Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.500 Despotisms of Ionia overthrown. 500 CDGRA 598
c.500 ARISTAGORAS tyrant of Miletos, vassal of Persia, 511-499, proposes to ARTAPHERNES satrap of Lydia that they conquer the Aegean Islands beginning with Naxos. 501 DGRBM 1-289, MCAW 102     500 HAG 96
499 B76 I-514, OCD 109
c.500 ARTAPHERNES satrap of Lydia grants Aristagoras 200 ships and a Persian force to take Naxos. 501 DGRBM 1-369 499 B76 I-514
c.500 Magadha1st attempted Λ MAP of the WORLD V made by traveler, geographer, HECATAEOS of Miletos.  Shows Europe and Asia surrounded by water.  Later improved by Eudoxos 370. 517 BCoC 315     500 B76 7-1037, CAH 3.3, DGRBM 2-362, Dur 2-66, GRG 324, OHG, MCAW 105, RAH 168
500-491 TTS, TTT
dies 486 TToH
Royal Road
c.500 ROYAL ROAD built from Sardis to Susa with posting stations.  Connects capitals of Persia, Elam, and former Assyria, to Gordion (aka Gordium) and Sardis. 500
PW 16
c. 500

c. 500

c. 500
HERACLITOS of Ephesus, "the weeping philosopher", "the obscure", flourishes.  Dies
Possibly the 1st to doubt the reliability of sense perception.  Ridiculed religious rites.  Unpopular in his day.

Λ METAPHYSICS:  Originator of metaphysical DUALISM.  Says all is change.  (opposite of Parmenides 460)  All change is balanced by counter-change.  Says human problems are caused by failure to understand LOGOS V, an ambiguous term used by sophists to mean discourse, but which he alone understood as the principle by which everything is governed - the unchanging law regulating the ceaseless conflict of opposites.  Logos is transcendent wisdom, associated with fire.  Says the Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM V is fire.  Air is pure fire.  Cosmic order is "ever-living fire kindling in measures and being extinguished in measures".
(See Pythagoras 520, Anaxagoras 450, Empedocles 444)

Λ SOUL (See Alcmaeon 490) consists of fire, goes thru cyclic changes, ends completely with death.

PHYSICS:  Matter is composed of earth, air, fire, and water.  "Upon those who step into the same river, different and ever different waters flow down."
(See atomic theory 450)

THEOLOGY:  God is not an omnipotent creator, but is limited to an identification with opposites which persist thru their changes, and are thus able to comprehend their own unity.  God is day-night, summer-winter, war-peace.
(See Xenophanes 480, Svetasvatara 400)
504-01 wikHrc
CAH 3.3, GHH,
MCAW 105, OCD 500, OHG,
540-480 bk
491 GHH
480-71 TTS
after 460
EoΦ 3-477
no date:
B76 III-879, IV-1035-6
c.500 LUWIAN LANGUAGE of Lycia, 1st attested, lasts until 300. 500 wikLc
c.499 ARTAPHERNES satrap of Lydia, and ARISTAGORAS tyrant of Miletos, preparing for attack on Naxos, quarrel.  ARTAPHERNES takes revenge by warning Naxos.  Attack fails.  Naxos resists Persian aggression until 490. 500 CAH 4-101
499 B76 8-309, CDCC 610, OCD 109, 125, 480
no date: DGRBM 1-289
c.499 HECATAEOS of Miletos, historian, geographer, advises Ionians against rebellion because he knows Persian strength from his travels. 501 GHH
500 OCD 490
c.499 HISTIAEOS, former tyrant of Miletos, honored "guest" at Susa 511-498, shaves the head of a slave, tatoos a message on his head advising Aristagoras to rebel against Persians, waits for hair to grow back, sends the slave to Miletos. 499 DGRBM 2-499, wikHst
c.499 ARISTAGORAS tyrant of Miletos, vassal of Persia from 511, goes to Greece to get support from Athens and Sparta for rebellion. 500 DGRBM
499 CAH 4-218, OCD 109
499/8 B76 I-514
498 LEWH 67
c.499 ARISTAGORAS redeems himself to the Greeks by encouraging the Ionians to rebel against Persia, returns to Anatolia, leads rebellion. 499 CAH 4-218, OCD 109
c.499 IONIAN REVOLT led by ARISTAGORAS of Miletos against Medo-Persia begins until 494. 500 B76 9-835, CDCC 463, HAG, TToH, bk
499 B76 VI-887, 8-349, CAH 4-219, CDCC 938, DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG 33, IDB 1-769, 3-743, LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 205, 687, 804, OHG, RAH 192, anan
c.499 LAMPSACUS, under Persia from ?, joins Ionian Revolt until 495. 499
B76 VI-14
c.499 Pro-Persian tyrant of Mytilene Lesbos is stoned to death. 499 MCAW 104
c.499 Hymeas, son-in-law of Darius-I, defeats rebels near Ephesus. 499 DGRBM 2-536
c.499 CARIA, under Persia from 546, sides with Greeks during Ionian Revolt until 494.  Heracleides of Mylasa commands Carian Greeks, ambushes Persians and kills 3 Persian generals. 500 CDCC 164
498 DGRBM 2-387
c.498 Athens sends 20 ships (Eretria sends 5.) to help Ionians against Persians.  Unsuccessful. 498 LEWH 67,
MCAW 104, OCD 140
c.498 EPHESUS under Persia from 546, comes under Aristagoras of Miletos until 497. 498 rcT
c.498 IONIANS backed by Athens and Eretria storm SARDIS capital of Lydia, accidentally burn it.  Satrap ARTAPHERNES is besieged in the citadel, but it is not taken.  Greeks withdraw west, but are caught by Persians near Ephesus and suffer heavy losses. 499 CDCC 534, DGRBM 1-289, 369, 2-499, DGRG 1-629, GHH, ISBE 4-336, TToH, bk
498 CAH 4-221, B76 8-309, 349, LEWH 67, HAG 97, MCAW 104, OCD 804, 952, OHG, anan    497 Dur 2-66
c.498 CIUS on the Propontis in Bithynia taken by Persian general Hymeas, son-in-law of Darius-I. 499 DGRG 1-629
498 DGRBM 2-536
c.498 MILETOS V taken by Persian army, under Persians until 479. 498 DGRBM 3-83 494 BAA 375
c.498 Temple of Apollo at Branchidae burnt by the Persian army that took Miletos. 498 DGRBM 3-83
c.498 Hymeas, son-in-law of Darius-I, reduces Aeolians and Gergithians, dies of illness. 498
DGRBM 2-536
c.498 SMYRNA, under Persia from 546, joins Ionian Revolt, then comes back under Persia until 479. 498 rcT
c.498 Persian general AMORGES killed in Caria. 498 DGRBM 1-147
c.498 HISTIAEOS, former tyrant of Miletos, honored "guest" at Susa from 511, is sent home at his own request to discourage Ionian Revolt.  Distrusted by both sides.  Eventually goes to Byzantium and turns pirate until 494/3. 498 OCD 520
c.498 ABYDOS Mysia taken by general Daurises along with other cities on Hellespont. 498
DGRG 1-7
497 spring ARTAPHERNES satrap of Lydia and wealthy noble OTANES attack Greeks of Ionia at Hellespont, Caria, and Clazomenae, wins small cities, but fails to take main Greek cities: Ephesus, Miletos, Cyzicus, Byzantium, or any islands. spring 497
CAH 4-223-4
c.497 CLAZOMENAE, Greek city on mainland Anatolia from ?, fearing Persians, moves to island. 497
OCD 248
c.497 ARISTAGORAS of Miletos flees from Medo-Persians to Ennea Hodoi, on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice. 497
IDB 1-121
c.497 EPHESUS under Aristagoras of Miletos from 498, back under Persians until 479. 497 rcT
c.497 Persian army in Cilicia, now reinforced, sent to attack Cyprus. 497 CAH 4-223
c.496 BOSPORUS and HELLESPONT subdued by Persians. by 495 B76 8-309
c.496 HISTIAEOS, former tyrant of Miletos, goes to Sardis, tries to win over the staff of Artaphernes to concilliation with Greeks.  496
CAH 4-224
c.496 XANTHOS of Lydia, historian, flourishes, supposes that the Mediterranean and Red Seas formerly connected at Suez. 496 Dur 2-341 463 GHH
c.495 LAMPSACUS, rebelling against Persians from 499, suppressed until 479. guess
c.495 IONIAN REVOLT:  Greeks rebel against Persians, but are disuited.  Samians and Lesbians desert. 495 LEWH 67 494 BI+N 120,
c. 494 353 Greek ships crushed by Phoenician fleet (600 ships acc. to Herodotus) under Persia off LADE Island near MiletosPersians now control the Aegean Sea.  Greek ships at Lade:  100 from Chios, 80 from Miletos, 70 from Lesbos, 60 from Samos which desert the battle. 495 B76 1-823, 8-309, GRG 324
494 B76 8-349, CAH 4-96, Dur 2-66, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 804, 949, OHG, RAH 193, anan     494/3 CDCC 608
c. 494 MILETOS Caria, taken by Persians 498 sacked, inhabitants killed or enslaved and deported to Ampe.  Temple of Apollo Didyma burnt.  Miletos left desolate under Persians until 479.
CARIA, in Ionian Revolt from 499, back under Persia until 333.
494 B76 VI-887, 1-823, 9-835, CAH 4-83, 88, CCDC 272, DGRBM 2-499, DGRG 1-124, GHH, GRG 324, IDB 3-379, LEWH 53, 67, MCAW 104, OCD 687, 829, OHG, anan, lvA, rcT 493 B76 8-309, 349, vrb
c.494 Temple of Apollo at Didyma 10 miles south of Miletos destroyed by Persians. 494 MCAW 105, OCD 340
c.494 IONIAN REVOLT from 499 crushed by Persians. 494 B76 8-349, 9-835, CAH 4-83, CDCC 463, 938, DGRBM, ISBE 1-868, LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 205, 550, 687, OHG, TToH 493 B76 8-309, IDB 1-769, RAH 192
c.494 CHALCEDON, under Greeks from 685, destroyed by Persians.  Under Persians until 409.. 494
GRG 327
c.494 Persians subdue all Ionian cities, but DARIUS-I does not again force tyrants on them. 494
c.494 CYZICUS, under Persia 546-478, submits to Oebares viceroy of Dascylium for Darius-I. 494 DGRBM 3-14
c.494 Persian settlement provides that Ionian cities submit their disputes to arbitration. 494
CAH 6-214
c.494/3 HISTIAEOS, pirate based at Byzantium from ?, captured by Artaphernes and crucified at Sardis. 494/3 B76 V-63, OCD 520
c.493 By summer, Persia has recovered all rebellious Ionian city-states. 493 ISBE 2-564
c.492 MARDONIUS, neph of Darius, appointed commissioner of Ionia until 490.  Restores Persian rule, abolishes tyranies, permits democracies.  He is ordered to invade Greece, ostensibly to punish Athens and Eretria, but also to grab as much Greek territory as possible. 492 B76 9-835, DGRBM 2-948, OCD 647
c.492 Punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eretria led by MARDONIUS, who remains in Europe until later that year. 492 DGRBM 2-948, LEWH 67
c.492 ARTAPHERNES-I satrap of Sardis from 513, ends.  Son ARTAPHERNES-II succeeds until 474 492 lvA
c.490 ARTAPHERNES-II satrap of Sardis, and his uncle DATIS, a Mede, are ordered by Darius-I to assemble a force to punish Athens and Eretria.  They assemble troops and 600 ships in Cilicia. no date: DGRBM 1-369
c.490 DARIUS-I Hystaspes, king of Medo-Persia 522-486, sends 2nd punitive fleet from Cilicia to Samos: 25,000 men in 600 ships under Artaphernes and Datis, this time thru Aegean islands. 491 Dur 2-235
490 B76 8-310, 349, BCoC 318, LEWH 67, OCD 804, SHWC 63
c.490 ARTABAZUS becomes satrap of Pontus until 470. 490 rcT    487 GHH
c.486 ARTEMISIA becomes queen of Halicarnassus until 465. 486 B76 I-551
c.485 ANACREON of Teos, last great lyric poet of Ionia, dies age 85. 485 B76 I-335 478 Dur 2-149
c.480 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 leads heavy troops from Susa into Anatolia, marches thru Celenae Phrygia, winters at Sardis. 481 DGRBM 3-1305     480 B76 9-835, CAH 4, DGRG 1-579, IDB 1-658, MCAW 108, RAH 200
c.480 XERXES-I musters @180,000 troops (as opposed to the traditional 900,000) in Anatolia.  Paphlagonians, Phrygians, Ionians, Carians, Mysians, Lydians, Cilicians, Cypriotes, Syrians, Phoenicians, Lybians, Arabs, Ethiopians, and more.  (Herodotus overestimates 2,641,000 plus the same number of engineers, slaves, merchants, prostitutes etc.) 480 LEWH 68
c.480 BITHYNIA comes under Persia until 333. 480 rcT
c.480 Lycia, under Persia 546-468, contributes 50 ships to Xerxes-I. 480 lctk
c.480 Xerxes-I sacrifices 1,000 cattle at the sanctuary of Athena at Troy (now called Ilium or Ilias). 480 wikTr
c.480 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 with 180,000 troops crosses from Abydos to Europe using 674 ships as pontoons. 480 Dur 2-238, OCD 1, TTT, lvA
c.480 WINCH:  Wooden winches used by Persians to tighten the cables for a pontoon bridge. 480 wikWn
c.480 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 with ⅓ of his army, returns from Europe to Anatiloa, withdraws to Sardis. 480 DGRBM 3-1307, LEWH 68     479 lvA
c.480 XERXES-I at Sardis tries to get the wife of his bro Masistes to leave Masistes and be his concubine.  Xerxes marries her dau Artaynte to his own son Darius; but soon transfers his lust from mother to daughter.  Xerxes gives Artaynte a cloak which his wife Amestris had woven for him with her own hands.  Amestris captures the wife of Masistes, and mutilates her.  Masistes therefore tries to escape to Bactria with his sons, but Xerxes sends troops after them, and kills Masistes and his sons. 480 DGRBM 3-1307
c.480 Mysian cities of Pergamum, Teuthrania, and Halisarna given by Xerxes-I to Demaratos, former king of Sparta for his support during the invasion of Greece. 480 hifi, rcT
c.480 Persian Achaemenid TIGRANES sent by Xerxes-I with 60,000 men to maintain possession of Ionia. 480 DGRBM 3-1129
c.480 ARTABAZOS appointed satrap of Dascylium (Hellespontine Phrygia) until 450, by Xerxes-I. 480 hifi, rcT     477 lvA
476 CAH 4-197
c.480 KUPRILI (aka Cybernis) becomes king of Xanthus Lycia until 440. 480 lvA
480 /79 TROY-8 (now called Ilium or Ilias) and its territory come under Mytilene and remains until 428/7. 480/79 wikTr
c.479 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 returns from Sardis to Persia. 479 SOTS 247
c.479 Colossal statue of Apollo by artist Canachos at Miletos Caria from ?, carried to Ecbatana by Xerxes-I. 479 DGRBM 1-593
c.479 IONIANS, Samos, Lesbos, and Chios rebel again against Persians, join LEOTYCHIDAS and Greek fleet. 479 CAH 5, LEWH 68, OCD 140
c.479 MYTILENE (Mitylene) Lesbos, under Persians from ?, comes under Greeks until 332, comes under Athens until 428. 479
IDB 3-406
c.479 LAMPSACUS Mysia, under Persians from 495, rebels, allies with Athens.  Independent until 477 479 DGRG 2-119
c.479 KNIDOS, under Persians from 546, rebels.  Independent until 477. 479 B76 II-1015
479 mid Spartan admiral LEOTYCHIDAS sent with small fleet to guard Cyclades against Persians.  Greeks of Samos and Chios ask him to attack Persians at SamosPersians pull their ships onto land at MYCALE Ionia near Samos, and join large support army.  Leotychidas storms their position.  Persians burn their ships to prevent Greeks from getting them.
