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210 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO, praetor of 211, made propraetor and sent to Etruria. 211/10
DGRBM 3-371
210 Mar. CONSULS:  M. Valerius LAEVINUS (2nd) and M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS (4th) 210 B76 VI-601, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-930, OCD 576, 646, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.210 Λ CENSORS V patrician L. Veturius Philo, who dies in office, and pleb P. Licinius Crassus. 210 CAH 8-72, 79,
DGRBM 1-873, 3-298, wikLC
c.210 Pleb TRIBUNES:  C. and L. ARENNIUS,  M. Lucretius,  Ti.(2) Sempronius Longus 210 DGRBM 1-276, 2-806, 828
c.210 L. Furius Purpureo is military tribune under consul M.(3) Marcellus. 210 DGRBM 3-605
c.210 Pleb AEDILES:  Q. Catius and L. Porcius Licinus 210 DGRBM 1-634
c.210 L. Veturius Philo is curule aedile. 210 DGRBM 3-298
c.210 C. Laetorius is praetor. 210 DGRBM 2-709
c.210 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 137,108 adult males. 210 DGRBM, GHH
c.210 Senate's financial resources are exhausted.  The "as" coin, originally a pound of copper, is now ⅙ of that.  All repayments to the treasury are in depreciated coinage.    . 210 LdHR 1-385
c.210 Troop levies are difficult this year.  Only 21 legions are raised. 210 HRRP 1-657
c.210 Ti.(1) Sempronius Longus dies.  Son Ti.(2) Sempronius Longus, is augur. 210 DGRBM 2-806
c.210 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO urban praetor from 211 ends office, sent as propraetor to Etruria until later 210. 210 DGRBM 3-371
c.210 P. Manlius VULSO is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 210 DGRBM 3-1285
c.210 L. Manlius ACIDINUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily to bring back consul Valerius Laevinus to Rome to hold elections. 210 DGRBM 1-12
c.210 Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus is dictator. 210 DGRBM 1-873, wikLRD
c.210 P. Licinius Crassus is magister equitum. 210 DGRBM 1-873
c.210 Roman rich are compelled to give their own slaves to the state as rowers, and to pay for their sustenance. 210
CAH 8-74
c.210 Voluntary contributions are made by all classes of Roman people.  A previously untouched gold reserve is tapped. 210
CAH 8-75
c.210 Senate finally ratifies Laevinus' 211 treaty with Aetolian League.  It is then published in Rome, at Olympia, and at Thermum, the Aetolian federal shrine. 210
CAH 8-100
c.210 Propraetor C. Calpurnius Piso commanded by dictator, Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus, to take command of the army at Capua. 210 DGRBM 3-371
c.210 Romans resolve to increase their army in Spain, and to place it under a proconsul.  But when the people assemble to elect a proconsul, no general of experience volunteers.  At length P.(6) Cornelius Scipio, barely 24/27, asks for the job. 210 DGRBM 3-743
c.210 Office of CURIO MAXIMUS (head of College of Curiones), until now a patrician, open to plebs. 210
OCD 302
c.210 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO, 24-27 year old son of P.(5) who was just killed in Spain, is made proconsul, while never having been consul (a first), and put in command of army going to Spain until 206.  M. Junius Silanus and C.(1) Laelius accompany. 211 CDGRA 517, DGRA 960     210 B76 V-984, 15-1097, 16-396,
CAH 8-72, CDCC 796, DGRBM 3-819, MCAW
c.210 Gn. Sempronius Blaesus is legate of dictator Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus. 210 DGRBM 1-491
c.210 Gn. Sempronius is sent to Etruria to take over army of propraetor C.(1) Calpurnius Piso, who is sent by Flaccus to Capua until 209. 210 DGRBM 1-491, 3-371
c.210 M. Ogulnius and P. Aquillius are sent to Etruria to buy grain for Tarentum. 210 DGRBM 3-20
c.210 Capuan courtezan CLUVIA FAUCULA, who had secretly given food to Roman prisoners at Capua, has her property restored by senatorial decree. 210 DGRBM 1-807
c.210 ATELLA 13km south of Capua, under Rome from 211, remaining inhabitants forced to move to Calatia.  Citizens of Nuceria, which had been destroyed by Hannibal, are settled at Atella in their stead. 210 DGRG 1-253
c.210 SALAPIA, 6km northwest of Cannae on coast of Apulia, under Hannibal with a strong garrison from ?, betrayed by citizen Blattius to consul M.(3) Claudius Marcellus.  Pro-Carthaginians are massacred. 210 B76 VI-601, CAH 8-54, DGRBM 1-492, 2-338, 944
c.210 CAPUA:  2 brothers named Blosius attempt rebellion, but are discovered and executed with their companions. 210 DGRBM 1-493
c.210 ACERRAE southwest of Suessula Campania, destroyed 216, rebuilt by the Acerrani with consent of Rome. 210 DGRG 1-11
c.210 20 Roman ships under D. Quintius sent with supplies for the garrison in the Tarentum citadel under M. Livius Macatus.  It is defeated off Tarentum by Tarentines under Democrates.  D. Quintius is killed, but the garrison continues to hold out in the citadel until 209. 210 CAH 8-54, DGRBM 2-878, 1198, 3-637
c.210 Hannibal devastates those parts of Italy which appear about to rejoin Rome. 210 CAH 8-77
c.210 Hannibal surprises and defeats army of Gn. Fulvius Centumalus, who is killed, along with 11 tribunes, at 2nd battle of Herdonia Apulia (which may be identical to the 1st). 210 CAH 8-54,
DGRBM 1-667, DGRG 1-1-56, wikBH, wikGFC, wikLRB
happens in Lucania 210 SORH
c.210 HERDONIA, 30km southeast of Lucera Apulia, destroyed by Hannibal.  Population transplanted by Romans to Metapontum and Thurii.  Later rebuilt. 210 CAH 8-77, DGRG 1-1056
c.210 Hannibal barely defeats consul M.(3) Claudius Marcellus at Numistro in north Lucania. 210 DGRBM, wikBN, wikLRB
c.210 After an indecisive conflict in Lucania, consul M.(3) Marcellus pursues Hannibal thru Apulia. 210
CAH 8-54
c.210 Consul M. Valerius LAEVINUS becomes governor of Sicily, then continues as proconsul until 207. 210 DGRBM 2-711, LdHR 1-375, OCD 576
c.210 Rome / Egypt alliance renewed. 218-02 SORH
210 FIRE destroys much of the Forum.
TEMPLE of VESTA (see 241) is rescued. 
