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Italy
275 CONSULS:  Manius Curius DENATUS (2/3rd) and L.(3) Cornelius LENTULLUS CAUDINUS 275 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-992, 2-729, LdHR 1-278, OCD 332, csm, wikCon
c.275 Manius Curius DENATUS is first to order the sale of the property of a defaulting debtor at the levy (and perhaps of the man himself). 275 CAH 7.2-221
c.275 CENSORS:  patrician Q. Aemilius Papus; pleb C. Fabricius Luscinus 275 B76 IV-22, DGRBM 2-842, 3-120, wikLC
c.275 P. Cornelius Rufinus is expelled from the senate by censors C. Fabricius and Q. Aemilius Papus, for owning 10 pounds of silver table-ware, when law permits only 8 ounces.  (See 161) 275 CAH 8-185, DGRBM 3-665
c.275 Manius Curius DENATUS barely defeats PYRRHUS of Epirus at MALVENTUM2 elephants killed, 8 captured. 275 B76 I-974, CAH 7.2-381, CDCC 737, DGRBM 1-992, Dur 3-38, GHH, HRR, LEWH 98, MCAW, OCD 332, SORH, wikLRB, wikMCD, wikPyr
274 DGRBM 3-614
c.275 C. Fabricius Luscinus makes peace treaty with Pyrrhus of Epirus. 275 B76 IV-22
c.275 MILO, general of Pyrrhus, left in charge of Taras with a garrison until 272. 274 HRR
no date: DGRBM 3-613
c.275 Manius Curius DENATUS defeats Pyrrhus again in the Arusinian plain.  Pyrrhus returns to Taras. 275 DGRBM 1-992, TAG 259
274 DGRBM 3-614
c.275 PYRRHUS king of Epirus sends envoys to kings of Macedonia and Syria asking for money.  No luck. 275 SORH
c.275 PYRRHUS king of Epirus, in Italy from 276, returns with only 8,000 inf and 500 cav and no money to Epirus.
ROME becomes undisputed master of south Italy.
275 BCoC 485, CAH 7.1-221, 7.2, DGRBM, Dur 3-38, LEWH 91, MCAW, OHG, RAH 385, TToH
274 B76 1-991, DGRBM 3-614, GHH, HRRP 1-382, TAG 260, bk
c.275 Romans campaign against Samnites and Lucanians. 275 CAH 7.2
c.275 BARI, port on Adriatic coast of Apulia, under Greeks from 500, comes under Rome until 218. 275 rcSI
c.275 BRUTIUM (toe of Italian boot) comes under Rome until 395CE. 275 rcSI     266 TToH
c.275 HIPPONIUM, under the Brutti from 289, comes under Rome until ?.  Renamed VIBO. no date:
DGRG 1-1070
274 CONSULS:  Manius Curius DENATUS (3/4th) and Servius Cornelius MERENDA 274 B76 III-476, CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-992, 2-1047,
OCD 332, csm, wikCon
c.274 Consul M' Curius DENATUS is sent to Samnium. 274 DGRBM 3-614
c.274 Consul Servius Cornelius MERENDA is sent to Lucania. 274 DGRBM 2-1047, 3-614
c.275 Romans campaign against Samnites, Brutti, and Lucani. 275 SORH
c.274 LUCANI, former allies of Pyrrhus, conquered by M' Curius DENATUS.  Half of the Sila forest is siezed by Rome. 274 B76 III-471, OCD 332, wikMCD     no date: OCD 183
c.274/3 CAERE, near coast of Etruria, rebels until 273. 274 CAH 7.2
273 CONSULS:  C. Claudius CANINA (2nd) and C. Fabius DORSO LICINIUS 273 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-1069, csm, wikCon
c.273 Vestal virgin SEXTILIA condemned for incest, buried alive. 274 GHH
273 DGRBM 3-810
c.273 Rome sends 3 ambassadors including Q. Ogulnius to PTOLEMY-II Philadelphus, who in turn sends envoys to Rome.   Rome / Egypt  friendship treaty  results. 273 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-20, HRR, HRRP 2-7, LdHR 1-281, MCAW, OCD 927, SORH, lvPt2
c.273 COSA, on coast of Etruria, founded over Etruscan site of Cusi as a Latin colony.  3402km, 2,500 adult male settlers. 273 CAH 7.2-381, 391, 405, CDCC 219, 238, DGRBM, DGRG 1-695, GHH, HRR, OCD 293, SORH, bk, wikCs
c.273 POSIDONIA on Campania/Lucania border, under Lucanians from 400, becomes a Latin colony.  5402km, 4,000 adult male settlers, renamed PAESTUM. 273 CAH 7.2-381, 391, 405, 8-206, CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH, wikPst
c.273 CAERE Etruria, rebelling from 274, suppressed, deprived of half its land, annexed by Rome, without suffrage. 273 CAH 7.2-314, 381
272 CONSULS:  Spurius CARVILIUS MAXIMUS (2nd) and L. PARIRIUS CURSOR (2nd) 272 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-905, 2-987, OCD 210, csm, wikCon
c.272 CENSORS:  patrician Lucius Papirius Cursor; pleb Manlius Curius Dentatus 272 DGRBM 1-905, 992, LdHR 1-280, wikLC
c.272 ANIO VETUS, Rome's 2nd aqueduct, begun by censor Manius Curius DENATUS, funded by spoils from Pyrrhus.  Carries dirty water 39.6 miles over 18.4 miles of straight distance from Anio river, mostly below ground, to irrigate agriculture near Rome.  Completed 3 years later. 273 DGRA 110
272 B76 1-1036, CAH 7.2-408, CDGRA 44, DGRBM 1-992,
OCD 89, 332, TTT, wikLA
c.272 Lake VELINUS formed by rivers Avens, Himella and Tolenus in newly conquered Sabine territory is partly drained by Manius Curius DENATUS by cutting tunnels thru rock.  This provides much fertile land and a man-made waterfall at Terni, still extant. 289
OCD 332 272 LdHR 1-470, bril
c.272 Romans campaign against Brutii, Samnites and Lucanians. 272 CAH 7.2
c.272 MILO, Epiran general at Taras from 275, betrays Taras to Rome and submits. 272 Dur 3-38, HRR, HRRP 1-383, LEWH 98, SORH
c.272 TARAS, Spartan city from 706, oligarchy from 302, taken by Rome.  Walls and military resources destroyed.  Administration left intact.  Name changed to TARENTUM.  Under Rome until 212.  Romans now become more familiar with Greek culture. 272 B76 IX 822, CAH 7.2-381, 8-479, CDGRA 641, DGRBM, Dur 3-20, 74, GHH, HRRP 1-383, LdHR 1-461, LEWH 98, MCAW, OHG, SORH, TTPC, rcSI, vrb
271 B76 15-1090     268 BCoC 489
c.272 TARAS / ROME WAR from 282 ends. 272 TToH, TTPC
c.272 METAPONTUM with Epirotes from 280, back under Rome until 216. 272 CDCC 577
c.272 South Italy conquered by Rome.  Samnites, Lucani, and Brutti all submit. 272 SORH, TToH
c.272 Via AppiaVIA APPIA, connecting Rome to Tarentum from 291, extended to Brundisium. 272 TToH 270 MCAW
c.272 LIVIUS ANDRONICUS, Greek scholar at Tarentum, enslaved, brought to Rome.  Literature finally arrives in Rome. 272 CAH 7.2, Dur 3-20, LdHR 1-461, MCAW
after Tarentum: Dur 3-74
271 CONSULS:  pleb L. Genucius CLEPSINA and Caeso QUINCTIUS CLAUDIUS 271 CAH 7.2-642,
DGRBM 1-778, csm, wikCon
271 Consul L. Genucius CLEPSINA sent to reduce Decius Jubellius and the Mamertines who had held up in Rhegium. 271 LdHR 1-281
270 CONSULS:  Gn. Cornelius BLASIO and C. Genucius CLEPSINA (2nd) 270 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-491, 804, csm, wikCon
c.270 CENSORS:  Tiberius CORUNCANIUS and C. Claudius CANINA. 270 DGRBM 1-860
c.270 M' Curius DENATUS, pleb hero statesman, dies. 270 B76 III-471,
OCD 332, wikMCD
c.270 APULIA (the heel of Italy), under Romans from 317, annexed to Rome until 395CE. 272 tttP 270 rcSI
c.270 RHEGIUM, under Epirus from 277, taken by consul Genucius supported by Hieron of Syracuse.  300 Mamertines under Decius Jubellius are taken prisoner to Rome and beheaded.  Rhegium is given back to GreeksRoman ally thru Punic Wars. 271 GHH, HRR, IDB 4-75
270 B76 VIII-480, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-804, DGRG 2-705, OCD 920, LEWH 98, MCAW, SORH, TTPC 25, rcSI
