anan     bk     frH     hifi     hmLx     hwD     lvG     lvLx     rcT     wikLx

Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
334 spring ALEXANDER the GREAT, with 32,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, and historians, supported by 160 ships, crosses from Thrace (Hellespont or Dardanelles is disputed.) into Anatolia.  He takes his imbecillic half bro Philip Arrhidaeus to avert a potential coup in Macedonia. spring 334 B76 III-380, 1-469, 8-374, CAH 6-798, DGRBM 1-119, Dur 2-544, GHH, IDB 3-743, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, OCD 495, 815, OHG, RAH 323, SHWC 87, TAWH 17, anan, hmLx, lvA, lvG, lvLx, vrb, wikLx
c.334 LAMPSACUS, under Persians from 405, taken by ALEX-III, under Macedonia until ?. 334
B76 VI-14
c.334 Athenian CHARES, now living at Sigeum in the Troad, pays respects to Alex-III on his way to Ilium (Troy-8). 334 DGRBM 1-683
c.334 ILIUM (Troy-8 700-200) under Persians from 359, taken by ALEX-III, who sends trophies back to Athens.  Alex visits temple of Athena Ilias and sacrifices at the tomb of Achilles, whom Alex believes to be his ancestor.  Ilium under Macedonia until 323. 334 B76 1-469, 8-347, MCAW 168, lvG, lvLx, wikTr     333 rcT
c.334 ALEXANDRIA TROAS founded on the site of Troy. 334 B76 I-227
c.334 CYZICUS under Persia from 411, comes under Macedonia until 305. 334 rcT
c.334 Persian satraps of Hellespontine Phrygia, Lydia, Cilicia, etc. assemble at Zelea, near Dascylium. 334 lvLx
c.334 MITHROBUZANES, last Achaemenid satrap of Cappadocia from ?, dies. 334 wikCpS
c. 334 GranicusMEMNON of Rhodes, commander of Darius' Greek mercenaries in Anatolia 334-3, retreats employing scorched earth tactics.  The satraps force him to make a stand with 40,000 troops at the GRANICUS River, where ALEX-III makes a crazy charge without a battle plan and annihilates Memnon's troopsGeneral Clitus the Black saves Alex's life during the battle.  2,000 of Memnon's men are captured and sent to stone-quarries of MacedoniaMacedonians lose 115. map:
Frank Martini

334 B76 IV-678, 1-469, 8-374, 9-836, BCoC 408, CAH 6, CDCC 34, 129, DGRBM 1-785, Dur 2-458, GHH, LEWH 53, 79, MCAW 167-8, OCD 669, OHG, WPOT 331, anan, KoP, lvG, lvLx, wikP
c.334 SPITHRIDATES last Persian satrap of Lydia from 350 , killed at Granicus.  LYDIA, under Persia from 546, comes under Macedonia until 323.  Alex-III restores ancient Lydian laws and customs, and makes Asander, bro of Parmenio satrap of Lydia until 331. 334 CDCC 534, DGRBM 1-379, IDB 3-191, bk, lvLx, rcT, wikAsn
c.334 DASCYLIUM, capital of Hellespontine Phrygia, under Persians from ?, taken by Parmenio, under Macedonia until ?. 334 GHH, lvLx
c.334 Ionian cities rebel against Persians, support ALEX-III.  Alex plays liberator, uses force only when diplomacy fails. 334 B76 8-374, LEWH 79, anan
c.334 PERGAMUM, under Persians from 546, taken by ALEX-III, under Macedonia until 323, under Macedonians until 282. 334 hifi 333 rcT
c.334 GORDION (Gordium), capital of Phrygia, under Persians from ?, taken by Parmenio, under Macedonia until ?. 334 lvA
c.334 SARDIS, under Persia from 546, under Mithrenes from ?, submits to Alex-III without a fight.  Mithrenes is treated well.  A Macedonian garrison under general Amyntas is installed.  Sardis becomes a free city under Macedonia until 322. 334 CDCC 534, 786, DGRBM 1-155, 2-1093, GHH, IDB 3-191, 4-222, ISBE 4-336, lvA, lvLx, wikAmnt     333 rcT