Same day as battle of Plataea.
479 B76 8-311, 350, 9-835, CDCC 129, Dur 2-437, GRG 281, IDB 3-379, 4-197, 922, LEWH 53, 68, MCAW 112, OCD 596, 687, 805, 1140, OHG, RAH, anan, lvA
c.479 Persian generals ARTAYNTES and ITHAMITRES flee from Mycale to Anatolia. 479 DGRBM 1-373
c.479 Hellespont, under Persians from ?, comes under Athenian general XANTHIPPOS. 479 CAH 5
c.479 SMYRNA, under Persians from 498, joins Delian League until 386. 479 rcT
c.479 MILETOS V Caria, under Persians from 498, recovered by Greeks, rebuilt in a new style on a rectangular grid, joins Delian League until 412. 480 rcT     479 B76 VI-887, 18-1066, IDB 3-379, OCD 687
c.479 SESTOS, under Persians from ?, breaks free until winter. 479 CAH 5
c.479 IONIA, under Persians from 545, rebels, again independent until ?. 479 bk,
Dur 2-245
c.479 IONIANS refuse to recognize Spartan DORCIS, side with Athenians. 479 LEWH 68, OCD 140
c.479 EPHESUS under Persians from 497, rebels.  Independent until 478/7. 479 guess
c.479 SESTOS, independent from earlier 479, taken by Athenians. 479 late CAH 5
c.478 IONIA:  Athens wants to restore independence of cities.  Sparta refuses to help, proposes transplanting Ionians to Greek mainland and Aegean Islands.  Ionians switch from Sparta to Athens for leadership. 478 B76 8-311, 350, LEWH 69, anan
c.478 IONIA invites Athenian admirals ARISTIDES and CIMON to command united forces. 478 B76 8-351, OCD 240
c.478 CYZICUS under Persians from 546, comes under Delian League until 411. 478 rcT
c.478/7 EPHESUS, independent from 479, joins Delian League until 412. 478/7 CDCC 316 454 rcT
477 Feb 17 SOLAR ECLIPSE encourages Xerxes.
"... at length the host, having first wintered at Sardis, began its march towards Abydos, fully equipped, on the first approach of spring.  At the moment of departure, the sun suddenly quitted his seat in the heavens, and disappeared, though there were no clouds in sight, but the sky was clear and serene.  Day was thus turned into night;  whereupon Xerxes, who saw and remarked the prodigy, was seized with alarm, and sending at once for the Magians, inquired of them the meaning of the portent.  They replied - 'God is foreshowing to the Greeks the destruction of their cities; for the sun foretells for them, and the moon for us.'  So Xerxes, thus instructed, proceeded on his way with great gladness of heart." ' (Herodotus: History 7-37)
477 Feb 17 hbar
478/7 DELIAN LEAGUE formed as defense against Persians.  Includes most Aegean islands and Greek cities of Thrace and Ionia.  Its general assembly is on DELOSAristides fixes quota for each contributory state.  Treasury is on Delos until 454. 478/7 LEWH 69, OCD 319, 495
spring 477
OCD 110, 140
c.477 ABYDOS Mysia joins Delian League until 412. 477 OCD 1
c.477 LAMPSACUS, free of Persians from 479, joins Delian League until 411. no date: B76 VI-14, wikLmp
c.477 KNIDOS, independent from 479, joins Delian League until 412. guess
c.475 Spartan PAUSANIAS expelled from Byzantium by CIMON, goes to Colonae in the Troad until 470. 476 MCAW 112 475 OCD 792
c.475 ARTAPHERNES-II satrap of Sardis from 492, ends. post-480 lvA
c.475 Λ HERACLITOS of Ephesus dies, age 60. 483 TToH     480 B76 IV-1035 475 KPHP 12, wikHrc
c.471 THEMISTOCLES flees from the Aegean to Ephesus.  He sends a letter to Artaxerxes offering his services against the Greeks.  Themistocles quickly learns Persian language, and remains in Anatolia until death 460. 471
c.470 ATRABAZUS satrap of Pontus from 490, ends.  His son succeeds until 440. 470 rcT
c.470 Athenian general CIMON campaigns against Persians in Lycia. 470 lctk
c.470 Spartan PAUSANIAS, in the Troad from 475, again suspected of collaborating with PersiansRecalled to Sparta. 476 MCAW 112 470 OCD 792
c.469 LYGDAMIS-II, ruler of Halicarnassus, joins Delian League. 469 lvA
c.468 LYCIA V, under Persia from 546, comes under Athens until ?. 468 hifi
c.467 PAYASIS, Greek epic poet, executed by Lygdamis tyrant of Halicarnassus. 468-5 DGRBM 3-115 457 GHH
c.467 CIMON with 300 ships defeats a Persian army under Megabyzos and destroys its fleet at the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia, south coast of Anatolia, drives Persians out of Lycia and Caria, but does not follow up. 469 B76 1-824     468 Dur 2-244, OCD 240, lvA, lctk     467 B76 4-617, 8-311, 351, OCD 140, 319, 805, OHG, anan
467/6 MCAW 116     466 B76 8-351, CDCC 129, DGRBM 2-1006, LEWH 69, Sdl 5-187, TToH     466 GHH
c.467 A Persian reserve squadron of 80 Phoenician vessels based on Cyprus arrives too late to join the main fleet at the Eurymedon. 466
CAH 6-308
c.467 PAMPHYLIA, under Persia from 546, disputed by Greeks, and Persians until 449. 468-5 lvA
c.465 EPHIALTES, Athenian admiral, leads expedition beyond Phaselis on south coast of Lycia. 465
OCD 387
c.465 ASPENDOS Pamphilia under Medo-Persia from 546, destroyed by Cimon, comes under Delian League until 411. 465 wikAsp
c.465 ARTEMISIA, queen of Halicarnassus from 486, ends. 465 B76 I-551
c.464 THEMISTOCLES, in Anatolia 471-60, approaches ARTAXERXES to get him reinstated in Athens.  Fails, but is given satrapy of Magnesia until 460. 464 CDCC 88, LEWH 69
463 MCAW 116
460 B76 VI-486
c.460 THEMISTOCLES, satrap of Magnesia from 463, dies age 65. 462 OCD 1053     460 B76 18-270
459 CDCC 878, Dur 2-246, TToH, lvG
c.454 HALICARNASSUS in southwest Anatolia pacified, becomes Delian tributary. 454
OCD 507
c.454 Λ LYCIA, independent from ?, joins Delian League until 431, contributing ships, later tribute. 454 lctk
c.450 ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomenae, in Athens from 464, goes to Lampsacus until death 428. 450
OCD 61
c.450 ARTABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium (Hellespontine Phrygia) mediates negotiations between king Artaxerxes I and Athenians. 450 lvA
c.450 ARTABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium (Hellespontine Phrygia) from 480, ends.  Son PHARNABAZOS-I succeeds until 430. 455 lvA
450 hifi, rcT
c.450 SINOPE on Black Sea under Miletians from 756.  TIMESIALOS becomes tyrant until 437. 450 rcT
c.449 PAMPHYLIA, disputed by Greeks from 467, comes back under Persia until 333, but its autonomy is still respected. 449
B76 1-824
c.448 MEGABYZOS declares independence, and is then reconciled to Persian king. 448 BI+N 106, Sdl 5-188
c.447 HERODOTUS, in Halicarnassus from ?, moves to Athens. 484 LEWH 75
447 Dur 2-430, wikHrd
c.446 LYCIANS are still paying tribute to Athens. 446 BHS 1-85
c.441 SAMOS attacks ΛMILETOS for control of Priene Ionia east of Samos.  MiletosV appeals to Athens, which orders the Samians to stop.  Samians refuse, so Athenians replace the oligarchy at the city of Samos with a democracy until 440. 442 B76 VI-887
441 B76 8-346, LEWH 70, OCD 949
440 wikSW
c.440 A son of Atrabazus, satrap of Pontus from 470, ends.  ARIOBARZANES-I succeeds until 410. 440 rcT
c.440 KUPRILI (aka Cybernis) king of Xanthus Lycia from 480, ends.  KHERIGA succeeds to 410. 440 lvA
c.440 ARPPAKHU, king of Lycia from ?, ends.  Son KHERIGA succeeds to 410. 440 wikLc
c.440 City of SAMOS under an Athenian imposed democracy from 441, gets Persian support, trashes the democracy, returns to oligarchy.  But Corinth and Sparta refuse to support the rebels.  Athenians besiege Samos until 439. 441 OCD 949
440 B76 8-346, 356, 14-68,
Dur 2-392, LEWH 70, OCD 290, 320, 800, OHG, lvG, wikSW
c.440 PISUTHNES satrap of Lydia tries to recover Samos, which had rebelled against Athens. 440 CAH 5, lvA
c.439 City of SAMOS besieged by Athenian Pericles for 9 months from 440, falls.  Forfeits its fleet, walls, and autonomy.  Agrees to pay indemnity over next 26 years.  Under Athens until 386.  Chios and Lesbos are now the only autonomous allies in the Delian League. 440 Dur 2-439, OCD 987, TToH
439 LEWH 70, OCD 800, wikSW
c.437 PERICLES sails into BLACK SEA to thwart a Scythian / Thracian alliance and solidify commercial ties.  Remains until 436. 438 CAH 6-491     437 CAH 5, CDCC 826, LEWH 70, MCAW 128, OCD 993, RAH 232     436 B76 8-356
c.437 SINOPE, under tyrant Timesileos from 450, liberated by Pericles, who leaves 13 ships, with troops under Lamachus at the disposal of the men of Sinope.  Pericles sends word back to Athens, which follows up with 600 Athenian settlers.  Sinope under Athenians until 375. 444 rcT 437 CAH 6-491, CDCC 826, OCD 993
c.436 PERICLES, in Black Sea from 437, returns to Athens. 436 CAH 6-491
c.435 ASTACOS on the Propontis refounded as an Athenian colony. 435 BHS 1-81
c.435 LEUCIPPUS of Miletus goes to Elea, studies under Zeno. 435 Dur 2-352
c.435 SINOPE, under Athenians 437-375, assisted by Athenian admiral Lamachus rebels against tyrant Timesileus. 435 lvG
c.431 LYCIA, in Delian League from 454 recovers independence until 387. 431 lvLc
c.430 PHARNABAZOS-I, satrap of Phrygia from 450, ends.  PHARNACES succeeds until 420. 430 hifi, rcT
c.430 PISUTHNES satrap of Lydia intervenes at Colophon. 430 CAH 5
c.430 Athenian expedition under Melesander to Caria and Lycia to gorce them to join the Delian League.  Unsuccessful. 430 BHS 1-85, DGRBM 2-921 429 lctk
c.429 Athens sends General Melasander against Lycia to force it to rejoin the Delian LeagueMelasander is defeated by Lycian leader Gergis of Xanthos. 429 lctk, wikLc
c.428 ANAXAGORAS of Clazomenae, philosopher, at Lampsacus from 450, age 72, dies. 428 B76 I-345, BHM 63, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, EoΦ 1-115, GHH, OCD 61, RAH 285, TToH     425 LEWH 76
c.428 Athenian Lysicles with 12 ships collecting money from allies, sails up the Meander river, attacked by Carians and Samians from Anaea.  Lysicles and some of his men are killed. 428 DGRBM 2-866
c.428 MYTILENE (Mitylene) Lesbos, under Athens from ?, rebels, overthrows democracy, declares Lesbos free of allegiance to Athens. 429 Dur 2-443
428 CAH 5, Dur 2-244
c.427 MYTILENE falls to Athenians before the dilatory Spartan admiral Alcidas arrives.  Leaders are executed, and Athenian cleruchs are sent to the Island. 427 B76 8-357, CAH 5, LEWH 72
c.425 CORYLAS-I becomes satrap of Paphlagonia until 400. 425 wikLPΦ
c.424 Athenian admiral LAMACHOS sent to Black Sea again.  Comes to harbor at mouth of Calex river near Heraclea, encounters sudden flood, loses 10 ships.  Bring his men back to Calchedon, which must then have been on friendly terms with Athenians. 424 DGRBM 2-713, DGRG 1-597, lvG
c.420 PHARNACES, satrap of Phrygia from 430, ends.  PHARNABAZOS-II succeeds until 387. 420 hifi, rcT
c.420 PISUTHNES satrap of Lydia rebels against Darius II Nothus. 420 lvA, lvG     416? CAH 5 414 DGRBM 1-943, GHH
