Warring States late Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.250 Iron armorIron chest and neck armor from Silla (1 of 3 Korean kingdoms). photo pub dom

3rd cen. wikKSI
c.250 King of Qin from 251, XIAO WEN dies.  Son Zichu (aka Yiren) regal name ZHUANG XIANG succeeds 249-47. 250 CHAC 29, CHC 42, 49, ICMH 88, MRDK, ckQn, ckZ, friC, wikQn
c.250 Merchant LU BUWEI, who rescued Zichu in 257, becomes chancellor of Qin until 238. 250 CHAC 643, CHC 41, ICMH 88
249 CHAC 1018, GHCC
c.250 CHIANGCHOU in kingdom of Chu gets its 1st permanent city wall. 250 B76 4-586
c.250 Greek influence in China:  Chancellor LU BUWEI shows knowledge of Pythagorean musical scale and theorem. 250
c.250  Chiu Chang Shan Shu , 2nd oldest math document in China, composed. 250 BHM 196
c.250 Sophist KUNG-SUN LUNG, student of Hui Shih, dies. 250 GHCC 98
c.250 XIANG PING, chancellor of Hann from ?, dies.  Son XIANG LIANG is too young for politics. 250
c.250 Repeating crossbow, evidenced 350, is featured in drawings from records of Chu state. 250 wikT
c.250  Mo Ching , collected writings of Mo Tzu. 260-41 TTS
c.250 WARRING STATES Period 2 from 350 ends.
Period 3 begins until 221.

Qin conquers all other states, founding Qin Dynasty.
250 wikWS
c.250 Southeast Asia:  1st urban sites in mainland with walls and moat.  e.g. Co, Loa, Vietnam. 250 PW 16
c.250 JAPAN:  JOMON Period ends.  Began 8,000.  Bronze Age YAIYOISHIKI culture begins on mainland and Kyushu until 200CE.  Early YAYOI Period begins until 100 - characterized by unglazed pottery with knife-incised surface decorations. 250 B76 X-806, 10-57, 97, LEWH 18
c.249 LU state annexed by Chu from 255, destroyed by Chu. 249 ckLu, icQn, scar, yutZ
c.249 Dongzhou Jun, king of eastern Zhou from 255, regal name HUI dies.  Suspected of treachery by Qin chancellor Lu Buwei, executed. 250 ICMH 88     249 CHAC 29, MRDK, bk, tcgEZ, wikCM, wikZ
c.249 Final suspension of Zhou acts of worship from 255 ends. 249 CHAC 979
c.249 EASTERN ZHOU (Dongzhou) DYNASTY ends.  Began in Honan 770.  ZHOU annexed by Qin. 249 GHCC 103
c.249 Qin general MENG AO overruns Hann, extends Qin east border as far as Daliang, siezes Chengao and Xingyang to create province of Sanchuan (3 rivers). 249 ICMH 88
c.248 Qin general MENG AO marches against Zhao to control Jinyang, takes 37 cities and towns in Fen River Valley. 248 ICMH 88
c.248 TAIYUAN commandery formed by Qin out of 37 Zhao cities. 248 CHAC 1020
c.248 LIN-FEN becomes a commandery. 248 B76 VI-239
c.248 Chu is enfieffed in the old capital of Wu. 248 spYue
c.247 ZICHU, King ZHUANG XIANG of Qin from 249 dies.  Young son, age 13, regal name YING ZHENG succeeds (aka Ying Cheng, Zhao Zheng) 246-21 under chancellor LU BUWEI as regent until 237. 247 CHAC 29, CHC 42, GHCC 103, LEWH 144, MRDK, r2tt 7, ckQn, ckZ, friC, rcC, wikQn     246 B76 4-428, CHAC 969, CHC 40, ICMH 89, icQn, scar, wikT
c.247 Chancellor LU BUWEI resumes sexual relations with Ying Zheng's mother Zhao Ji (who had been Lu Buwei's concubine before he gave her to Zichu). 247
CHC 43
c.247 Qin general MENG AO takes Wei cities Gaodi and Ji. 247 ICMH 88
c.247 LI SI (Ssu), Confician student of Xunzi, goes to Qin, gets administrative office as a follower of Lu Buwei. 247 CHAC 791,
CHC 44, IUG 4.1, bk
c.246 LI SI (Ssu) comments on failings of QIN MU GONG (r. 659-21), who while possibly acting as Ba, had not been able to unite what were to later become the 6 states. 246