c.270 Population of Rome 100,000. 270 wikHR
269 CONSULS:  C. FABIUS PICTOR and Q. Ogulnius GALLUS 269 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-228, 3-19, 364, csm, wikCon
c.269 CENSORS:  patrician Lucius Aemilius Barbula; pleb Quintus Marcius Philippus 269 wikLC
c.269 MONEY:  Roman COINS, only copper from 300:  New silver coins designed by Greeks minted at the temple of Juno Moneta, who becomes the personification of money.  Silver DENARIUS = 1 days wage = 10 bronze ases.  Sestertius = 2.5 ases.  Workmanship is inferior to best Greek coins, but better than anything Roman before or after.  Senate suppresses rival coins. 269 B76 12-350, 19-301, CAH 7.2-416, CDGRA 182, 419, DGRA 26, 133, 393, DGRBM, Dur 3-79, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-466, MCAW, wikRC     269/8 CDGRA 10, 183     268 HRRP 1-548, TTPC 25, TToH, bk
c.269 40 silver denarii = 1 lb. 269 HRRP 1-497-8
c.269 Samnite LOLLIUS escapes from Rome, collects followers, tries to raise the Caraceni of the Sagrus valley to rebel.  Quickly suppressed by consuls. 269 HRRP 1-384, SORH
c.269 Consul Q. Ogulnius GALLUS begins a fight with the Picentes until 268. 269 DGRBM 2-228
c.269 Romans campaign in Bruttium. 269 CAH 7.2
c.269 ASCULUM in Picenum, under Romans from ?, rebels until 268. 269 DGRG 1-231, SORH
268 CONSULS:  Ap.(8) Claudius Crassus RUFUS and P. Sempronius SOPHUS 268 CAH 7.2-642,
DGRBM 3-877, csm, wikCon
c.268 DIVORCE 1st recorded in Roman history.  Sp. Carvilius divorces his wife. 268 Dur 3-69     231 DGRBM 230 CAH 8-431
Divorce formula:  "Take what belongs to you and give up the keys." HRRP 1-552
c.268 SABINES, independent allies without vote from 290, given full Roman citizenship. 268 CAH 7.2,
CDCC 775, SORH
c.268 MALVENTUM, under Rome from ?, becomes Latin colony.  5752km, 6,000 adult male settlers.  Name changed to BENEVENTUM. 268 CAH 7.2-381, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, MCAW, OCD 165, SORH
c.268 ARIMINUM on coast of Umbria, under Senones from ?, Senones expelled, becomes a Latin colony to defend against Gauls.  6502km, 6,000 adult male settlers.  Comes under Rome until 396CE. 268 CAH 7.2-381, 391, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, DGRG 1-213, 938, GHH, HRR, OCD 108, SORH, TAWH 87, bk, rcNI
c.268 ASCULUM, capital of Picenum, rebelling from 269, stormed and taken by consul P. Sempronius Sophus, under Romans until ?.  Some of the inhabitants are transferred to the west coast south of the Bay of Naples, where they are called Picentines.  Leads to submission of all Picenum this year. 268 DGRBM, DGRG 1-231, HRR, LdHR 1-282, OCD 130, SORH, wikAs
There is another Asculum in Apulia.
c.268 PICENUM incorporated into Rome without suffrage except for Asculum. 269/8 CAH 7.2-381
c.268 TELLUS (Terra Mater) Roman earth goddess, gets a temple on the Esquiline Hill. 268 B76 IX-874
267 CONSULS:  L. Julius LIBO and M. Atilius REGULUS 267 B76 VIII-484, CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-778, 3-643, csm, wikCon
c.267 Consuls attack the Sallentini in Apulia for control of Brundisium, and defeat them. 267 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-778, DGRG 1-445, SORH
c.267 QUAESTORS, 4 in number from 421, increased to 8.  4 are stationed in various towns, mostly to administer public finance.  4 quaestors classici guard the coast. 275 GHH     267 B76 15-1096, CDGRA 529, DGRA 981,
OCD 906, unrv
increased to 6 or 8 267 CAH 7.2
increased to 10 267 wikQs
c.267 BRUNDISIUM taken by consul REGULUS. 267 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, DGRG 1-445, GHH, HRR, OCD 911, SORH
266 CONSULS:  Numerius FABIUS PICTOR and Decimus Junius PERA 266 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 3-185, 364, wikCon
c.266 Consul Decimus Junius PERA defeats and subdues Sarsinates. 266 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 3-185, SORH
c.266 SARSINA, main Umbrian city, taken by Decimus Junius PERA.  All Umbria submits to Rome 266 LdHR 1-282
c.266 The Sallentini and Messapii defeated by consul Decimus Junius PERA.  Sallentini submit to Rome. 266 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-185, SORH
265 CONSULS:  Q.(2) Fabius Maximus GURGES (3rd) and L. Mamilius VITULUS 265 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-912, 3-1278, csm, wikCon
c.265 Q.(3) Fabius Maximus (probably son of Gurges) is aedile.  He assaults ambassadors from Apollonia Illyria, and is therefore sent as prisoner to Apollonia. 264 DGRBM 2-993
c.265 CENSORS:  patrician Gn. Cornelius Blasio; pleb C. Marcius Rutilus (2nd)  Rutilus is the only man to be elected censor twice. 265 DGRA 261, DGRBM 1-492, 664, wikLC
c.265  Lex Marcia  by censor Marcius Rutilus:  No man can be elected censor twice.  He is then surnamed Censorinus. 265 DGRA 261, SORH
by 265 Rome loosely controls all Italy south of the Po Valley. by 265 SHWC 104
by 265 The Roman oligarchic system is so entrenched and widely accepted that Romans think it the ideal form of government. by 265 SHWC 106
c.265 VOLSINII Etruria, has popular insurrection against aristocracy, which calls on Rome for help. 264 CAH 7.2-387, 8-226, SORH
c.265 VOLSINII, last independent Etruscan town, besieged by Consul Q.(2) Fabius Maximus Gurges, who is killed in a sally by Etruscan serfs. 265 DGRBM 2-993, LdHR 1-282
c.265 VOLSINII conquered and destroyed by Rome, defenders executed, 2,000 bronze statues and other art works confiscated.  A new city is founded on low ground and named BOLSENA.  Conquest of Etruria is complete.  Etruscan and Umbrian communities remain nominally independent but are bound to Rome by alliance treaties. 266 GHH, HRR
265 B76 II-132, 15-1090, DGRG 1-863, LdHR 1-282, SORH
265/4 CAH 7.2
264 CAH 7.2-381, bk
c.265/4 CENSUS registers 292,324 adult males.  Rome is 26,850 km2 with a population in the region of 900,000.  On these figures Romans have more than 20% of the total land surface of peninsular Italy (125,445 km2) and nearly 30% of its population (estimated over 3,000,000). 266 GHH
265/4
CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun 264 CAH 7.2-403
c.264 2,000 statues brought from Volsini to Rome by M.(1) Fulvius Flaccus. 264 CAH 8-484
264 CONSULS:  Ap.(7) CLAUDIUS CAUDEX and M.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS 264 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-768, 2-153, csm, wikCon
c.264 POLYBIUS'  Histories  begin here and end in 146. 264 CAH 8-4, wikPlb
c.264 FIRMUM Picenum becomes a Latin colony to defend against Gauls.  4002km, 4,000 adult male settlers. 264 CAH 7.2-381, 391, 405, CDCC 219, SORH
c.264 AESERNIA, formerly Samnite city, becomes a Latin colony. 264 DGRG 1-55 263 SORH
c.264 CASTRUM NOVUM, on coast of Etruria west of Caere, becomes a Latin colony to defend against Gauls. 264 CAH 7.2-391, CDCC 219
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is another Castrum Novum directly opposite on the east coast, founded 289.
