c.345 AESCHINES (age 45) digs up dirt on TIMARCHOS, counter charges Timarchos.  Writes speech:  "Against Timarchos", an ad-hominem alledging that Timarchos had no right to charge anyone because his own moral character is defective.  Demosthenes abandons his prosecution of Aeschines, who is narrowly acquitted.  Timarchos loses citizen-rights. 346 CAH 6, frdh
346/5 MCAW 163 345 DGRBM 1-36, 38, GHH, hrbn, bk
no date: OCD 17
c.345 DELOS, though not a member, appeals to the Amphictyonic Council against Athenian control over their temple of Apollo. early 345 CAH 6-763
c.345 ARCHIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 346, ends.  EBULOS succeeds until 344. 345 wikEA
c.345 Messene and Megalopolis apply for membership in Amphictyonic League.  Refused. 345
c.345 Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea Arcadia, burnt down from 395, rebuilding begins. 345
c.345 ARTABAZUS, former satrap of Dascylium, in Macedonia from 352, returns to Persian Anatolia. 345
OCD 125
c.345 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, campaigns against the Ardiaei, one of the 3 greatest Illyrian tribes, at the Gulf of Rhizon on the Dalmatian coast.  The campaign is successful and profitable. 345 CAH 6-762
c.345 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, campaigns in Illyria against Pleuratus, receives a leg wound. 345 CAH 6-763, lvG
c. 344 ThessalyPHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, quells rebellions in Thessaly, subdues all Thessaly, garrisons Pherae, and reunites the Thessalian League, which he had previously cut into tetrarchies (4 divisions).  THESSALY, under Macedonian governor Eudicus from 352, remains mostly under Macedonia until 336. 344
CAH 6, CDGRA 610, TAG 206, rcSB2
c.344 LARISSA Thessaly under Thebes from 368, back under Macedonia until 196. 344 B76 VI-51, rcSB2
c.344 EUDICOS Macedonian governor of Thessaly 352-44, helps Philip-II divide Thessaly into 4 districts (tetrarchies). 344 DGRBM 2-77
c.344 PHERAE comes under Macedonia until 302. 344 CAH 6, DGRA 1094, TAG 206
c.344 EUDICUS Macedonian governor of Thessaly from 352, ends.  Philip-II takes over Thessaly, which remains under Macedonia until 336.  It is divided into 4 tetrarchies.  Eudicos is made tetrarch of one of them. 344 CAH 6-764, ancs, lvG, rcSB2 342 B76 IX-912
c.344 ARISTOTLE at Mytilene Lesbos from 345, returns to Athens until 343/2. 344
c.344 EBULOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 345, ends.  LYCISCOS succeeds until 343. 344 wikEA
c.344 Rumor:  PHILIP-II is preparing to support Argos and Messene in the Peloponnese.  Therefore DEMOSTHENES visits Argos and Messene to warn them of the dangers of doing business with Philip. 344
CAH 6, OCD 330
c.344 Sicilians, including Syracusan exiles, send envoys to Corinth to implore help against both Dionysius-II and Hanno. 344 DGRBM 3-1139
c.344 Corinthians unanimously vote to send TIMOLEON of Corinth, with a few hundred mercenaries, to help Syracuse against Dionysius-II.  He sails to Sicily. 345 B76 8-370, 17-919
344 B76 IX-1017, CAH 6, CDCC 853, 891, DGRBM 2-911, 3-1130, 1139, GHH, MCAW 162, OCD 290, OHG, RAH 307
c.344 PYTHON of Byzantium, envoy of Philip-II arrives in Athens at the head of a mission of Macedon's allies, including Argos and Messene. mid 344 CAH 6-766
c.344 EUBULOS is weakened by opposition of DEMOSTHENES and HEGESIPPOS.  His influence wanes. 346 B76 III-986
344 OCD 412, wikEub
c.344 PYTHON of Byzantium, envoy of Philip-II to Athens, proposes to ammend the 346 Peace of Philocrates:  "each side should keep the territory possessed at the moment of the official conclusion of the peace treaty".  Also change it into a COMMON PEACE to include all Greeks.  Reaction is at first positive, but DEMOSTHENES and HEGESIPPOS point out technical flaws.  Athenians rebuff proposal. 344
CAH 6-766, DGRBM 1-985, OCD 554
OCD 492
c.344 DEMOSTHENES speech "2nd Philippic" says PHILIP-II is not worth negotiating with. 344 B76 5-579, 8-368, CAH 6, CDCC 270, DGRBM 3-276, Dur 2-458, MCAW 165, OCD 330, bk
344/3 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, invades Illyria, defeats the Ardiaei, whose territory extends north from Scodra (the Ardiaei capital on Lake Scodra to the Naro river. 344 DGRBM 3-276, GHH
344/3 CAH 6-439
c.343 BYZANTIUM, independent from 355, joins 2nd Athenian League until 334. 343
B76 9-1069
c.343 ChersoneseAthenian general DOIPEITHES heads a body of Athenian cleruchs to settle the Chersonese.  Thracian city of CARDIA, an ally of Philip-II, soon gets in a territorial dispute with them. 343