c.416 Athenians support Amorges son of Pisuthnes. 416 CAH 5
c.416 BYZANTINES and Thracian mercenaries join CHALCEDON in expedition into Bithynia.  It will be remembered for its attrocities. 416 BHS 1-81, DGRG 1-657
c.415 TISSAPHERNES commissioned by Darius-II to quell the rebellion of Pisuthnes, satrap of Lydia, and succeed him.  Tissaphernes and his colleagues bribe Greek mercenaries of Pisuthnes to desert him, and then trick him to surrender by a false promise. 414 DGRBM 3-1154
c.415 PISUTHNES satrap of Lydia from ?, arrested by TISSAPHERNES, who succeeds until 407.  Pisuthnes' bastard son AMORGES continues insurrection from Caria, where he occupies the port of Iasus.  Amorges is supported by Carians and AtheniansTissaphernes has orders to kill or capture Amorges.  But the rebel has Greek mercenaries (probably Arcadians or Argives), and as long as Athens rules the Aegean, a siege of Iasus is impossible. 416? CAH5 415 lvA, frH, rcT
414 DGRBM 3-1154, lvG 413 bk
c.413 PHARNABAZOS-II becomes satrap of Dascylium until 392. 413 OCD 810
c.413 TISSAPHERNES becomes satrap of Anatolian west coast including Lydia at Sardis until 408, and Caria until 395. 415 rcT     413 B76 X-5, OCD 1079
c.413 PHARNABAZOS-II satrap of Dascylium 413-392, supports Spartan operations in the Hellespont. 413
B76 VII-928
c. 412 Rival satraps PHARNABAZOS and TISSAPHERNES both send ambassadors to Sparta because the man who concludes the treaty will be the king's favorite.  Tissaphernes sends Greek exiles Calligeitos and Timagoras, promising payment for troops that might be sent him, and supporting Chios and Erythrae (states within his satrapy) in their intended revolt from AthensPharnabazos sends Timagoras of Cyzicus to urge that a fleet be sent to support the Greek cities in his satrapy in their intended rebellion from AthensTissaphernes wins by offering the support of the Persian/Phoenician navy to Sparta.  He never follows thru. 413 B76 X-5 413/12 lvA 412 DGRBM 1-570, 3-239, 1132, 1154
c.412 ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta 415-11, commands a small squadron to the Aegean and Ionian coast, causes many allies of Athens to rebel, persuades Tissaphernes to oppose Athens. 412 DGRBM 1-678, GHH, LEWH 74, OCD 37, 1079
c.412 EPHESUS, in Delian League from 478/7, persuaded by Alcibiades to rebel, joins Sparta until 394. 412 B76 6-905, OCD 387, rcT
c.412 Λ MILETOS Caria, in Delian League from 479, supported by Tissaphernes, rebels.  Becomes independent ally of Sparta until 386. 412 B76 VI-887, OCD 687     411 rcT
c.412 ABYDOS Mysia, in Delian League from 477, rebels. 412 OCD 1
411 DGRBM 3-926
c.412 KNIDOS V, in Delian League from 477, rebels.  This offers the Persians a new naval base in the Aegean. 412 B76 II-1015, OCD 257, lvG
c.412  Treaty of Miletos  negotiated by ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta 415-11, and TISSAPHERNES satrap of Sardis.  Sparta grants Darius any lands ever owned by any of his ancestors (thereby selling out Miletos).  Persia is to furnish money to maintain Peloponnesian fleet, which is to fight any rebels against Persia and to hassle Athenian possessions. 412 B76 9-835, LEWH 74, bk, lvA OCD 37, 687
c.412 Athenian/Argive fleet of 40 ships under Onomacles, Phrynichos, and Scironides blockades Miletos, camps near Miletos, defeats the Milesians, prepares to besiege Miletos, but is forced to withdraw by Peloponnesian/Sicilian fleet under TheramenesAthenian/Argive fleet sails to Samos. 412 DGRBM 3-29, 3-359, 753, 1095, LEWH 74
c.412 ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta from 415, on mission in Ionia, loses confidence of Spartans, flees to Tissaphernes at Sardis. 412 DGRBM 1-100, OCD 37
c.412 ALCIBIADES, at court of Tissaphernes at Sardis, corresponds with Athenian fleet at Samos.  Promises to get Tissaphernes to ally with Athens if Athenians will dump democracy for oligarchy. 412 DGRBM 1-100, OCD 447 411 LEWH 74
c.412 CLAZOMENAE on Ionian coast, in Delian League from 479, rebels. 412 LEWH 74
c.412 Athenian fleet recovers LESBOS until 405 and CLAZOMENAE on Ionian coast until 404. 412 LEWH 74
c.412 TAMOS of Memphis, governor of Ionia under Tissaphernes, joins Spartan admiral Astyochus, in unsuccessful attempt to persuade the pro-Athenians at Clazomenae to remove to Daphnos, a place on the mainland, beyond the reach of the Athenian navy. 412 DGRBM 3-973, 1154
c.412 LYCIA, under king Keriga 440-10, is on the side of Persia. 412 wikLc
c.412 TISSAPHERNES satrap at Sardis 413-08 half heartedly supports Sparta, against Athens hoping they will wear each other out. 412
OCD 1079
c.412 ERYTHRAE on coast of Ionia near Chios, under Athens from ?, rebels. 412 DGRG 1-851
412 /11 Spartans sail to Iasus in Caria to attack Amorges.  Iasians think they are Athenians, and let them in.  Iasus is taken.  Amorges is arrested and handed over to Tissaphernes.  Amorges' Peloponnesian mercenaries switch sides. 412 DGRBM 1-147 winter 412/11 lvA
412/11 Spartan DOREIOS son of Diagoras, with 30 ships, arrives at Knidos to help Spartans. winter 412/11 DGRBM 1-1067
c.411 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS is sent to get Abydos and Lampsacus, both on the Troad side of the Hellespont, to rebel against Athens.  He succeeds, and is joined there by Pharnabazos. 412 OCD 1     411 B76 14-23, DGRBM 3-239, DGRG 1-7, LEWH 74, OCD 332
c.411 LAMPSACUS, in Delian League from 477, taken by Spartan Dercyllidas, but 24 Athenian ships under Strombichides sail from Chios and recover it until 405. 412 OCD 1     411 B76 14-23, DGRBM 3-926/7, LEWH 74, OCD 332, wikLmp
c.411 ASTYOCHOS, commander of Spartan fleet, returns to Miletus. 412 DGRBM 1-391
c.411 ANTANDROS in Troad, under Persians from ?, expells Persians. 411 DGRG 1-138
c.411 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS is appointed harmost of Abydos. no date: OCD 332
c.411 Former Spartan high admiral ASTYOCHOS returns to Miletos.  Discontent among the troops, especially the Syracusans, breaks into riot.  Admiral Mindaros arrives, and Astyochos returns to Sparta. 411 DGRBM 1-391
c.411 Spartan DOREIOS son of Diagoras, is at Miletos during the troop riot. 411 DGRBM 1-1067
c.411 Spartan admiral MINDAROS sails from Miletos to the Hellespont. 411 DGRBM 1-1067
c.411 Spartan admiral MINDAROS sacrifices to Athena Ilias at Troy-8. 411 wikTr
c.411 TISSAPHERNES satrap of Sardis 413-08 goes to Aspendos on south coast of Pamphilia, supposedly to help Peloponnesians. 411 DGRBM 3-973
c.411 ASPENDOS Pamphilia, under Delian League from 465, back under Medo-Persia until 334. 411 wikAsp
c.411 Sparta makes a new  treaty  with Persia, this time including both TISSAPHERNES satrap of Sardis 413-08 and PHARNABAZOS satrap of Dascylium 413-392.  Sparta limits its 412 grant to the Persian king to lands in Ionia.  Tissaphernes no longer demands Spartan support against rebels. 411 B76 1-824, CAH 6-49, LEWH 74, lvA
c.411 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS and ALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-?, defeat a superior Spartan fleet under Mindaros off CYNOSSEMA in ChersoneseMindaros' fleet is pursued to its base at ABYDOS in the Hellespont. 411 DGRBM 3-239, GHH, LEWH 74, lvA, wikAby, wikCyn
411 /10 CYZICUS under Delian League from 478, taken by Mindaros and Pharnabazos, back under Persia until 334. 411 B76 III-333, rcT
410 DGRBM 3-240
410 spring ALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-07, THERAMENES, and THRASYBULOS annihilate Peloponnesian fleet, Syracusan allies, and supporting land army off CYZICUS. 410 B76 1-437, CAH 5, spring CAH 6-126, CDCC 129, DGRBM 3-1095, Dur 2-449, GHH, LEWH 71, 74, OCD 37, 309, 477, OHG 166, TTPC, anan, lvA
c.410 Spartan admiral MINDAROS killed at CyzicusHippocrates, now in command, writes to Sparta, "Our good fortune is ended.  Mindaros is gone; the men are hungry, and what to do we know not."  CRATESIPPIDAS replaces Mindaros, and takes command of the fleet at Chios. 410 DGRBM 1-885, 2-481, GHH
c.410 HIPPOCRATES becomes harmost of Chalcedon under Persians until 409. 410 DGRBM 2-481
c.410 Spartan general CLEARCHOS sent with 40 ships by Agis to Byzantium and Chalcedon to cut off grain supplies to Athens.  Only 10 ships arrive. 410 DGRBM 1-780, 3-239
c.410 ARIOBARZANES-I, satrap of Pontus from 440, ends.  MITHRIDATES-I succeeds until 363. 410 rcT
c.410 KHERIGA, (Gergis) king of Lycia at Xanthos from 440, ends.  Bro KHEREI succeeds to 390. 425 lvA 410 wikLc
c.410 Syracusan fleet under Hermocrates, damaged at Cyzicus, has to be rebuilt at Antandros in the Troad.  News from Syracuse says Hermocrates and his colleagues had been deposed in absentia. 410 CAH 6-126
c.410 ILIUM (Troy-8), under Persians from 546, comes under influence of local dynasts at Lampsacus (Zenis, his wife Mania, and usurper Meidias) until 399. 410 wikTr
c.410 PHARNABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium 413-392, finances the building of a new Peloponnesian fleet. 410 DGRBM 3-240, LEWH 74
c.410 Syracusan fleet in Aegean, now at Miletos, is taken over by an admiral sent by Diocles, successor of Hermocrates, who now leaves the fleet with those sailors still loyal to him, and hires out to PharnabazosThe main fleet sails for Sicily, while Hermocrates' ships are in the Aegean until 408. late 410
CAH 6-126, 130, DGRBM 3-240
c.410 ANTIMACHOS of Colophon, Greek poet, gramarian, flourishes.  Main works: an epic Thebaid, an account of the expedition of the Seven against Thebes and the war of the Epigoni; and an elegiac poem Lyde, so called from the poet's mistress, for whose death he tried to find consolation telling stories from mythology of heroic disasters. 410 B76 I-420
400 wikAnt
c.409 Athenian fleet under THRASYBULOS tries and fails to take Ephesus from Spartans and Syracusan fleet.  (which sails home soon afterward) 409 mid CAH 6-126, DGRBM 2-387, LEWH 74
c.409 Athenian Thrasyllos, proceeds from Samos to the coast of Anatolia and attacks the town of Pygela without success.  Within a few days, however, Colophon surrenders to him, and he then advances into Lydia. 409 DGRBM 3-1110, GHH
c.409 Athenians Alcibiades and Thrasyllos defeat Pharnabazos near Abydos. 409 DGRBM 3-240
c.409 Athenian Thrasyllos sails to Anatolia and attacks Pygela (a coastal outpost of Ephesus) without success.  Within a few days, however, Colophon surrenders to him.  He then advances into Lydia, and having ravaged the country, proceeds against Ephesus, but here he is defeated and driven back to his ships by the Ephesians, united with Tissaphernes and the Syracusans.  He sails to Notium, the port of Colophon. 409 DGRBM 3-1110, 1154