210 dfr, wikTV
c.210 Wheat imports to Italy begin from Sicily, Africa, Egypt. 218-02 SHT 2-121
c.210 M. Livius SALINATOR, exiled from 218, recalled by consuls, does not speak in senate until 208. 210 DGRBM 3-694, OCD 946
210/09 M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS, consul 210, becomes proconsul, retains his army to cooperate with consuls against Hannibal. 210/09 DGRBM 2-930
c.209 C.(1) Claudius Nero is legate under M.(3) Marcellus. 209 DGRBM 2-1161
209 Mar. CONSULS:  patrician Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator (5th) and Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS (4th) 209 B76 IV-20, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-154, 994, HRRP 1-658, OCD 427, 440, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.209 Λ CENSORS V patrician M. Cornelius Cethegus; pleb P. Sempronius Tuditanus, neither of whom had been consul. 209 DGRBM 1-675, 3-1181, OCD 1098, wikLC
c.209 C. Mamilius Vitulus is elected maximus curio.  1st pleb to hold that office. 209 DGRBM 3-1279
c.209 Q. Caecilius Metellus and C. Servilius are pleb aediles. 209 DGRBM 2-1056, 3-793
c.209 L.(5) Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus is curule aedile. 209 DGRBM 2-729
c.209 C. Hostilius Tubulus is made urban praetor. 209 DGRBM 3-1180
c.209 Livy gives a list of all colonies founded by Rome until 209.  It contains 30 colonies, including only 7 of the early colonies - Signia, Norba, Setia, Circeii, Ardea, Sutrium and Nepet.  The rest are ignored. 209 CAH 7.2-280, DGRBM
c.209 Consul Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS is first sent to Beneventum to guard Campania and Samnium. 209 HRRP 1-658
c.209 Consul Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS is sent to Lucania and Bruttium. 209 DGRBM 2-154
c.209 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO is sent by senate as propraetor again to Etruria until ?. 209 DGRBM 3-371
c.209 C. Fulvius FLACCUS, legate to his bro Quintus, is sent to Etruria to bring back the legions there. 209 DGRBM 2-154
c.209 C.(1) Valerius FLACCUS, a young man of disputed character, is made Flamen Dialis (high priest of Jupiter) against his will by pontifex maximus P. Licinius.  He does a good job, and is admitted to the senate. 209 DGRBM 2-158, wikFD
c.209 L. Veturius PHILO is made praetor peregrinus and sent to Cisalpine Gaul.  He is transferred to Transalpine Gaul until 208, then back to Cisalpine until 207. 209 DGRBM 3-298, wikRGG
c.209 T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispus elected praetor, goes to Capua. 209 DGRBM 1-606
c.209 Proconsul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS, based at Canusium, fights Hannibal, in 3 campaigns on 3 successive days. 209 HRRP 1-659
c.209 Proconsul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS, nearly defeated by Hannibal, is rescued by tribune C. Flavus DECIMUS. 209 DGRBM 2-175
c.209 Proconsul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS, fights Hannibal indecisively near Venusia. 209 B76 VI-601
c.209 C. Publicius Bibulus is pleb tribune.  He tries to deprive M.(3) Claudius Marcellus of his imperium.  It backfires, and Marcellus will be elected consul for 208. 209 DGRBM 3-600
c.209 Q. Claudius FLAMEN elected praetor, goes to Sallentine district of Tarentum, succeeds M.(3) Marcellus in command of 2 legions. 209 DGRBM 2-161
208 DGRBM 1-775
c.209 Samnites submit to Rome. 209 DGRBM 2-338
c.209 GENOA, capital of Liguria, sacked and destroyed by Carthaginians.  Again 205. 209 wikGn
c.209 Fleet commander C.(1) LAELIUS, operating off Spain from ?, returns with Carthaginian prisoners to Rome.  Then sails back to Spain because of a threatened new invasion from Africa.  Laelius rejoins P.(6) Scipio at Tarraco. 209 DGRBM 2-705, 710
c.209 Proconsul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS fights HANNIBAL at Canusium in Apulia.  Marcellus takes heavy losses, but checks movements of the main Punic forces. 209
DGRBM 2-1161, LEWH 100, wikBC
c.209 CALES 15km northwest of Capua, Roman colony from 335, quits helping Rome. 209
OCD 193
c.209 12 out of 30 Latin colonies (including Alba Fucens) claim that they are unable to provide required soldiers for Roman military. 210 bk     209 CAH 8-75, DGRG 1-86, HRRP 1-616, LdHR 1-387, SORH
c.209 M. Sextilius of Fregellae assures the consuls that 18 of the Roman colonies are ready to furnish soldiers, after 12 had refused to do so. 210 DGRBM 3-810
c.209 The Hirpinii, Lucanii, and Volcentii submit to consul Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS, and are mildly treated. 209 DGRBM 2-154, 338
c.209 The HIRPINI in central Italy, now that Hannibal is gone, submit to Consul Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS, and purchase favorable terms by betraying Punic garrisons in their towns. 209 DGRG 1-1072
c.209 ATTALOS-I, ruler of Pergamum 241-197, king 230, allies with Rome against Philip-V. 209 OHG
c.209 TARENTUM, under Hannibal (except for its citadel) from 212, now under Carthalo, recovered thru internal treachey by consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus CunctatorCarthalo surrenders, and is killed.  Tarentines Nicon and Philemenus, who betrayed the city to Hannibal, are killed in battle.  The citadel garrison under M. Livius Macatus from 212 is rescued.  30,000 inhabitants of Tarentum enslaved, part of its territory confiscated, 3,000 talents confiscated and sent to Rome.  Tarentum will become a colony 123, and under Rome until 396CE. 209 B76 II-447, IV-20, IX-822, 8-627, 15-279, CAH 8-55, DGRBM 1-616, 2-994, 1198, 3-263, GHH, HRRP 1-659, LEWH 100, OCD 427, SORH, rcSI
c.209 It is suggested that the Roman troops confiscate the statues of Tarentum.  Consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator says, "No, let us leave to the Tarentines their angry gods."  He does however, remove to Rome a statue of Heracles, mythic ancestor of the Fabii. 209 DGRBM 2-994
c.209 Proconsul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS is sent to Etruria, appeases a threatened rebellion of Arretians, returns to Rome. 209 DGRBM 2-930
c.209 Q.(1) Mucius Scaevola dies.  Sons are Q.(2) and P.(1). 209 DGRBM 3-729