c.264 MAMERTINES of Messana Sicily ask Rome for help against Carthaginians.  Senate hesitates.  Consuls throw the question to the comitia centuriata, which votes to send help. 265 MCAW     265/4 B76 8-382, MWΦ 200     264 B76 VI-824, 15-277, CAH 7.2, Dur 3-43, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-300, OHG
c.264 SENATE, influenced by rich plebs in Central Assembly, reluctantly votes war with Carthage, begins rebuilding fleet (destroyed 253) until 261, appoints consul Ap.(7) CLAUDIUS CAUDEX commander.  They copy a captured Carthaginian quinquireme. 264
Dur 3-44 262 HRR
c.264 Consul Ap.(7) CLAUDIUS CAUDEX sends kinsman C. Claudius to Sicily to assure the Mamertines of rescue, marches army to Rhegium. 264
Dur 3-44
c.264 All south Italy comes under Rome. 266 GHH     264 CAH 7.2-381, IDB 2-478
c.264 1st GLADIATOR show at Rome held at the Ludi Funebres in Forum Boarum, sponsored by Marcus and Decimus Junius Brutus for their father's funeral.  Gladiator shows are at first confined to public funerals of prominent men - and some women.  Etruscans supposedly originated gladiators. 264 CDCC 377, CDGRA 335, 392, DGRA 715, DGRBM 1-508, 2-153, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-543, LdHR 2-166, OHG, SORH, TToH, bk
c.264 1st PUNIC WAR begins until 241Consul Ap.(7) CLAUDIUS CAUDEX, with 2 legions invades Sicily. 265 MCAW     264 B76 15-1091, BCoC 497, CAH 7.1, CHJ 2, DGRBM, Dur 3-20, 44, GHH, OHG, SORH, TAWH 17, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG, lvS, wikHR
c.264 Ceramic TILE roofs begin to replace wood shingles. 264 LdHR 1-467
263 CONSULS:  Manius Valerius Maximus (soon Messala) and Manius Otacilius CRASSUS, both sent to Sicily 263 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-882, 2-1049, 3-64, LdHR 1-303, OCD 674, csm, wikCon
c.263 Gn. Fulvius Maximus Centumalus is dictator. 263 DGRBM 1-667, wikLRD
c.263 Q. Marcius Philippus is magister equitum. 263 DGRBM 3-285
c.263 Polybius says a legion has 4,000 men. 263i-16, DGRA 493
c.263 SOLARIUM aka HOROLOGIUM (ΛsundialV) brought from Catana Sicily to Rome by consul Manius Valerius Messalla, placed in forum.  It is off because Catana is 4 degrees south of Rome.  Priests can't figure out why it doesn't work. 264 CAH 8-484, CDCC 890     263 Dur 3-66, LdHR 1-467
c.263 AESERNIA Samnium, under Rome from 295, becomes a Latin colony.  3852km, 4,000 adult male settlers. 264 wikIsr     263 CAH 7.2-381, 391, 405, 8-217, CDCC 219
262 CONSULS:  L.(2) Postumius MEGELLUS and Q. Mamilius VITULUS, both sent to Sicily. 262 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-1009, 3-1279, csm, wikCon
261 CONSULS:  L.(2) Valerius FLACCUS and Titus Otacilius CRASSUS, both sent to Sicily. 261 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-882, 2-157, 3-64, csm, wikCon
c.261 Hannibal son of Gisco based on Sardinia repeatedly raids Italian coast. 261 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-332, GHH, SORH     260 DGRBM 1-1091
260 CONSULS:  Gn.(1) Cornelius SCIPIO ASINA and C. DUILIUS 260 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-1091, 3-741, OCD 367, csm, wikCon
c.260 MONEY:  "AS", 1 lb copper in 330, reduced to 2 ounces until 202, thus eliminating public debt. 1st Pun War: Dur 3-78
c.260 1st Roman FLEET, begun 264, completed, former consul Ap.(7) CLAUDIUS CAUDEX and consul Gn.(1) SCIPIO ASINA are commanders.  at least 100 quinqueremes, 20 triremes (some say as much as 330 ships in all) each 150 ft long, 300 rowers, 120 soldiers, with grapling hooks & gangways.  Romans with no sailing experience challenge the masters of the Mediterranean. 261 CAH 7.2, GHH
260 B76 15-277, DGRBM 1-1091, 3-741
no date: Dur 3-44
260 C. DUILIUS, after his naval victory over Carthage 260, returns to Rome, has triumph.  A single Column (Columna Rostrata) with a statue of him on top is erected in the Forum.  The inscription on its base is in Latin similar to that of the 12 ables.  Base and column still exist. 260 CDGRA 192, GHH     no date: DGRA 327, DGRBM 1-1091
c.260 Burying dead bodies within the city is forbidden by senate. 260 GHH, LdHR 1-469
259 CONSULS:  L.(3) Cornelius SCIPIO and C. Aquillius FLORUS 259 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-177, 3-741, OCD 961, csm, wikCon
259 Consul C. Aquillius FLORUS sent to Sicily until 258. 259 DGRBM 2-177
259 Consul L.(3) Cornelius SCIPIO sent to Sardinia until 25?. 259 DGRBM 3-741
258 CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius PATERCULUS and Aulus Atilius CALATINUS (CAIATINUS) 258 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-560, 3-134, OCD 143, csm, wikCon
c.258 Consuls Sulpicius PATERCULUS and Atilius CALATINUS (CAIATINUS) are sent to Sicily. 258 DGRBM 1-560, 3-134
c.258 CENSORS:  patrician L.(3) Cornelius Scipio; pleb C. Duilius 258 DGRBM 1-1091, 3-741, OCD 367, 961, csm, wikCon, wikLC
257 CONSULS:  Gn. Cornelius BLASIO (2nd) and C. Atilius REGULUS 257 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 3-644, 788, csm, wikCon
c.257 Q. Ogulnius Gallus is dictator to conduct the feriae Latinae. 257 DGRBM 2-228, 709, wikLRD
c.257 M. Laetorius Plancianus is magister equitum. 257 DGRBM 2-228, 709, wikLRD
256 CONSULS:  L. Manlius VULSO and Q. CAEDICIUS, who dies in office, and is succeeded by suffete M. Atilius Regulus. 257 LEWH 98     256 B76 VIII-484, CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-532, 3-643, 1285, OCD 911, 1134, csm, wikCon
c.256 Consuls VULSO and REGULUS with 330 ships, sail for Sicily. 256 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-643, DGRG 1-242, Dur 3-44, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 1134, OHG, wikLRB
255 CONSULS:  M.(2) AEMILIUS PAULUS and Ser. Fulvius Paetinus NOBILIOR 255 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-1205, 3-153, csm, wikCon
c.255 Romans learn of defeat of Regulus in Africa, begin 2nd FLEET (300 ships). 255 DGRBM 2-1205
c.255 2nd FLEET (300 ships) built by Romans in 3 months.  Wrecked 254 & 3. 255/4 CAH 7.2 254 DGRBM
c.255 Consuls M.(2) AEMILIUS PAULUS and Ser. Fulvius Paetinus NOBILIOR sail 2nd FLEET (300 ships) to rescue survivors at Aspis fortress in Africa (called Clupea by Romans). 255 DGRBM 2-1205, 3-153