CHAC 974
c.246 Qin general WANG HE attacks Shangdang to get full control of Taiyuan Province. 246
c.246 YEN, ZHAO, WEI, HANN, and CHU unite under Wei Lord XINLING in rebellion against Qin. 246
c.246 Wei general WUJI defeats Qin general MENG AO, drives Qin forces south of Yellow River, but alliance collapses. 246
c.246 Zhao rebels against Qin at Jinyang, and is suppressed by Qin general Meng Ao. 246
c.246 Plans for the Emperor's tomb are begun.  Construction is not mentioned until 212. 246
CHC 64
c.246 LU BUWEI, chancellor of Qin, sent to conquer East Zhou. 247 CHAC 1018
c.246 LU BUWEI, lover of queen mother Zhao Ji, is replace by LAO AI, who passes himself off as a eunuch.  The affair soon becomes notorious. 247
CHC 43
c.246 ZHENGKUO CANAL 150 km long north of Xianyang completed by Zheng Guo of Qin.  Brings water to large areas previously unusable, allowing expansion of Qin. 246 CHAC 1018, GHCC, ICMH 89, wikT
c.245 King XIAOCHENG of Zhao from 265, ends.  Son DAOXIANG succeeds 244-36. 245 CHAC 29, 1018, MRDK, friC     244 HFHD 186, rcC
c.245 Wei city YUAN taken by Qin Lord Biao. 245 ICMH 89
c.244 Qin general Meng Ao attacks Wei cities Chang and Yougai. 244 ICMH 89
c.244 Qin general Meng Ao invades Hann.  13 Hann cities quickly surrender.  Hann is virtually a vassal state of Qin until 237. 244 ICMH 89, icZ
c.244 FAMINE in China. 244 ICMH 89
c.243 King ANXI of Wei from 276, ends.  Son Zeng or Wu succeeds as King JINGMIN of Wei 242-28. 243 CHAC 29, HFHD 2, MRDK, friC, wikW
242 rcC
c.243 Wei cities Chang and Yougai surrender to Qin general Meng Ao. 243 ICMH 89
c.242 20 Wei cities including Puyang of Wey and Hann city Jingchang taken by Qin general Meng Ao, and set up as DONG Commandery until 206. 242
CHAC 1020, ICMH 89, icZ
c.242 GONGZI WUJI of Wei, lord of Xinling dies. 242 CHAC 639
c.241 CHU capital, CHEN from 278, moved by King Xiaolie to SHOUCHUN until 223.  CHU government, moving around from 278, settles at Shouchun. 241 CHAC 1027, wikChu
c.241 YEN, ZHAO, WEI, HANN, and CHU again unite in rebellion and attack Qin.  They take Shouling, but retreat when Qin army approaches. 241 ICMH 88, icZ
c.241 Wey ruler WEY JUE flees to mountains of Wei. 241 ICMH 88
c.240 TENIGRUT chief of Xiongnu from 270, ends.  TOU MAN succeeds until 209. 240 rcN
220 spks
c.240  SPRING and AUTUMN ANNALS  produced at Qin court. 240 B76 17-1052
240 May 25 Λ HALLEY'S COMET first documented observation in China. 240 GHCC, TTS, icZ, wikHC
c.240 LONG, GU, and QINGDU taken by Qin general MENG AO. 240 ICMH 89
c.240 Qin general MENG AO marches on Ji and dies. 240 ICMH 89, icZ
c.240 Qin Queen Dowager (Zichu's mother) dies. 240 icZ
c.240 Philosopher XOU YEN of Qi, main representative of Yin Yang school, dies.  Credited with systematizing cosmological thought into yin-yang, and 5 elements theory (earth, wood, metal, fire, water). 240 CDΦ 117, CHAC 648, GHCC 98, 158, EoΦ 2-89
c.239 BUYEO ends.  King of a district and town named for him in west Korea) from ?.  HAEMOSU succeeds until 195. 239 rcK
c.239 King of Hann from 272, HUAN HUI ends.  AN succeeds 238-30. 239 CHAC 29, MRDK, wikH
c.239 PUYANG, county of Wey state occupied by Qin.  State of Wey migrates to Yewang. 239 WeiSA
c.239 Qin king Ying Zheng's younger half bro CHANG ANJUN (Cheng Jiao), while under order to attack Zhao state, rebels against King.  Defeated and killed at Tunliu, a county of Shanxi.  All his army officers are executed. 239