c.409 Athenians:  Alcibiades, Theramenes, Thrasybulus, and Thrasyllus recover some ground in Ionia. 409 lvG, bk
409/8 Alcibiades, helped by Menander, campaigns against Pharnabazos. 409/8 DGRBM 2-1030
409/8 CHALCEDON V, under Persians from 494, besieged by Alcibiades amd Theramenes from ?, falls.  Harmost Hippocrates is killed. 409 Dur 2-449
408 DGRBM 2-481, 3-240
c.408 Spartan envoys under Pasippidas go to PHARNABAZOS satrap of Phrygia. 408 DGRBM 3-133
c.408 Athenian envoys Theogenes and ??? to PHARNABAZOS satrap of Dascylium, fail to outbid Sparta, but conclude a truce, and permission to send envoys to Darius.  Envoys arrive after a Spartan embassy had convinced Darius to help Sparta. 408 DGRBM 3-240, 1074, LEWH 74, OCD 810
c.408 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Lydia from 415, all Ionia from 413, confined to satrapy of Caria until 395, while the rest comes under Cyrus until 401. 408 OCD 1079, lvAwikTis
407 B76 X-5, frH, rcT
c.407 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, arrives in Anatolia as satrap of Lydia, Phrygia, Cappadicia, and commander of all Anatolia until 405, establishes good relations with Spartan admiral LYSANDER, whom he begins financing. 408 B76 8-362, RAH 261
407 CDCC 252, DGRBM 1-924, 3-1155, LEWH 74, MCAW 140, OCD 308
407 B76 III-330, X-5
c.407 Athenian envoys to Pharnabazos are siezed and delivered to Cyrus.  They remain prisoners 3 years. 408 DGRBM 2-921, 3-240, 1074
c.407 CYRUS, commander of all Anatolia 407-5, invites Spartan LYSANDER to Sardis, promises support against Athens. 407 LEWH 74
no date: B76 III-330, OCD 308
c.407 CYRUS supports Spartans against Athens. 407 GHH
c.407 Ariobarzanes serves as envoy to bring back Athenian ambassadors, who had been staying at the satrapal court of his father Pharnabazos at Dascylium, to the coast, from where they could return to Athens. 407 lvA
c.407 Spartan fleet commander LYSANDER arrives at Ephesus, intending to interview Cyrus at Sardis, builds a great fleet with help of Cyrus, refuses to be lured out to fight Alcibiades. 407 DGRG 1-834, TTPC
c.407 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS, harmost of Abydos, is slandered by Pharnabazos, satrap of Dascylium, to Lysander, and publicly disgraced. 407
OCD 332
c.406 A squadron under ANTIOCHUS, a subordinate of ALCIBIADES, is defeated at Notium, the port of Colophon by Spartan admiral LYSANDER. 407 CDCC 129, 536, TTPC
406 LEWH 74, OCD 37, lvA
c.406 Because of Notium, ALCIBIADES loses confidence of Athenians, possibly banished again by Athenian assembly.  In any case, he withdraws to the Hellespont until 405. 406 B76 8-360, CDCC 492, LEWH 74, OCD 37, 299
c.406 Spartan fleet commander LYSANDER is technically relieved by CALLICRATIDAS.  But Cyrus prefers Lysander, so Lysander is kept on staff, and is defacto commander, while Callicratidas is the official commander. 406
LEWH 74, OCD 194
c.406 CONON, Athenian fleet commander of Aegean and Hellespont 407-05, is defeated at Mytilene and blockaded there by Spartan CALLICRATIDASAthenian fleet crippled. 406 LEWH 74, OCD 194, TTPC
c.405 LAMPSACUS, under Athens from 411, taken by Persians until 334. 405 B76 VI-14
c.405 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, commander of Anatolia from 407, summoned back to court at Babylon because of father's illness. 405 B76 III-330, DGRBM 3-1155, LEWH 74, OCD 308
c.405 ALCIBIADES, held up in a castle in the Hellespont from 406, no longer safe from Spartans, flees to Dascylium until 404. 405
B76 1-437
c.404 ALCIBIADES seeks refuge with Pharnabazos, satrap of Dascylium. 404 MCAW 140, OCD 37
c.404 PHARNABAZOS-II, satrap of Dascylium 413-392, at request of Lysander and 30 Tyrants, orders murder of Alcibiades. 404
OCD 810
c.404 ALCIBIADES is murdered in Dascylium, by order of Pharnabazos-II. 404 B76 1-437, CAH 6, CDCC 33, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 140, OCD 37
c.404 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria 408-395, goes to Babylon, accuses CYRUS, son of Darius-II, of plotting murder of Artaxerxes-II.  But because of his pleading mother, Cyrus is forgiven, and restored to command in Anatolia. 405 DGRBM 3-1155
404 B76 III-330, 9-836, LEWH 74, OCD 308
c.404 TISSAPHERNES and CYRUS return to Anatolia.  Cyrus claims dominion over Tissaphernes' cities.  All transfer allegiance to Cyrus, except Miletos, where Tissaphernes quenches an intended revolt. 405 DGRBM 3-1155
c.403 CLEARCHOS, Spartan commander of Hellespont from 409, refuses to withdraw from Byzantium, expelled by Spartan troops, flees to Persians, seeks refuge with CYRUS-II. 403
OCD 248
c.402 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, commander of Anatolia, decides to revolt, begins gathering mercenaries. 403 B76 I-549 402 CAH 6-42
c.402 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, commander of Anatolia, commissions CLEARCHUS to recruit Greek mercenaries, ostensibly for conquest of Pisidia. 402 CAH 6-42
no date: B76 III-330, OCD 248, 308
c.401 XENOPHON leaves Athens, goes to Anatolia.  At invitation of Proxenus he joins Ionian mercenaries in service of Cyrus. 401 DGRBM 3-557, 1298, OCD 1141
c.401 CHERISOPHOS sent by ephors with 7-800 heavily armed men, to help Cyrus. 401 DGRBM 1-691
c.401 CYRUS, satrap of Anatolia, gathers army of Greek mercenaries:  10,400 hoplites and 2,500 peltasts, under Spartan general ClearchosAthenian mercenary XENOPHON is among them. 401 BCoC 381, spring CAH 6, CDCC 956, lvA
no date: wikCun
c.401 Achaean mercenary leader Socrates, with 500 heavy armed mercenaries, already serving in Anatolia, joins Cyrus at Sardis. 401 DGRBM 3-847
c.401 Arcadian mercenary leader Sophaenetos, with 1,000 heavy armed mercenaries, joins Cyrus. 401 DGRBM 3-864
c.401 TAMOS of Memphis, governor of Ionia under Tissaphernes from ?, defects to Cyrus. 401 DGRBM 3-864
c.401 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria 408-395, rushes east to warn Artaxerxes-II about Cyrus.  In Babylon until later 401.. 401 OCD 308, 1079, lvA
c.401 TAMOS of Memphis, admiral under Cyrus, blockades Miletos, which is still loyal to Tissaphernes. 401 DGRBM 3-864
c.401 CYRUS, satrap of Anatolia, at Sardis, attacks supporters of bro Artaxerxes-II. 401 CAH 5, CDCC 252
c.401 Mercenary MENON sent by Aristippos of Larissa with 1500 men to help Cyrus, at Colossae Caria. 401 DGRBM 2-1043
c.401 Sparta helps Cyrus with a small fleet and a few hundred hoplites. 401 B76 8-362
c.401 CYRUS, satrap of Anatolia, starts east with 10,000 Persian troops, 10,400 Greek mercenaries (now called Cyreans) under Clearchos, and Spartan fleet supposedly to attack Pisidia. 401 B76 III-330, 8-362, 9-836, DGRBM 1-924, 2-1043, Dur 2-460, IDB 1-658, LEWH 76, OCD 301, 308, OHG, TAWH 78, hifi, hifiP
c.401 When Cyrus reaches Cappadocia, he employs Thessalian mercenary MENON to escort Epyaxa wife of Cilician king Syennesis, back to Cilicia. 401 DGRBM 2-1043
c.401 When Cyrus reaches Cilicia, he finds the passes guarded by king Syennesis, who withdraws his troops, on learning that the force sent forward by Cyrus under Menon had already entered Cilicia, and that the combined fleet of Spartans and Cyrus, under Samius and Tamos, was sailing round from IoniaMenon loses some troops to the Cilicians, and takes revenge by plundering Tarsus and the royal palace.  King Syennesis flees to a mountain stronghold. 401 DGRBM 2-1043, 3-949, ISBE 4-735
c.401 When Cyrus enters Tarsus.  Holding Epyaxa, wife of Syennesis hostage, Cyrus sends a demand to the king to return to Tarsus.  Syennesis complies, and is well treated.  Syennesis gives money and troops under the command of one of his sons to Cyrus, while also sending another son to Artaxerxes, to say it had all been under duress. 401 DGRBM 3-949
c.401 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria 408-395, in Babylon at court of Artaxerxes-II, given satrapy of Lydia also until 395, returns to Anatolia. 401 OCD 308, 1079, lvA, rcT
c.401 PERGAMUM, mountain citadel in Mysia, under Persians 546-334, long inhabited, but uneventful, now appears in history. 401
OCD 799
c.401 TAMOS, an Egyptian of Memphis governing Ionia for Persians, having supported Cyrus, flees to Egypt. 401 DGRBM 3-973, MCAW 142
c.401 LYCAONIANS in the mountains near the Cilician Gates descend into the central plain. 401 BHS 1-83
c.401 CILICIA, under direct Persian rule from 546, come under Persian satraps until 333.  They reside in Tarsus. 401 B76 1-824, lvA
c.400 Athenian XENOPHON and 10,000 Greek mercenaries, arrive at Trapezos on the Black (aka Euxine) Sea in satrapy of Pharnabazos-II, who is hard pressed to prevent them looting. 400 LEWH 53, 76, MCAW 144,
OCD 1141, lvA
c.400 SPITHRIDATES sent by Pharnabazos-II to oppose the passage of Xenophon thru Bithynia. 400 DGRBM 3-896
c.400 XENOPHON, Athenian mercenary, arrives at Chrysopolis near Chalcedon.  SEUTHES-II, co-king of Odrysians, asks him to reinstate him in his dominions.  Xenophon declines at first. 400 DGRBM 3-809
c.400 3 commissioners (including Achaean Samolas) sent by Greeks from Cotyora to SINOPE on north coast of Anatolia, for ships to convey the mercenaries to Heraclea. 400 DGRBM 3-702
c.400 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria & Lydia 401-395, is now in control of Anatolia, begins subduing Greek cities. 400
CAH 6-43
c.400 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria & Lydia 401-395, besieges Cyme on coast of Aeolia. 400
c.400 Ionian cities send embassy to Greece for help against Tissaphernes.  They begin with Sparta 400
CAH 6-43
c.400 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON, sent by Sparta, hires 5,000 Peloponnesian and helot mercenaries and sails to free Ionians from Tissaphernes.  Persians fight Spartans in Anatolia until 386. 400 CAH 6-65, DGRBM 3-1103, 1155, LEWH 76, OHG 167, lvG
fall 400 GHH, OCD 1064 399 CAH 6
c.400 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON collects reinforcements, most important of which are the mercenaries at Pergamum (formerly under Cyrus), and succeeds in wining over or capturing several cities. 400 DGRBM 3-1103
c.400 MAGNESIA on the Meander, unfortified and subject to flooding, moved by Spartan mercenary Thibron upstream to the present site at the foot of Mount Thorax. 400 CAH 6-224, wikMM
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 MAGNESIAs:  a region in Thessaly, and 2 cities in Lydia:  on the Meander near the coast, and ad Sipylum west of Sardis.