254 CONSULS:  Gn.(1) Cornelius SCIPIO ASINA (2nd) and Aulus ATILIUS CALATINUS (Caiatinus) (2nd) 254 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-560, 3-741, OCD 143, csm, wikCon
254 Consuls Gn.(1) SCIPIO and CALATINUS pick up the remnants of the old fleet and sail to Messana. 254
LdHR 1-310
c.254 Ti. CORUNCANIUS is appointed 1st pleb pontifex maximus.   (see Ogulnian Laws 300) 255-2 CAH 7.2     254 DGRA 940, DGRBM 1-860, HRRP 1-532, wikPM     253 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.254 Temple of SPES built near the Porta Carmentalis in the Forum Holitorium, a vegetable market near the Tiber, by consul Atilius Calatinus to fulfill a vow made prior to a battle.  It will be destroyed by fire and rebuilt several times.  Spes is the Roman equivalent of Greek Elpis, a minor goddess of Hope, portrayed as an adolescent girl walking left, holding a flower, and with her other hand holding up the hem of her skirt.  The image evolved from Greek korai statues. 3[probably a typo]54 DGRBM 3-893
no date: wikAAC, wikSp
c.254 3rd Roman FLEET built by consuls Gn.(1) Scipio Asina and Calatinus in 3 months:  200 quinqueremes.  Rome also trains 80,000 new sailors.  Fleet sails to Messana 254 DGRBM 1-560, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-310     253 DGRBM 1-491, Dur 3-45
253 CONSULS:  Gn.(1) Servilius CAEPIO and C. Sempronius BLAESUS, both sent to Sicily to join 3rd fleet. 253 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-491, 533, csm, wikCon
c.253 CENSORS:  patrician L.(2) Postumius Megellus, who dies that year, and pleb Decimus Junius Pera 253 DGRBM 2-1009, 3-185, wikLC
c.253 400 equites are degraded for insuborination. 253 HRRP 1-684
253 3rd Roman fleet, 150 ships, wrecked again by another storm off Cape Palinurus Promontory LucaniaRomans give up on sea power, and settle for 60 ships until ?. 253 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-491, 533, CAH 7.2, GHH, HRRP 1-483, LdHR 1-310, LEWH 99, MCAW, SORH, bk
252 HRR     no date: Dur 3-44
252 CONSULS:  P. Servilius GEMINUS and C. Aurelius COTTA, both sent to Sicily 252 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-436, 866, 2-239, csm, wikCon
c.252 CENSORS:  patrician Manius Valerius Maximus Corvinus Messalla and pleb Publius Sempronius Sophus   Valerius Maximus degrades 400 equites to the rank of aerarians for neglect of duty in Sicily. 252 DGRBM 2-1050, 3-877, wikLC
c.252 Q.(1) Cassius Longinus is military tribune. 252 DGRBM 2-798
252/1 Roman CENSUS:  297,797 free adult males (Scholars doubt this.) 252 GHH, MCAW
252/1 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
251 CONSULS:  C. Furius PACILUS and L.(2) Caecilius METELLUS both sent to Sicily 251 B76 VI-835, CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-1056, 3-80, csm, wikCon
251 142 Carthaginian ELEPHANTS from Sicily exhibited in the circus by consul L.(2) Metellus.  They are later killed because the Romans don't know what to do with them. 251
DGRA 1186, ScDGRA 350
c.250 Proconsul L.(2) Metellus gains a brilliant victory at Panormus.  Thinking that the time had come to end the war, Rome builds 200 ships. 250 DGRBM 3-644
c.250 4th Roman FLEET, 200 ships, built. Rome sends the consuls to Sicily with 4 legions. 250 DGRBM 3-644, GHH
250 CONSULS:  L. Manlius VULSO (2nd) and C. Atilius REGULUS (2nd) sent with 4 legions and 200 ships to Sicily. 250 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 3-644, 1285, csm, wikCon
by 250 SABINES have received full Roman citizenship and rights. 290 Dur 3-35
c.250 TULLIANUM, 1st Roman prison, built on northeast slope of Capitoline Hill. 290 OCD, TToH
c.250 PONTIFEX MAXIMUS is now elected by special comitia of 17 tribes drawn by lot. 290 OCD 272
c.250 All  ITALY is now controled by Rome, but not all conquered. 290 PW 16
250
Pompeian gladius
GNU FDL
POMPEIAN GLADIUS gradually replaces the longer, curve edged Spanish gladius as preferred weapon of Roman infantry.  Blade length 4550cm. Sword length 6065cm. Blade width 5cm. Sword weight 700g (wooden hilt).  Pompeian type is often confused with the 1st cen CE spatha which will be longer.
3rd cen. wikRMPE
no date: wikGl
250 Roman CENSUS registers 251,000 adult males. 250 GHH
c.250 LATIN ALPHABET:  The 7th letter - Greek zeta - is dropped because Latin does not require it.  G is originated and put in its place. 290
B76 1-626
c.250 Petelia Gold Tablet  PETELIAN TABLET  written in Greek on gold leaf presumably in an Orphic shrine in Petelia south Italy.  The soul is represented as asserting its divine nature:  "You will find a spring on your left in Hades' halls and by it the cypress with its luminous sheen.  Do not go near this spring or drink its water.  You will find another, cold water flowing from Memory's lake; its guardians stand before it.  Say: 'I am a child of Earth and starry Heaven, But descended from Heaven; you yourselves know this.  I am parched with thirst and dying: quickly, give me the cool water flowing from Memory's lake.'  And they will give you water from the sacred spring and then you will join the heroes at their rites. This [. . . . of Memo]ry's: . . . .on the point of death [lacuna] write this [lacuna] the darkness folding [you] within it."   (#afterlife) photo Jononmac46


3rd cen sctx, wikPGT
c.249 M. Atilius REGULUS, prisoner of Carthage from 255, allowed to return with Carthaginian envoys to Rome to persuade senate to abandon 1st Punic War, on condition that Regulus will return if senate votes for war.  REGILLUS advises senate to reject their offer.  Despite pleas from friends & relatives, he returns to Carthage, where he is tortured to death by disputed means.  His sons lock Hamilcar and Bostar in a spiked chest and keep them awake until they die.   (possibly fiction in Horace's Odes) 250 DGRBM 3-643, GHH
249 MCAW, OCD 911
no date: Dur 3-45
249 CONSULS:  patrician P.(2) Claudius PULCHER and L. Junius PULLUS 249 B76 II-977, CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-768, 1076, 3-604, csm, wikCon
c.249 Consul P.(2) Claudius PULCHER is sent to Sicily to reinforce troops at Lilybaeum. 249 DGRBM 1-768
c.249 4th Roman FLEET wrecked in a storm in reefs of Camarina.  Consul L. Junius PULLUS is blamed for his neglect of religious matters.  He suicides out. 249 DGRBM 3-604, HRR, HRRP 1-487-8
