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wikCon   wikLRB   wikLRD   wikLRL

Italy
220 Mar. CONSULS:  M. Valerius LAEVINUS and Q.(1) Mucius SCAEVOLA
These either abdicated or never entered office, being faultily elected.
Suffetes:  L. Veturius Philo, C. Lutatius Catulus become consuls, and are sent north.
220
CAH 7.2-644, 8, DGRBM 3-298, csm, wikCon
c.220 CENSORS:  patrician L.(1) Aemilius Papus; pleb C.(1) Flaminius 220 B76 IV-171, DGRBM 2-167, 3-121, wikLC
c.220 Consuls get as far as the Alps, gain many allies without fighting. 220 DGRBM 3-298
c.220 Via Flaminia VIA FLAMINIA from Tibur thru Etruria and Umbria, begun 221 by censor C.(1) FLAMINIUS, finished to Ariminum. 220 B76 IV-171, B76 18-650, CAH 7.2, 8-484, CDCC 351, 760, DGRBM 2-167, Dur 3-78, HRR, LdHR 1-329, 2-51, MCAW, OCD 441, SORH, TToH, TTPC, wikHR, wikVF
c.220 Via ValeriaVIA VALERIA, connecting Rome to Alba Fucens from 303, extended to Corfinium. 220
Dur 3-78
c.220 CIRCUS FLAMINIUS built on southern Campus Martius near the Tiber by censor C.(1) Flaminius.  Probably wooden.  It has no permanent seating, nor permanent structures to mark the perimeter of the 500 meter race track. 221 Dur 3-82, wikCF 221/20 CAH 8-491, 507 220 B76 IV-171, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-167, GHH, HRR, OCD 441
c.220 LUDI PLEBII established, 7 day theatrical festival in November in Circus Flaminius.  Administered by pleb aediles. 220 CDGRA 394
c.220 FORUM FLAMINII in Umbria on Flaminian Way founded as a town by censor C.(1) FLAMINIUS. 220 DGRG 1-908
c.220 Roman CENSUS registers 270,213 adult males. 220 DGRBM GHH, HRR
c.220 Romans campaign in north Italy. 220 CAH 7.2
c.220 MANTUA, in north Italy, Capital of Cenomani Gauls from 5th cen., comes under Rome until 395CE. 220 B76 VI-582, rcNI
c.220 TICINUM, in north Italy on Ticino River, tribal center of the Papirii from ?, comes under Rome until 395CE, renamed PAVIA. 220 rcNI
c.220 LIBERTINI, aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves  (see 304, 241), are again classed among the 4 urban tribes.  (see 169) 220 DGRA 220, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.220 Carthaginian god Baal or Dagon becomes Roman Saturn. 220 MCAW
c.220 DEMETRIUS of Pharos island and Illyrian commander Scerdilaidas sail Adriatic south of Lissos Illyria with 90 small ships in violation of treaty.  This begins 2nd ROME / ILLYRIA WAR until 219. 220
CAH 7.1, 8-91, wikDΦ, wikIW
c.220 FULLERS (launderers) are so important that censors prescribe the manner of washing dresses. 220 DGRA 553
c.220/19 Roman envoys meet Hannibal at winter quarters at Cartagena. 220/19 CAH 8
219 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(1) AEMILIUS PAULUS and M. Livius SALINATOR 219 CAH 8, OCD 2, 946, csm, wikCon
c.219 MEDICINE:  1st recorded freeman physician of Rome, Archagathus the Peloponnesian impresses the senate with surgery, opens Rome's 1st medical shop.  Starts a wave of Greek physicians migrating to Rome.  Credited with performing the 1st tracheotomy.  Concerned only with fractures or visible sores, because internal maladies are for quacks and gods.  His method consists mostly of burning sores and cutting off broken limbs, so he eventually loses popularity, and physicians are considered useless. 219 CDGRA 158, DGRA 272, DGRBM 1-260, Dur 3-75-6, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-547, SORH
218 B76 15-1091, CAH 8-38
c.219 Consuls L.(1) AEMILIUS PAULUS and M. Livius SALINATOR are sent to the Adriatic and IllyricumRomans 2nd intervention in Balkans. 220 MCAW     219 CAH 8-35, 93, CDCC 829, DGRBM 1-965, 3-153, 694, LdHR 1-329
c.219 Siege of Saguntum provokes debate in Rome.  L.(4) Cornelius Lentulus urges immediate declaration of war and the sending of one consul to Spain, the other to Africa, while Q.(4) Fabius Maximus favors caution and dispatching an embassy to Carthage. 219 CAH 8-37
c.219 Q. Baebius Tamphilus and P.(1) Valerius Flaccus, are sent by the senate to Hannibal at Saguntum. 219 DGRBM 3-973
c.219 Rome sends 5 senatorial ligati under M.(1) Fabius Buteo to Carthage, protests Hannibal besieging Saguntum.  Carthage says Saguntum is south of the Ebro, so Rome had no right to make a treaty with it.  Hannibal continues besieging Saguntum. 219 B76 8-626, CAH 8-38, CDCC 415,Dur 3-48, MCAW
c.219 2nd ROME / ILLYRIA WAR from 220 ends. 219 atl3, wikIW
c.218 2nd PUNIC WAR begins at Saguntum Spain until 201. 219 Dur 3-20, TToH, lvG     218 CAH 7.1, 8, CHJ 2, DGRG 1-547, GHH, HRR, MWΦ 235, SHWC 108, SORH, TTPC, bk, lvG, lvS, wikHR
c.218 A legion now has 4,000 men. Livy xxi:17, Polybius iii:72
218 DGRA 493
218 Mar. CONSULS:  P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO and Ti.(1) Sempronius LONGUS 218 B76 16-396, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-806, 3-741, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.218 Consul P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO, with legate Gn.(2) Scipio Calvus & 2 legions, sent to Emporia Spain. 218 B76 17-402, CAH 8, DGRBM 3-741, MCAW
Scipio genealogy
c.218 Consul Ti.(1) Sempronius LONGUS is sent to Sicily. 218 DGRBM 2-806, SORH
c.218 Quintus CLAUDIUS (Flamen?) is pleb tribune. 218 DGRBM 1-775
c.218 C. Terentius Varro is made praetor. 218 DGRBM 3-1222
c.218 M.(3) Aemilius Lepidus is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 218 DGRBM 2-763
c.218 C. Atilius Serranus is made praetor and sent to north Italy. 218 DGRBM 3-788
c.218 Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS Verrucosus is senatorial legate to Carthage to demand reparations for Saguntum. 218 DGRBM 2-993
c.218 MUTINA (Modena) south of the Po besieged by the Boii. 218 wikMd
c.218 CLASTIDIUM Liguria, garrisoned by colonists? under Dasius of Brundisium, who is bribed by Hannibal, surrenders to Hannibal. 218 DGRBM 1-944
c.218 Senate hears of Carthaginian intrigues in north Italy, believes Hannibal is preparing to invade Gaul, sends 1 legion to Gaul to deal with them. 218 CAH 8-33
c.218 MUTINA (Modena) comes under Rome until 395CE. 218 B76 VI-959, rcNI
c.218 M. Livius Salinator and L.(1) Aemilius Paulus, consuls of 219, accused of unfairly witholding loot from the Pharos island campaign from their troops.  Paulus escapes with difficulty.  Salinator is condemned by 34 out of 35 tribes, goes to his country estate, and is away from Rome until 210. 219 SORH
218 DGRBM 3-153, OCD 946
no date:
DGRBM 3-694
c.218 T. Annius Luscus is captured by the Boii. 218 DGRBM 2-842
c.218 Consul P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO returns from Marsailles to Pisa Italy, dispatches both legions to insurrection on Po, sends some cavalry to find Hannibal, raises new army. 218 CAH 8-36-7, 47, LdHR 1-361, SORH
c.218 HANNIBAL and bro Mago-II, with half his men (20,000 inf, 6,000 cav) because he delayed too long, cross Alps, enters Italy.  Hannibal until 205, Mago-II until 216. 218 B76 15-278, 1091, CAH 8-38, DGRBM 2-903, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, IDB 4-104, MCAW, OHG, bk
c.218 Gauls of Po valley, recently subjugated by Rome, welcome Hannibal as a liberator. 218 CAH 8-49, 76