c.209 Praetor C.(1) Claudius NERO, in Spain north of Ebro from 210, returns to Italy, serves under M.(3) MARCELLUS. 209
OCD 730
c.209/8 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 237,108 adult males. 209/8 CDCC 179, csun
208 Mar. CONSULS:  T. Poenus Quinctius CRISPINUS and M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS (5th) 208 CAH 8, CDCC 552, DGRBM 1-606, HRRP 1-659, LdHR 1-389, OCD 646, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.208 C. Mamilius Vitulus is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 208 DGRBM 3-1279
c.208 P. Licinius Crassus is praetor. 208 DGRBM 1-873
c.208 C. Hostilius Tubulus is made propraetor and sent with 2 legions to Etruria.  He is ordered by the senate to watch Arretium, which is suspected of intending to defect to Hannibal.  He therefore takes as hostages 120 children of the senators of Arretium. 208 DGRBM 3-1180
c.208 C. Servilius, Ser.(1) Sulpicius Galba, and Q.(1) Caecilius Metellus are elected curule aediles. 208 DGRBM 2-205, 1056, 3-793
c.208 M.(1) Caecilius Metellus is pleb aedile. 208 DGRBM 2-1056
c.208 Sextus(1) Julius Caesar is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 208 DGRBM 1-537
c.208 Consul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS prepares to resume operations, but is detained by unfavorable omens. 208 DGRBM 2-930
c.208 M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS, son of the consul, is military tribune to his father. 208 DGRBM 2-931
c.208 Rumor of a Punic naval assault on Sicily and Italy lead to more Roman ship building, but the alarm proves false. 208
CAH 8-67
c.208 TARENTUM, under Rome 209-396CE, has part of its territory confiscated as punishment for defection to Hannibal. 208
CAH 8-197
c.208 Roman maritime colonies not normally tapped for military service are compelled to provide soldiers. 208
CAH 8-75
c.208 Consul Crispinus, besieging Locri, withdraws when Hannibal approaches. 208 DGRG 2-200
c.208 Consul Crispinus marches from Tarentum for Locri, but is ambushed by Hannibal near Petelia Bruttium.  Crispinus is fatally wounded, and retreats. 208 CAH 8-55, DGRBM 1-606
c.208 Consul M.(3) MARCELLUS and tribune T.(1) Q. FLAMININUS skirmish cautiously and successfully against Hannibal. 208
OCD 646
c.208  Lex Licinia de Ludis Apollinaribus  by praetor P. Licinius Varus:  proposes that the games of Apollo should always be celebrated on the same day (July 5).  Mostly theatrical exhibitions, but sometimes a race. 208 DGRA 715, unrv
c.208 LUDI APOLLINARES, established 212, are made annual by a law of curule aedile L. Varus (possibly to stop a plague).  From now on, they are celebrated on July 13, and eventually grow to last 8 or 9 days.  Urban praetor administrates. 208
CDGRA 394, SORH, wikLA
c.208 Consuls M.(3) Marcellus and Crispinus, reconnoitering at Bantia east of Venusia Apulia, ambushed by Numidians under HannibalM.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS is killed immediately.  His son tribune M.(4)C.M. is wounded.  Crispinus is wounded and carried from the field.  Prefect M'.  Aulius is killed. 208 B76 VI-601, CAH 8-55, 71, CDCC 552, DGRBM 1-435, 2-930,
GHH, HRRP 1-659, OCD 161, 646, SORH
c.208 T.(4) Manlius Torquatus is dictator to hold elections and preside at the games which had been vowed by praetor M. Aemilius. 208 DGRBM 3-1164, wikLRD
c.208 C. Servilius, now a curule aedile, is appointed magister equitum. 208 DGRBM 3-793
c.208 M. Marcius, rex sacrourm from ?, ends.  Gn. Cornelius Dolabella succeeds until death 180. 208 DGRBM 1-1058
c.208 Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS, consul in Lucania and Bruttium from 209, is sent to Capua commanding 1 legion. 208 DGRBM 2-154
c.208 LOCRI Bruttium, under Hannibal, besieged by Romans from ?, relieved by Hannibal. 208 CAH 8-55, SORH
c.207 Known enemies M. Livius Salinator and C.(1) Claudius Nero, are consuls elect for 207.  The task of reconciling them falls mostly on Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 208 DGRBM 2-994
207 Mar. CONSULS:  C.(1) Claudius NERO and personal enemy pleb M. Livius SALINATOR (2nd)
Salinator operates in north; Nero in south against Hannibal.
207 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1161, 3-694, LEWH 100, OCD 2, 730, 946, DGRBM 2-338, 3-694, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.207 Consuls ignore Lex Atilia 311, and appoint their own tribunes to 19 of the 23 legions.  (see 171) 207 DGRA 503
c.207 Q.(6) Fabius Maximus is legate to consul M. Livius Salinator.  He will die before his father. 207 DGRBM 2-994
c.207 Gn.(2) Servilius Caepio becomes curule aedile, celebrates games 3 times. 207 DGRBM 1-533
c.207 C. (or Q.) Mamilius Turrinus becomes pleb aedile. 207 DGRBM 2-913, 3-1193
c.207 MONEY:  New gold coins minted.  Lowest is SCRUPULUM weighs 18.06g, worth 20 sesterces. 207 DGRA 182, GHH, HRRP 1-548
205 LdHR 1-467
c.207 A year of bad omens:  At Caere a vulture flies into the temple of Jupiter.  At Cumae, rats gnaw the gold ornaments of the statue of Apollo.  The Lake of Volsinia flows red.  Stones fall from heaven.  Lightning strikes temples and walls of Rome. 207 HRRP 1-666
c.207 L. Porcius Licinius is made praetor, sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 207 DGRBM 2-785
c.207 A fortified camp outside Narnia defends the road thru Umbria to Rome.  Troops are stationed there to oppose Hasdrubal. 207 DGRBM 1-12, HRRP 1-665
c.207 Propraetor C. Hostilius Tubulus is sent from Etruria to Tarentum, and thence to Capua.  While marching to Capua he surprises Hannibal's array, kills 4,000 men, and takes 9 standards.  He continues in command at Capua till the end of 203. 207 DGRBM 3-1180
c.207 Bros Aulus and Caius Hostilius Cato are praetors.  Aulus gets province of Sardinia.  Caius has his appointment changed several times, eventually combining praetor urbanus and peregrinus, so that other praetors can go fight Hannibal. 207 DGRBM 2-531
c.207 2 cypress-wood statues carried in procession by Roman matrons in honor of Juno. 207
CAH 8-513
c.207 National hymn to Juno, to be sung by a chorus of virgins, composed by Livius Andronicus. 207