c.249 Consul P.(2) Claudius Pulcher is commanded by the senate to nominate a dictator, and nominates, in scorn, M. Claudius Glicia, who had been his scribe, but who is compelled to resign.  Aulus Atilius Calatinus (Caiatinus) is made dictator to carry on the war in Sicily.  Calatinus is the 1st dictator to be sent outside of Italy.  L.(2) Caecilius Metellus is magister equitum. 249 DGRBM 1-560, SORH, wikLRD
c.249 LUDI SAECULARES "Games Secular" 1st clearly attested, though probably held 346.  A celebration, involving sacrifices and theater, held for 3 days and nights. 249 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 395, wikSG
248 CONSULS:  P. Servilius GEMINUS (2nd) and C. Aurelius COTTA (2nd) 248 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-866, 2-239, csm, wikCon
c.248 Carthaginians under Hamilcar Barca raid Italian coast until 244. 248 CAH 7.2, HRR 247 GHH, SORH
c.247 Hamilcar Barca lands in Italy until ?. 247 GHH
247 CONSULS:  Numerius(1) Fabius BUTEO and L.(2) Caecilius METELLUS (2nd) 247 B76 VI-835, CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-518, 2-1056, csm, wikCon
c.247 CENSORS:  patrician Aulus(1) Manlius Torquatus Atticus; pleb Aulus Atilius Calatinus (Caiatinus) 247 DGRBM 3-1164, OCD 143, wikLC
c.247 ALSIUM (Aesulum) on coast of Etruria northwest of Rome becomes Roman colony. 247 CAH 7.2, SORH, wikAls
246 DGRG 1-56     245 DGRG 1-112
247/6 Roman CENSUS registers 241,212 adult males. 251,222 in 247 DGRBM, GHH
247/6 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
246 CONSULS:  M. Fabius LICINIUS and Manius Otacilius CRASSUS (2nd) 246 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-882, wikCon
246 CLAUDIA, 1 of the 5 daus of Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus, returning home from the games in a dense crowd, says that she wishes her bro Publius were alive, that he might launch a fleet and remove some of the people.  She is fined by the pleb aediles. 246 DGRBM 1-761
c.246 Consul Manius Otacilius CRASSUS continues the war with Carthage, but accomplishes nothing noteworthy. 246 DGRBM 1-882
c.246 C. Fundanius Fundulus is pleb aedile. 246 DGRBM 2-189
c.246 T. Coruncanius is appointed dictator to hold elections, so as not to have to recall either of the consuls from Sicily. 246 DGRBM 1-860, wikLRD
c.246 M.(1) Fulvius Flaccus is magister equitum. 246 DGRBM
245 CONSULS:  patrician M.(1) Fabius BUTEO and C. Atilius BULBUS 245 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-517, 518, OCD 427, csm, wikCon
c.245 FREGENAE, on coast of Etruria just south of Alsium, becomes Roman colony. 245 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-914, SORH, wikFrg
244 CONSULS:  Aulus(1) Manlius TORQUATUS and C. Sempronius BLAESUS (2nd) 244 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-491, 3-1164, csm, wikCon
c.244 MONEY:  75 silver denarii = 1 lb. 244 HRRP 1-498
c.244 BRUNDISIUM, under Rome from 267, founded as a Roman colony. 246 B76 II-447     244 CAH 7.2, CDCC 149, DGRBM 1-491, DGRG 1-445, LdHR 1-282, OCD 182, SORH
243 CONSULS:  C.(1) Sulpicius GALLUS and C. Fundanius FUNDULUS 243 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-189, 228, csm, wikCon
c.243 L.(2) Caecilius METELLUS elected pontifex maximus.  Holds office 22 years. 243 DGRBM 2-1056, OCD 677, wikPM
c.243 Consul C. Fundanius FUNDULUS is sent to Sicily. 243 DGRBM 2-189
242 CONSULS:  A. Postumius ALBINUS and (C or Q.) Lutatius CATULUS.   Albinus, who is also priest of Mars, is forbidden to leave Rome by the pontifex maximus. 242 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-91, 653, 2-135, 843, OCD 217, csm, wikCon
c.242 5th Roman FLEET, built. 242 GHH
c.242 PRAETORS:  3 in number from 366, increased to 4 until 227.  PRAETOR PEREGRINUS "judge foreign" created to arbitrate disputes with and between peregrini (non-citizens), rather than let the nobles judge them. 246 CDGRA 513, DGRA 956 243 SORH     242 CAH 7.2, MCAW, OCD 584, 873, unrv 234 HRRP 1-563
227 DGRBM 2-157, GHH
241 CONSULS:  Q. Lutatius CERCO and Aulus(1) Manlius TORQUATUS (2nd) 241 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-672, 3-1164, csm, wikCon
c.241 CENSORS:  patrician M.(1) Fabius Buteo; pleb C. Aurelius Cotta 241 DGRBM 1-519, OCD 427, wikLC
c.241 MONEY:  84 silver denarii = 1 lb. 241 HRRP 1-498
c.241 TIBUR overflows, damages Rome. 241 DGRG 2-1198
c.241 Proconsul C. Lutatius Catulus argues with praetor Q. Valerius over who has the right to a triumph.  Aulus Atilius Calatinus (Caiatinus) is appointed arbitrator, and chooses Catulus. 241 DGRBM 1-560
c.241 Temple of Vesta catches fire.  Pontifex maximus L.(2) Caecilius Metellus rescues the Palladium (wooden statue of Pallas Athene), but is blinded.  He is given a statue in the Capitol and the unprecedented privilege of riding to the senate-house in a carriage. 241 DGRBM 2-1056
c.241 FALERII Etruria, Sabine city under Etruscan domination, cult center of Minerva, at peace with Rome from 293, rebels, taken by consul A.(1) Torquatus in 6 days and destroyed.  Faliscans are forced to abandon this strong position, and settle on a site of easy access. 250 GHH
241 B76 IV-37, 15-1033, CAH 7.2-383, DGRG 1-891, NLEM 207, SORH
c.241 1st PUNIC WAR from 264 ends.  Catulus negotiates peace with Hamilcar.  Carthaginians to evacuate Sicily, agree to keep warships out of Roman waters, 440 talents annual indemnity for 10 years, drop restrictions on Roman trade. 241 B76 15-1091, BCoC 498,
CHJ 2, Dur 3-20, 45, GHH, LEWH 99, MCAW, TToH, bk, lvG, wikHR
c.241 Territory of Rome, 17 districts (tribus rusticae) in 495, now contains 31 districts. by 241 CDCC 907, lvR
c.241 DROUGHT begins in Rome until 238. 241 wikFl
c.241 Roman TRIBES, 33 from 299, increased to 35 by addition of rural tribes QUIRINA and VELINA.  New citizens are henceforth enrolled in existing tribes.
Urban: Collina, Esquilina, Palatina, Suburana.
Rural:  Aemilia, Aniensis, Arnensis, Camilia, Claudia, Clustumina, Cornelia, Fabia,  Falerna, Galeria, Horatia, Lemonia, Maecia, Menenia, Oufentia, Papiria, Poblilia, Pollia, Pomptina, Pupina, Quirina, Romilia, Sabatina, Scaptia, Sergia, Stellatina, Teretina, Tromentina, Velina, Voltina, Voturia.
2 of the tribes are unclear; the 35th tribe is listed as both Succusana and Pupinia.  This number is never increased or decreased.  New people are added to existing tribes.