c.400 CORYLAS-I satrap of Paphlagonia from 425, ends.  Son or bro COTYS-I succeeds until 380. 400 wikLPΦ
c.400 CTESIAS of Knidos, Greek physician historian, flourishes.  Writes on rivers, Persian revenues, an account of India entitled  Indica , and a history of Assyria and Persia in 23 books, called  Persica , written in opposition to Herodotus in the Ionic dialect, and professedly founded on Persian royal archives.   (See Babylon.) 400 wikCt
c.399 XENOPHON and his 10,000 mercenaries (Cyreans) hire out to THIBRON in Ionia, fight for Thibron and his successor DERCYLLIDAS until 397. 400 OCD 1141
399 CAH 6-66, DGRBM 3-1299, GHH, OCD 1141
c.399 XENOPHON and his 10,000 mercenaries (Cyreans) go to Mysia, entertained at Pergamum by Hellas, widow of Gongylos, who advises Xenophon to attack the castle of Persian noble Asidates.  He does so. 399 DGRBM 2-279
c.399 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON allows his troops to plunder the country of Spartan allies. no date:
DGRBM 3-1103
c.399 SEUTHES-II co-king of Odrysians of Thrace, sends an auxiliary force to help Spartan general, Dercyllidas. 399 DGRBM 3-809
c.399 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS gets control of the Troad. 399 bk
c.399 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON in Ionia from 400, is recalled to Sparta and succeeded by DERCYLLIDAS until 396/5. 399 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-993, 3-240, 1155, GHH, LEWH 76, OCD 332, 1141
c.399 ILIUM (Troy-8) under influence of local dynasts at Lampsacus from 410, Spartan general Dercylidas expels the Greek garrison which controled Ilium for the Lampsacene dynasts.  Ilium remains outside Persian control at Dascylium until Peace of Antalcidas in 386. 399 wikTr
c.399 Spartans ANTISTHENES and ARACOS are sent to inspect affairs in Ionia, and tell Dercyllidas that his command is extended another year. 399 DGRBM 1-209 398 DGRBM 1-254
c.398 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS in Ionia, makes truce with Tissaphernes until 397, in order to better attack Pharnabazos, satrap of Dascylium.  Dercyllidas ravages Dascylium, wins over most of Aeolis, takes 9 cities within 8 days. 398 GHH, OCD 810, bk
no date: LEWH 76, OCD 332
c.398 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS makes truce with Pharnabazos, marches to Bithynia, where his troops live on plunder. 398 DGRBM 1-993
c.398 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS goes from Bithynia to Lampsacus.  Spartan agents meet him and tell him his command has been extended another year, and that the Greeks of Chersonese had asked for Spartan help against barbarians. 398 DGRBM 1-993
c.398 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS during truce with Persians, crosses to Chersonese. 398 LEWH 76
no date: OCD 332
c.398 ATARNEOS on coast of Aeolia, occupied by Chian exiles from ?, besieged 8 months by DRACON, Achaean of Pellene, falls.  Dracon is confirmed as governor by DercyllidasDracon then ravages Aeolia and Mysia. 398 DGRBM 1-1072     397 GHH
c.398 Persians use the truce to prepare a fleet of 300 Phoenician and Cypriot ships to fight Spartans. 398/7
c.398 CTESIAS of Knidos, Greek physician in court of Artaxerxes, sent as envoy to Evagoras of Cyprus and Athenian admiral Conon. 398
OCD 300
c.397 Ionian ambassadors visit Sparta requesting an attack on Caria, where Tissaphernes property is, because that may get him to offer peace terms. 397 DGRBM 1-993, OCD 332
c.397 Pharnabazos, satrap of Phrygia at Dascylium, directed by Artaxerxes II orders full-scale naval armament. 397
CAH 6-67
c.397 Pharnabazos   goes to Cyprus, orders Evagoras of Cyprus to build 100 triremes, finds Athenian CONON, and hires him to command his new Persian fleet against Spartans until 393. 397 CAH 6-314, DGRBM 3-240
c.397 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS moves south, invades Caria, where he can unite with the Spartan navy under Pharax and might have expelled the Persian navy from the Aegean. 397 DGRBM 3-1155, lvG
c.397 Expedition of Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS from 399, ends.  Spartan ephors order Dercyllidas to co-operate with Spartan admiral Pharax off Caria. 397 CAH 6-66
c.397 Pharnabazos and Tissaphernes join forces and lure Spartan Dercyllidas north.  Before they battle, an armistice is concluded near Magnesia.  Sparta would evacuate Anatolia, and Persia would recognize independence of Greek towns in Ionia.  But during negotiations, the Persians continue to build a navy in Phoenicia, and king Agesilaos-II concludes that the Persian peace offer is bogus. 397 lvA, lvG
c.396 CONON, Athenian commander of Persian fleet, sails to Caria with a small portion of the fleet, where he is blockaded by Spartan admiral Pharax with 120 shipsConon's Cypriot mercenaries mutinyPharax is driven off by a superior fleet under Pharnabazos and Tissaphernes. 397 CAH 6-67, DGRBM 3-239 396 CAH 6-314, DGRBM 3-239 395 MCAW 144
no date: wikCn
c.396 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, sails to Ephesus, and asks for autonomy for Greek cities.  To dispell the assumption that Lysander is actually in charge, Agesilaos sends Lysander with 8,000 troops overland back toward GreeceAgesilaos personally commands troops in Anatolia until 394. 396 B76 I-136, 8-362, CAH 6, CDCC 23, 537, DGRBM 1-69, 993, 3-1155, OCD 27, bk     no date: lvG
c.396 Athenian CONON fleet commander for Persians, sails to Rhodes. 396 wikCn
c.396 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS, operating in Ionia from 399, releived, but kept on staff, by AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, who takes over until 394, hqs at Ephesus.  Xenophon 2nd in command.  Agesilaos routs Tissaphernes, and overruns Phrygia, and ravages Persian territory until 395, but does nothing about the growing Persian navy. 396 B76 6-905, 8-362, 19, 1056, DGRBM 3-240, OCD 27, 332, 1141, OHG, RAH 300
396/5 LEWH 76, MCAW 144
c.396 BAGAEOS, half bro of Pharnabazos, defeats cavalry of Agesilaos-II near Dascylium. 396 DGRBM 1-453, DGRBM 3-240
c.396 Egyptian troops aid AGESILAOS-II in Ionia. 396 CAH 6, bk
c.396 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, at Ephesus, concludes truce with Tissaphernes, which leaves him free to attack PharnabazosLysander does the job. 396 DGRBM 1-993, 3-240, 1155, lvG
c.396 AGESILAOS-II invades Phrygia. 396 B76 I-136, DGRBM 3-240, bk 395 CAH 6
c.396 SPITHRIDATES, offended by Pharnabazos, who wished to take his dau as concubine, is induced by Lysander to rebel against Pharnabazos, bringing with him his children, his treasures, and 200 cavalry.  His defection is acceptable to Agesilaos-II, who gained information from him about Pharnabazos. 396 DGRBM 3-896
c.396 COTYS king of Paphlagonia, on recommendation of Spithridates, allies with AGESILAOS-II against Pharnabazos. no date: DGRBM 1-869
396/5 AGESILAOS-II winters at Ephesus. 396/5 DGRBM
396/5 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS, on staff of Agesilaos 396, returns to Sparta, being replaced by AGESILAOS-II until ?. 396 GHH     396/5 DGRBM 1-993
396/5 TIMOCRATES of Rhodes sent by Pharnabazos with Persian money to pay leaders of Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos to attack Sparta. 396 CAH 6-68 396/5 LEWH 76
c.395 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria from 408, Lydia from 401, badly defeated on the Pactolus River near Sardis by AGESILAOS-II and besieged in Sardis.  Loses satrapies, ordered to return to Babylon. 395 B76 X-6, GHH, OCD 1079, anan, frH, lvA, lvG, rcT, wikTis
c.395 CARIA under Persia from 494, comes under satrap HECATOMPOS until 377, comes under the HECATOMIDS until 334. 404 wikHlc
395 LEWH 77, OCD 205, frH, rcT
392/1 lvA
c.395 TITHRAUSTES is sent by Artaxerxes to kill Tissaphernes, and take over Caria.  He arrives at Colossae in Phrygia. 395 DGRBM 3-1157
c.395 TISSAPHERNES dies., former satrap of Caria from 408, Lydia from 401, lured to Colossae and killed by Tithraustes.  His head is sent to Artaxerxes. 396 DGRBM 1-283     395 B76 X-6, CAH 6-77, DGRBM 3-240, 1156-7, OCD 1079, anan, lvA, lvG, rcT, wikTis
c.395 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, rewards Spithridates by negotiating marriage of his dau to Cotys king of Paphlagonia. 395 DGRBM 1-869
c.395 LYDIA, under Tissaphernes from 401, comes under TITHRAUSTES until 392. 395 CAH 6-77, GHH, lvA, lvG, rcT
c.395 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, makes arrangement with TithraustesAgesilaos-II attacks only Pharnabazos' territory.  Tithraustes pays Agesilaos' troops. 395 DGRBM 3-240, 1157
c.395 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, marches north, receives new instructions from Spartan government:  sail to and attack Caria, which is suffering from the change of satrap, then continue east to CiliciaAgesilaos is unable to comply.  He raids satrapy of Pharnabazos (as he had promised to Tithraustes) and acquires much spoils.  But Pharnabazos does not surrender. 395 lvG
c.395 DASCYLIUM ravaged by AGESILAOS-II. 395 OCD 810, lvA
c.395 ARIAEOS rebels against Artaxerxes, receives Spithridates and the Paphlagonians after they desert the Spartans. 395 DGRBM 1-283
c.395 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, raids Lydia. 395 B76 I-136
c.395 Herippidas leads a group including Xenocles sent to supersede Lysander and his colleagues as counsellors to Agesilaos-II. 395 DGRBM 3-1289
c.395 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, decides to march to central Anatolia along the Royal road.  His progress is slow because he is unable to capture the towns.  This gives the Persians time to build a navy. 395 lvG
c.394 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, again raids Phrygia. 395 GHH
394 B76 I-136
c.394 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, commander in Anatolia from 396, recalled to Sparta because of Corinthian War, takes overland route with most of his troops.  Xenophon is with him. 394 B76 I-136, 8-362, CAH 6-102, DGRBM 1-69, 3-1289, 1299, GHH, LEWH 76, OCD 27, OHG, lvA, lvG
c.394 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS reapointed harmost of Abydos in the Troad. 394 OCD 332
c.394 EVAGORAS of Cyprus joins Conon prior to battle off Knidos. 394 DGRBM 2-54
c.394 CONON, Athenian admiral, aided by Pharnabazos-II, destroys Spartan fleet under PISANDER off KNIDOS. 394 B76 I-549, III-88, VII-928, 1-824, 8-362, CAH 6-216, 314, CDCC 608, DGRBM 1-825, DGRG 1-639, Dur 2-458, GHH, Grim 374, ISBE 1-843, LEWH 76, MCAW 144, OCD 186, 278, 297, OHG, RAH 300, anan, bk, lvG, wikCn
c.394  History  of Theopompos from the battle of Cynossema, 411, ends with the battle of Knidos. 394 DGRBM
c.394 Pharnabazos grants autonomy to Ionian cities and withdraws Persian garrisons. 394 LEWH 76
c.394 Pharnabazos and Conon promise autonomy for Ionian Greek cities. 394 CAH 6-216
c.394 Ionian cities (except for Abydos and Sestos under Dercyllidas) repudiate Sparta and establish democracies. 394 LEWH 76
c.394 EPHESUS, under Sparta from 412, defects to Athenian Conon, joins anti-Spartan league until 387. 394 B76 6-905, rcT
c.394 CURRENCY ALLIANCE between Samos, Rhodes, Ephesus, Knidos. 394 OCD 949
394/3 Pharnabazos spends winter trying in vain to dislodge Dercyllidas from Abydos. 394/3
CAH 6-104
c.393 Spartan ANTALCIDAS goes as envoy to Tiribazus. 393 mid CAH 6, DGRBM 3-1157
c.393 ATHENS makes alliances with CHIOS, RHODES, and COS, also with MYTILENE and KNIDOS, most of which end with the dissolution of the Athenian League 386. 393 LEWH 76