CAH 8-429
c.207 L. LIVIUS ANDRONICUS Greek X-slave in Rome from 271, commissioned to compose a parthenion (religious poem or song performed by virgins), after Λ Sibylline Books V are consulted, to be sung in procession to Aventine Juno. 207
B76 VI-278, OCD 614
c.207 Consul C.(1) Claudius NERO marches to south Italy. 207 DGRBM 2-1161
c.207 HASDRUBAL BARCA, bro of Hannibal, with 52,000 men, crosses Alps (more quickly than Hannibal had) into Italy.  Local Gauls and Ligurians support him. 208 B76 8-627, CAH 8-55 207 B76 15-279, DGRBM 2-356, Dur 3-53, GHH, HRRP 1-683, SORH
c.207 Consul M. Livius Salinator is appointed dictator to hold elections and deal with Hasdrubal Barca. 207 DGRBM 2-338, 1056, 3-694, wikLRD
c.207 Q.(1) Caecilius Metellus is magister equitum. 207 DGRBM 2 1056
c.207 M. Raecius and Sex. Antistius are sent to Cisalpine Gaul to inquire about the activities of Hasdrubal. 208 DGRBM 3-640
c.207 Q. CLAUDIUS FLAMEN, praetor in Tarentum 208, is made propraetor. 207 DGRBM 2-161
c.207 HASDRUBAL BARCA sends a message via 2 Numidians intended for Hannibal saying that he hopes to join forces in Umbria.  Message is intercepted at Placentia by M. Livius Salinator.  Message and Numidians are sent to Q. CLAUDIUS FLAMEN at Tarentum, thence to consul C.(1) Claudius Nero. 208 B76 8-627, CAH 8-55
207 B76 15-279, DGRBM 2-161, Dur 3-53
c.207 HASDRUBAL BARCA wastes time besieging Romans in Placentia. 207 B76 VII-982, DGRBM 2-356
c.207 HASDRUBAL BARCA abandons siege of Placentia, retreats to Ariminum. 207 DGRBM 2-356
c.207 Consul C.(1) Claudius NERO checks Hannibal at Grumentum in south Italy. 207 SORH
c.207 HANNIBAL goes to Apulia. 207 SORH
c.207 Consul C.(1) Claudius NERO, learns of the intercepted message, rushes north with 7,000 men to join M. Livius Salinator at Sena Gallica, where they now confront Hasdrubal Barca. 207 CAH 8-55, DGRBM 2-356, LEWH 100, OCD 730, SORH, wikLRB, wikRGG
c.207 HASDRUBAL BARCA, confronted by consuls SALINATOR and NERO, avoids battle, tries to proceed down the Via Flaminia to his planned meeting-place with Hannibal. 207 CAH 8-55
c.207 Bro of Hannibal, HASDRUBAL BARCA, defeated and killed at Metaurus River in Umbria by consuls SALINATOR and NERO and praetor Licinius. 207 B76 IV-938, 8-627, 15-1093, BCoC 507, CAH 8, CDCC 130, 415, DGRBM 2-330, Dur 3-20, 53, GHH, LEWH 100, SORH, TTPC, rcIb, wikBr, wikLRB, wikRGG     205 CDCC 42
c.207 Consul C.(1) Claudius NERO takes the head of Hasdrubal and immediately returns south to Apulia. 207 CAH 8-55, DGRBM 2-357, SORH
c.207 M. Valerius LAEVINUS governor of Sicily from 210, returns to Italy. 207 OCD 576
206 DGRBM 2-711
c.207 Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS commands 2 legions at Bruttium. 207 DGRBM 2-154
c.207 HANNIBAL sees the head of his bro of Hasdrubal thrown into his camp, stunned, withdraws forces from Metapontum, and from Apulia to Bruttium. 207 DGRG 2-347, Dur 3-53, LEWH 100, SORH, TToH
c.206 M. Livius SALINATOR, consul 207, becomes proconsul of Etruria with 2 legions of volones until 205. 206 DGRBM 3-694, OCD 946
206 Mar. CONSULS:  Q.(1) Caecilius METELLUS and L. Veturius PHILO both sent to Bruttium. 206 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1056, 3-298, 3-1251, GHH, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.206 C. Servilius is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 206 DGRBM 3-793
c.206 Sp. Lucretius, M. Pomponius Matho, Gn.(2) Octavius are pleb aediles. 206 DGRBM 2-828, 972, 3-6
c.206 M.(1) Caecilius Metellus is praetor urbanus. 206 DGRBM 2-1056
c.206 Rome needs food more than soldiers.  Senate takes laborers from the armies and puts them to work in the fields. 206
HRRP 2-2
c.206 Q. Mamilius Turrinus is made praetor peregrinus and sent to Cisalpine Gaul to protect Placentia and Cremona. 206 DGRBM 3-1193, wikRGG
c.206 Gn.(2) Octavius Rufus is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 206 DGRBM 3-6
c.206 Praetor Ti. Claudius ASELLUS is sent to Sardinia. 206 DGRBM 1-385
c.206 Consul Q.(1) Caecilius METELLUS opposes HANNIBAL in Bruttium, but nothing important happens. 206 OCD 677, DGRBM 3-298
c.206 LUCANIA recovered by Rome. 206 CAH 8-55, SORH
c.206 PLACENTIA and CREMONA, founded 218, resettled with more Romans. 206 CAH 8-107
c.206 Senate decides to begin sending a regular series of governors, 2 at a time, to Spain. 206 CAH 8-107
c.206 Milvian Bridge MILVIAN BRIDGE built of wood where Via Flaminia crosses the Tiber north of Rome by consul C. Claudius Nero.  Wooden bridge remains until 109. 206 wikPM
c.206 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO Jr., commander in Spain from 210, returns with C.(1) Laelius to Rome, met by senate at temple of Bellona.  He is refused a triumph because he had not held any regular magistracy.  He enters Rome, says he is candidate for consulship.  His popularity causes suspicion of the senate. 206 B76 V-984, CAH 8, GHH, LdHR 1-407, LEWH 100, MWΦ 235
206/5 MCAW
205 B76 15-280
c.206 P. SULPICIUS GALBA Roman commander in Greece from 211, returns to Rome.  P. SEMPRONIUS TUDITANUS succeeds with 10,000 inf, 1,000 cav, and 35 warships until 204. 206 OCD 454
205 CAH 8-104
204 DGRBM 2-204
206 late Consul Q.(1) Caecilius METELLUS recalled from Bruttium to Rome to be dictator to hold elections. 206 DGRBM 2-1056
c.205 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO proposes invasion of Africa. 205 CAH 8
c.205 Opposition to P.(6) Scipio's planned invasion of Africa by Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus and Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 205 B76 IV-20, CAH 8-62, 69, OCD 427
205 Mar CONSULS:  P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO is elected by unanimous votes of all the centuries, though he had not been praetor, and was only 30 years old.  P. Licinius CRASSUS, who is also pontifex maximus, and therefore cannot leave Rome. 205 B76 15-1093, 16-396, CAH 8, CDCC 796, DGRBM 1-873, 3-744, Dur 3-53, HRRP 1-686, LdHR 1-407, LEWH 100, OCD 962, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.205 Q.(1) Caecilius METELLUS is dictator to hold elections. 206 DGRBM 2-1056 205 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.205 L.(2) Aemilius Papus is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 205 DGRBM 3-121