242 wikLRT 241
CAH 7.2-402, CDCC 907, CDGRA 648, DGRA 267, 1156, HRRP 1-498, LEWH 99, SORH
c.241 CLIVUS (street on a hill) PUBLICIUS constructed and paved by curule aediles L. and M. Publicius Malleolus from forum Boarium southerly across the Aventine. 241 CAH 7.2 238 pnlp
c.241 Temple of FLORA on slope of Quirinal hill begun until 238. 241 CAH 7.2
c.241 Temple of IUTURNA and NYMPHS dedicated. 241 CAH 7.2
c.241 AURELIAN WAY begun by censor Aurelius Cotta north from Rome along the west coast thru Pisa and Genoa to Antibes (Antipolis) on the coast of Gaul just west of Genoa. 241 CAH 7.2, 8-484, Dur 3-78, wikA
c.241 SPOLETIUM Umbria becomes Latin colony. 241 CAH 7.2, SORH 240 DGRBM, GHH
c.241/0 Roman CENSUS registers 260,000 adult males. 251,000 in 241 DGRBM
241/0 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
240 CONSULS:  C.(3) Claudius CENTO and pleb M.(1) Sempronius TUDITANUS 240 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-666, 768, 3-1181, csm, wikCon
c.240 M. and L. Publicius Malleolus are aediles.  (What kind is disputed.). 240 DGRBM 2-908
c.240  Lex Hieronica Frumentaria :  Adaption of traditional law by king Hiero of Syracuse, regulates Roman taxation (including grain) of Sicily. 240 invf, unrv, wikLRL
c.240 Roman LITERATURE begins as LIVIUS ANDRONICUS translates 1st Greek play into Latin to celebrate victory over Carthage.  He produces, directs, and acts main parts, sings the lines until his voice gives out, then has others sing them. 241 LEWH 103     240 B76 10-1095, 18-220, CAH 7.2, CDCC 285, CDGRA 203, DGRBM 1-175, Dur 3-20, 74, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-532, MCAW, OCD 265, OHG, SORH, TToH, bk
c.240 LUDI SCAENICI "games of stage", in Rome from 364, improved by Livius Andronicus with a revolutionary new idea - a PLOT.  Both tragedies and comedies are presented.  Senate is so impressed that it adds plays to the Ludi Romani and permits poets to incorporate and hold meetings in the temple of Minerva. 240 DGRA 346
c.240 Homer's  ODYSSEY  translated into Latin by Livius Andronicus. 240 MCAW, OCD 167
c.240 Via Amerina VIA AMERINA breaks off from a road that will later be called Via Cassia near Baccanae, and goes north thru Nepete, Falerii, Tuder, and Perusia, rejoining the future Via Cassia at Clusium. 240
CAH 8-484
no date: DGRG 2-1288, wikVC
c.240 Low class Helenistic culture and values in Sicily are imported to puritannical Rome. 240 MCAW
c.240 LUDI "games" ROMANI, a religious festival in honor of Jupiter (3 days 494-191) in Sept., now includes dramatics. 240 CDCC 285
239 CONSULS:  Q. Valerius FALTO and C. Mamilius TURRINUS 239 CAH 7.2-643,
DGRBM 2-135, wikCon
238 CONSULS:  P. Valerius FALTO and Ti.(1) Sempronius GRACCHUS, both sent to Corsica-Sardinia. 238 CAH 7.2-643,
DGRBM 2-135, 287, csm, wikCon
c.238 Consul Ti.(1) Sempronius GRACCHUS defeats Ligurians before going to Sardinia. 238 SORH
c.238 Rome makes overtures to Ptolemy-III Euergetes, natural ally against Macedonia and Syria. 238 SORH
c.238 Temple of FLORA, begun 241 on slope of Quirinal hill, dedicated.  Ludi Florae established:  festival in honor of Flora or Chloris, goddess of spring.  Her festival of Floralia is celebrated sporadically until 173. 238 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 312, DGRBM, HRRP 1-540, pnlp
c.238 DROUGHT in Rome from 241 ends. 238 wikFl
c.238 Many Sardinians are brought to Rome and sold as slaves.  They make lousy slaves. 238 B76 13-149, 15-278, 1091, 16-245, CAH 7.2, 8-44, DGRA 715, DGRG 1-542, HRR, LEWH 99, MWΦ 210, OCD 298, TToH, bk, rcSI     237 OHG
c.238 LIGURIA resists Rome.  Romans campaign in Liguria until 230. 238 CAH 7.2, SORH
c.238 Romans occupy land of previous Senones, which alarms the BOII, who resist.  Romans campaign against BOII of northeast Italy until 236. 238 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-416, HRRP 1-510, SORH
c.238 Gauls, at peace with Rome from 283, resume war until 236. 238 SORH
c.238 P. VALERIUS is defeated by Gauls, then conquers them. 238 SORH
c.238 ARIMINUM on coast of Umbria, Latin colony from 268, attacked by the Boii. 238 HRRP 1-510
237 CONSULS:  L.(4) Cornelius Lentulus CAUDINUS and Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS 237 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 2-153, 729, OCD 440, csm, wikCon
c.237 L.(4) Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus is pontifex maximus. 237 wikPM
c.237 Rome, with no pretense of justification, forces Carthage to surrender SARDINIA, and pay an extra 1,200 talents indemnity. 237 CAH 8-24, 27, Dur 3-46
c.237 War continues against the Boii. 237 DGRBM
c.237 LIGURIANS defeated by consuls. 237 DGRBM 2-153, 729
236 CONSULS:  P.(1) Cornelius Lentulus CAUDINUS and C. Licinius VARUS 236 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-729, 3-1230, csm, wikCon
c.236 CENSORS:  patrician L.(4) Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus; pleb Q. Lutatius Cerco 236 DGRBM, wikLC
c.236 Consul C. Licinius VARUS is sent to CorsicaM. Claudius Glicia is his legate.  Romans campaign in Corsica until 231. 236 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-616, 2-276
c.236 Transalpine Gauls, invited by the Boii, cross the Alps into Cisalpine Gaul.  They camp by Ariminum.  Discord breaks out with the Boii, and the Transalpine Gauls return home. 236 DGRBM GHH, SORH
c.236 BOII, at war with Romans from 238, are forced to make peace and cede land. 236 SORH
c.236 Romans resume war with Liguria. 236 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, GHH
235 CONSULS:  T.(3) Manlius TORQUATUS and C. Atilius BULBUS (2nd) 235 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-517, 3-1164, csm, wikCon
c.235 Consul T.(3) Manlius TORQUATUS is sent to Sardinia. 235 DGRBM 3-1164
c.235 Gn. NAEVIUS, plebian X-soldier from Campania, produces 1st play.  Satyrizes Roman political abuses.  Jailed, but becomes Romes 1st poet. 236 OHG     235 B76 18-220, CAH 7.2, CDGRA 641, DGRBM 2-1136, Dur 3-20, 74, wikGN     231 SORH
c.235 SCHOOL TEACHERS in Rome, living on donations from ?, PAID by govt. in a new elementary school opened by Spurius Carvilius Maximus. 235
OCD 210
c.235 TEMPLE OF JANUS, founded by Numa Pompilius, closed by consul T.(3) Torquatus.  1st recorded closing since the reign of Numa.  This indicates that Rome is at peace with all nations. 235 DGRBM 1-517, GHH, LdHR 1-323, LEWH 99, MCAW
234 CONSULS:  L. Postumius ALBINUS and Sp. Carvilius MAXIMUS. 234 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-91, 2-987, csm, wikCon, wikLPA
c.234 Consul Sp. Carvilius MAXIMUS sent to Corsica. 234 DGRBM 2-987
c.234 CENSORS:  patrician Aulus Postumius Albinus and pleb C. Atilius Bulbus 234 DGRBM 1-91, 517, wikLC
c.234/3 Roman CENSUS registers 270,212 adult males. 234 Dur 3-81     234/3 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
233 CONSULS:  Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Verrucosus and Manius Pomponius MATHO
This particular Q. Fabius Maximus has several cognomens:  Verrucosus - from a wart on his upper lip, Ovicula "lamb" - from his mild manner, and finally Cunctator "delayer" -from his caution in battle.