c.334 ADA, former satrap of Caria 341-40, fortified in Alinda from 340, quickly surrenders to Alex-III and ingratiates herself to him - begs him to let her adopt him. 334
DGRBM 1-18, wikHlc
c.334 SMYRNA, under Persia from 386, refounded by ALEX-III, under Macedonia until 323. 334 CDCC 828, rcT
c.334 AMYNTAS, son of Antiochus, implicated in murder of Philip-II, in Ephesus from 336, at approach of Macedonian army, flees to court of Darius-III. 334
DGRBM 1-155
c.334 EPHESUS, taken by Parmenio 336, retaken by ALEX-III, who pacifies rival factions and donates funds to rebuild the temple of Artemis, but it won't be started until 323.  Ephesus under Macedonia until 323.  Pro-Persian tyrant from 345 SYRPHAX and his family are stoned to death.  Democracy established. 334 B76 6-905, 8-374, BHS 1-107, ISBE 2-116, OCD 387 333 rcT
c.334 ALEX-III offers to rebuild the temple of Artemis at Ephesus on condition that it bear his name.  Ephesians decline on grounds that one god should not build a temple to another. 334 ISBE 1-307
c.334 Nicanor (bro of Parmenio), with 160 ships, occupies small island of Lade, which commands the entrance to the harbor of Miletos.  3 days later, the Persian fleet arrives, but too late.  They could not enter Miletos and were forced to anchor off Cape Mycale, too far to help Miletos. 334 lvLx
c.334 EPHOROS of Cyme, Greek historian, fl 350, now an old man, declines offer by Alex-III to accompany him as official historiographer. no date: wikEΦ
c.334 MILETOS Caria, under Persians from 386, inspired by proximity of Persian fleet, resists Alex-III until taken by assault.  Under Macedonia until 333. 334 B76 VI-887, CDCC 579, GHH, IDB 3-379, MCAW 168, lvLx, rcT
no date: B76 1-469, OCD 687
c.334 After fall of Miletos, the Persian fleet moves south to Halicarnassus, where Memnon of Rhodes is supreme commander of Persian forces in the west. 334 lvLx
c.334 BARSINE, dau of Artabazos satrap of Bithynia 376-28, sent by Memnon of Rhodes along with her children as hostages to Darius-III. 334 DGRBM 1-464
c.334 CARIA under the HECATOMIDS from 395, under satrap ORONTOBATES from 335, taken by ALEX-III.  Under Macedonia until 305.  Given to sis of Mausolus, ADA, who adopts Alex-III as her son and rules until 326.  Ada is opposed by Olympichus in Mylasa. 334 CDCC 165, OCD 205, frH, lvA, rcT, wikHlc
c.334 PTOLEMAEOS son of Philip given 3,000 inf and 200 cav by Alex-III and put in charge of Caria until ?. no date:
DGRBM 3-565
c.334 ORONTOBATES defeated by Ptolemaeos son of Philip and Asander, governor of Lydia. 332 DGRBM 3-565
c.334 ORONTOBATES and MEMNON send their money to Cos island, entrench themselves in Halicarnassus.  Despairing of success, they burn the city and escape to Cos. 334 DGRBM 3-58
c.334 HALICARNASSUS, largest city in Caria, still loyal to Persians, besieged by ALEX-III until 334/3.  His siege towers must have been huge, because the defenders built a 46 meter tower to oppose him. 334 B76 IV-852, CAH 6-802, CDCC 165, CDGRA 637, MCAW 168, wikLx
c.334 LYCIA, under Persia from 387, taken by ALEX-III.  Under Macedonia until 305. 335 rcT     334 CAH 6, anan
334/3 B76 1-469, lvLc
c.334 PERGA Pamphylia, under Persia from ?, opens gates to ALEX-III, under Macedonia until ?. 333