ICMH 89, icZ
c.239 HANDAN V, capital of Zhao from 265, no longer capital. 239 CHC 42
c.239  Lushih Chun Qiu  completed.  Sumary of Chinese knowledge of that time. 239 CHAC 648, 745, GHCC
c.238 Knowing that Ying Zheng is about to come of age, his mother's lover LAO AI revolts with help of Rong and Di barbarians.  While king Ying Zheng is traveling to the ancient capital of Yong (north of Wei river 190km west of Xianyang), "Eunuch" Lao Ai (Marquis Changxin-hou), queen mother Zhao Ji's lover, seizes Zhao Ji's seal, mobilizes an army, attempts a coup, and is suppressed by Qin chancellors (Prince Changping-jun and Prince Changwen-jun, all princes of Chu).  Zhao Ji is under house arrest until her death.  Lao Ai is torn into 5 pieces by horse carriages, his clan exterminated.  Lao Ai's 2 sons (the king's half bros) are put in bags and beaten to death. 238
ICMH 89 icZ, wikLB, wikQSH
c.238 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10, exiles 4,000 families associated with Lao Ai to Sichuan. 238
c.238 YANG DUANHE leads Qin forces against Yanshi. 238 ICMH 90
c.238 King of Chu from 262, XIAOLIE ends.  Son (or bastard of Lord Chunshen) Xiong Yu, regal name YU succeeds 237-28. 238 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu     237 rcC
c.238 CHUNSHEN, chancellor of Chu from ?, assassinated by a court rival. 238 wikXnz, yutZ
c.238 XUNZI (Xun Kuang, Xun Qing, Hsun Tzu), magistrate of Lanling in Chu under protection of Chunshen from 255, retires, remains in Lanling until death. 239 CHAC 791
238 CDΦ 117, wikXnz
c.237 King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 295, GOYEOLGA ends. 237 rcK
c.237 A faction at Qin court urges king Zheng to expel all foreigners to prevent espionage.  Li Si, a native of Chu, extolls the benefits of foreigners to Qin including "the sultry girls of Zhao". The king agrees with Li Si and promotes him. 237
CHC 44, wikLS
c.237 LU BUWEI, chancellor of Qin from 250, implicated in Lao Ai rebellion.  Dismissed, banished to Shu, and replaced by LI SI until 208. 238 B76 VI-395, 4-428, CHAC 643     237 CHAC 1018, CHC 43, GHCC 106, ICMH 90, IUG 4.1, bk, scar
c.237 LI SI urges Qin king Zheng to annex Hann. 237 wikLS
c.237 HUANG XIE of Chu, lord of Chushen dies.  He has been the patron of Xunzi from 255 237 B76 8-1127, CHAC 639
c.237 ZHAO ZHENG King of Qin, under a regent from 246, rules alone until 221. 237 ckZ
c.237 HANN, vassal state of Qin from 244, annexed, reorganized into 2 Qin commanderies. 237
c.236 King of Zhao from 244, DAOXIANG ends.  Son QIAN succeeds 235-28. 236 CHAC 29, HFHD 186, MRDK, friC,     235 rcC
c.236 Qin general Wang Jian is ordered to attack Hann. 236 icQn
c.236 Qin generals Wang Jian, Huan Ji, and Yang Duanhe takes Hann city of Je and 9 other cities. 236 ICMH 90, wikQn
c.236 Qin generals Wang Jian, Huan Ji, and Yang Duanhe attack the EYU region of Zhao. 236 ICMH 90, wikQn
c.236 Qin general Wang Jian attacks Loyang. 236 ICMH 90
c.235 LU BUWEI, former chancellor of Qin 250-37, suicides by poison.  His 1,000 followers mourn him and are reprimanded by the Qin king for it. 235 B76 VI-395, CHAC 608, 808, 969, CHC 43, HFHD 148, ICMH 90, icZ, yutZ, wikLB
c.235 Zhao general LI MU defeats the Xiongnu, claims 100,000 heads. 235 ICMH 90