c.218 HANNIBAL defeats P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO Sr. in cavalry battle at TICINUS river flowing south into Po. 218 B76 8-626, 15-1093, CAH 8, DGRBM, Dur 3-20, 49, GHH, HRR, MCAW, SORH, TToH, TTPC, wikLRB
c.218 Consul P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO Sr. withdraws to Placentia. 218 SORH
c.218 CREMONA, Celtic stronghold of the Cenomani from ?, comes under Rome until 395CE. 218 B76 III-233, CAH 8, rcNI
c.218 PLACENTIA & CREMONA founded by Romans to watch the Boii & Insubres.  6,000 colonists are assigned to each.  Settlement is supervised by 3 men including C. Servilius. 219 DGRG 1-701, 939
218 B76 III-293, VII-982, 15-1091, CAH 8, CDCC 242, CAH 8-36, DGRBM 3-793, HRRP 1-520, OCD 297
c.218 C. Servilius is taken prisoner by the Boii until 203. 218 DGRBM 3-793
c.218 BRANCHUS former king of Allobroges, approaches Hannibal, gets him to take back his Allobroge kingdom from his bro. 218 DGRBM 1-502
c.218 ALLOBROGES, now under Branchus, ally with Hannibal against Rome. 218 DGRG 1-105
c.218  Lex Claudia de Senatoribus  passed by pleb tribune Q. Claudius (Flamen?) with support of consul elect Nepos.  Forbids senators and their sons to trade overseas by forbidding them to own ships able to carry over 300 amphorae (225 bushels), i.e. enough to ship to Rome, but not much more.  This motivates senators to invest mostly in land.  Obsolete by time of Cicero. 220 Dur 3-111
220/19 CAH 8-487
218 B76 15-1098, CAH 8-424, DGRA 686, DGRBM 1-775, 2-167, LEWH 97, 99, OCD 247, 602, SORH, bk, unrv, wikLRL
c.218 Senate mobilizes all reserves, musters 300,000 inf, 14,000 cav, 456,000 reserves. 218 Dur 3-49
c.218 Consul T.(1) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS, in Sicily 218 is recalled to Rome because of Hannibal. 218 SORH
c.218 Praetor L. MANLIUS vows to restore the temple of Concord, which had been built in 336, but since then ruined. 218 DGRBM 2-161
c.218 L. Cincius Alimentus writes an account of Hannibal's march into Italy. 218 DGRBM
c.218 TAURINI Gauls oppose the Insubres. 218 B76 8-626, CAH 8
c.218 HANNIBAL defeats the Taurini, massacres them. 218 B76 8-626,
CAH 8, 8-77, OCD 148
c.218 TAURASIA, capital of the Taurini taken by Hannibal until ?.  (see 200) 218 B76 8-626, CAH 8, 8-77, OCD 148, wikTrn
c.218 Consul Ti.(1) Sempronius Longus directs his legions from Ariminum to oppose Hannibal in Cisalpine Gaul. 218 DGRG 1-213
c.218 Consul Ti.(1) Sempronius Longus joins P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO to oppose Hannibal. 218 SORH
c.218 HANNIBAL supported by the Boii, ambushes and defeats P.(5) Cornelius SCIPIO & Consul Ti.(1) Sempronius Longus at TREBIA River flowing north into Po at Placentia.  Destroys ⅔ of Roman army.  P.(5) Scipio is seriously wounded and rescued by son P.(6) (later Africanus). 218 B76 8-626, 15-1093, CAH 8, CDCC 160, DGRBM, DGRG 1-416, Dur 3-20, 49, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-585, MCAW, OCD 961, SORH, TTPC, wikLRB
218/17 CAH 8-49
c.218 Roman army under consul Ti.(1) Sempronius Longus in Cisalpine Gaul flees from Trebia to Placentia & Cremona. 218 B76 VII-982, LEWH 99
c.218 BOII Gauls, subdued from 224, and INSUBRES, subdued from 222, rebel until 215, ambush legion sent to guard Placentia & Cremona against Hannibal. 218 CAH 8-36, DGRG 1-416
c.218 BRIXIAN Gauls help Romans against the Boii. 218 DGRG 1-443
c.218 BARI, port on Adriatic coast of Apulia, under Rome from 275, comes under Hannibal until 202. 218 rcSI
c.218 Quaestor L. Lucretius is captured by Ligurians and delivered to Hannibal. 218 DGRBM 2-828
c.218 VIBO Bruttium, under Rome from 275, ravaged by Carthaginian fleet. 218 DGRG 1-1071
218/17 Hannibal's remaining ELEPHANTS don't survive the winter. 218 MCAW
217 Mar. CONSULS:  patrician Gn. Servilius GEMINUS and pleb C.(1) FLAMINIUS (2nd)
Suffect M. Atilius REGULUS (2nd)
217 B76 IV-171, CAH 8-49, CDCC 351, DGRBM 2-167, 2-239, 3-644, OCD 441, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.217 Consul C.(1) FLAMINIUS, without regard for religious technicalities, immediately marches to Ariminum, succeeds T.(1) Sempronius Longus. 217 DGRBM 2-167, LdHR 1-345
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS is sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.217 From 2nd year of 2nd Punic War to consulship of Marius 107, a legion is usually 5,000 to 5,200 men. 217 DGRA 493
c.217  Leges Genuciae  of 342 forbidding iteration of consulship within 10 years are suspended for the duration of the war.  This makes election of untried men more difficult. 217 CAH 8-68
c.217 A. Cornelius Mammula and T. Otacilius Crassus are praetors.  Otacilius vows a temple to Mens Bona (goddess representing practical wisdom and prudence in government and affairs) on Capitoline hill. 217
DGRBM 2-913, 3-64, OCD 763, wikMn
c.217 Ap.(8) Claudius Pulcher is aedile. 217 DGRBM 1-768
c.217 Bronze statue offered to Juno. 217 CAH 8-513
c.217 SENATE sends embassy to Philip-V, asking for delivery of Demetrius of Pharos, which Philip refuses. 217
CAH 8-95
c.217 Gauls & Ligures join Hannibal in Po valley.  Ligures contribute 4,000 troops 217 B76 8-626
c.217 ATRIA on north Adriatic coast, ravaged by Hannibal. 217 DGRG 1-26
c.217 Praetor C. CENTENIUS sent by consul Servilius Geminus with 4,000 cav to help consul C.(1) Flaminius in Etruria. 217 DGRG 1-664
c.217 HANNIBAL crosses Apennines to Arno River. 217 B76 8-626, CAH 8
c.217 Romans post 2 new armies at Po river, Consul C.(1) Flaminius at Arretium. 217 LEWH 99
c.217 Consul C.(1) FLAMINIUS leads army of 30,000 plus chains and slave dealers against Hannibal. 217 B76 8-626,
CAH 8-626, Dur 3-49
c.217 C. CENTENIUS leads 4,000 reinforcements for consul C.(1) Flaminius, intercepted and wiped out by Hannibal. 217 B76 8-626, DGRBM 2-336
c.217 HANNIBAL hides most of his 26,000 men, decoys C.(1) Flaminius, attacks from all sides at once, at LAKE TRASIMENE1,500 Carthaginians killed.  Consul C.(1) FLAMINIUS and 15,000 Romans are killed.  Remnant retreats to Ariminum on east coast.  Hannibal loses only 1,500 mostly Gauls.  The last time until 207 that Roman and Carthaginian forces meet in north Italy. 217 B76 IV-171, 8-626, 13-149, 15-278, 1093, CAH 7.1, 8-49, CDCC 351, CAH 8, CDCC 160, 414, DGRBM 2-167, 336, Dur 3-49, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-591, 597, MCAW, OHG, SORH, TToH, TTPC 26, bk, wikLRB
c.217 Next day Consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS sends his army against Hannibal and loses 4,000. 217 HRRP 1-597
c.217 A few days later, a fleet of transports carrying munitions to Spain is captured by Carthaginians near Cosa Etruria. 217 HRRP 1-597
c.217 Consul C.(1) FLAMINIUS is succeeded by M. Atilius REGULUS 217 DGRBM 3-644
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS is at Ariminum cut off from Rome. 217 CAH 8-49
c.217 HANNIBAL controls all north Italy, but is outnumbered 10 to 1 and exhausted.  Must encourage Italian tribes to rebel.  Releases all non-Roman prisoners.  Poses as liberator. 217
Dur 3-50
c.217 Pacuvius CALAVIUS, chief magistrate of Capua, discourages Capuans from rebelling against Rome. 217 DGRBM 1-560