B76 1-469
c.334 SIDE Pamphylia under Persia from ? comes under Alex-III, under Macedonia until ?, Re-hellenized. 334/3 lvA
c.334 ASPENDOS Pamphylia, under Persia from 411 comes under Alex-III, under Macedonia until 190.  Forced to accept a Macedonian garrison and pay 4,000 horses in tax annually. 333
B76 I-588, wikAsp
c.334 ALEX-III goes from Perga Pamphylia north thru Pisidia to Phrygia. 333 B76 1-469, 8-374, spring CAH 6-803
c.334 Macedonian army reaches Celaenae Phrygia.  Celaenae is too strong to besiege without causing unwanted delay, so Alex-III agrees to a conditional surrender of the garrison, and moves on. 333 hwD
c.334 CLEANDER sent by Alex-III to Peloponnese to collect mercenaries and then rejoin him, wherever he is, which will be at Tyre 331. late 334 DGRBM 1-778
c.334 PHRYGIA, under Medo-Persia from 546, under satrap ARSITES from 353, comes under Macedonia until 323. 334 rcT 333 hifi
c.334 CALAS, son of Harpalus, appointed satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia until ?. 334 DGRBM 1-559
c.334 PAPHLAGONIA, under Persia from 546, comes under Macedonia until 323. 334 rcT
333 B76 VII-734
c.334 ARSITES-I satrap of Paphlagonia from 353, ends.  Son of Harpalus of Elimiotis, CALAS-I succeeds until 325. 334 wikLPΦ
334/3 PISIDIA, under Persia from ?, taken by ALEX-III. 334 anan, lvLx
334/3 B76 1-469, CAH 6
334/3 HALICARNASSUS, capital of Caria besieged by Macedonians from 334, taken by storm, destroyed.  Under Macedonia until ?.  Never fully recovers.  Persian troops escape with fleet. 334 CAH 6-802, GHH, IDB 2-513, ISBE 2-599, lvLx
333 CAH 6-690, CDCC 414, lvLx
334/3 ALEX-III sends his recently married troops to return from Caria to Macedonia for recreation and procreation until 333.  Meleager, Coenus, and Ptolemy son of Seleucus are in charge of them. 334/3 CAH 6-802, DGRBM 2-1016, RAH 324
c.334/3 Parmenio marches via the Hermus valley to Phrygia with allied troops, while Alex-III and the bulk of the army push thru the interior of Lycia. 334/3
CAH 6-802
c.333 The troops whom ALEX-III sent to Macedonia in 334 are sent by Antipater under Meleager and Coenus to ALEX-III.  They will meet him at Gordion. 334/3 lvG, lvLx
333 B76 1-469, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1017, LEWH 79, RAH 324
c.333 NEARCHUS is appointed satrap of Lycia and Pamphylia until 329.  Nearchus is now responsible for ports on south coast.  As long he holds them, the Persian navy can't sail from Cyprus to the Aegean, except thru open waters, which is risky. early 333 lvG
c.333 MEMNON of Rhodes, commander of Darius' Greek mercenaries in Anatolia from 334, dies of illness at Mytilene Lesbos.  His Greek mercenaries are recalled to Syria by Darius-III.  Pharnabazos and Autophradates succeed as fleet commanders, and continue the siege.  Pharnabazos succeeds as Persian commander of west. 333 DGRBM 1-119, 448, 2-1029, 3-241, GHH, LEWH 79, OCD 669, lvA, lvLx
no date; hmLx
c.333 THYMONDAS, son of Mentor of Rhodes, sent into Lycia by Darius-III to commission Pharnabazos to succeed Memnon of Rhodes in command of the fleet. 333
DGRBM 3-1117
c.333 MYTILENE Lesbos besieged originally by Memnon of Rhodes 333, now falls to Pharnabazos and Autophradates. 333 CAH 6-804, DGRBM 1-119, 448, OCD 719, wikAnt