c.235 XUNZI (Xun Kuang, Xun Qing, Hsun Tzu), legalistic Confucian sociologist, dies.  Said man's inborn tendencies need to be curbed thru education and ritual.  Human nature is anarchical and irrational.  Goodness and reason come from discipline, which is imposed by society.  Institutions make the man.  Teacher of Li Si and Han Fei Tzu. 238 EoΦ 2-89, copr, frdc
235 GHCC 96, LEWH 57
230 B76 4-306, 1093, 8-1127, wikXnz
c.234 HAN FEI TZU, a Hann aristocrat, is sent by the Hann king to Qin to resolve the situation.  Li Si, who envied Han Fei's intellect, persuades the Qin king to neither send Han Fei back (as his ability would threaten Qin) nor employ him (as his loyalty would be to Hann).  Han Fei is imprisoned. 237 wikLS 234 bk 233 CHC 44
c.234 From 364 to 234,  Shiji  records 15 major battles or campaigns in which Qin was involved.  Casualty figures allegedly inflicted by Qin on opponents are listed.  In all but one instance, the figures amount to scores of thousands.  Grand total for the 130 years is 1,489,000. 234 CHC 40
c.234 HANN attacked by Qin. 234 bk
c.234 ZHAO invaded by Qin until 233. 234 GHCC, icQn
c.234 Zhao general LI MU becomes Zhao commander. 234 ICMH 90
c.233 HAN FEI TZU, disciple of Hsun-Tzu, legalist political philosopher of Hann, prisoner in Qin from 234, suicides by poison.  Said well organized govt. is best way to achieve social harmony. 234 CHAC 709, 800, GHCC 81, HFHD 65     233 B76 4-307, 417, CDΦ 117, CHAC 969, EoΦ 2-89, LEWH 57, bk, wikHF, yutZ
223 CDΦ 116     208 CHAC 808
c.233 Qin general Huan Ji attacks Pingyang, defeats Zhao commander Hu Zhe, beheads 100,000 troops including Hu Zhe. 234 CHC 45, ICMH 90
233 qnwu, wikBF
c.233 Pingyang and Wucheng occupied by Qin general Huan Ji. 233 ICMH 90
c.233 Qin general Huan Ji invades Zhao, crosses Taihang Mountains and conquers Zhao territories of Chili and Yian. 234 ICMH 90 233 qnwu, wikBF
c.233 Zhao general LI MU becomes Zhao commander. 234 ICMH 90
c.233 Qin general Huan Ji is defeated by Zhao general Li Mu at Battle of FEI near Jingxiang. 233 qnwu, wikBF
c.232 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 251, YUN ends.  BU succeeds until 221. 232 rcK
c.232 Parts of Hann, Zhao, and Wei still resist Qin. 232 ICMH 90
c.232 Chu is pacified by Qin. 232 ICMH 90
c.232 XIANG YU becomes prominent military leader and political figure in Qin. 232 GHCC 109, wikXY
c.232 QIN unification. 232 B76 4-30, 307
c.232 QIN forces split into 2 groups to attack Fanwu and Langmeng southwest of Jinyang, but are defeated by Zhao general Li Mu. 232 qnwu, wikQwu
c.232 HANN state in present Shansi Province invaded by Qin again.  An earthquake is recorded this year. 232 icZ
c.232 Chu prince CHANGPING, who had been serving Qin, sent home to become king of Chu. 232
c.231 Chu prince CHANGPING, rebels against Qin, and is soon defeated and killed. 231
c.231 Wei surrenders some land to Qin. 231 icZ
c.231 Hann district of NANYANG occupied by Qin troops under general Teng. 231
c.231 Hann surrenders some land to Qin. 231 icZ
c.230 Qin army under Interior Minister Teng moves south, crosses Yellow River, attacks Hann, conquers Xincheng, capital of Hann, within one year. 230 qnwu, spYue
c.230 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10, begins conquest of rival states until 221. 230 LEWH 57, IUG 4.1, icZ, wikT
c.230 The crown prince of Yen, residing in Qin as a diplomatic hostage, flees back to Yen in resentment over poor treatment he had received at the hands of Ying Zheng of Qin. 230
IUG 4.1