c.205 L. Veturius Philo is magister eqiutum. 205 DGRBM 3-298
c.205 M. Junius Pennus is made pleb aedile. 205 DGRBM 3-184
c.205 Gn.(2) Servilius Caepio becomes praetor in charge of Rome. 205 DGRBM 1-533
c.205 Sp. Lucretius is made praetor and sent to Ariminum.  His imperium will be extended to 203. 205 DGRBM 2-828, wikRGG
c.205 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS is sent to Bruttium until 203 to keep Hannibal in check. 205 DGRBM 1-873
c.205 Consul P. Licinius CRASSUS faces Hannibal, but both armies are diseased and no conflicts occur. 205 CAH 8-55, 63, DGRBM 1-873
c.205 M.(1) Porcius CATO is elected quaestor. 205 LdHR 2-66
c.205 Consul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO is by popular insistence assigned to Sicily with permission to invade Africa.  He is joined by quaestor M.(1) Porcius Cato and 7,000 volunteers. 205 CAH 8-55, 63, DGRBM, LdHR 2-66, SORH
c.205 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, left Italy 216, in Balearic Islands from 206, prepares to return to Africa, receives orders from Carthage to sail his army to Liguria on northwest coast of Italy, finds the Ligurian tribe of Ingauni at war with the Epanterii farther inland.  Mago ingratiates himself to the Ingauni, and wins their alliance. 206 SORH
205 B76 15-279, CAH 8-56, 66, DGRBM 2-711, 904, DGRG 1-830, 2-53, OCD 640
c.205 GENOA, destroyed 209, taken by Mago-II and destroyed again until 203. 205 DGRG 1-943, 987, 2-904, SORH
c.205 MAGO-II, on coast of Liguria, receives 25 ships from Carthage carrying 6,000 inf, 800 cav, 7 elephants, money to hire troops, and orders to move towards Rome and join Hannibal.  Remains in Cisalpine Gaul recruiting Gauls and Ligurians until 203. 205 DGRG 1-943
c.205 M. Livius SALINATOR proconsul of Etruria from 206, becomes proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul for 204 to support praetor Sp. Lucretius oppose Mago-II. 205 DGRBM 3-694,
OCD 946
c.205 M. Valerius LAEVINUS sent with 2 legions to Arretium in Etruria to oppose Mago-II. 205 DGRBM 2-711
c.205 Λ Sibylline Books V are consulted.  Senate says they foretold that Hannibal would leave Italy if the MAGNA MATER (Cybele) would be brought from Phrygian Pessinus to Rome.  Romans send word to Attalos of Pergamum to import her rites. 205
Dur 3-94, wikSB
c.205 Q. Catius, Ser.(1) Sulpicius GALBA, M. Valerius Falto, Cn. Tremellius Flaccus, M. Valerius Laevinus, M. Pomponius Matho, and M.(1) Caecilius Metellus are sent to Delphi with offerings from loot taken from Hannibal, thence to Ionia to get support from Attalos of Pergamum for a war with Philip-V. 205 DGRBM 1-634, 2-135, 205, 711, 973, 1057, 3-1171
c.205 Temple on the Capitoline Hill built to house the image of Venus Erycina, captured from the Sicilian town of Eryx, but her temple prostitutes are not brought with her, and she is regarded a goddess of victory rather than love. 205
CAH 8-427
after 217 wikV
c.205 Temple of Honor and Virtue dedicated by M.(4) Claudius Marcellus.  It had been vowed by his father (M.(3) C.M. d.208) but was unfinished at his death.  Rededicated 99. 205 DGRBM 2-931, wikTHV
c.205 M. Aemilius Regillus dies. 205 DGRBM 3-642
c.205 P. Sempronius Tuditanus with 10,000 inf, 1,000 cav, and 35 warships sent as proconsul to Greece to relieve P. Sulpicius Galba opposing Philip-V until 204. 206 OCD 454     205 CAH 8-104, DGRBM 3-1181
204 DGRBM 2-204
c.205 1st MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 214 ends.  Senate, deserted by Greek allies 206, temporarily patches up relations with Macedonia in order to invade Africa.
P. Tuditanus'  Phoenice Treaty  offers Macedonia a limited advantage.  2nd war 200.
205 B76 VI-442, 8-384, 15-279, 1093, DGRBM 3-1181,
Dur 2-556, 3-20, 85, GHH, LEWH 92, 100,
OCD 928, OHG
c.205 LOCRI Bruttium, under Hannibal's general Hamilcar from ?, taken by Q. Pleminius.  Hamilcar holds out in a fort until Hannibal relieves him.  But P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO arrives, and even Hannibal abandons Locri to Romans. 205 B76 VI-293, CAH 8-56, DGRBM 2-330 3-413, SORH
c.205 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS is propraetor at Tarentum until 204. 205 B76 IV-171, wikTQF
c.205 LOCRI Bruttium is put under Q. Pleminius.  He robs the Locrians and plunders the temple of Proserpina.  Locrians appeal to senate, which recalls Pleminius to Rome. 205 DGRBM 3-413
204 LdHR 1-409
c.205 Military tribune M. Sergius is sent by P.(6) Scipio to Rhegium, and is soon killed by soldiers of Pleminius. 205 DGRBM 3-787
c. 205/4 MAGNA MATER (Cybele), fertility goddess of Phrygia, represented by a black meteorite at Phrygian Pessinus, brought to Ostia, thence to Rome by M. V. Laevinus and M.(1) Caecilius Metellus.  An entourage of galli (eunuch priests) accompanies.  Its arrival is solemnised with a magnificent procession, lectisternia, games, and presents are carried to the goddess, whose temporary home is the temple of Victory on the Palatine.  Her temple is begun, and will be finished in 194. 205 CAH 8-427, OCD 576, SORH
205/4 B76 15-1099
204 B76 2-192, CAH 8-504, CDCC 248, CDGRA 324, 394, DGRA 566, DGRG 1-106, ISBE 4-213, MCAW, bk, lvA, acdm, wikMg
203 DGRA 749, wikMg, wikSB
204 Mar CONSULS:  M. Cornelius CETHEGUS and P. Sempronius TUDITANUS 204 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-675, 3-1181, OCD 1098, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.204 Consul P. Sempronius TUDITANUS is sent to Bruttium. 204 DGRBM 3-1181
c.204  Lex Alearia  forbids gambling with dice. 204 EDRL 547
c.204 Λ CENSORS V patrician C.(1) CLAUDIUS NERO and pleb M. Livius SALINATOR, both equites:  They impose a salt tax on the publicani who manage the mines at Ostia. 204 CDGRA 553, DGRA 473, 1004, DGRBM 2-1161, 3-694, OCD 730, 946, SORH, wikLC
c.204  Lex Cincia de Muneralis  by pleb tribune M. Cincius Alimentus: Forbids taking pay for legal services, and gifts or donations above a fixed amount; larger gifts permitted for close relatives.  Lawyers of course circumvent it. 204 CAH 10-977, CDCC 558, CDGRA 378, 708, DGRA 685, Dur 3-32, EDRL 549, GHH, OCD 602, SORH, unrv, wikLRL