233 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-972, 993, OCD 427, wikCon
c.233 Consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Verrucosus is sent to Liguria. 233 DGRBM 2-993
c.233 Consul Manius Pomponius MATHO is sent to Sardinia. 233 DGRBM 2-972
c.233 Consul Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Verrucosus triumphs over LIGURIANS, vows to build a temple to Honos. 233 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 2-993, OCD 423
c.233 DIVORCE (allowed for adultery by 12 Tables 449, but never done):  Sp. Carvilius Ruga repudiates his sterile wife, swears before censors that his only reason is to populate the Republic.  Causes much indignation according to Valerius Maximus.  3,000 prosecutions enrolled in a few weeks. 233 HRRP 1-551
231 GHH, HRR
232 CONSULS:  M.(2) Aemilius LEPIDUS and M. Publicius MALLEOLUS, both sent to Sardinia. 232 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 2-762, 908, 3-600, csm, wikCon
c.232  Lex Flaminia Agraria  by pleb tribune C.(1) Flaminius:  Grants Ager Gallicus (new won land from Senone Gauls in Picenum) to Roman poor.  Senate resists violently, but futilly. 233 CDGRA 14     232 B76 IV-171, 15-1097, CAH 7.2-381, 8-69, 9-65, CDCC 351, DGRBM 2-166, DGRG 1-938, Dur 3-47, GHH, HRR, MCAW, OCD 977, SORH, invf
232 or 228 DGRA 690, unrv
231 CONSULS:  patrician C. Papirius MASO and M. Pomponius MATHO 231 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 2-970, 972, csm, wikCon
c.231 CENSORS:  patrician T.(3) Manlius Torquatus; pleb Q.(1) Fulvius Flaccus   Torquatus; is obliged to resign thru some unfavorable glitch in the auspices. 231 DGRBM 3-1164, wikLC
c.231 Senate permits HAMILCAR to conquer SPAIN because Rome is harassed with class strife, expanding in Adriatic, and fighting Gauls. 231
Dur 3-47
c.231 ROMAN ENVOYS sent to Hamilcar Barca in Spain. 231 CAH 7.2, 8-24
c.231 C. DUILIUS is dictator to hold elections. 231 DGRBM 1-1091, OCD 367, wikLRD
c.231 Consul C. Pomponius MASO subdues Corsica/Sardinia and returns to Rome.  Senate denies him a triumph, so he has one on Mount Alban. 231 DGRBM 2-970
230 CONSULS:  M. Aemilius BARBULA and M. Junius PERA 230 CAH 7.2-643, DGRBM 1-462, 3-185, csm, wikCon
c.230 Gn.(1) Octavius Rufus, earliest of the known Octavii, is quaestor. 230 DGRBM 3-6
c.230 Consuls BARBULA and PERA campaign against Ligurians. 230 DGRBM 1-462, SORH
c.230 CENSORS:  patrician Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Verrucosus; pleb M.(1) Sempronius Tuditanus 230 B76 IV-20, DGRBM 2-993, 3-1181, OCD 427, wikFM, wikLC
c.230 COMITIA CENTURIATA, re-established 460, reformed.
Votes of the 5 classes are equalized.  The 35 tribes are divided according to property into centuries.  Equites lose their precedence.  Freedmen are equal to freeborn.
241 CDGRA 199, SORH 230 CAH 7.2
c.230 BRUNDISIUM is base for Roman fleet. 229 DGRG 1-445
c.230 ROME war on ILLYRIAN PIRATES.  Intervenes in Illyria until 228. 230 Dur 3-20, bk 229 GHH, wikTt
c.230 Gnaeus NAEVIUS, originator of historical fiction plays, proponent of Romulus & Remus legend, flourishes.
Wrote  Bellum Poenicium , a chronicle of 1st Punic War.
Dies 204, 202, or 199.
235 GHH
no date:
B76 VII-161
229 CONSULS:  L. Postumius ALBINUS (2nd) and Gn. Fulvius CENTUMALUS 229 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 1-91, 667, csm, wikCon, wikLPA
c.229 1st ROME / ILLYRIA WAR begins until 228. 229 B76 15-1091, LEWH 99, OCD 928, DGRBM
c.229 Consul Gn. Fulvius CENTUMALUS with 200 ships sails for Corcyra, in east until later 229. Polybius Histories 2:11
c.229 Consul L. Postumius ALBINUS with 20,000 inf, 2,000 cav, leaves Italy by land for Illyria. Polybius Histories 2-11
229 DGRBM 1-91
228 CONSULS:  Q.(4) Fabius Maximus VERRUCOSUS (2nd) and Sp. CARVILIUS MAXIMUS (2nd) 228 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-643, 8,
DGRBM 2-993, OCD 427, DGRBM 2-987, csm, wikCon
c.228 1st ROME / ILLYRIA WAR from 229 ends.  Illyrians withdraw from conquests.  Romans, in Illyria from 230, mostly withdraw, but still occupy part of Illyrian coast. 229 B76 15-1091
228 B76 8-383, CAH 7.2, OCD 928, OHG, bk, wikIW
227 CONSULS:  P.(1) Valerius FLACCUS and M. Atilius REGULUS 227 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 2-157, 3-644, csm, wikCon
c.227 PRAETORS, handling judicial duties in Rome:  4 in number from 242, increased to 6 until 197.  2 more created to handle Sicily and Corsica/SardiniaSicily is 1st province not to be ruled by a consul. 227 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 206, DGRA 956, HRR, HRRP 1-506, MCAW, OCD 873
2 to 4: B76 15-1095-6, DGRBM, SORH     197 GHH
c.227 Pleb C.(1) Flaminius is made praetor and proposes an agrarian law before he is made 1st praetor of Sicily. 227 B76 IV-171, DGRBM 2-166-7, 993
226 CONSULS:  M. Valerius MESSALLA and L. Apustius FULLO 226 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 2-187, 1050, csm, wikCon
c.226 M. Claudius Marcellus (also augur this year) and C. Scantilius Capitolinus are curule aediles.  Marcellus sues Capitolinus for insulting Marcellus' son.  Capitolinus is convicted and fined. 226 DGRBM 2-927, 3-734
c.226 GAULS, including Gaesati under Aneroest invade Italy.  Some threaten Rome. 226 GHH, HRR, MCAW, SORH     225 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-177
c.226 Rome, at brink of war with Cisalpine Gauls, makes  treaty  with HASDRUBAL, general of Spain, that he will not go north of Ebro River.  This treaty is never ratified by Carthage. 228 DGRBM, HRR
227 HRRP 1-528     227/6 CAH 8-27
226 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, 8-25, 28, Dur 3-47, MCAW, MWΦ 235, bk
225 CONSULS:  L.(1) Aemilius PAPUS and C. Atilius REGULUS 225 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 3-120, 644, csm, wikCon
c.225 CENSORS:  patrician C.(3) Claudius Cento; pleb M. Junius Pera 225 DGRBM 3-185, wikLC
c.225 Consul C. Atilius REGULUS sent against Sardinians, who had rebelled, and whom he quickly subdues, and returns to Rome. 225 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-645
c.225 Cisalpine Gaul tribes:  BOII, TAURINI, INSUBRES, supported by the newly arrived GAESATI under Aneroest from beyond the Alps (50,000 inf, 20,000 cav under command of Concolitan, Aneroest, and Britomar), move south from Po valley into Etruria. 225 B76 15-1091, CDCC 351, DGRBM, DGRG 1-416, 938, Dur 3-47, HRRP 1-514, LEWH 99
c.225 70,000 Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians, Campanians and Romans join forces to meet the Gauls. 225 wikBF
c.225 Consul C. Atilius Regulus recalled from Sardinia to fight Gauls. 225 wikBF
225 FABIUS PICTOR, historian, flourishes. 225 GHH
c.225 Consul L. Aemilius Papus with a full consular army, marches to Ariminum, to guard the east coast route.  Another army, of Sabines and Etruscans, commanded by a praetor, advance into Etruria. 225 wikBF