c.230 Qin general NIH SHI TENG sent to attack Hann. 230 R2T 7
c.230 Qin general WANG JIAN marches to Zhang and Ye on Yellow River in Shang Province, threatens Zhao from the south.  Qin general LI XIN threatens Zhao from the west. 230
c.230 King of Hann from 238, AN deposed by Qin Interior Minister Teng. 230 CHAC 29, ICMH 91, MRDK, R2T 7, wikH
c.230 HANN, weakest of the 7 states, conquered by Qin Interior Minister Teng, annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin, and converted into Yinchuan Commandery.  Another earthquake is recorded this year. 230 HFHD 8, ICMH 91, R2T 7, bk, ckZ, icZ, qnwu, spYue, wikQn, wikT, wikWS, yutZ
c.230 Marquis of Wey from 252, YUANJUN ends.  CHIAOJUN succeeds 229-21. 230 friC, ckW
c.230 QI state conquered by YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10. 230 B76 4-428
c.229 Qin general WANG JIAN attacks Zhao. 229 R2T 7
c.229 Zhao general LI MU is replaced by his incompetent deputies. no date: qnwu
c.229 Zhao city JINGXIANG taken by Qin general Wang Jian. 229 ICMH 91
c.229 Qin general YANG DUANHE, in western Wei from ?, marches to Zhao capital Handan and besieges. 229 ICMH 91
c.228 ZHAO state hit by natural disasters including an earthquake. 229 wikQSH 228 qnwu
c.228 Qin takes advantage of Zhao disasters to launch a two-pincer attack from north and south on Handan, capital of Zhao. 229 ICMH 91 228 qnwu
c.228 Qin generals QING HUI and WANG JIAN unite, overrun Zhao. 229 ICMH 91
c.228 Zhao city DONGYANG taken by Qin generals Qing Hui and Wang Jian. 228 ICMH 91, qnwu, spYue
c.228 Λ HANDAN, capital of Zhao from ?, surrenders to Qin. 228 B76 IV-895, ICMH 91
c.228 King of Zhao from 235, QIAN captured in Dongyang by Qin generals Qing Hui and Wang Jian.
ZHAO, separate from Qin from 408, destroyed & annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin.  Zhao noble Gongzi Jia escapes with remnant forces to Dai (northwest Zhao) and proclaims himself king DAI JIA 227-22.  Dai Jia allies with Yen state.
228 CHAC 29, GHCC 103, ICMH 91, MRDK, R2T 7, bk, ckZ, friC, icZ, qnwu, rcC, wikQn, yutZ
c.228 King of Wei from 242, JINGMIN ends.  JIA succeeds 227-25. 228 CHAC 29, MRDK, friC, wikW     227 rcC
c.228 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10 goes to Zhao capital Handan and kills all those Zhao people who offended Ying Zheng while he was a hostage in Zhao. 228 icZ
c.228 After the fall of Zhao, Qin generals Wang Jian and Qing Hui move into Zhongshan and prepare for offensive on Yen.  Yen minister Ju Wu proposes to Yen king Xi to ally with Dai (northwest Zhao), Qi, and Chu, and improve relations with the Xiongnu in the north, in order to counter the Qin invaders. 228 qnwu
c.228 King of Chu from 237 YU ends.  Bro Xiong Yu succeeds as King AI, and is murdered by bro Xiong Fuchu, who succeeds as FUCHU 227-23. 228 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu
227 rcC
c.228 There is no mention of private slave labor in mining and smelting.  The only document even hinting at it is the biography of the Cho family, rich iron-smelters of Zhao, deported after 228 to Sichuan, where the family again takes up smelting at "iron mountain", and trades with regions to the south.  It becomes sorich that it owns 800 "youths". 228 SDFH 218
c.227 Qin general FAN YICHI defects to Yen.  Yen heir-apparent Dan grants him asylum. 227