c.217 Immediately after Trasimene Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS Verrucosus is elected dictator (2nd time) by the people for 6 months, which lasts until 216.  Fabius is not allowed to appoint his own magister equitum.  His political enemy M.(1) Minucius Rufus is appointed by senate. 217 B76 IV-20, CAH 8-50, CDCC 584, DGRBM 2-993, 3-674, Dur 3-20, 50, MCAW, TToH, wikFM, wikLRD
c.217 C. Terentius Varro supports a bill for giving to M.(1) Minucius Rufus, mastgiser equitum, power equal to that of dictator Q.(4) Fabius Maximus. 217 DGRBM 3-1222
c.217 Religious revival at Rome because of Lake Trasimene.  Saturnalia becomes important. 217 NLEM 205
c.217 LECTI STERNIUM, a Greek rite not new at Rome, by which images of gods are placed on couches and offered feasts, is held to the 12 Great Gods, chosen and paired according to Greek conceptions. 217 CAH 8-427
c.217 After Lake Trasimene, Hieron of Syracuse sends some light armed troops and much grain to Rome. 217 DGRBM 2-456
c.217 Dictator Q.(4) Fabius MAXIMUS gives the produce of his estate to ransom Roman prisoners. 217 DGRBM 2-993
c.217 A temple to VENUS ERYCINA, a Sicilian deity, is decreed. 217 HRRP 1-558-9
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS turns over his army to dictator Q.(4) Fabius MAXIMUS, then sails 120 ships to Sardinia and Corsica. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.217 HANNIBAL wades thru flooded Etruria, with no dry place to camp.  Crosses Umbria to Adriatic, ravages Picenum and rests. 217 B76 8-626, CAH 8-50, DGRBM, Dur 3-50, LEWH 100, SORH
c.217 HANNIBAL at Picenum kills all men of military age who come into his hands. 217
CAH 8-77
c.217 Samnite NUMERIUS DECIUS, with 8,000 inf, 500 cav, joins dictator Q.(4) Fabius Maximus against Hannibal. 217 DGRBM 1-947
c.217 HANNIBAL marches down east coast of Italy, expects locals to join him.  They don't.  He reaches Apulia, where dictator Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS keeps close to Hannibal but avoids battle.  Gauls begin deserting.  Many plots against his life.  From Apulia Hannibal moves into Samnium. 217
CAH 8-50, Dur 3-50, LEWH 100, SORH
c.217 HANNIBAL massacres inhabitants of Gerunium on Samnium/Apulia border. 217
CAH 8-77
c.217 HANNIBAL marches from Samnium to Campania and into Ager Falernus. 217 CAH 8-50, DGRG 1-481, SORH
c.217 AGER FALERNUS, in north Campania, the fertile plain between River Volturnus and Mount Massicus, devastated by Carthaginian cavalry under Maharbal (Maherbal). 217 DGRG 1-892
c.217 CASILINUM, 6km northwest of Capua, occupied by dictator Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS to prevent Hannibal from crossing the VolturnusUnder Romans until 215. 217 DGRG 1-556
c.217 CARTHALO routs a recon detachment under L. Hostilius Mancinus near Casilinum.  Mancinus then makes a stand, and is nearly wiped out. 217 DGRBM 1-616
c.217 Consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS recalled from Sicily by dictator Q.(4) Fabius Maximus. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.217 Battle of Ager FalernusDictator Q.(4) Fabius Maximus remains in mountains watching Hannibal ravage the plain.  When Hannibal has to leave the plain for winter quarters elsewhere, Fabius blocks his exits.  Hannibal drives a herd of oxen, with blazing sticks tied to their horns, up a mountain, thus diverting Roman attentionHannibal escapes with the main part of his army. 217
CAH 8-50, DGRG 1-481, wikLRB
c.217 Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS, dictator 217-16, follows Hannibal back to Apulia, but avoids direct encounter, knowing that Hannibal's army will be depleted by hunger, discord, and disease.  Fabius is recalled to Rome, allegedly to deal with religious business, which may have been a pretext for discontent with Fabius' policy, which allows Hannibal to ravage Ager Falernus at will.  Fabius leaves M.(1) Minucius Rufus in charge of the army with orders not to take risks.  But Minucius is eager to discard Fabian strategy and wins a minor victory. 217
CAH 8-51, CDCC 584, Dur 3-20, 50, MCAW, TToH, wikFM
c.217 MONEY:  1st Roman gold coins: AUREI, worth 20, 40, 60 sesterces, worth 16 copper ases.  1 as weighs 1 oz. 217 DGRA 139, Dur 3-79
c.217 TRIBAL ASSEMBLY, exasperated with inactivity of FABIUS, overrules senate, passes a bill by pleb tribune M. Metilius making his magister equitum and political enemy M.(1) MINUCIUS RUFUS co-dictator until ?.  Fabius returns to Apulia, divides his army rather than accept Minucius' suggestion that the two men should command on alternate days. 217 CAH 8-51, DGRBM 2-993, 1067, Dur 3-50, SORH
c.217 Q.(4) Fabius Maximus VERRUCOSUS (called so for a wart on his lip) is now called Q.(4) Fabius Maximus CUNCTATOR "Delayer". 217 CAH 8-51,
DGRBM 2-993, Dur 3-5
c.217 L. Veturius Philo is appointed dictator to hold elections  Manius Pomponius Matho is his magister equitum. 217 DGRBM 2-972, 3-298, wikLRD
c.217 MIUCIUS RUFUS co-dictator with Fabius, attacks Hannibal, trapped, severely beaten, has to be rescued by Fabius. 217 CAH 8-51, Dur 3-50
c.217 MIUCIUS RUFUS turns over his army to consul Gn. Servilius GEMINUS, who gets his imperium extended to 216. 217 DGRBM 2-239
c.217 ARPI territory in Apulia ravaged by Hannibal. 217 DGRG 1-221
c.217/6 L. Manlius Vulso is defeated on consular election by C. Terentius Varo. no date:
DGRBM 3-1285
c.217-6 HANNIBAL winters in Apulia. 217-6 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
216 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(1) AEMILIUS PAULUS (2nd) and C. TERENTIUS VARRO 216 B76 16-396, CAH 8-51, 79, DGRBM 3-153, 996, 1222, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.216 It is decided to give the consuls 8 legions of 5,000 men each, which, with the same number of allied troops, means a total force of 80,000. 216
CAH 8-51
c.216 L. Scribonius LIBO is pleb tribune. 216 DGRBM 2-779
c.216 M. Aurelius COTTA is pleb aedile. 216 DGRBM 1-867
c.216 Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS and C. LAETORIUS are curule aediles. 216 DGRBM 2-287, 709
c.216 Manius Pomponius Matho and P. Furius Philus are praetors. 216 DGRBM 2-972, 3-335
c.216 Cn. Pupius and Kaeso Quintius Flamininus are put in charge of restoring the temple of Concord. 216 DGRBM 3-605
c.216 L. Cantilius, a scribe to a pontif, has sex with a Vestal virgin, is caught, and flogged to death by the pontifex maximus. 216 DGRBM 1-596
c.216 HUMAN SACRIFICE:  Vestal virgins executed because the danger to the state seems to prove that they had been unchaste. 216
CAH 7.2-322
c.216 L. Postumius ALBINUS is made praetor and sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 216 DGRBM 1-91
c.216 M.(3) Claudius Marcellus is praetor.  He is first assigned to Sicily, but reassigned to Rome because of Cannae. 216 DGRBM 2-928
c.216 A. Cornelius Mammula is made propraetor and sent to Sardinia. 216 DGRBM 2-913
c.216 HANNIBAL suddenly moves south, siezes army supply depot at Cannae by River Aufidus in Apulia. 216 B76 8-626, CAH 8-51
c.216 Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS dictator 6 months beginning in 217 term ends.  Roman army (86,000) comes under consuls PAULUS and VARRO.  Q.(4) Fabius Maximus is made pontifex. 216 CAH 8-51, Dur 3-50, MCAW