c.204 Ti. Claudius Asellus, P. Aelius Paetus, and P. Villius Tappulus are pleb aediles. 204 DGRBM 1-385, 3-84, 975
c.204 Gn. Baebius Tamphilus is pleb tribune. 204 DGRBM 1-385, 3-84
c.204 Censors NERO and SALINATOR are impeached for misconduct by pleb tribune Gn. Baebius Tamphilus.  The senate obliges the tribune to drop it, as they thought it better to uphold the office of censorship than to justly punish Nero and Salinator. 204 DGRBM 3-973
c.204 P.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA is not old enough to be quaestor, but is nevertheless judged by the senate to be the best citizen in Rome, and is therefore sent to Ostia with the Roman matrons to receive the statue of the Idaean Mother, which had been brought from Pessinus. 204 DGRBM 3-751
c.204 Ti.(1) Claudius NERO and P.(2) Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus are praetors. 204 DGRBM 2-729, 1161
c.204 L. Scribonius Libo is made praetor peregrinus and sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 204 DGRBM 2-779, wikRGG
c.204 Gn.(1) Cornelius Lentulus is curule aedile. 204 DGRBM 2-729
c.204 Q. PLEMINIUS imprisoned for corruption in governing Locri 205, but dies before his trial. 204 DGRBM 3-413
c.204 M. Pomponius MATHO is made praetor and ordered to investigate charges of sacriledge by Locrians against P.(6) Scipio. 204 DGRBM 2-931, 973
c.204 M.(4) Claudius Marcellus is pleb tribune.  He accompanies praetor M. Pomponius Matho to Locri. 204 DGRBM 2-931, OCD 646
c.204 M. Pomponius Matho is made praetor and sent to Sicily until 202. 204 DGRBM 2-973
c.204 M. Valerius Laevinus proposes to senate the repayment of voluntary loans to the treasury made in his consulate 210. 204 DGRBM 2-711
c.204 Voluntary contributions to the state are now treated as loans to be repaid in 3 installments. 204
CAH 8-75
c.204 L. LIVIUS ANDRONICUS Greek X-slave, founder of Roman epic poetry, in Rome from 272, translator of Homer and others, dies. 214 DGRBM 1-175
204 B76 VI-278, 15-1098 203 LdHR 1-463
c.204 Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS, dies.  Son Q.(2)F.F. d.172. soon after 205 OCD 440
c.204 M.(1) PORCIUS CATO, in Sicily from 205, returns via Sardinia to Rome, becomes quaestor under P.(6) Scipio 205 DGRBM 1-637
204 B76 II-645, Dur 3-102, OCD 214, 384, wikCE
c.204 Quintus ENNIUS, poet of Brundisium, brought to Rome by quaestor M.(1) Porcius Cato, welcomed at Rome by P.(6) SCIPIO AFRICANUS, settles in a small house on the Aventine, remains until 169. 204 B76 III-904, CDGRA 642, Dur 3-97, LdHR 1-464, OHG
c.204 Plays of Plautus begin. 204 CAH 8
c.204 Consul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO with 2 legions of 6,200 men each plus auxiliaries totaling 25-35,000 men, sails to Lilybaeum, then to Africa, remains until 202. 204 B76 8-627, 13-149, 15-280, 1093, CAH 8-63, CDCC 796, 916, DGRA 493, DGRBM 2-358, 968, GHH, LdHR 1-411, LEWH 100, OCD 962, OHG     202 B76 16-397
c.204 HANNIBAL defeated in Bruttium by consuls M. Cornelius Cethegus and P. Sempronius Tuditanus. 204
CAH 8-56
c.204 CONSENTIA Bruttium, under Hannibal from ?, recovered by Rome. 204 CAH 8-56, DGRG 1-656
c.204 Pandosia and Clampetia in Bruttium, reduced or compelled to submit to Rome. 204
DGRG 1-656
c.204 Hannibal defeats consul P. Sempronius Tuditanus and proconsul P. Licinius Crassus at Croton in south Italy.  1200 Romans killed.  Some Roman sources say it was a draw. 204
DGRBM 1-873, 3-1181, wikLRB
c.204 Proconsul M. Cornelius CETHEGUS and praetor Quinctilius Varus are sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 204 wikRGG
c.204 After defeat at Croton, consuls M. Cornelius Cethegus and P. Sempronius Tuditanus fight HANNIBAL again in Bruttium.  During this battle, Tuditanus vows a temple to Fortuna Primigenia if he wins.  Consuls win, and Hannibal shuts himself up inside Croton. 204 CAH 8-56, GHH, DGRBM 3-1181
c.204 Gn. NAEVIUS, plebian X-soldier from Campania, dramatist in Rome from ?, having offended too many powerful men, moves to Utica Tunisia until death 201. 204 wikGN
c.204/3 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 214,000 adult males. 204 GHH     204/3 CDCC 179, DGRBM, csun
203 Mar. CONSULS:  C. Servilius (Geminus or Nepos) and Gn.(2) Servilius CAEPIO 203 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-533, 3-793, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.203 Consul C. Servilius (Geminus or Nepos) is sent to Etruria. 203 DGRBM 3-793
c.203 P. SULPICIUS GALBA is dictator to hold elections. 203 DGRBM 2-204, OCD 454, wikLRD
c.203 C. Livius SALINATOR is curule aedile. 203 DGRBM 3-695
c.203 P. Quintilius Varus is made praetor and sent to Ariminum.  He fights Mago-II there. 203 DGRBM 3-1230, wikRGG
c.203 C. Acilius Glabrio is quaestor. 203 DGRBM 2-270
c.203 M. Servilius Pulex Geminus is magister equitum. 203 DGRBM
c.203 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS is curule aedile. 203 wikTQF
c.203 M.(2) Fabius BUTEO and M. Valerius FALTO are aediles. 203 DGRBM 1-519, 2-135
c.203 P. Aelius Paetus and P. Villius Tappulus are praetors.  Tappulus is sent to Sicily. 203 DGRBM 3-84, 975
c.203 M. Sextius Sabinus and Gn. Tremellius Flaccus are pleb aediles. 203 DGRBM 3-810, 1171
c.203 M. Servilius PALEX GEMINUS is curule aedile and magister equitum to P. Sulpicius Galba. 203 DGRBM 2-239
c.203 Ti.(3) Sempronius GRACCHUS (son of TSG d.212) elected augur. 203 DGRBM 2-288
c.203 SYPHAX, king of eastern Numidia from 215, taken prisoner to Italy, where he will adorn the triumph of P.(6) Scipio, and remain until death 201. 203 B76 15-280, CAH 8-63, DGRBM 3-745, 965, 1241, OCD 1030     202 rcNA
c.203 Q.(6) Fabius Maximus Cunctator, pontifex 12 years, augur 62 years, dies in Rome.  Though he leaves great wealth, the people choose to pay his funeral expenses by donations. 203 B76 IV-20, DGRBM 2-994, OCD 427, wikFM
c.203 Pontif Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator replaced by Ser.(1) Sulpicius Galba. 203 DGRBM 2-205