c.227 Crown Prince DAN of Yen, a childhood friend of Qin King Ying Zheng while serving as hostages in Zhao capital, sends assassin Jing Ke to kill Ying Zheng.  Jing Ke hides a knife inside maps of Yen state and tries to kill Ying Zheng while showing the maps, but plot fails, and Jing Ke is killed.  This failure fuels the rage of the Qin king, who enlists more troops to conquer Yen. 228 CHC 45, ICMH 91
227 icZ, qnwu, wikT, yutZ
no date: wikWS
c.227 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10, retaliates by sending generals Wang Jian and Xin Sheng to attack Yen. 227 R2T 8, icZ 226 qnwu
c.227 Yen and Dai armies defeated by Qin generals Wang Jian and Xin Sheng on west bank of Jin River. 227 ICMH 91
c.226 Qin general WANG JIAN, old and ill, retires. 226 ICMH 91, icZ, qnwu
c.226 Qin general Wang Ben, son of Wang Jian, defeats Yen army and Yen reinforcements from Dai (northwest Zhao) on east bank of Yi River, takes Yen capital Ji (Beijing).  King Xi of Yen and his son, prince Dan flee with remnant forces to Liaodong. 226
ICMH 91, R2T 8, icZ, qnwu
c.226 King Xi of Yen executes his son, Crown Prince Dan, and sends his son's severed head to Qin, as a token of peace.  Qin accepts the offer and does not attack Yen for the next 3 years. 226 qnwu
c.225 QI state develops federal bureaucratic system. 230-21 TTS
c.225 Qin army under Wang Ben invades Wei and besieges Wei capital Daliang 3 months.  Wang Ben redirects Yellow River and Hong Canal to flood Daliang.  King Jia of Wei surrenders. 225 ICMH 91, R2T 8, ckZ, icZ, qnwu, spYue, wikQn, wikW, wikWS
c.225 HONG CANAL dug by Wang Ben to flood Daliang. 225 HFHD 94
c.225 JIA surrenders.  King of Wei from 227, reign ends.  WEI destroyed & annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin until 209.  Leaving only CHU, YEN, and Qi independent. 225 CHAC 29, GHCC 103, MRDK, R2T 8, bk, friC, rcC, wikQn, wikW, yutZ
c.225 WEI conquered by Qin, organized into commanderies. 225 ICMH 91, friC, qnwu, wikWS, yutZ
c.225 FAN JU, Qin chancellor from ?, executed. 225 yutZ
c.225 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10, holds meeting, asks retired general Wang Jian how many men he needs to conquer Chu.  Wang Jian says 600,000 men.  Another general, Li Xin, says 200,000 men will suffice.  Li Xin gets the command and attacks Chu.  His 200,000 troops are defeated by a counterattack and ambush by 500,000 Chu troops under general Xiang Yan in Huaiyang territory unfamiliar to Qin. 225
ICMH 91, wikChu
224 qnwu, wikQn
223 wikWS
c.225 GREAT WALL added to by YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10.  Bricks used are both sun-dried and burnt. 225 MCAW 204 221 hist
210 B76 3-163
c.225 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10, is told by a sooth sayer that the Great Wall will not succeed unless 10,000 men are buried under it.  Ying Zheng finds a man whose name means "10,000", kills him, and buries him under the wall. 225 MCAW
c.224 NAN Province (old Chu homeland) invaded by Chu. 224 ICMH 92
c.224 Qin general Wang Jian is asked by king Ying Zheng of Qin to lead 600,000 men invading Chu.  Wang Jian either leads it, or defers to his son Wang Ben. 224 icZ, wikChu
Wang Ben yr 23 spYue
c.224 Qin general WANG BEN (Jian?) with 600,000 troops surprise attacks Chu. 225 ICMH 91
224 R2T 8
c.224 Qin army of 600,000 under Wang Ben (Jian?) conquers more than 10 cities on north border of Chu. 225 qnwu