c.225 ARIMINUM on coast of Umbria occupied by L.(1) Aemilius Papus. 225 DGRBM 3-120, DGRG 1-213
c.225 Gauls, wanting to avoid Consul L.(1) Papus, march quickly thru the Apennines, into Etruria, pass unopposed as far as Clusium, plundering and burning as they go. 225 SORH, wikBF
c.225 Gauls ambush and defeat the Sabine / Etruscan army which is rescued by arrival of L.(1) Aemilius Papus from Ariminum. 225 wikBF, wikLRB
c.225 Consul L.(1) Aemilius Papus defeats Gauls at Clusium. 225 GHH, HRR
c.225 Gauls defeat L.(1) Aemilius Papus marching from Clusium towards Faesulae Liguria. 225 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-177, DGRG 1-889, SORH, wikBF, wikLRB
c.225 ANEROEST chief of Gaesati Gauls returning north, intercepted by consul C. Atilius Regulus near Pisa Tuscany.  Aneroest is defeated, kills his devoted band then stabs himself. 225 DGRBM 1-177, HRRP 1-514
c.225 SENATE resorts to human sacrifice to appease gods.  Gauls buried alive in the forum. 225 Dur 3-47
c.225 Cisalpine Gauls caught between L.(1) Aemilius Papus and C. Atilius Regulus at TELAMON on west coast of Etruria north of Cosa.  40,000 Gauls killed, 10,000 enslaved. 225 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, 8, GHH, LEWH 99, MCAW, OCD 928, SORH, TToH, bk
224 wikLRB     no date: Dur 3-47
c.225 Consul C. Atilius Regulus killed in battle. 225 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.225 The CENOMANI of Lake Garda become subject/allies of Rome, help Romans against Boii and Insubres. 225 B76 7-960,
DGRG 1-584, OCD 219
c.225 The VENETI ally with Romans against Boii and Insubres. 225 DGRG 1-584
c.225 The CENOMANI and VENETI send 20,000 troops to threaten the east flank of the Insubres. 225 DGRG 1-584
c.225 VIA MINUCIA (unknown location) begun. 225 CAH 7.2
c.225 Roman citizen troops account for 40% of the combined Roman and Italian army, but Roman citizens represent only about 27% of the total population of peninsular Italy.  Allied population of Italy includes 360,000 men of military age whom the Romans could mobilize if necessary.  Of troops actually under arms, allies outnumber Romans 3 to 2. 225 CAH 7.2-386, 389
224 CONSULS:  T.(3) Manlius TORQUATUS (2nd) and Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS (2nd) 224 CAH 7.2-643, 8, DGRBM 2-153, 3-1164, OCD 440, csm, wikCon
c.224 BOII Gauls temporarily subdued by consul Q.(1) Fulvius FLACCUS until 218.  Flaccus is prevented from pursuing by a plague in his army. 224 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-327, OCD 440, SORH
c.224 Other Gauls subdued by consul T.(3) TORQUATUS. 224 DGRBM 3-1164
c.224 MUTINA, Gaul stronghold delivered to Romans. 224 HRRP 1-514-5
c.224 Pontifex maximus L.(2) CAECILIUS METELLUS is dictator to hold elections. 224 DGRBM 2-1056, OCD 677, wikLRD
c.224 Numerius(1) Fabius BUTEO is magister equitum. 224 DGRBM 1-518
c.224 T. Maccius PLAUTUS, age 30, begins carreer as comic poet. 224 DGRBM 3-408
c.223 It is not known what month consuls entered office from 329.  They now begin entering on the ides (15th) of March until 153. 223 DGRA 353
223 Mar. CONSULS:  P. Furius PHILUS and pleb C.(1) FLAMINIUS both sent to north Italy. 223 B76 IV-171, CAH 7.2-643, 8, CDCC 351, DGRBM 2-167, 3-335, LdHR 1-327, OCD 441, csm, wikCon
c.223 Aristocratic enemies of consul C.(1) Flaminius declare consular elections invalid because of some fault in the auspices, send a  letter  recalling both consuls, who wisely leave it unopened until after battle. 223 DGRBM 2-167
c.223 Consul C.(1) FLAMINIUS is 1st to lead a Roman army across the Po (Padus) River, disregarding a senatorial order to return to Rome. 223 B76 IV-171, DGRBM, DGRG 1-938, HRRP 1-515, LdHR 1-327, OCD 441
c.223 Consul C.(1) FLAMINIUS aided by the Cenomani, ravages Insubres land. 223 SORH
c.223 INSUBRES defeated by consul C.(1) Flaminius at Clusius river8,000 killed, 10,000 captured. 223 B76 IV-171, CAH 7.2, 8, DGRBM, DGRG 1-938, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-516
c.223 Consuls Flaminius and Furius open the senate's  letter .  Furius obeys, and returns to Rome.  Flaminius continues the campaign. 223 DGRBM 2-167
c.223 Consul C.(1) Flaminius returns to Rome, is charged with disobedience by the senate, but saved by popular support. 223 DGRBM 2-167
222 Mar. MARCH 15 only now becomes beginning of consular year. 222 CAH 8
222 Mar. CONSULS:  Gn.(2) Cornelius SCIPIO CALVUS and M. Claudius MARCELLUS 222 B76 VI-601, CAH 7.2-644, 8, CDCC 552, OCD 646, 961, DGRBM 2-927, 3-743, csm, wikCon
Scipio genealogy
c.222 Boii and Insubres ask to make peace with Rome.  Consuls refuse.  Gauls call in 30,000 Getae from beyond the Alps.  Consuls invade Po valley.  Calvus besieges Acerrae. 223 HRRP 1-516, SORH 222 DGRBM 2-927-8
c.222 10,000 Gauls cross Po river, besiege Clastidium. 222 DGRBM 2-928
c.222 Gastetae defeated at Clastidium in Cisalpine Gaul by consul M. Claudius MARCELLUS, who relieves Clastidium, kills Gastetae chief VIRIDOMARUS in single combat.  Marcellus then joins Calvus at siege of Acerrae. 222 B76 V-372, CAH 7.2, 8, DGRBM 2-928, DGRG 1-630, GHH, HRR, LEWH 99, OCD 245, 646, SORH, bk, wikLRB
c.222 INSUBRES defeated by consul Gn.(2) SCIPIO CALVUS, pacified until 218. 222 Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, OCD 961
c.222 MEDIOLANUM, chief town of Gallic Insubres from 396, taken by consul Gn.(2) SCIPIO CALVUS, under Rome until 396CE. 222 CAH 7.2, DGRG 2-303, 939, Dur 3-20, MCAW,
OCD 961, TToH, TTPC, rcNI
c.222 PADOVIA, chief city of Illyrian Venetii from ?, comes under Rome until 396CE, named PATAVIUM. 222 rcNI
c.222 LIGURIA subdued by Romans. 222 GHH, HRR
c.222 CISALPINE GAUL subdued by Romans. 222 Dur 3-20, OCD 961, SORH, TToH
c.222 RAVENNA, a city of obscure origin, comes under Rome until 396CE. 222 rcRm, britR
221 Mar. CONSULS:  P.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO ASINA and M.(1) MINUCIUS RUFUS 221 CAH 7.2-644, 8, CDCC 584, DGRBM 3-674, 741, wikCon
c.221 Q.(4) Fabius Maximus Verrucosus becomes dictator thru 220. 221 DGRBM 2-993,
OCD 427, wikFM, wikLRD
c.221 C.(1) Flaminius is magister equitum. 221 DGRBM
c.221 L.(2) Caecilius METELLUS, pontifex maximus 243, dies.  Son Quintus(1) is main heir, with bros Lucius(3) and Marcus(1). 221 B76 VI-835, CAH 8-204, OCD 677
c.221 VIA FLAMINIA from Tibur thru Etruria and Umbria begun by censor C.(1) FLAMINIUS.  Finished 220. 221 DGRG 1-213, OCD 200, 242 220 B76 IV-171, CAH 7.2, 8-484, CDCC 351, DGRBM 2-167, Dur 3-78, HRR, LdHR 1-329, MCAW, OCD 441, TToH, TTPC, wikHR
c.221 LUDI PLEBEI (plebean games) established. 221 CAH 8     220 CAH 8-428
c.221 Roman envoys sent to warn HANNIBAL off Saguntum. 221 CAH 7.2, 8-34
c.221 The ISTRI, pirates living on north coast of Adriatic, sieze a Roman ship.  Both consuls are sent against them, and subdue them. 221 CAH 7.2, 8, DGRBM 3-674, 741, GHH, HRR, OCD 556, SORH
c.221 Cincius Alimentus, historian, flourishes. 221 GHH

Italy 220-201
V