c.203 Augur Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator replaced by his 2nd son Q.(6), who somehow has the same name as his older bro Q.(5), who died previously.  He is very young, and possibly had his name changed in honor of his illustrious father. 203 DGRBM 2-994
c.203 Proconsul P. Licinius CRASSUS in Bruttium from 205, returns to Rome and lives until 183. 203 DGRBM 1-873
c.203 Senate, on advice of M. Valerius Laevinus, dismisses Carthaginian envoys without hearing them, and votes to continue the war. 203 DGRBM 2-711
c.203 Consul C. Servilius (Geminus or Nepos) marches from Etruria to Cisalpine Gaul, and recovers his father, C. Servilius, prisoner of the Boii from 218. 203 DGRBM 3-793
May 6
Partial SOLAR ECLIPSE at Cumae
"The general alarm at the tidings from Africa was increased by rumours of various portents.  At Cumae the sun's disk was seen to diminish in size and there was a shower of stones;  in the district of Veliternum the ground subsided and immense caverns were formed in which trees were swallowed up;"   (Livy: From the Founding of the City 30-38-8)
May 6
c.203 M. Cornelius CETHEGUS is proconsul in Cisalpine Gaul. 203 DGRBM 1-675
c.203 Praetor P. Quinctilius VARUS fights MAGO-II in Insubres territory.  His tribune M. Cosconius is killed in battle. 203 DGRBM 1-863
c.203 Military tribune M. Maenius killed in battle against MAGO-II in Insubres territory. 203 DGRBM 2-897
c.203 Consul Gn.(2) Servilius CAEPIO is assigned to Bruttium. 203 DGRBM 1-533
c.203 Consul Gn.(2) Servilius CAEPIO fights last battle with Hannibal in Italy near Croton.  Outcome unknown. 203 DGRBM 1-533
Hannibal is defeated. 204 GHH
c.203 GENOA, capital of Liguria, destroyed from 205, rebuilding begun by praetor Sp. Lucretius until 202. 203 CAH 8-114, DGRBM 2-828, DGRG 1-987, wikRGG
c.203 MAGO-II dies.  Youngest bro of Hannibal, in Cisalpine Gaul from 205, defeated in Po valley by proconsul M. Cornelius CETHEGUS and praetor Quinctilius Varus5,000 Carthaginians killed.  Mago-II wounded, leaves general Hamilcar in charge, sails from Genoa for Africa, dies enroute near Sardinia. 203 B76 VI-495, CAH 8-56, DGRBM 2-904, 3-1230,
DGRG 1-943, HRRP 1-691, OCD 640
c.203 HAMILCAR, in Cisalpine Gaul stirs up the Insubres, Boii, and Cenomani, and some Ligurians, takes Placentia, burns it.  He then crosses the Po to plunder Cremona.  L. Furius Purpureo, governor of the provincia, is near Ariminum with a force too small to relieve Cremona.  Purpureo soon after defeats the Gauls, before Cremona.  HAMILCAR is killed. no date: DGRG 1-943
c.203 HANNIBAL, in Italy from 218, recalled to Africa, sails for Africa with his whole armyRoman fleet is either unaware of it, or so happy to see him go, that they don't mess with him. 205 Dur 3-94,     203 B76 8-627, 13-149, 15-279, CAH 8-66, CDCC 414, Dur 3-20, GHH, IDB 4-104, MCAW
c.203 THURII, under Hannibal from 212, back under Rome, remains a Greek colony until 193. 203 guess
c.203 Consul Gn.(2) Servilius CAEPIO sails to Sicily intending to cross to Africa, but is prevented by the senate. 203
CAH 8-73
c.203 Roman envoys:  C. Terentius Varro, C. Mamilius, M. Aurelius, and C. Mamilius Vitulus, sent to Greece to investigate allied complaints against Philip-V. 203 CAH 8-245, DGRBM 3-1222, 1279
c.203 Exit of Hannibal inspires praetor P. Aelius Paetus to declare a 5 day supplicatio (men, women, and children of Rome travel in procession to religious sites around the city either praying to or thanking the gods). 203 DGRBM 3-84
c.203 P. SULPICIUS GALBA is appointed dictator to order Gn.(2) Servilius CAEPIO back from Sicily.  He does so. 203 DGRBM 1-533
c.203 M. Pomponius MATHO, decemvir sacrorum from ??, ends.  M.(1) Aurelius COTTA, succeeds until 201. 203 DGRBM 1-867
c.203 C.(1) Laelius transports Carthaginian prisoners to Rome, then returns to Africa. 203 DGRBM 2-705
c.203 Egyptian ministers send envoys to Rome, asking the senate to intervene in Egypt.  They offer to put Ptolemy-V under the protection of the republic. no date: DGRBM 3-591, LdHR 2-17
c.203 Rome/Egypt alliance begins until ?. 203 GHH
c.203 Dictator P. SULPICIUS GALBA and magister equitum M. Servilius Pulex conduct investigations in various Italian cities that had rebelled. 203
CAH 8-197
202 Mar. CONSULS:  Ti.(1) Claudius NERO and M. Servilius Palex GEMINUS, both of whom want command in Africa. 202 CAH 8-73, DGRBM 2-239, 1161, csm, wikCon
c.202 C. Servilius (Geminus or Nepos) appointed dictator by consul M. Servilius Palex Geminus to hold elections.  (last dictator until Sulla 82/1) 202 B76 III-532, CAH 8-176, CDGRA 234, DGRA 408, DGRBM 3-794, GHH, SORH, wikLRD
c.202 Gn. Tremellius Flaccus is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 202 DGRBM 3-1171
c.202 T.(4) Manlius Torquatus dies. 202 DGRBM 3-1164
c.202 P. Aelius Paetus is magister equitum. 202 DGRBM 3-84
c.202 TIBUR overflows, damages Rome. 202 DGRG 2-1198
c.202 C.(2) Aurelius COTTA is praetor urbanus. 202 DGRBM 1-867
c.202 L. Apustius FULLO is pleb aedile. 202 DGRBM 2-187
c.202 C. Livius SALINATOR is made praetor and sent to Bruttium. 202 DGRBM 3-695
c.202 L. Laetorius is elected pleb aedile, but election is voided for religious reasons.  Colleague P. Aelius Tubero resigns. 202 DGRBM 2-709, 3-1179
c.202 M. Sextius Sabinus is made praetor and sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 202 DGRBM 3-810, wikRGG
c.202 L.(1) Licinius Lucullus and Q. Fulvius are curule aediles.  They put on some good games, but some of their underlings are convicted of embezzlement. 202 DGRBM 2-831
c.202 M. Marcius Ralla, legate of P.(6) Cornelius Scipio, in Africa from 204, sent to Rome with Punic ambassadors, who sue for peace. 202 DGRBM 3-640
c.202 Senate ratifies P.(6) Scipio's peace with Carthage at Zama, and orders Scipio to administer it. 202 CAH 8-65
c.202 Q. FABIUS PICTOR publishes 1st history of Rome - in Greek! 202 Dur 3-20, 73, OHG
c.202 Consul M. Servilius Palex GEMINUS sent to Etruria with 2 legions, and is prolonged thru 201. 202 DGRBM 2-239
c.202 BARI, port on Adriatic coast of Apulia, under Carthage from 218, back under Rome until 395CE. 202 rcSI
c.202 CISALPINE GAUL, independent from ?, Romans begin reconquest until 191. 202 OHG