c.216 Roman army, 86,000 men under consuls PAULUS (a cautious aristocrat) and VARRO (an aggressive pleb) commanding on alternate days. 216 Dur 3-50, LEWH 100
c.216 L.(1) Aemilius Paulus and Gn. Servilius Geminus are the only generals opposed to the battle of Cannae. 216 DGRBM 2-239, 3-153
216 HANNIBAL (with 19,000 veterans & 16,000 unreliable Gauls) confronts consul VARRO (with 80,000 inf, 6,000 cav) at CANNAE in Apulia.  Hannibal puts his Gauls in center, knowing they will give way, flanks the Romans with cavalry, kills 44,000 Romans, loses 4,000 Gauls & 2,000 veterans.  Varro with 14,500 men (including P.(5) Cornelius Scipio and Ap.(8) Claudius Pulcher) escapes to Canusium.  Henceforth, Romans rely more on cavalry. 216 B76 IV-20, 8-626-7, 13-149, 15-1093, 16-396, BCoC 503, Jun CAH 8-51, CDCC 160, 414, DGRG 1-499, Dur 2-662, 3-50-51, GHH, HRR, Aug HRRP 1-611, MCAW, SORH, TToH, TTPC, bk, wikLRB
c.216 A tribune offers consul L.(1) Aemilius PAULUS a horse to escape from Cannae.  Paulus declines, and is killed. 216 DGRBM 3-153
c.216 Gn. Servilius GEMINUS killed at Cannae. 216 DGRBM 2-239
c.216 M.(1) Minucius RUFUS killed at Cannae. 216 DGRBM 3-675
c.216 Quaestor L. ATILIUS killed at Cannae. 216 DGRBM 1-405
c.216 Pontifex Q. Aelius Paetus killed at Cannae.  Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus elected to replace him. 216 DGRBM 1-405
c.216 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO captured at Cannae. 216 DGRBM 3-371
c.216 CANUSIUM, 8 miles southwest of Cannae, welcomes Roman survivors of Cannae, who arrive under M.(3) Claudius Marcellus. 216 B76 VI-601, wikCdP
c.216 COMPSA, a town of the Hirpini on the Samnium/Lucania border, under Statius Trebius delivered to HANNIBAL, who deposits his baggage and booty there. 216
DGRBM 3-903, DGRG 1-562
c.216 MAGO-II bro of Hannibal dispatched south to subdue Samnium. 216 DGRBM 2-903
c.216 M. Junius Silanus, takes command of Neapolis, at the wish of the inhabitants to defend it against Carthaginians. 216 DGRBM 3-819
c.216 After Cannae, M. Junius PERA is appointed dictator to fill up the senate. 216 DGRBM 1-518, wikLRD
c.216 A law proposed by Sp. Carvilius Maximus to fill up vacancies in the senate caused by Cannae by electing 2 senators from each of the Latin tribes.  It is rejected by the senate with contempt. 216 DGRBM 2-987
c.216 Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS is magister equitum to dictator M. Junius Pera, who has to recruit a fresh army against Hannibal. 216 DGRBM 2-287
c.216 SENATE rejects a bill to ransom prisoners taken at Cannae. 216 DGRBM 2-779
c.216  Lex Minucia  appoints TRIUMVIRI MENSARII - "3 men bankers": includes 2 men of consular rank:  L.(1) Aemilius Papus, M. Atilius Regulus, and pleb L. Scribonius Libo appointed to deal with a lack of money. 216 DGRA 695, DGRBM 2-779, 3-121, 644, SORH, unrv, wikLRL, wikTrm
c.216 Praetor M.(3) Claudius Marcellus leaves 1,500 troops in Rome, takes 1 legion to Canusium, collects remains of consular armies, withdraws to Campania, camps at Suessula 20km southeast of Capua. 216 DGRBM 2-928
c.216 Dictator M. Junius PERA camps near Casilinum 6km northwest of Capua.  He is then recalled to Rome, leaves magister equitum Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS in command of the camp with orders not to attack Hannibal. 216 DGRBM 2-287
c.216 CASILINUM, 6km northwest of Capua, besieged by Hannibal, just to provoke Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS to attack. 216 DGRBM 2-287
c.216 CARTHALO sent by Hannibal to Rome with 10 prisoners to negotiate a ransom for the rest.  Rome sends out a lictor to tell Carthalo to be out of Roman territory by sunset. 216 DGRBM 1-616
c.216 M.(1) FABIUS BUTEO, is made 2nd dictator to hold elections and fill up vacancies in the senate caused by Cannae.  Buteo resigns on the day of his nomination on grounds that there should not be more than 1 dictator at a time. 216 DGRA 406, OCD 427, wikLRD
c.216 HANNIBAL, still much outnumbered and with no siege equipment, refrains from attacking Rome.  Waits for Carthage, Macedon, and Syracuse to join him.  An ally remarks, "You know how to win victory, Hannibal, but you don't know how to use it." 216
B76 8-627, Dur 3-52
c.216 Dictator M. Junius Pera, desperate for troops after Canae, raises 4 new legions, arms 8,000 slaves and criminals in Roman army and navy. 216 CAH 8-74, DGRBM 3-185, SORH
c.216 A voluntary sacramentum (military oath) taken by newly enlisted troops to obey commands of his generals punctually, to not desert, to not leave ranks except to fight the enemy or save a Roman citizen is now made compulsory by tribunes.  Compulsion changes it from sacramentum to jusjurandum. 216 DGRA 662
c.216 After Cannae L.(3) Caecilius Metellus gets together with friends and plan to leave Italy.  P. Furius Philus reports it to P.(5)Scipio.  They are compelled by Scipio to forget it. 216 DGRBM 2-1057, 3-335
c.216 BOII & INSUBRES, with Hannibal from 218, return to Cisalpine Gaul.  Compliant with Rome until 200 216 guess
c.216 MAGO-II bro of Hannibal subdues Samnium, proceeds south to Bruttium. 216 DGRBM 2-903
c.216 Many tribes & cities of central & southern Italy defect to Hannibal, including: in Samnium, in Campania (Capua, Atella, Calatia), in Lucania (Metapontum, Thurii), in Brutium (Croton, Locri). 216 CAH 8, DGRG 1-477, 494, SORH
c.216 Decius Magius, leader of the pro-Roman party at Capua, tries to disuade citizens from admitting Hannibal into Capua - unsuccessfully. 216 DGRBM 2-899
c.216 CAPUA, 2nd largest city in Italy, pleasure resort, popular party, headed by Pacuvius Calavius and Vibius Timus, opens gates to Hannibal.  Massacres Romans.  Decius Magius avoids capture until Hannibal demands his surrender.  Capua is put under generals Bostar and Hanno and remains under Hannibal until 211. 216 B76 II-543, 15-1093, CDCC 163, DGRBM 2-899, DGRG 1-511, Dur 3-52, GHH, MCAW, OCD 204, SORH
c.216 Decius Magius, leader of the pro-Roman party at Capua, captured by Hannibal, put on a ship bound for Carthage. 216 DGRBM 2-899, SORH
c.216 Dictator M. Junius Pera and praetor M.(3) Claudius Marcellus march into Campania. 216 SORH
c.216 Now that Capua has fallen, NOLA is about to surrender.  But praetor M.(3) Claudius Marcellus arrives and occupies Nola. 216 DGRBM 2-928
c.216 PETELIA Bruttium besieged several months by Carthaginian Himilco. 216 DGRBM 2-475
c.216 NUCERIA near coast of Campania, loyal to Rome from 307, starved to surrender to Hannibal and destroyed. 216 CAH 8-77, SORH, wikNI
c.216 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, with him in Italy from 218, sails from Bruttium for Carthage to bring reinforcements to Italy.  He is away from Italy until 205. 216
DGRBM 2-903, OCD 640
c.216 ACERRAE southwest of Suessula Campania, loyal to Rome, besieged by Hannibal, plundered and burnt, abandoned until 210. 216 DGRG 1-11, SORH
c.216 Praetor M.(3) Claudius Marcellus holds off attack by Hannibal at Nola.  70 Nolan traitors are executed by Marcellus. 216 CAH 8-77, DGRBM 2-928, wikLRB     215 CAH 8, SORH