c.333 Rhodian LYCOMEDES put in charge of Persian garrison at Mytilene until 332. 333 DGRBM 2-846
c.333 After Mytilene, Pharnabazos sails with his prisoners to Lycia.  Autophradates attacks other Aegean islands loyal to Macedonians. 333 DGRBM 1-448
c.333 BITHYNIA under Persia from 480, under satrap Artabazos 376-28, north comes under Thracians, south under Alex-III until 328. 333 rcT
c.333 CHARIDEMOS, Euboean mercenary, with Persians from 335 executed for tactless advice by Darius-III. 333 B76 II-752, DGRBM 1-685, GHH, OCD 227
c.333 PAMPHYLIA, under Persia from 499, comes under Macedonia until 305.   Alex-III puts friend NEARCHOS in charge.  Nearchos organizes Pamphylia, which never rebels against Macedonians. 333 CAH 6, lvA, rcT
c.333 ANTIGONUS Monophthalamus, Macedonian general, appointed satrap of eastern Phrygia by Alex-III, and left in charge with only 1,500 mercenaries when Alex leaves. 333 B76 1-990,
CAH 6-860, OCD 69, hwD, lvLx, frH, wikAnt
c.333 BALACROS, son of Amyntas, put in command of Macedonian allies. 334 DGRBM 1-454
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, sails with 1 trireme to Ionia, asks Pharnabazos and Autophradates for money and arms to fight Macedonians in GreecePharnabazos gives him 30 talents and 10 triremes. 333 DGRBM 1-72, spring lvG
c.333 KALAS appointed satrap of western Phrygia by Alex-III until 331. 333 rcT
c.333 Athenian CHARES holds a command working for Persians in Mytilene Lesbos until 332 during Persian offensive in the Aegean. 333 DGRBM 1-683, OCD 227
c.333 Alex-III sends his own detachment of mercenaries to Mytilene Lesbos until 332 during Persian offensive in the Aegean. 333
BHS 1-106
c.333 Alex-III meets Parmenio at Gordion (Gordium) Phrygia. 333 CAH 6-803, DGRBM 1-119, lvG, lvLx
c.333 ALEX-III at Gordion, commissions a new fleet with separate commanders for the Hellespont and Ionian coast. spring 333
CAH 6-801, 804
c.333 ALEX-III at Gordion, cuts GORDIAN KNOT. 334/3 MCAW 167
333 B76 1-469, 8-374,
CAH 6-804, GHH, OCD 471
c.333 ALEX-III goes from Gordion Phrygia to Ancyra. 333 B76 1-469, May CAH 6-805, DGRBM 1-119, lvLx
c.333 PONTUS under Persia from 550, comes under Macedonia until ?. 333 rcT
c.333 CAPPADOCIA, under Medo-Persia from 546, falls to ALEX-III.  Under Macedonia until 322, under Macedonians until 260. 333 B76 1-469, CAH 6-805     331 rcT
c.333 Sabiktas rules south Cappadocia until 332. 333 rcT
c.333 ALEX-III goes from Cappadocia south to Cilicia. 333 lvLx
c.333 Persian strategy is to allow the Macedonians to cross the Taurus Mts.  Once in Cilicia, they would discover all granaries destroyed, and have to return.  Persians would attack the hungry enemies.  Persians, however, underestimate how fast the Macedonian cavalry could reach Tarsus.  Alex captures the granaries before they can be destroyed. no date: lvA
c.333 MILETOSV Caria, under Macedonia from 334 recovered by Persians until ?. late 333 CAH 6-804
c.333 CILICIA under Medo-Persia from 546, under satraps from 401, taken by ALEX-III.  Under Macedonia until 316.  Alex gets a fever in Cilicia, recuperates in Tarsus. 334 B76 1-824
333 B76 1-469, CAH 6-805, GHH, LEWH 79, anan, bk, lvA, lvLx     332 rcT
c.333 PARMENIO arrives at Tarsus in time to prevent Persians from destroying it. 333 CAH 6-805, lvG, lvLx