c. 392 ANTALCIDAS Spartan general, comes from Sparta to Sardis, tries to convince satrap Tiribazus that the main threat to Persian interests is resurgence of Athenian naval power, even though the 4,000 men whom Agesilaos had left behind under Euxenus are still in Anatolia.  As Athenian ambitions grow with confidence, Conon may betray Artaxerxes-II by using Persian money to restore the Athenian empireAntalcidas offers Tiribazus all Greek cities in Anatolia, proposes autonomy to the islands and cities of Greece.   Sparta not to fight Persia for Greeks in Anatolia.  Convinces Tiribazus to do business with Sparta rather than Athens. 393 DGRBM 1-181, 3-1151
392 CAH 6-75, 107, mid CDCC 237 OCD 66, 278
392/1 CAH 6-74
c.392 CONON, Athenian admiral, on diplomatic mission to Sardis, to say that the Spartan proposal will not be accepted by Greeks, arrested by satrap Tiribazus. 392 CAH 6-104, LEWH 76, OCD 278, wikθrs     no date: wikCn
c.392 PHARNABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium from 413, recalled to Susa. 392 OCD 810
c.392 TITHRAUSTES satrap of Lydia from 395, ends.  AUTOPHRADATES succeeds until 3??. pre-390 CAH 6-77
c.392 Satrap TIRIBAZUS goes to Susa, urges Artaxerxes-II to accept the Spartan peace offer.  But Artaxerxes-II spurns it, possibly because of hatred of Sparta for helping Cyrus the Younger's revolt. 392 CAH 6-75
c.392 TIRIBAZUS, Persian satrap of Sardis, fired by Artaxerxes-II for Spartan sympathies, and replaced by STRUTHAS as administrator of all Ionia with an anti-Spartan policy until 388. 392 DGRBM 3-928, 1151, wikSt 391 CAH 6
c.392 CONON, Athenian admiral, prisoner of satrap Tiribazus, allowed to escape, probably to Cyprus until death 392-90. no date: wikCn
c.391 Mercenary THIBRON, again sent by Sparta to Ionia, this time with 8,000 men to fight pro-Athenian STRUTHAS, Persian administrator of Ionia and AegeanThibron sets up at Ephesus and soon controls the plain of the Maeander. 392 DGRBM 3-1103 391 mid CAH 6-112, OCD 1064, wikθb
c.391 STRUTHAS purposely sends some Persian cavalry to bait Thibron.  Thibron impulsively attacks them, and Struthas jumps them with a superior forceSpartan mercenary THIBRON is killed. 391 CAH 6-113
no date: DGRBM 3-1103
c.391 DIPHRIDAS sent to Ionia to take over the survivors of Thibron's army, to protect friendly cities, and raise troops to fight against Struthas. 391 CAH 6-113, DGRBM 1-1056
c.391 Spartan admiral ECDICOS with 8 ships sent to Rhodes to oppose Athenian democrats, and restore exiled oligarchs.  He arrives at Knidos, and finds enemy forces twice his own.  He spends winter there and contrives to detach Samos from Athens. fall 391
CAH 6-113, DGRBM 2-2
c.391 HECATOMNOS, satrap of Caria 395-77, is ordered by Artaxerxes-III to intervene against Evagoras in Cyprus. 391 CAH 6-113, 314
391 late HECATOMNOS of Caria lands troops in Cyprus unopposed by an unprepared Evagoras. late 391
CAH 6-314
c.390 KHEREI, king of Lycia at Xanthos from 410, ends.  Son ERBINA succeeds to 380. 400 lvA 390 wikLc
c.390 Persians now help Spartans against Athenians.  Causes Athenian reversals. 390 GHH
390/89 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, visits Clazomenae on Ionian coast. 390/89
CAH 6-114
c.389 IPHICRATES, Athenian general, fights at Abydos. 389 CDCC 464
c.389 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, recovers THASOS, SAMOTHRACE, TENEDOS island off the Troad, CHERSONESE, BYZANTIUM, Λ CHALCEDON, and others. 389 LEWH 76, lvA
c.389 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, moves south.  On Lesbos he finds Mytilene favorable to Athens, but the other cities pro-Spartan; Methymna had even retained a Spartan garrison and harmostThrasybulos anchors off the city of Eresus in Lesbos, but loses 23 ships in a storm.  Nevertheless he defeats the harmost and receives surrender of Eresus and Antissa. spring 389 CAH 6-114
c.388 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, anchors off the coast of Aspendos Pamphilia to secure its surrender.  Hoping to avoid war, the Aspendians collect money and pay Thrasybulos not to harm them.  Thrasybulos takes the money, then has his men trample all the crops in the fields. 389 wikAsp, wikθrs
c.388 Athenian fleet commander THRASYBULOS murdered in his tent by natives at Aspendos on coast of Pamphilia. 390 DGRBM, GHH     389 CAH 6, DGRBM, GHH, wikAsp     388 B76 IX-977, LEWH 76, MCAW 151, OCD 1066, bk
c.388 Spartan admiral ANAXIBIOS sent from Sparta to succeed Dercyllidas as harmost of Abydos. 388
CAH 6-115
c.388 AGYRRHIOS sent to replace Thrasybulos, at Aspendos on coast of Pamphilia. 389 DGRBM GHH
c.388 Spartan admiral ANAXIBIOS, harmost of Abydos, invades satrapy of Pharnabazos. 389 DGRBM 3-240
c.388 STRUTHAS, Persian administrator of all Ionia from 392, fired by Artaxerxes-II.  TIRIBAZUS resumes as satrap of Sardis. 388 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-1151
no date: wikSt
c.388 ANTALCIDAS Spartan fleet commander, escorted by Gorgopas, vice-admiral to Hierax, to Ephesus.  Antalcidas puts Nicolochos in command of his ships at Ephesus, joins Tiribazus and they set off for Sardis. 388 CAH 6-116, DGRBM 1-182, 2-95, 286, 1193, GHH
c.388 ANTALCIDAS, Spartan admiral, goes overland from Sardis to Susa to get Persians to do business with Sparta rather than Athens.  He succeeds, and returns 387. 388 CAH 6
387 B76 8-362
388/7 Tenedos island off the Troad, ravaged by Nicolochos. 388/7 DGRBM 2-1193
388/7 Nicolochos sails from Tenedos island to Abydos. 388/7 DGRBM 2-1193
388/7 Athenian generals Iphicrates and Diotimos in the Chersonese, learn that Nicolochos is at Abydos, sail to blockade him there. 388/7
DGRBM 2-1193
c.387 TIRIBAZUS satrap of Sardis, calls all Greek states to send representatives to a conference at Sardis, where king Artaxerxes-II will dictate peace terms. 387 fall CAH 6, RAH 300
c.387 ANTALCIDAS Spartan admiral, returns from Susa, having gotten Persian promise of aid. 387 B76 8-362
c.387 ANTALCIDAS Spartan admiral, relieves blockade of Nicolochos at Abydos by Athenian generals Iphicrates and DiotimosSpartans gain mastery of Aegean. 387 DGRBM 2-1193
c.387 PHARNABAZOS-II, satrap of Phrygia 420-387, leaves Ariobarzanes to manage Phrygia, while he goes to Susa to marry Artaxerxes-II's daughter. 387 DGRBM 3-240
c.387 PHARNABAZOS-II, satrap of Phrygia from 420, ends.  ARIOBARZANES rules but not as satrap until 363. 387 BHS 1-90, hifi, lvA, rcT
c.387 LYCIA, independent from 431, recovered by Persians until 334. 387 hifiP
c.387 EPHESUS, in anti-Spartan league from 394, back under Sparta until 386. 387 rcT
387/6 Abydos again occupied by Persian troops. 387/6 lvA
387/6 Terms of King's Peace (Peace of Antalcidas) announced to Greek envoys at Sardis. winter 387/6 wikAnt
387 /6 Spartan intervention in Anatolia from 400 ends.
 King's Peace  negotiated by Spartan ANTALCIDAS and ARTAXERXES-II at Sardis.  No Spartan intervention in Anatolia.  Thebes to grant independence to Boeotia.  All Greek cities to be autonomous except those in Anatolia, which come under PersiaAegean islands to be independent.  Cyprus and Clazomenae (sold out by Sparta) also under Persia.
387 DGRBM 1-182, Dur 2-461, GHH, RAH 300
387/6 LEWH 76, OCD 63, 276, 306, lvA, lvG
386 B76 8-363, 9-836, CDCC 23, 88, IDB 1-241, OCD 969, anan
387/6 ARTAXERXES-II, in the King's Peace, now accepts terms nearly identical to those he had refused in 392/1. 387/6 CAH 6-70
c.386 ARTAXERXES-II, repells Spartan intervention in Anatolia. 386 OCD 126
c.386 ILIUM (Troy-8) free from 399, comes back under Persian control at Dascylium until 360. 387/6 wikTr
c.386 SMYRNA, in Delian League from 479, back under Persia until 334. 386 rcT
c.386 EPHESUS, under Sparta from 387, back under Persia until 336. 386 rcT
c.386 Λ MILETOS, Independent ally of Sparta from 412, comes under Persia until 334. 386 rcT
c.386 CLAZOMENAE on Ionian coast claimed by Persian king on grounds of King's Peace. 386 OCD 248
c.386 Ionia again comes under the satrapy of Sardis. 386 CAH 6-216
c.386 CAMISSARES, satrap of north Cilicia from ?, fights the Cadusii.  Killed in battle.  Son DATAMES succeeds until 362. 386 DGRBM 1-592-3
c.385 At Cyprus, ORONTES king of Armenia, writes to Artaxerxes-II accusing Tiribazus of treason.  Artaxerxes-II writes back ordering arrest of Tiribazus, and command of the whole operation given to Orontes.  Tiribazus' popularity with the troops causes desertions and near mutiny, so Orontes makes peace with Evagoras. 385 DGRBM 3-58
c.384 TIRIBAZUS becomes satrap of Cilicia until 380. 384 rcT
c.383 BITHYNIA, under Persia 480-383, becomes a vassal kingdom.  BOTEIRAS is king until 376. 383 GHH
c.382 Persians TIRIBAZUS, satrap of Sardis and ORONTES, king of Armenia invade Cyprus with a force too big for Evagoras-I king of Salamis. 385 wikEv     382 CAH 6 381 Grim 375
c.380 COTYS-I satrap of Paphlagonia from 400, ends.  Son or bro THUYS-I succeeds until 364. 380 wikLPΦ
c.380 TIRIBAZUS satrap of Cilicia from 384, ends.  PHARNABAZOS succeeds until 374. 380 rcT
c.380 LYCIA, under Persia 387-34:  ERBINA, king of Lycia from 390, ends.  ARTTUMPARA rules west Lycia to ?.  PERICLES of Limyra rules east Lycia to 362. 400 lvLc     385 lvA 380 B76 1-824, ebrit, wikLc
c.380 PHILOXENOS of Kythera, dithyrambic poet, exponent of "new music", after touring Sicily, Greece, Italy and Anatolia, age 55, dies at Ephesus.  380 GHH, wikΦlx
c.380 Persian satrap GLOS in central Anatolia, makes anti-Persian alliances with pharaoh Achoris and Sparta, rebels against Artaxerxes-II, receives Spartan help. 380 CAH 6-82, 163, 348
c.379 ARTAXERXES-II, begins gathering Greek mercenaries (in Anatolia?) for a campaign against Egypt. 379 B76 9-836
c.379 Athenian admiral IPHICRATES hires out to Artaxerxes-II until 374. 379 CAH 6-83
c.378 Athenian admiral IPHICRATES is sent as a mercenary commander to Anatolia to help Persian Pharnabazos to reconquer Egypt. 378 wikIΦ
c.378 MYTILENE enters 2nd Athenian League until ?. 378 CAH 6-167
c.378 DATAMES becomes co-satrap of Cilicia with Pharnabazos until 374. 378 rcT
c.377 HECATOMNUS, satrap of Caria from 395, dies, leaving 3 sons: Mausolus, Hydrites (aka Idrieus), Pixodarus, and 2 daus: Artemisia and Ada.  MAUSOLUS succeeds until 353. 377 B76 1-824, CAH 6-83, CDCC 164, DGRBM 2-978, LEWH 77, OHG, bk, frH, rcT 377/6 B76 VI-710, OCD 657, lvA     358 wikHlc
c.376 BOTEIRAS dies.  King of Bithynia (Persian vassal) from 383.  Son ARTABAZOS succeeds as satrap until 327, under Persia until 333. 376 DGRBM 1-465, wikLRB
c.375 SINOPE on coast of Paphlagonia, under Athenians from 437, attacked and occupied by DATAMES co-satrap of Cilicia 378-74. 375 OCD 993     372 CAH 6-221 369 BHS 1-80
c.374 PHARNABAZOS, satrap of Cilicia from 380, sent to command Persian troops in EgyptDATAMES continues until 372. 374 rcT
Ends as satrap of Phrygia. 374 wikΦrn
c.373/2 PHARNABAZOS, Persian commander in Egypt, is relieved, goes to Anatolia until death 372. 373/2 CDCC 258 372 CAH 6-83
c.372 Former satrap of Dascylium, PHARNABAZOS dies dies in Anatolia. after 374 OCD 810
c.372 DATAMES, satrap of Cilicia from 374, sent to Egypt to replace PHARNABAZOS in command of Persian troops.  Ruler of Cilicia unknown until 361. 373/2 CDCC 258
372 CAH 6-83, rcT
c.372 ANTALCIDAS Spartan general, diplomatic mission to Persians in Anatolia, then to Persia until 367. 372
OCD 66
c.372 Athenian TIMOTHEOS is sent to Anatolia to serve the Persian King in his war against Egypt. 372 GHH