c.216 Campanian ANNIUS sent as envoy to Rome after Cannae, demands that one of the consuls henceforth be a Campanian. 216 DGRBM 1-181
c.216 Kaeso Quintius Flamininus and ??? are ordered to contract to restore the temple to Concord vowed by L. Manlius 218.  It will not be actually finished until 167. 216 DGRBM 2-161
c.216 Roman envoys (including Q. Fabius Pictor) go to Delphi to get advice from oracle after Roman defeat at Cannae. 216 CAH 7.2-5, wikQFP
216 late Hannibal at Capua, hoping for reinforcements from Carthage, lets his troops party thru the winter and lose their Spartan image. 216 B76 8-627, LEWH 100, MCAW
216 end M. Junius Pera with 25,000 troops at Teanum covers the line of the Liris and protects Latium.  Marcellus at Nola defends south Campania.  Hannibal is between them at Capua, where he continues the blockade of Casilinum.  Himilco stirs up insurrection in Brutium. end 216 HRRP 1-625
c.215 Consul elect, L. Postumius ALBINUS (3rd) with 25,000 men, marches thru Boii land, and is attacked and annihilated in the Silva LitanaPostumius is killed before he could enter office. 216 DGRG 1-416, 942, SORH     215 CAH 8-53, 70, OCD 427, 472, 646, csm, wikCon
c.215 The people unanimously elect M.(3) Claudius Marcellus to replace Postumius Albinus, but the senate balks at 2 plebs being consul simultaneously.  They declare the omens unfavorable, and appoint Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator to replace Albinus.  Marcellus returns to Campania. 215 CAH 8-53, 70, DGRBM 2-994, OCD 427, 472, 646, csm, wikCon
215 Mar. CONSULS:  Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS and Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator (3rd)
suffect: pleb M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS (2nd), who abdicates when augurs object to 2 pleb consuls, and declare election invalid.  Marcellus becomes a proconsul.
215 B76 IV-20, 15-1093, CAH 8-53, DGRA 353, DGRBM 2-287, 994, LEWH 100, OCD 427, 472, 646, csm, wikCon
c.215  Lex Oppia  by pleb tribune C. Oppius forbids Roman women to ride in chariots in, or within a mile of Rome, to wear ornaments or multicolored dresses, to own more than a half ounce of gold, or use animal-drawn vehicles, except to attend public religious celebrations.  (Repealed 195) 215 CAH 8-184, CDGRA 600, DGRBM 1-638, Dur 3-89, GHH, HRR, SORH, unrv, wikLRL
213 DGRA 1077, DGRBM 3-37
c.215 Senate agrees that the state should pay any shipping losses arising from storms.  2 publicans cash in on this by using old ships and falsifying the records of the goods carried in them. 215 CAH 8-75, LdHR 1-383-4
c.215 M. Valerius LAEVINUS is made praetor peregrinus. 215 DGRBM 2-710
c.215 Praetor peregrinus M. Valerius LAEVINUS ravages land of Samnites, Lucani, Hirpini. 215 SORH
c.215 Consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator takes command of legions at Teanum. spring 215 HRRP 1-626
c.215 Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS with 25,000 allies and slaves occupies Sinuessa. spring 215 HRRP 1-626
c.215 T. Otacilius Crassus and Q.(4) Fabius Maximus are put in charge of building the temples they had vowed.  After consecrating the temple to Mens, Otacilius is given imperium in Sicily to take command of the fleet. 215 DGRBM 3-64
c.215 TIBUR overflows, damages Rome. 215 DGRG 2-1198
c.215 Property tax, 1 unit per 1,000 from ?, doubled until 184.  Raised by the tribuni aerarii and no farmed out. 215 CDGRA 650
c.215 Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS is made city praetor, given 24 ships to protect the coast. 215 DGRBM 2-153
c.215 Ap.(8) Claudius PULCHER is made praetor and sent to Sicily until 214. 215 DGRBM 1-768
c.215 Q.(1) Mucius Scaevola is made praetor and sent with 1 legion of 5,000 inf and 400 cav to Sardinia until 212. 215 DGRA 494, DGRBM 3-729
c.215 Q.(5) Fabius Maximus, son of (4), is curule aedile.. 215 DGRBM 2-994
c.215 Consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator ravages Campania. 215 DGRBM 2-994
c.215 Manius Pomponius Matho, praetor 216, becomes propraetor of Cisalpine Gaul, but is not given any troops. 215 DGRBM 2-972
c.215 Consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS is put in charge of the Volones (slave legions) and allies.  He marches across the Volturnus river and camps near Liternum 6km southwest of Capua. 215 DGRBM 2-287
c.215 PHILIP-V proposes alliance with HANNIBAL, makes a vague  treaty  agreeing to supply Illyrian troops, prepares to invade Italy. 216 TToH     215 B76 8-384, CAH 7.1-226, 8, CDCC 541, 674, DGRBM 3-281, Dur 2-662, 3-20, GHH, IDB 3-784, MCAW, MWΦ 140, OHG, SORH, atl3, lvG     214 Dur 3-85
c.215 HANNIBAL, based at Capua, fights defensively. 215 B76 8-627
c.215 HIERONYMUS, tyrant of Syracuse 215-14, sends envoy Philodemus to Hannibal to propose alliance.  Hannibal sends Hippocrates and Epicydes, Carthaginian citizens of Syracusan origin, to make alliance. 215 CAH 8-61, DGRBM 3-304
c.215 CASILINUM, 6km northwest of Capua, besieged by Hannibal from 216, starved to surrender.  More than half of its 570 men had died of starvation.  The rest under M. Anicius go to Praeneste.  Casilinum is under Hannibal's man Statius Metius until 214. 216 SORH     215 B76 8-627, DGRBM 2-287
c.215 Consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS marches toward Cumae on coast of Campania and camps.  Surprises and routs 2,000 Campanians under Marius Alfius, who is killed in battle.  Gracchus returns to Cumae. 215 DGRBM 2-287, 960
c.215 Supplies from Carthage in ships under Bomilcar arrive in Italy for Hannibal. 215 DGRBM 1-499
c.215 HANNIBAL attacks Cumae on coast of Campania, but is thwarted by consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS. 215 CAH 8-53, OCD 472
c.215 Consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS marches from Cumae Campania to Lucera in Apulia.  His imperium is prolonged thru 214. 215 DGRBM 2-287
c.215 Campanian Jubellius Taurea fights Claudius Asellus in single combat.  Outcome not reported. 215 DGRBM 3-983
c.215 Roman fleet in Adriatic guarding Calabria intercepts a Macedonian ship sailing east.  On board are 3 high-placed Carthaginians, Gisgo, Bostar and Mago.  A search reveals a treaty between Hannibal and Philip.  The Romans thus learn of planned co-operation between them. 215 CAH 8-96
c.215 NOLA Campania, approached by Hanno to defect to Hannibal, refuses. 215 DGRBM 2-407
c.215 HANNIBAL defeated by M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS at Nola, goes east to Apulia. 215 CAH 8-53, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, LEWH 100, wikLRB
c.215 Croton and Locri taken by Carthaginians. 215 SORH
c.215 ARPI, 25km east of Lucera Apulia, taken by HANNIBAL until 213.  Hannibal winters there. 215 B76 8-627, SORH
c.214 When it appears that T. Otacilius Crassus and M. Aemilius Regillus are about to be elected consuls, Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator intervenes and points out that generals of more experience are needed to cope with Hannibal, and urges, that Regillus, in consequence of his being Flamen Quirinalis, ought not to leave the city.  Regillus and Otacilius are therefore not elected, and Fabius Maximus himself is elected, with M.(3) Claudius Marcellus.  Otacilius is married to Fabius' niece, while Otacilius & Marcellus are half-brothers. 214 CAH 8-70, DGRBM 3-64, 642, HRRP 1-631