c.224 Qin army under general Wang Jian (apparently out of retirement) with Meng Wu as deputy passes thru south Chen and camps at Pingyu.  Chu armies, under Xiang Yan, use their full strength to attack the Qin camp but fail. 224
R2T 8, qnwu
c.224 After failing to lure the Qin army to attack, Xiang Yan retreats and Wang Jian launches a surprise attack, defeats Xiang Yan, pursues retreating Chu forces to Qinan. 224 qnwu, wikQn, wikQwu
c.224 Qin general Wang Jian defeats Chu at Yangzi River. 224 ICMH 92
c.224 Qin general Wang Jian pursues Chu, occupies Huai River area from Chen south to Pingyu. 224 ICMH 92
c.224/3 King of Chu from 227, FUCHU surrenders to Qin general Wang Jian and is deposed.  Chu general Xiang Yan enthrones Prince Changpingjun as new Chu King until 223, and counter-attacks Qin south of Huai River. 224 ICMH 92, icZ
223 CHAC 29, MRDK, R2T 8, ckChu, friC, icZ, rcC, wikChu
c.223 SHOUCHUN, capital of Chu from 241, taken by Qin general Wang Jian. 223 qnwu
c.223 Qin generals Wang Jian and Meng Wu proceed south, defeat Chu general Xiang Yan, and kill Changpingjun in battle. 223 icZ
c.223 Chu general XIANG YAN suicides or is killed in battle, army surrenders to Qin. 224 wikQwu 223 icZ, wikXL
c.223 CHU conquered, destroyed, & annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin. 223 B76 II-912, X-553, GHCC 103, ckChu, ckZ, friC, qnwu, rcC, wikChu, wikQn, wikT, yutZ
c.222 CHANGSHA Commandery founded by Qin until 202. 222 bril
c.222 DAI JIA, king of a Zhao remnant in Dai (northwest Zhao) from 227, captured by Qin general Wang Ben. 222 CHAC 29, friC
c.222 DAI (northwest Zhao) falls to Qin.  It becomes a commandery until 210. 222 bril, qnwu, wikQn
c.222 ZHAO conquered by Qin before Qin conquers Yen. 228 yutZ
222 friC, wikT, wikWS
c.222 Qin general WANG BEN goes south from Dai to pacify the Jiangnan area of Jing, where he forces surrender of the Yue king, and turns Guiji (Kuaiji) into a commandery. 222 ICMH 92, ckZ, icZ, qnwu, spYue, wikQn
c.222 Qin army under Wang Jian and Meng Wu advance south and invades Wuyue region, captures descendants of the royal family of Yue. 223 B76 4-69
222 qnwu, wikQn
c.222 WUYUE region annexed by Qin, becomes Kuaiji (Guiji?) Prefecture. 222 qnwu, wikQn
c.222 Qin army conquers area along Hsi river and Pei river valleys down to Canton delta.  Present KWANGTUNG is incorporated into Qin Empire. 222 B76 10-554
c.222 Qin generals WANG BEN and LI XIN attack Liaodong area of Yen. 222 ICMH 92, R2T 8, ckZ, icZ, qnwu, spYue, wikQn
c.222 King XI of Yen from 254 captured by Qin general Wang Ben. 222 CHAC 29, MRDK, R2T 8, ckY, friC, rcC
c.222 YEN conquered by Qin general WANG BEN.  YEN destroyed & annexed, under Qin until 208/7. 222 GHCC 103, IUG 4.1, ckY, qnwu, rcC, wikQn, wikT, wikWS, yutZ
c.222 Former YEN land is divided into Yuyang, Beiping, Liaoxi, and Liaodong prefectures of the Qin empire. 222 qnwu
c.222 Qin general WANG BEN returns from Yen and attacks Dai (northwest Zhao). 222 ICMH 92, ckZ, icZ, qnwu, spYue, wikQn
c.222 ZHAO ZI JIA, local king of Dai, captured by Qin general Wang Ben. 222 R2T 8
c.222 Qin general Wang Jian recalled to lead a 2nd invasion of Chu with 600,000 men.  Chu forces sit back and defend against what they expect to be a siege of Chu.  However, Wang Jian tricks the Chu army by appearing to be idle in his fortifications while secretly training his troops to fight in Chu territory.  After a year, Chu defenders disband due to apparent inaction by Qin. 222 wikWS