c.370 TELMESSOS Lycia taken by Pericles of Limyra, ruler of east Lycia. 370 BHS 1-84
c.370 DATAMES, Persian commander in Egypt from 372, rebels against Artaxerxes, takes his troops and sails back to Anatolia, goes to Cappadocia. 370 wikDt
c.370 HALICARNASSUS, capital of Caria, receives a wall, public buildings, a secret dockyard and canal. 370 B76 IV-852
c.368 PHILISCOS of Abydos sent by Ariobarzanes satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia to Greece presumably to win influence for Ariobarzanes and recruit mercenaries, and to reconcile Thebes and Sparta.  He returns same year. 369/8
CAH 6-192 368 DGRBM 3-293, GHH
c.368 TIMOTHEOS sent by Athens to support rebellion of Ariobarzanes against Artaxerxes-II, but ordered not to violate Athens treaty with Artaxerxes-II. 368 CDCC 891 366 CAH 6
c.368/7 People of TRAPEZOS Arcadia who are not willing to move to newly-founded Megalopolis Arcadia, migrate to Pontic Trapezos instead. 371 DGRG 2-1221 368/7 lvA
c.367 Theban democrat PELOPIDAS persuades Persians to withdraw support from Sparta. 367 OCD 795
c.366 ARIOBARZANES, ruler of Phrygia, leads SATRAPS' REVOLT against Artaxerxes-II until 358.  He is joined by Orontes-I of Armenia, and Datames of Cappadocia.  Rebel satraps are supported by Agesilaos of Sparta and pharaoh NectaneboMausolus remains loyal to the king until 362. Cappadocia 1st in 368 Grim 376     367 bk, lvA
366 B76 I-549, CAH 6-81, LEWH 53, OCD 126, OHG, wikArio
365 CAH 6     363 anan
362 B76 1-824
c.366 ARIOBARZANES, then in revolt, appeals to both Athens and Sparta for help.  Despite their difficulties in Greece, both respond. 366
CAH 6-200
c.366 MAUSOLUS, satrap of Caria 377-53, cooperates with Autophradates against Ariobarzanes, satrap of Phrygia. 366 OCD 657 365 lvA
c.366 ARIOBARZANES, ruler of Phrygia, besieged in Assos by Mausolus. 366 OCD 133
c.365 Capital of Caria: MYLASA from ?, moved to HALICARNASSUS by Mausolus, who rebuilds it for defense. 370-65 lvA
no date: wikHlc
c.365 HERACLEA PONTICA on coast of Bithynia, Oligarchic Republic from ?, comes under a dynasty of tyrants until 284.  A pupil of Plato, CLEARCHOS-I becomes tyrant until 353.  Heraclea under tyranny until 281. 365 rcT
364 CAH 6-222, 498
c.364 AGESILAOS-II, king of Sparta 399-60, tries to increase revenue by hiring out as mercenary to Ariobarzanes in Anatolia. 365 lvA
364 OCD 27
c.364 AGESILAOS-II, king of Sparta 399-60, is bribed by his friend Mausolus to not help Ariobarzanes besieged in Assos. 365 lvA
c.364 Athenian Timotheus rejects an appeal from the nobles of Heraclea on the Black Sea to aid them against their own people. 364 DGRBM 3-1146
c.364 Athenian Timotheus relieves Cyzicus from a siege. 364 DGRBM 3-1146
c.364 THUYS-I satrap of Paphlagonia from 380, ends.  Cappadocian son of Camissares of Cilicia, DATAMES-I succeeds until 362. 364 wikLPΦ
c.363 MITHRIDATES-I, satrap of Pontus from 410, ends.  ARIOBARZANES-II succeeds until 337. 363 DGRBM 1-286, rcT 362 CAH 9-130, GHH
c.363 ARIOBARZANES, ruler of Phrygia from 387, betrayed by his son, Mehrdad (aka Mithradates), captured and crucified.  Half bro ARTABAZOS succeeds until 353. 363 hifi, rcT     363/2 lvA
362 BHS 1-90, bk, lvA     360 B76 I-513, CAH 6
c.362 MENTOR and MEMNON, brothers-in-law of Artabazos, Rhodian mercenary leaders working for Persians, join SATRAPS' REVOLT until 360. 362
OCD 672
c.362 Persian general RHEOMITHRES joins Satraps' Revolt, and is sent to the new pharaoh, Teos, to ensure continued Egyptian aid. 362 DGRBM 3-649
c.362 Persian general RHEOMITHRES returns from Egypt to Anatolia, with 500 talents and 50 warships supposedly to help Satraps' Revolt.  he invites some rebel chiefs to receive the subsidy.  When they arrive, he arrests them, and sends them in chains to Artaxerxes, thus making his own peace at court. no date: DGRBM 3-649
c.362 SINOPE, independent republic on Black Sea from 444, comes under Persia until 331. 362 rcT
c.362 ORONTES becomes Persian satrap of Mysia at Pergamum until 344. 362 hifi, rcT
c.362 ORONTES, Persian satrap of Mysia at Pergamum, joins Satraps' Revolt.  He is entrusted by the rebels with enough money to pay 20,000 mercenaries for a year.  Orontes then defects back, arrests the envoys who brought him the money, and sends the envoys to Artaxerxes.    362 DGRBM 3-58
c.362 CHARIDEMOS, Euboean mercenary, joins Satraps' Revolt, joins COTYS in Thrace. 362 OCD 227
c.362 LYCIA, under Persia 387-34, incited by local ruler Pericles of Limyra to join Satraps' Revolt. 362 lctk
c.362 PERICLES of Limyra, ruler of east Lycia from 380, ends.  Lycia remains under Persia 387-34 362 B76 1-824, ebrit, lvLc     360 wikLc
c.362 ARTABAZOS, satrap of Phrygia 363-53, is made satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia (Dascylium) by Artaxerxes-II and sent to capture Datames, satrap of Cappadocia.  Defeated by Datames. 362 DGRBM 1-368, wikArta
c.362 MAUSOLUS, satrap of Caria 377-53, joins Satraps' Revolt until later 362. 362 B76 VI-710, DGRBM 2-978, OCD 657
c.362 Son of Camissares of Cilicia, DATAMES dies.  Satrap of Cappadocia from 386, rebelling from 366, defeated, murdered at a conference by Mithridates, son of Ariobarzanes.  Datames is replaced by ARIARAMNES-I until 350. 362 DGRBM 1-944, frH, rcT, wikCpS, wikDt     360 CAH 6, LEWH 53
c.362 DATAMES-I Cappadocian satrap of Paphlagonia from 364, murdered.  SYSINAS-I succeeds in Paphlagonia until 353. 362 wikLPΦ
c.362 MAUSOLUS, satrap of Caria 377-53, in Satraps' Revolt 362, drops out. 362 BHS 1-86
c.361 MAZDAI becomes satrap of Cilicia until 336. 361 lvA, rcT
c.360 MENTOR and MEMNON, Rhodian mercenary leaders helping SATRAPS' REVOLT from 362, quit helping revolt, receive some land in Troas. 360
OCD 672
c.360 ILIUM (Troy-8), back under Persian control at Dascylium from 386, comes briefly under Charidemus of Oreus until 359, Charidemus is a Euboean mercenary leader who occasionally works for the Athenians. 360 wikTr
c.360 SATRAPS' REVOLT from 366 suppressed by ARTAXERXES-II. 362/1 CDCC 258     360 OHG, lvA
359 B76 1-824     358 OCD 126
c.359 ARTAXERXES-III new king of Medo-Persia 359-38, orders coastal satraps to disband their mercenary armies.  (believed to be for economic more than political reasons)  Most obey. 359 CAH 6-89
356 B76 I-549
c.359 ILIUM (Troy-8), under Euboean mercenary leader Charidemus of Oreus from 360, Charidemus is expelled by Athenian Menelaos son of Arrabaios, whom the Ilians honor with a grant of proxeny - this is 1st recorded civic decree to survive from Ilium.  Ilium back under Persians until 334. 359 wikTr
c.357 2nd Athenian League comes into conflict with Mausolus of Caria, tightens up on allies.  Result - SOCIAL WAR (aka War of the Allies) begins until 355.  RHODES, COS, and CHIOS, supported by BYZANTIUM and Mausolus rebel against Athens. 357 B76 8-366, CDCC 829, 938, Dur 2-470, LEWH 77, OCD 114, 141, 186, 226, 230, 657, 801, 997, OHG, lvA, lvG
c.356 2nd TEMPLE of ARTEMIS at Ephesus from 550 burned by fool kid named Herostratus.  Some stories place this on the same day Alexander the Great is born.  3rd temple begins 323. 356 B76 I-551, BBA 355, 374, CDCC 316, Dur 2-458, GHH, ISBE 2-116, LEWH 80, OCD 387, TToH, TTPC 21, wikLx, wikToA
c.355 ARTABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium 363-53, with no army, hires outlawed Athenian mercenary leader Chares and rebels against Artaxerxes-III. 358 lvA, lvLx     356 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-368, GHHwikArta
355 bk     353 OCD 669, hifi, rcT
no date: OCD 125, 256
c.355 Athenian mercenary CHARES, and Artabazos defeat a Persian army. 356 DGRBM 3-1157
355 lvA
c.354 Athens makes peace with Mausolus, satrap of Caria. 354 MCAW 158
c.353 5,000 Thebans (citizen-soldiers rather than mercenaries) under PAMMENES arrive to help Artabazos, rebel satrap of Dascylium, until 353. 354 GHH     354/3 CAH 6-89, 741
c.353 RHODES and COS Islands, independent from 357, annexed by Mausolus, satrap of Caria. 353 LEWH 77
c.353 Artaxerxes-III sends letter to Athens, threatens to support rebellions against Athens if Athenians such as Chares continue to support Artabazos. 356 GHH 355 lvA
c.353 Theban soldier PAMMENES, working for Artabazos rebel satrap of Dascylium, quarrels with Artabazos and is killed by him.  His troops either go home or hire out to Artaxerxes-III no date: CAH 6-89
c.353 Athenian mercenary leader CHARES, in Anatolia from 355, recalled to Athens on demand of Artaxerxes-III.  This leaves Artabazos without an army. 355 CAH 6-93, LEWH 77
353 B76 8-366
c.353 CLEARCHOS-I tyrant of Heraclea from 365, murdered by young nobles Chion, Leon, and Euxenon.  All conspirators are executed.  Bro SATYROS succeeds, as guardian for Clearchos' sons Timotheos and Dionysius.  Satyrus is succeeded by TIMOTHEOS until 338, but he soon shares power with his younger bro Dionysius. 353 DGRBM 1-694, 781, 2-752, 3-1147, rcT     353/2 wikDH 353/2 CAH 6-222
c.353 MAUSOLUS, satrap of Caria from 377, dies.  Sis/widow ARTEMISIA-II succeeds until c.350.  She begins his tomb, "Mausoleum", until 350. 354 TTPC     353 B76 VI-709-10, 1-824, CAH 6-91, CDCC 164, 564, Dur 2-494, ISBE 2-599, LEWH 77, MCAW 159, OCD 657, OHG, RAH 357, bk, frH, lvA, rcT, wikHlc     353/2 OCD 127     352 DGRBM 1-377
c.353 ARTEMISIA-II satrap of Caria 353-50, holds a contest with a prize for the best funeral oration for Mausolus. 352 DGRBM 2-1143, 3-1035
c.353 THEOPOMPOS of Chios, Athenian comic poet, defeats competitors Naucrates and his master Isocrates at Artemisia's oratory contest at Halicarnassus.  Remains in Anatolia until 333. 352 DGRBM 3-1093, GHH 352/1 wikθp
c.353 THEODECTES writes  Mausolus , his 1st of 50 plays. 352 DGRBM 3-1035
c.353 ARTABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium from 363, tries to hire 5,000 Theban mercenaries, but is defeated before they arrive.  He is outlawed, and flees to Philip-II in Pella Macedonia until 345.  ARSITES succeeds as satrap of Dascylium until 334. 353 CAH 6, OCD 669, 672, hifi, lvA, lvLx, rcT
352 OCD 125
no date: OCD 125, 256
c.353 Brothers MENTOR and MEMNON, Rhodian mercenary leaders working for Persians, accompany bro Artabazos to Macedonia. 353
OCD 672
c.353 SYSINAS-I satrap of Paphlagonia from 362, ends.  ARSITES-I succeeds until 334. 353 wikLPΦ
c.352 Athenian sculptor LEOCHARES begins work on tomb of Mausolus. 352 DGRBM 2-749
c.352 Some of the greatest Greek artists:  Scopas, Leochares, Timotheos, Braxias, move to Caria to work on the tomb of Mausolus.  Scopas carves the east side, Bryaxis the north, Timotheus the south, and Leochares the west.  Pytheos of Priene is the architect and carves the 4-horse chariot that crowns its summit.  Praxiteles joins them later. 350 DGRA 1066
c.351 EUBULUS, tyrant of Atarneos on coast of Aeolia from ?, ends.  HERMIAS (Hermeias) succeeds to 341. 351 wikHerm
c.351 MAZAEUS, satrap of Cilicia, assigned by Artaxerxes-III to oppose the rebelling Phoenicians. 351 DGRBM 2-1003
c.350 SPITHRIDATES becomes satrap of Lydia until 334. 350 rcT
c.350 EPHOROS of Cyme, Greek historian, flourishes, first historian to author a universal history.  Writes 29 vol.  Universal History . Distinguishes 3 Greek and 16 barbarian peoples of Anatolia, but says some barbarians are mixed with Greeks.  His son Demophilus will add a 30th book covering 356-40. 405-330 CHJ 2-178
400-330 wikEΦ
c.350 RHODES, annexed to Caria 353-?, attacked by democratic exiles supported by Athens. 350 OCD 127
Kaunian Rock Tombs
Six rock tombs outside the Kaunos archeological site on the Dalyan river.