214 Mar. CONSULS:  patrician Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS Cunctator (4th) and M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS (3rd) 214 B76 IV-20, VI-601, 15-1093, CAH 8-53, DGRBM 2-928, 994, OCD 427, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.214 CENSORS:  patrician P. Furius Philus, who dies in office 213, and pleb M. Atilius Regulus   No lustrum is performed this year. 214 DGRA 720, DGRBM 3-335, 644, wikLC
c.214 P. Sempronius Tuditanus is curule aedile. 214 DGRBM 3-1181
c.214 Praetor Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus is the only praetor re-elected.  Rome is his province, and he is in command when the consuls are absent. 214 DGRBM 2-153
c.214 Quaestor L.(3) Caecilius Metellus is booted from his tribe by censors for his planned desertion of Italy after Cannae 216. 214 DGRBM 2-1057, 3-335
c.214 Q.(5) Fabius Maximus is made praetor and sent to Apulia. 214 DGRBM 2-994
c.214 M.(1) PORCIUS CATO is military tribune. 214 wikCE
c.214 T. Otacilius Crassus is made praetor, and reassigned as fleet commander until 211. 214 DGRBM 3-64
c.214 M. Valerius LAEVINUS is appointed pro-praetor, is made fleet commander in Adriatic until 211, sent to Brundisium, patrols Illyrian coast. 215 LEWH 92, 100
214 B76 VI-442, DGRBM 2-710, Dur 2-556, 3-20, OCD 928
c.214 Envoys from Oricon in northern Epirus inform Roman fleet commander M. Valerius Laevinus that ships of Philip-V have attacked Oricon, and Philip is blockading and besieging ApolloniaLaevinus immediately crosses to Epirus. 214 CAH 8-98, DGRBM 3-281, LdHR 2-13
c.214 M. Livius Macatus appointed commander of Tarentum until 212 by M. Valerius Laevinus. 214 DGRBM 2-877
c.214 Senate finds new ways to borrow money.  Fortunes of minors and widows which are guarded by trustees is confiscated by the state.  Roman rich are compelled to give one or more of their own slaves to the state as ship rowers, and to provide 6 months pay.  Both of these schemes on a promisory note from the state to repay them - without interest. 214 CAH 8-74, LdHR 1-384
c.214 Aedile Gn. Fulvius Centumalus presents a 4-day program of theatrical events (ludi scaenici) with colleague P. Sempronius Tuditanus. 214 wikGFC
c.214 Consuls Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS Cunctator and MARCELLUS, based at Suessula (Castra Claudiana 20km southeast of Capua), follow Fabian strategy, thwart another attack by Hannibal on Nola. 214 B76 15-1093, DGRBM 2-928, OCD 427, csm, wikCon, wikLRB
c.214 C.(1) Claudius Nero, cavalry commander under Marcellus, is ordered to attack Hannibal's rear near Nola.  He either gets lost, or runs late, and misses the whole battle. 214 DGRBM 2-1161
c.214 1st MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 205.  Rome sends a few troops to keep Philip-V from joining Hannibal. 215 LEWH 92, 100     214 B76 VI-442, 15-279, Dur 2-556, 3-20, GHH, OCD 928, OHG
213 DGRBM     212 LdHR 1-336
c.214 HANNIBAL marches his army to Lake Avernus on pretense of sacrificing to Proserpine or Hecate, but his real object is to take Puteoli south of Cumae. 214 DGRG 1-351
c.214 HANNO, trying to join Hannibal, defeated on the Calore river near Beneventum by proconsul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUSHanno goes to Bruttium. 215 DGRBM 2-330, DGRG 1-449, 1019     214 CAH 8-53,
DGRG 1-390, 483, OCD 472
c.214 After Calore river proconsul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS grants his slave troops liberty and citizenship. 214 SORH
c.214 CASILINUM, 6km northwest of Capua, under Hannibal's man Statius Metius from 215, stormed by consuls Q.(4) FABIUS MAXIMUS Cunctator and MARCELLUS, recovered for Rome until ?Marcellus returns to Nola. 214 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-928, 994, DGRG 1-556, OCD 427, 646, SORH
213 B76 8-627, CAH 8-53
c.214 Consul M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS sent from Nola to Sicily until 211. 214 B76 VI-601, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-928, LEWH 100, OCD 646, 665
c.214 AECAE (Troia) 15km south of Lucera Apulia, under Hannibal from Cannae, recovered by consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 214 DGRG 1-29
c.214 COMPSA Lucania, under Hannibal from 216, recovered by consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 214 DGRG 1-652
c.214 BLANDA on west coast of Lucania, under Hannibal from ?, recovered by consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 214 DGRG 1-407
c.214 BOMILCAR, with fresh troops from Carthage, joins Hanno in Bruttium. 214 DGRG 1-449
c.214 CAUDINI tribe of Samnites devastated by consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 214 bk
c.214 HANNIBAL makes unsuccessful attempt on Tarentum defended by M. Livius Macatus. 214 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-877, LdHR 2-14, SORH
c.214 TEUMAN chief of Huns mentioned by Romans. 214 GHH
213 Mar. CONSULS:  Q.(5) Fabius MAXIMUS and Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS (2nd) 213 OCD 472, CAH 8-70,
DGRBM 2-288, 994, csm, wikCon
c.213 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO is unanymously elected curule aedile, though legally too young.  When the tribunes object to the election, because of his age, he replies, "If all the quirites wish to make me aedile, I am old enough." 213 B76 16-396 212 DGRBM 3-743, MCAW
c.213 M. Cornelius CETHEGUS becomes curule aedile. 213 DGRBM 1-675
c.213 L.(4) Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus dies. 213 DGRBM 2-729
c.213 Praetor C.(1) Claudius Nero is summoned by consuls to Suessula 20km southeast of Capua to help in siege of Capua. 213 DGRBM 2-763, 1161
c.213 M' (or M.) Aemilius Lepidus and C.(1) Claudius Nero are made praetors. 213 DGRBM 2-763, 1161
c.213 L.(3) Caecilius Metellus is pleb tribune.  He tries to prosecute censors P. Furius Philus and M. Atilius Regulus for degrading him in 214, but is prevented by other tribunes. 213 DGRBM 2-1057
c.213 M. Fundanius FUNDULUS and L. Villius Tappulus become pleb aediles.  They accuse certain Roman matrons of improprieties and get them banished. 213 DGRBM 2-190, 3-975
c.213 Consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS is ordered to appoint a dictator to stay at Rome while consuls are away.  He appoints C.(3) Claudius Cento dictator. 213 DGRBM 1-768, 2-288
c.213 Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS is magister equitum. 213 DGRBM 2-153
c.213 Gn.(2) Servilius Caepio becomes pontifex maximus until 212. 213 DGRBM 1-533
c.213 Rome now has 20 legions. 213 HRRP 1-646
c.213 P. Sempronius Tuditanus is made praetor and sent to Ariminum until 211.  He takes Aternum on coast of Samnium. 213 DGRBM 3-1181, OCD 1098
c.213 Forum Boarium, center of Roman business, destroyed by fire. 213 CAH 8-506