c.333 SISINES, a Persian in Macedonian service, while Alex-III is in Cilicia, he receives a letter from Nabarzanes, a Persian officer, urging him to kill Alex.  The letter, however, had previously been read by Alex, who had re-sealed it, and caused it to be delivered to Sisines, to test his fidelity.  Sisines intends to tell Alex about it content, but several days elapsed without an opportunity to do so.  Alex, therefore, feeling sure of his treachery, executes him. 333 DGRBM 3-842
c.333 ALEX-III, sick at Tarsus in Cilicia, given a purgative drink by his physician Philippos.  Also receives a letter from Parmenio saying the physician had been paid by Darius-III to poison him.  After reading the letter, Alex downs the drink with no ill effects. 333 DGRBM 3-293, Dur 2-541, GHH, lvLx
c.333 ALEX-III, at Mallos Cilicia, receives news that Darius-III is on the plains of Sochi in Syria 2 days march from the Syrian Gates.  Alex hurries to Castabulum on the coast west of Issus. 333
CAH 6-806
pre-Issus map: Frank Martini
c.333 ALEX-III arrives at Miriandrus seaport at border between Cilicia and SyriaDarius fears to meet him in open plain, and circles behind Alex to plain of Issus, and cuts off Alex's communications. 333 B76 17-947, LEWH 79, lvLx
Issus map: Frank Martini
c.333 ALEX-III, with 5,000 cavalry and less than 30,000 infantry, completely defeats DARIUS-III with 100,000 troops at ISSUS at border between Cilicia and SyriaDETAILS  500 Macedonian casualties to 100,000 Persian.  Darius leaves his mother, wife, 2 daughters, and much loot behind and flees for Babylon. 333 B76 III-380, V-464, 8-374, BCoC 408, CAH 6-806-7, CDCC 34, 129, 467, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-120, Dur 2-458, GHH, IDB 2-478, LEWH 53, 79, MCAW 168, OHG 365, RAH 324, SHWC 87, TToH, TTPC, anan, hmLx, KoP, lvG, lvLx, wikLx, wikP
c.333 AMYNTAS, son of Antiochus, mercenary leader working for Persians, flees with his troops from Issus to Tripolis Phoenicia. 333 DGRBM 1-156
c.333 After Issus, part of Darius army goes to Cilicia, forces the Cilician Gates, and ravages Cappadocia and Paphlagonia.  ANTIGONUS Monophthalamus, satrap of Phrygia takes a year and 3 battles to contain them. 333
CAH 6-808
c.333 Pharnabazos, at Siphnos Island in Cyclades negotiating with Spartan king Agis-III, learns of defeat of Darius at Issus, continues fighting defensively in Anatolia and Aegean until 332. 333 lvLx
c.333 BALACROS son of Nicanor, (after Issus) appointed satrap of Cilicia until ?. 333 DGRBM 1-454
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, at Siphnos Island in Cyclades, learns of Issus, sends word to his bro Agesilaos to meet him in Crete, so that together they might secure it for Sparta. 333 DGRBM 1-72
c.333 ALEXANDRIA CILICIA founded.  Later called Alexandretta. 333 B76 I-227
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, leading mercenaries working for Persia, gathers 8,000 fugitives of Issus and goes to Crete. 333
OCD 27
c.333 MELITENE on Anatolia/Syria border, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 305. 333 rcT
c.333/2 While Alex-III is at Phaselis Lycia, a plot against his life is discovered.  Alexander son of Aeropos and Amyntas son of Antiochus are implicated. 333 GHH
winter 333/2 DGRBM 1-155
c.333/2 Persian counter-attack in Anatolia defeated by ANTIGONUS Monophthalamus, satrap of Phrygia. 333/2
B76 1-470

Anatolia 332-301