang. 207
ICMH 111-12, July R2T 65
c.207 ZHANG HAN and XIANG YU make TRUCE on south bank of Hengshui RiverZhang Han tells Xiang Yu of Zhao Gao's treachery.  Xiang Yu forgives Zhang Han, declares him " King of Yong" (west part of Guanzhong), incorporates him and his 200,000 men into the anti-Qin coalition, and puts them under Sima Xin.  The 200,000 Qin defectors are not accepted by the Chu troops, thereby causing a problem. 207 July R2T 67
c.207 XIANG YU recognizes Wei Bao as king of Wei, thereby assuring his assistance, and an addition of Wei troops to his army. 207 July R2T 67
c.207 LIU BANG marches to near Wuguan Pass, entry to Guanzhong.  XIANG YU leads 600,000 men toward Guanzhong.  Zhao Gao decides to depose the Emperor to avoid punishment. 207 July R2T 65, 67
c.207 Eunuch ZHAO GAO presents a deer to Emperor Er Shih Huang, but calls it a horse.  Emperor laughs and says "Is the chancellor mistaken, calling a deer a horse?"  Emperor questions those around him.  Some remain silent; some align with Zhao Gao, and call it a horse.  Zhao Gao executes everyone who called the deer a deer.  Emperor withdraws to his harem. 207
CHC 84, ICMH 111,
R2T 67-8, wikQES
c.207 ANAM (North Vietnam) founded by Zhao general serving Qin, ZHAO TUO, who declares himself king WU TI of Nanyue until ?.  Zhao Tuo sends in Yue officials to administer it.  Zhao dynasty of Nanyue begins until 111. 208 wikSeHd     207 B76 I-391, VII-185, ICMH 113, MRDK, wikT
206 wikCHC
c.207 Emperor ER SHIH HUANG sends envoy to condemn Zhao Gao for incompetence in suppressing rebellions.  Zhao Gao conspires with son-in-law Yan Yue, commander of the city garrison, and his younger bro Zhao Cheng, commander of the palace garrison.  Yan Yue with 1,000 troops enters Wangyi Palace on pretext that thieves had broken in, rush past the emperor's guard and chase the emperor from the throne room.  Pursuing him to the top of a tower, they corner him. 207 CHC 84, IUG 4.1, Aug. R2T 68
c.207 ER SHIH HUANG dies.  2nd emperor of Chin at Xianyang from 210 deposed, forced to suicide by Yan Yue and Zhao Cheng.  Zhao Gao sets up a Son of Fusu as king (not emperor) ZIYING of Qin until 206. 207 CHC 115, GHCC, HFHD 209, ICMH 112, Aug. R2T 68, bk, friC, rcC, spks, wikCM, wikQES
206 MCAW
c.207 Liu Bang's rebel force storms Wuguan Pass, enters Guanzhong, heartland of Qin, seizes Wei Valley (base of Qin power). 208 R2T 50     207 CHC 114, Aug. R2T 68, scar
206 GHCC 110, wikEGH
c.207 ZHAO GAO (Chao Kao), legal expert, chief eunuch of Qin, chancellor of Qin from 208, stabbed to death by king Ziying.  Zhao Gao is considered one of the most corrupt, villainous, violent and powerful eunuchs in Chinese history. 207 B76 II-743, CHAC 975, CHC 115, HFHD 16, 209, ICMH 112, Aug. R2T 68, scar, spks
c.207 Emperor ZIYING sends an army to intercept Liu Bang at Wuguan Pass.  Liu Bang buys off their general, but can't be sure his army will defect.  He flanks and routs the Qin army in Lantian County. 207 CHC 115, Aug. R2T 68, 69
c.207 XIANG YU and his top generals figure that the 200,000 Qin defectors may cause a problem, and therefore decide to kill them.  The Chu army surprises the sleeping Qin soldiers at midnight, and then kills all 200,000 of them.  Some sources say they buried them all alive south of Xinan. 207 HFHD 79, Sep. R2T 72, spks
c.207 LIU BANG reaches Bashang, which is close to Xianyang. Guanzhong 207 CHC 84, Oct. R2T 70
c.207 LIU BANG sends envoys to demand surrender of king Ziying. 207 ICMH 112, Oct. R2T 70

East Asia 207-206