c.213  CARMINA MARCIANA , sayings of Italian soothsayer MARCIUS, written in Latin, are discovered by praetor M. Atilius and put with Sybilline books.  They are said to have predicted the defeat at Cannae 216 and the institution of the Ludi Apollinares, which will be started 212 because they were prophesied. 213
CDGRA 579, DGRBM 2-944, MCAW
c.213 T. Pomponius Veiantanus in south Italy attacks Hanno, and is defeated and captured. 213 DGRBM 3-495
c.213 Consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS continues the war in Lucania. 213 DGRBM 2-172-3
c.213 Temple of Liberty on Aventine Hill dedicated by consul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS.  Its showpiece is a painting of the feast of Gracchus' troops after the battle of Beneventum. 213 DGRA 913
c.213 Gn. Fukvius CENTUMALUS becomes praetor, sent with 2 legions to Suessula 20km southeast of Capua. 213 DGRBM 1-667
c.213 ALTINUS DASIUS of Arpi goes by night to camp of Q. Fabius, offers to deliver Arpi for money. 213 DGRBM 1-944
c.213 Roman citizens complain to the senate of foreign cults being practiced in public places.  Itinerant priests "had taken a hold of menís minds".  The Senate sends minor magistrates to clear the crowd, but they cannot control the Forum, so the praetor urbanus confiscates books containing prophecies, prayers, and ritual instructions , and forbids foreign cults in public or sacred spaces. 213 acdm
c.213 ARPI, 25km east of Lucera Apulia, under Hannibal from 215, garrisoned by 5,000 Carthaginian troops, betrayed by citizens to consul Q.(5) Fabius Maximus, who also takes some other Bruttian towns. 213 B76 8-627,
CAH 8-53, DGRG 1-221, SORH
c.213 Mother and children of ALTINUS DASIUS are burned alive by Hannibal. 213 DGRBM 1-944
c.213 M. Attilius is made praetor. 213 DGRBM 3-933
c.213 Praetor C.(1) Claudius Nero is sent to Spain. 213 DGRBM 2-1161
c.213 112 young noble Capuans defect to Roman lines. 213 HRRP 1-650
c.213 Gn. Fulvius Centumalus, praetor at Suessula (Castra Claudiana 20km southeast of Capua), receives knights from Capua who defect from Hannibal to Rome. 213 wikGFC
c.213 Lucanian FLAVIUS, head of a pro-Roman party, suddenly rebels, conspires with Mago in Bruttium to deliver consul Ti.(2) Sempronius Gracchus, on condition that Lucanians be free, and retain their own constitution. 213 DGRBM 2-172
c.213 T. Maccius PLAUTUS flourishes.  Writes plays:  The Menaechmi, The Mercator (merchant),  Asinaria (Asses),  Cistellaria (Casket),  Stichus, or The Parasite Rebuffed,  Bacchides,  Captivi, Curculio,  Mostellaria,  Persa,  Miles Gloriosus; . 215 TTPC, bk
214 Dur 3-20, TTPC
213 TTPC     206 GHH
205 TToH, bk     204 OHG
no date: B76 14-552
c.213 Earliest mention of a distribution of oil. Livy xxv:2
213 CDGRA 204
c.212 HANNIBAL again marches toward Tarentum, camps 3 miles outside.  He is repeatedly visited by 2 young Greeks, who arrange to betray the city. 212 LdHR 1-375
c.212 TARENTUM, Roman ally from 272, under M. Livius Macatus from 214, betrayed by 13 young Tarentines led by Nicon and Philemenus, surprised and taken by Hannibal until 209 (except for its citadel under Macatus, which controls the harbor). 213 B76 15-1093,
early CAH 8-54
212 DGRBM 2-337, 877, 1198, 3-263, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-375, 2-14, LEWH 100, SORH, rcSI
c.212 Proconsul Ti.(2) Sempronius GRACCHUS, son of TSG cos.238, lured into an ambush near Campi Veteris in Lucania by Lucanian Flavius.  Gracchus is defeated by Mago and killed.  Body is sent to Hannibal, who gives it a grand burial. 213 DGRBM 2-172-3
212 CAH 8-54, DGRBM 2-288 OCD 472, SORH
212 Mar. CONSULS:  Ap.(8) Claudius PULCHER and Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS (3rd) 212 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-768, 2-153, csm, SORH, wikCon
c.212 P. Licinius Crassus Dives, who had not yet held praetorship, becomes pontifex maximus, defeating 2 senior consulars, Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus and T.(3) Manlius Torquatus, for the post.  Crassus is pontifex maximus until death 183. 213/2 wikPLCD 212 CAH 8-72, DGRBM 1-873, 3-1164, wikPM
c.212 P. Cornelius (Rufinus) Sulla is flamen dialis, and also praetor urbanus and peregrinus. 212 DGRBM 3-933
c.212 Lucius and Spurius CARVILIUS, and C. Servilius Casca are pleb tribunes. 212 DGRBM 1-617, 618
c.212 C. Laetorius is sent by the senate as envoy to consuls Ap.(8) Claudius and Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus. 212 DGRBM 2-709
c.212 Sp. Carvilius Maximus is made augur and dies in office. 212 DGRBM 2-987
c.212 L.(1) Quintius Flamininus is augur. 212 DGRBM 2-161
c.212 Gn.(1) Cornelius Lentulus is quaestor. 212 DGRBM 2-729
c.212 M. Attilius delivers to P. Cornelius (Rufinus) Sulla certain sacred verses of seer Marcius, referring to both past and future, and which commanded the Romans to institute an annual festival in honor of Apollo.  The senate orders the decemviri to consult the Sibylline books, and these confirm the same command. 212 DGRBM 3-933
c.212 LUDI APOLLINARES:  Games to APOLLO begin at the command of an oracle in the books of seer Marcius, to get Apollo to help get rid of the Carthaginians.  They are held at Apollinare, an area reserved for Apollo in the Prata Flaminia.  P. Cornelius (Rufinus) Sulla presides.  A vow is made to hold them only once, but they are made regular in 208 - all this on the advice of the Sibylline books and native prophecies of Marcius.  They are paid for by public collection (a Greek custom which, in this time of financial stringency, becomes common).  Apollo is still seen as a Greek god; his temple is outside the city boundary and he is worshipped Greek style. 212 CAH 8, 8-427, CDGRA 394, DGRA 715, DGRBM 3-371, 933, GHH, HRR, wikLA
208 OCD 625
c.212 M. Junius Silanus is made praetor, and sent to Etruria, chiefly employed in buying grain. 212 DGRBM 3-819
c.212 C. Servilius is sent to Etruria to buy grain for Roman garrison besieged in Tarentum.  He then forces his way into Tarentum harbor, and delivers the grain. 212 DGRBM 3-793
c.212 Decimus Junius is stationed by Ap.(8) Claudius at mouth of the Volturnus river. 212 DGRBM 2-658
c.212 Consul Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS captures HANNO's camp near Beneventum, cutting off his supplies from Capua. 212 DGRG 1-390, OCD 440, SORH
c.212 CAPUA, under Hannibal 216-11, besieged by consuls Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS and PULCHER and praetor C.(1) CLAUDIUS NERO. 212 B76 15-279, CAH 8, CDCC 415, CAH 8, DGRBM 1-768, DGRG 1-494, 511, Dur 3-52, OCD 440, 730, OHG, bk     211 MCAW
c.212 HANNIBAL defeats 2 armies, under Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus and Claudius.  Relieves siege of Capua.  Hannibal retires to Tarentum.  Flaccus and Claudius return and resume siege of Capua. 212 DGRG 2-511, LEWH 100, SORH, wikLRB
c.212 Campanian BADIUS challenges his friend T. Quinctius Crispinus to single combat at siege of Capua.  Crispinus at first refuses, but is persuaded by his troops to accept.  Badius is wounded and withdraws. 212 DGRBM 1-452
c.212 Rome now has 25 legions. 212 MCAW, bk
23 legions: HRRP 1-646