photo Oscar Kosy

4th cen wikKn
c.350 Colonna VenusSculptor PRAXITELES at Knidos is commissioned by Kos island to create a statue of Aphrodite.  His statue, the 1st life-size representation of the nude female, so shocks the Kossites that they reject it.  Praxiteles then carves another clothed, which they buy.  The nude is then bought by people of Knidos.  Though the original is lost, it is among the most copied statues of all time.  Probably the best replica is the Colonna Venus. photo:
pub dom

Dur 2-495
350 CAH 6, CDCC 867
left FollowingHadrian                         right Abraham S.
c.350 MAUSOLEUM at Halicarnassus Caria completed by his sis/widow ARTEMISIA-I, who may not have lived to see its completion.  Architect Pythius.  Ionic style.  From its actual ruins (left), people have imagined many models, including (right) the Masonic House, Washington DC. 351 B76 VI-709, TToH
350 LEWH 80
349 Dur 2-458
c.350 ARTEMISIA-I satrap of Caria from 353, dies.  Bro of Mausolus, HYDRYTES (aka Idrieus), succeeds until 343. 351 B76 I-551, 1-824, CAH 6-91, 224, DGRBM 1-18, 2-563, lvA, wikHlc     351/0 CAH 6-329
350 frH, DGRBM 1-377, rcT
c.350 HYDRYTES (aka Idrieus) satrap of Caria 350-43, is ordered by Artaxerxes to build and equip a fleet to reduce Cyprus. 350 DGRBM 2-563
c.350 ARIARAMNES-I satrap of Cappadocia from 360, ends.  ARIARATHES-I succeeds until 331. 350 CAH 6-221, frH, rcT, wikCpS
c.350 Phrygian helmet Phrygian helmet, 4th cen. BCE. Pinterest
c.350 PRIENE on the Meander, destroyed from ?, rebuilt. 350 B76 18-1067
c.350 EUDOXOS of Knidos, pupil of Plato, mathematician, astronomer, back in Knidos from ?, dies. 355 or 347 wikUdx     355 BHM 84 352 DGRA 145     350 B76 III-989 340 B76 10-1093, OCD 414
c.350 HERACLEIDES of Cyme (not Ponticos), pupil of Plato, historian, flourishes.  Writes a multivolume  History of Persia , not extant. 350 OCD 500, wikHC
c.349 MENTOR, Rhodian mercenary working for Persians, given command against rebel satraps of west Anatolia. 349 DGRBM 1-368
c.348 HYDRYTES (aka Idrieus) satrap of Caria 350-43, on orders of Artaxerxes, finishes and equips 40 triremes, assembles 8,000 mercenaries, and sends them to take Cyprus. no date: DGRBM 2-563
c.347 ARISTOTLE, Theophrastos, and XENOCRATES, having left the Athenian Academy, go to Assos in the Troad at invitation of former fellow student Hermias, ruler of Atarneos and Assos.  They remain at Assos until 345. 348/7 CHHΦ, S2S 85 347 B76 I-599, DGRBM 2-410, MCAW 163
347/6 OCD 114
no date: B76 1-1163
c.347 ARISTOTLE writes Book 7, ch 1-12 of his future work,  Politics  330). 347/6 OCD 114
c.347 ARISTOTLE writes  On Kingship   Clearly distinguishes functions of philosophers and kings.  Criticizes Plato's philosopher king.  Now lost. 347/6 B76 1-1163
no date: Chroust
c.346 ARISTOTLE writes 1st part of  Metaphysics : Published 330 in Athens. Assos period: OCD 115
no date: stnf
c.346 ARISTOTLE publishes  On Philosophy  explaining progress of man.  Now lost. 348 B76 1-1164 347-5 OCD 115
c.345 ARTABAZOS, former satrap of Dascylium, in Macedonia from 352, granted amnesty and allowed to return to Persian Anatolia thru help of his bro-in-law Mentor.  Warns of Philip-II's plans to invade Anatolia. 345 OCD 125 343 lvLx, rcT
c.345 ARISTOTLE, at Assos in Mysia from 347, goes to Mytilene on Lesbos until 344, to continue research and teaching, probably in a philosophical community including Theophrastos, a native of Lesbos until 344.  Teaches, studies biology. 345 EoΦ 1-151, OCD 114
344 B76 I-599, CAH 6-621, 770, DGRBM, GHH, KPHP 75, TTPC
c.345 EPHESUS, under Persia 386-336, comes under SYRPHAX until 333. 345 rcT
c.344 ORONTES, satrap of Mysia at Pergamum from 362, ends. 344 hifi, rcT
c.343 HYDRYTES (aka Idrieus) satrap of Caria from 350, dies of disease in Halicarnassus, leaving Caria to sis/widow ADA until 340, bypassing the youngest son of Hecatomnus, Pixodarus. 344 B76 1-824, CAH 6-91, 224, DGRBM 1-18, 2-563, lvA
344/3 CAH 6-329
343 frH, rcT     341 rcT
c.342 Artaxerxes III king of Medo-Persia 359-38, sends Memnon of Rhodes to reconquer coastal cities under Memnon's bro Hermias that had rebelled. 345 DGRBM 2-410 342 wikHerm
c.341 HERMIAS, tyrant of Atarneus on coast of Aeolia from 351, (friend of Aristotle) arrested at a conference with bro and Rhodian mercenary Mentor, sent captive to Susa, where he is executed. executed 342
CAH 6, OCD 672
341 CAH 6-94, 621, 774, OCD 504
c.340 Rhodian mercenary MENTOR dies.  Bro Memnon continues. 340 lvA
c.340 ADA dau of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria from 341, expelled from Halicarnassus by the youngest son of Hecatomnus, PIXODAROS (Pyxodoros), who succeeds until 335.  Ada, still supported by the countryside, holds fortress of Alinda. 341 B76 1-824, CAH 6-226, frH     340 CAH 6-94, DGRBM 1-18, lvA, wikHlc, wikPC
c.338 TIMOTHEOS, tyrant of Heraclea from 353, dies.  Bro DIONYSIOS succeeds until 305. 338 DGRBM 1-1032, rcT
c.337 ARIOBARZANES-II, satrap of Pontus from 363, ends.  Son MITHRIDATES-II succeeds until 301. 337 CAH 9-130,
DGRBM 1-286, 2-1095, rcT 337/6 frH     336 GHH
c.337 PONTUS, under Persian satraps from 550, Kingdom of PONTUS founded.  Satrap MITHRIDATES-II becomes king MITHRIDATES-I until 316. 337 anan 336 GHH
c.337 PIXODAROS, satrap of Caria 340-35, offers the hand of a dau to Macedonian prince Arridaeus.  Philip-II king of Macedonia 356-36 likes the idea. 337 lvA
c.337 Alexander, son of Philip-II, sends embassy to Pixodaros, satrap of Caria asking for the hand of his daughter.  Philip learns of it, punishes Alex, and the alliance is canceled. 337 lvA
c.337/6 MITHRIDATES-II becomes tyrant of the Greek town of Cius in Mysia until 302. 337/6 OCD 695
c.336 PHILIP-II sends 10,000 troops under generals PARMENIO and Attalus from Macedonia across Hellespont to Abydos. 336 B76 8-369, 14-226,
DGRBM 3-126, spring CAH 6-787, IDB 3-216, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, RAH 313, bk, lvG
c.336 AMYNTAS, son of Antiochus, implicated in murder of Philip-II, flees to Ephesus.  Protected by Persians. 336 DGRBM 1-155
c.336 PIXODAROS satrap of Caria 340-35, seeks alliance with Philip-II. 336 CAH 6
c.336 EPHESUS, under Persia from 386, under tyrant SYRPHAX 345-34, taken by Parmenio, but not fully under Macedonia until 334. 336 B76 8-369 333 rcT
c.336 MEMNON, Rhodian mercenary working for Persia, now has authority over all west coast of Anatolia, successfully resists Macedonian generals. 336 DGRBM 2-1028, OCD 669, lvG
c.336 At news of death of Philip-II and ascension of Alex-III, ATTALUS, who is hated by Alex-III rebels.  He then reconsiders it, and attempts reconciliation. 336 DGRBM 1-409, 2-361
c.336 HECATAEOS tyrant of Cardia, on orders of Alex-III, gathers an army, crosses to Anatolia to kill Attalus.  He joins Parmenio, and they decide to have Attalus secretly murdered. 336 DGRBM 2-362
c.336 ATTALUS, who is hated by Alex-III, murdered by order of Parmenio. 336 DGRBM 1-409, 2-362, lvG
c.336 MAZDAI satrap of Cilicia from 361, leaves to become governor of Babylon until 328.  Ruler of Cilicia unknown until 332. 336 lvA, rcT
c.335 CHARIDEMOS, Euboean mercenary, working for Athens from 356, escapes to Anatolia, joins Persians until 333.Caria under 335
OCD 227
c.335 MEMNON, Rhodian mercenary working for Persia, defeats CALAS, general under Parmenio in the Troad.  Calas flees to Rhaetum. 335 DGRBM 1-559
c.335 PIXODAROS satrap of Caria from 340, dies.  Son-in-law ORONTOBATES is appointed by Darius-III to succeed until 334.  Mercenary leader Memnon of Rhodes is the power behind him. 336 CAH 6-226
335 DGRBM 1-18, frH, rcT, wikHlc, wikPC
334 B76 1-824, lvA
c.335 Ionian coast attacked by Macedonians. 335 bk
334 spring ALEX-III, with 32,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, and historians, supported by 160 ships, crosses (Hellespont or Dardanelles is disputed.) into Anatolia.  He takes his imbecillic half bro Philip Arrhidaeus to guard against a potential coup in Macedonia. 334 B76 1-469, 8-347, CAH 6, Dur 2-544, GHH, IDB 3-743, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, OCD 495, 815, RAH 323, TAWH 17, anan, hmLx, lvA, lvG, lvLx, vrb, wikLx
334 OCD 495, 815, OHG, RAH 323, TAWH 17, wikLx

Anatolia 334-332