c.202 MONEY:  Roman coin, "AS", 2 ounces copper in 260, reduced to 1 ounce, until 87. 202
Dur 3-79
c.201 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO, in Africa from 204, returns to Rome, received with universal enthusiasm.  The surname AFRICANUS is conferred on him.  The people wish to make him consul and dictator for life, and erect his statue in the comitia, the rostra, the curia, and even in the Capitol, but that he prudently declines all, and keeps a low profile for the next few years, because most of the senate distrusts him. 201 DGRBM 3-746
201 Mar. CONSULS:  Gn.(1) Cornelius LENTULUS and P. Aelius PAETUS, who is assigned Italy as his province 201 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-729, 3-84, csm, wikCon
c.201 P. Aelius Tubero is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 201 DGRBM 3-1179
c.201 M.(2) Fabius BUTEO is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 201 DGRBM 1-519
c.201 L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS is curule aedile. 201 DGRBM 2-158
c.201 Q.(1) Minucius RUFUS is pleb aedile. 201 DGRBM 3-675
c.201 Q. Minucius Thermus is pleb tribune. 201 DGRBM 3-1097
c.201 M. Junius Pennus is made praetor urbanus. 201 DGRBM 3-184
c.201 M. Valerius Falto is made praetor, given 2 legions, sent to Bruttium. 201 DGRBM 2-135
c.201 T.(?) Manlius TORQUATUS, pontifex from ?, ends.  C.(1) Sulpicius GALBA elected successor until 198 201 DGRBM 2-205
c.201 M.(1) Aurelius COTTA, decemvir sacrorum from 203, dies.  He will not be replaced until 200. 201 DGRBM 1-867, 2-270
c.201 Ptolemy-V placed under the protection of the republic. 201 GHH
c.201 Prefect C. Oppius sent by consul P. Aelius PAETUS to attack Boii territory, but is cut off by the enemy. 201 DGRBM 3-38
c.201 Consul P. Aelius PAETUS arrives in north Italy, receives reports of attacks on allied lands, invades Boii territory. 201
CAH 8-111
c.201 Consul P. Aelius PAETUS suffers heavy casualties in a battle at Mutilum south of the Po. 201
CAH 8-111
c.201 GENOA, capital of Liguria, makes treaty with the Ingauni Ligurians immediately to the west. 201 CAH 8-114
c.201 The INGAUNI tribe of Ligurians make treaty with Rome by consul C. Aelius Paetus. 201 CAH 8-111, DGRBM 3-84, DGRG 2-53
c.201 Consul C. Aelius Paetus appoints 10 commissioners (including Aulus and C. Hostilius Cato, C. Servilius and P. Villius Tappulus) to distribute land in Samnium and Apulia to veterans of P.(6) Scipio's African campaign. 201 DGRBM 2-531, 3-84, 794, 975
c.201 Manius(1) Acilius GLABRIO is pleb tribune. He opposes the claim of consul Gn.(1) Corn. Lentulus to the province of Africa, which a unanimous vote of the tribes had already decreed to P.(6) Scipio Africanus. 201 DGRBM 2-270
c.201 Consul Gn.(1) Cornelius Lentullus claims province of Africa, which had already been decreed to P.(6) Scipio Africanus by a vote of tribunes. 201 DGRBM 2-270
c.201 Embassy from Athens led by Cephisodorus, complains of Philip-V's activities against Athens. 201 CAH 8
200 CAH 8-257
c.201 Macedonian embassy to Rome asks for return of Macedonians and their leader, Sopater, who had been captured at Zama 202.  Also objects to M. Aurelius still in Balkan area. 201 CAH 8-245
c.201 M. Valerius Laevinus accused by Macedonian ambassadors, defended by M. Furius. 201 DGRBM 2-190
c.201 2nd PUNIC WAR from 218 ends in Rome / Carthage  treaty :  permits Carthage only 10 triremes, puts Carthage in a vulnerable position by prescribing that Massinissa is entitled to any land or cities that had ever belonged to him or to his ancestors within boundaries to be assigned in the future.
Cession of all possessions in Spain and islands in Mediterranean.
Indemnity of 200 talents over 50 years.  Broken  151.   3rd 149.
202 BI+N 131, CAH 7.1, 8, CHJ 2, TTPC, wikHR
201 CAH 8-145, 149, DGRG 1-547, Dur 3-20, GHH, MCAW, OHG, SHWC 108, SORH, TToH, lvG
EFFECT of 2nd Punic War:  Wealth of Spain & Carthage goes to Rome.  Rome controls Italy & Mediterranean.   Half of all Italian farmland + 400 towns destroyed.   Helps trade & military.  Gauls in Italy are destroyed.  Depression of non-Latin allies, especially Sabellians and Etruscans.  Hard treatment of Capua, Picenum, and Bruttium.  Roman peasants pay no war tax until 43. Dur 3-54
c.201 Consul Gn.(1) Cornelius Lentulus obstructs confirmation of the peace concluded with Carthage by P.(6) Scipio, so that he can go and continue the war. 201
B76 15-1097, CAH 8-73
c.201 Envoys of VERMINA, king of eastern Numidia, arrive in Rome, asking forgiveness, and alliance.  Senate replies that he must first sue for peace, and sends commissioners to dictate terms. 200 DGRBM 3-1241
c.201 late Q.(1) Caecilius METELLUS tells senate he regrets the end of the 2nd Punic War, because he fears that Romans will go soft. 201 DGRBM 2-1056
c.201 Series of consular commands in north Italy begin. 201 CAH 8
c.201 Praetor Gn.(2) Octavius Rufus with part of the fleet, returns to Italy, delivers 38 ships to praetor M. Valerius Laevinus. 201
c.201 M. Valerius LAEVINUS is made praetor and sent with army and fleet to north Greece. 201 DGRBM 2-711, SORH
c.201 10 Romans (including Q.(1) Caecilius Metellus) are appointed to divide land in Apulia and Samnium for veterans of P.(6) Scipio's campaigns in Spain and Africa.  Settlement continues to 199. 201 CAH 8-202, DGRBM 2-1057
c.201 SYPHAX, former king of Numidia 215-03, in Italy from 203, dies at Tibur. 201 DGRG 2-1201
c.201 Embasies from Attalos and Rhodes come to Rome to complain against Philip-V of Macedonia when consular elections for 200 are imminent. 201 late
CAH 8-254-5
201 /00 Roman envoys:  C.(1) Claudius Nero, P. Sempronius Tuditanus, and M. Aemilius Lepidus depart for Greece to tell Philip-V of Macedonia (now in Caria) the terms of the senatus consultum, on which Rome is prepared to remain at peace with him.  Philip must not attack the Greeks, must give compensation, as determined by a fair tribunal, for offences against Attalos.  The legati are then to go to Egypt to announce the defeat of Carthage, to canvass support if war with Philip happens; and to try to mediate between Antiochus-III and Ptolemy-V. 201 DGRBM 3-1181, lv4SW, 201/0
CAH 8-255

Italy 200-191