c.212 Retired centurion M. Centenius Penula convinces the senate that he understands the enemy and country well enough that he can gain a great advantage in a short time.  Senate gives him 8,000 men, which is nearly doubled by volunteers.  They march into Lucania. 212 DGRBM 1-666
c.212 Publican (tax collector) M. Postumius Pyrgensis is tried for fraud by the people and condemned, though he is supported by the other publicans and a tribune.  He goes into exile before sentencing. 212 DGRBM 3-607
c.212 Hannibal destroys army of M. Centenius Penula at the Silarus river bordering Campania and Lucania. 212 DGRBM 1-666, SORH, wikLRB
c.212 Gn. Fulvius FLACCUS, bro of the consul, is made praetor and sent to Apulia. 212 DGRBM 2-154
c.212 METAPONTUM defects to Hannibal. 212 CAH 8-54, SORH
c.212 THURII defects to Hannibal. 212 CAH 8-54, SORH
c.212 HERACLEA defects to Hannibal. 212 CAH 8-54, SORH
c.212 HANNIBAL nearly annihilates army of praetor Gn. Fulvius FLACCUS at 1st battle of Herdonia Apulia (which may be identical to 2nd). 212 DGRG 1-1056, SORH, wikLRB, wikBH
c.212 INTERAMNA LIRENAS at confluence of Liris and Spalla Bassa rivers, Latin colony from 312, ravaged by Hannibal. 212 DGRG 2-55, wikIL
c.212 Thurian and Tarentine hostages at Rome who had escaped from captivity are recaptured and thrown from the Tarpeian rock. 212
CAH 8-75
c.212 MONEY:  Shortage of silver and bronze requires reform of Roman monetary system. 212
CAH 8-75
c.212 Roman grain supplies are failing. 212 MCAW
c.212 Masters who provide slave rowers now have to pay them as well. 212 CAH 8-75
c.212 late HANNIBAL withdraws to south Italy for winter.  This will become his standard practice. 212
CAH 8-54
211 Mar. CONSULS:  P. Sulpicius GALBA and Gn. Fulvius CENTUMALUS 211 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-667, 2-203, OCD 440, 454, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.211 P. Licinius Crassus is curule aedile. 211 DGRBM 1-873
c.211 L. Porcius Licinius and Q. Catius are pleb aediles. 211 DGRBM 2-785
c.211 Rome has 23 legions. 211 HRRP 1-646
c.211 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO is praetor urbanus.  He proposes that the Ludi Apollinares be celebrated annually.  Senate agrees, but the day of their celebration varries with circumstances until 208. 211
DGRA 715, DGRBM 3-371
c.211 Augur Spurius CARVILIUS dies.  M. Servilius PALEX GEMINUS elected augur. 211 DGRBM 2-239
c.211 Gold and silver crowns made to look like foliage are first awarded to winners in games presented by aedile P. Licinius Crassus. 211 DGRBM 1-873
c.211 M. Cornelius CETHEGUS becomes praetor, sent to Apulia. 211 DGRBM 1-675
c.211 L.(6) Cornelius LENTULUS becomes praetor, sent to Sardinia. 211 DGRBM 1-729
c.211 Senate names praetor C.(1) CLAUDIUS NERO to succeed L. Marcius Septimus in Spain, because senate doesn't want an elected officer commanding troops. 211 HRRP 1-678
c.211 Gn. Fulvius FLACCUS, who lost his army at Herdonia 212, is brought to trial by tribune C. Sempronius Blaesus. 211 DGRBM 1-491
c.211 P. Sempronius Tuditanus praetor in charge of Ariminum from 213, returns to Rome. 211 DGRBM 3-1181
c.211 HANNIBAL tries to draw Romans away from Capua by approaching Rome. 211 B76 8-627, 15-279, CAH 8-54, CDCC 415, CAH 8, DGRBM, Dur 3-52, LEWH 100, MCAW, OHG, SORH, TToH, wikLRB
c.211 M. Valerius LAEVINUS, pro-praetor 214-11, fleet commander in Adriatic from 214, returns with most of his fleet and army to Italy, having been elected consul for 210 before returning.  On landing, he is met by envoys from Capua complaining against proconsul Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus, and Sicilians complaining against M.(3) Claudius Marcellus.    P. SULPICIUS GALBA succeeds as commander of a reduced fleet and commander in Greece until 206. 211
CAH 8, OCD 454
210
DGRBM 2-710
c.211 T. Otacilius Crassus, commander of Roman fleet based at Lilybaeum from 217, dies in SicilyM. Valerius LAEVINUS succeeds. 211 CAH 8-66, 67, DGRBM 3-64, OCD 763
c.211 Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Cunctator persuades senate not to abandon siege of Capua. 211 DGRBM 2-994
c.211 T.(3) Manlius Torquatus is the people's choice for consul 210, but he refuses.  T. Otacilius Crassus, fleet commander in Sicily, is nominated for consul, and looks certain to win, but loses because of interference by T.(3) Manlius Torquatus. 211 DGRBM 3-64, 1164, OCD 763
c.211 P.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO ASINA recommends that the senate recall all generals and armies from Italy for defence of Rome, because Hannibal is marching on the capital. 211 DGRBM 3-741
c.211 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO is urban praetor until 210. 211 DGRBM 3-371
c.211 FREGELLAE Latium on the east bank of the Liris withstands attack by Hannibal.  Citizens break down the bridge over the Liris to retard his march, while they hasten to warn Rome. 211 DGRG 1-913
c.211 HANNIBAL withdrawing from Rome, detours to plunder the temple of Feronia in south Etruria. 211 DGRG 1-896
c.211 Romans just muster 25 new legions, and continue siege of Capua.  Hannibal returns south to Rhegium. 211 B76 8-627, 15-279,
CAH 8-54, CDCC 415, CAH 8, Dur 3-52, LEWH 100, MCAW, OHG, SORH, TToH, wikLRB
c.211 CAPUA, under Carthaginians Bostar and Hanno from 216, besieged by Romans from 212, starved to surrender.  Capuan leader Vibius Virrius recommends suicide to his fellow leaders.  27 of them accompany him to his house, where after a banquet all take poison.  Leaders, including Jubellius Taurea, suicide or are beheaded.  Population, which had supported Hannibal, dispursed, land confiscated.  Capua has no rights until 89. 212 SORH     211 BCoC 506, CAH 8, CDCC 163, CDGRA 654, DGRBM 3-983, 1252, DGRG 1-494, 511, Dur 3-52, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-656, MCAW, OHG, SORH, bk
211/0 CAH 8-197
c.211 ATELLA 13km south of Capua, with Hannibal since Cannae 216, taken by Romans.  Chief citizens and authors of the revolt are executed, remaining inhabitants either sold as slaves, or removed to distant settlements, mostly Calatia. 211 DGRG 1-253, 477
c.211 CALATIA 10km southeast of Capua, with Hannibal since Cannae 216, taken by Romans and severely punished. 211 DGRG 1-477
c.211 HANNIBAL fails to take Rhegium. 211 SORH
c.211 HANNIBAL fails to take the citadel of Tarentum. 211 SORH
c.211 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO, age 24-27, assigned to Spain. 211 CAH 9-91, LdHR 1-390
c.211 FIRES set in Rome by Campanian Calavi family (sons of executed Capuans).  A Calavi slave snitches on them, and the whole family is punished.  Fire destroys many buildings in the Forum, including the 7 reteres tabernae, which are rebuilt next year, and the Argentariae - 7 shops in the north side, which are rebuilt in 194.  Part of the Basilion Regia is burnt. 211 DGRBM 1-560, HRRP 1-657
210 CDGRA 71, 532, DGRA 198
c.211 M.(3) Claudius MARCELLUS, in Sicily from 214, returns with much Greek art to Rome, claims a triumph.  Senate refuses because Sicily is still rebelling. 211 B76 VI-601, LdHR 1-374, OCD 646     210 GHH, HRR
211/10 C.(1) Calpurnius PISO, praetor of 211, made propraetor and sent to Etruria. 211/10
DGRBM 3-371

Italy 210-201
V