c.221 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 232, BU ends.  JUN succeeds until 193. 221 rcK
c.221 QI is the only state in China not annexed by Qin. 221 qnwu
c.221 Qi King TIAN JIAN moves Qi armies to west frontier to defend against Qin, though its military is not well equipped and morale is low.  Closes off the border with Qin. 221 icZ
c.221 YING ZHENG, king of Qin 246-10, uses Qi's rejection of a meeting with Qin's envoy to order general Wang Ben to attack Qi. 221 icZ
c.221 Qin general WANG BEN avoids direct confrontation with Qi armies on the west border of Qi, and advances into Qi via a detour from Yen. 221 icZ, qnwu, spYue, wikQi, yutZ
c.221 Qin general WANG BEN meets little resistance passing thru Qi territories, soon arrives at Qi's capital Linzi.  Qi forces are taken by surprise and surrender without resistance. 221 ICMH 99, qnwu, wikQn
c.221 King of Qi, JIAN ends.  "Emperor of the East", from 264, captured. 226 MRDK, rcC     221 CHAC 29, R2T 8, ckQi, friC, qnwu
c.221 Λ QI kingdom ends.  Began 1046, under TIEN clan from 386, the final unconquered warring state, conquered, destroyed, & annexed by Ying Zheng, king of Qin.  As soon as Qin's intention to invade it becomes clear, Qi surrenders all its cities, comes under Qin until 207. 226 MRDK, rcC
221 GHCC 103, IUG 4.1, R2T 8, bk, ckQi, ckZ, friC, spYue, wikQi, wikWS, yutZ
c.221 BAN LIANG COINS become the Qin national currency.  Ban liang refers to its weight, which is 7.5g.  Back side has no image. 221 ctACC
c.221 Qin armies dispatched to subdue the Yue kingdoms that had come into existence in what is now southern Zhejiang (Wenzhou area), Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi provinces. 221
ICMH 100, spYue
c.221 Marquis CHIAOJUN of Wey from 229 deposed by Qin. 221 friC, ckW
c.221 HUI of eastern Zhou terminated by Qin. 221 yutZ
c.221 JINYANG former capital of Zhao, conquered by Qin, renamed TAIYUAN, under Zhao until 196. 221 wikTai
c.221 YING ZHENG, king of Qin from 246, declares self QIN SHIH HUANG TI, 1st emperor of Qin until 210.  QIN EMPIRE founded.  Unites China until 207. 221 B76 4-428, CHAC 16, 29, 95, GHCC, LEWH 57, MCAW, PW 17, TAWH 17, 80, TToH, TTPC, bk, friC, scar, spks, yutZ, wikHC, wikT
c.221 Cyclical revolution of the Five Powers is endorsed by Shih Huang Ti:
Since the Zhou had held the power of fire, and Qin had supplanted Zhou, now is the beginning of the flourishing of the power of water.  Emperor honors black [the correlate of water among colors] as the color for clothing, pennons and flags.  He makes 6 [the correlate of water among numbers] as the standard number.  Contract tallies and official hats are all of 6 inches, chariots are 6 feet.  6 feet makes one double-pace (pu), and each equipage consisted of 6 horses.  The Yellow River is renamed Powerful Water (Te-shui), because it is supposed that this marked the beginning of the power of water.  Winter, the correlate of water, is the season of darkness and death, therefore the season when legal proceedings, especially executions, should be carried out.
221 CHC 77
c.221 WARRING STATES Period of China ends. Began 481.
Period 3 from 250 ends.
QIN Dynasty begins until 207.
221 B76 II-891, X-553, 4-305, 10-54, 14-1, CHAC 16, TTPC, frie, scar, tcgEZ, tcgQ, wikHC, wikQi, wikW, wikWS
c.221 ANCIENT Period of Chinese philosophy ends.
MIDDLE Period begins until 960CE.
221 EoΦ 2-87

East Asia 221-207