CAH 6-768, wikCard, wikDio
c.343 HEGESIPPOS is sent by Athens to renew the Athenian claim on AMPHIPOLIS renounced in the 346 Peace of Philocrates. 343
OCD 492
c.343 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, attacks Cersobleptes, ruler of Odrysians in Thrace, defeats him in several battles. 343 DGRBM 1-674
c.343 Possession of HALONESOS island in Aegean south of Lemnos is disputed by Philip-II and Athens. 343 DGRG 1-1028
c.343 Thebes presses Phocis for repayment of their debt to the Amphictyony levied in 346. 343
CAH 6-767
c.343 LYCISCOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 344, ends.  PYTHODOTOS succeeds until 342. 343 wikEA
c.343 PHILOCRATES is charged with taking bribes in peace negotiations with Philip-II 348-6, successfully prosecuted by HYPERIDES.  Philocrates flees and is condemned to death. 343 CAH 6-767, CDCC 270, OCD 16, 330, 535, 818, bk
c.343 Pro-Macedonians dominant in Eretria and Oreos Euboea until 341. 343 CAH 6
c.343 PHILIP-II uses Megaran traitors Ptoedoros and Perilaos, tries to get control of Megara. 343 DGRBM 3-276
c.343 Corinthians, impressed with Timoleon's success in Sicily, prepare a 2nd expedition of 10 ships, 2,000 hoplites, and 200 cavalry, which leaves Corinth in spring. 343 CAH 6-711
c.343 DEMOSTHENES again prosecutes AESCHINES of accepting bribes from Philip-II, and betraying Athens. 343 B76 5-579, CAH 6-768, DGRBM 1-38, bk, lvG
c.343 DEMOSTHENES speech in court "The False Legation" attacks AESCHINES as if Aeschines had been responsible for convincing Athens to accept the peace of 346.  Aeschines, supported by orator Eubulos and military leader Phocion, is narrowly acquitted. 343 B76 5-579, CAH 6, CDCC 30, Dur 2-458, OCD 16, 17, 330, lvG
BOGUS QUOTE !   When Aeschines spoke, they said, "How well he speaks."
But when Demosthenes spoke, they said, "Let us march against Philip."
No ancient writer ever said this.  It comes from David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising, New York: Random House, 1983.
c.343 AMBRACIA north of Bay of Actium, allied to Athens from 432, comes under Macedonia until 294. 343 rcSB2
c.343 ANTIPHON, Athenian exiled in Macedonia from ?, returns to the Piraeos intending to burn Athenian war ships.  Discovered by Demosthenes and arrested. 342 DGRBM 1-38
c.343 ANTIPHON executed for treason by Athens.  Rumor develops that Aeschines had been his accomplice. 343 bk     342 DGRBM 1-38, 207
c.343 Aeschines denounces Demosthenes for arrest of Antiphon, as a violation of the constitution. 342 DGRBM 1-38
c.343 ATHENIAN general PHOCION defends Megara.  343 OCD 826
c.343 Sparta responds to a Hellenic call for help. 343 MCAW 162
c. 343 PHILIP-II searches for a tutor for son Alex, considers Isocrates and Speusippos, who offers to resign his current position in order to take the job.  Philip chooses Aristotle, a choice influenced by Aristotle's early association with the Macedonian court and by recommendation of Hermias, a Macedonian sympathizer.  Philip agrees to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed in 348. 343 CAH 6
Alex age 13: wikLx
CAH 6-771
c. 343 ARISTOTLE in Athens from 344, at invitation of Philip-II, moves to Pella, capital of Macedonia, to tutor Alexander age 13 until 340.  Philip provides a complex of caves and shaded walks known as the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom. 343 Dur 2-525, MCAW 163, OHG, TToH, wikArstt     343/2 B76 8-369, 373, OCD 114, RAH 367
342 CAH 6-771, DGRBM 1-318, Dur 2-458, EoΦ 1-151, GHH, TTPC, bk
c.343 PHILIP-II begins southwestern expedition. fall-winter 343 CAH 6-769
c.343 PHILIP-II sends final proposal to Athens to ammend the 346 Peace of Philocrates.  Again he points out the benefits his friendship would bring, and invites Athenians to extend the treaty to all interested participants.  This time he offers the island of Halonesos, and proposes a joint campaign to rid the Aegean of pirates.  Both are bribes to ignore his rapacity and dishonesty. 343
CAH 6-769
c.343/2 PHILIP-II goes to Epirus unopposed. 343/2 CAH 6-439, 769
343/2 MolossiaARYBBAS, 3rd Aeacid king of Molossia and Epirus from 368, expelled by Philip-II, goes to Athens.  Philip-II installs his own bro-in-law ALEXANDER-I, age 20, until 330. 350 lvG
343/2 CAH 6-439 342 CAH 6, OCD 41, MRDK, rcSB2
342/1 wikAryb
c.343/2 EUBULOS, manager of Theoric fund in Athens from 350, ends.  Cephisophon of Aphidna succeeds until 337. 343/2 wikTh
c.342 PHILIP-II extends and strengthens the south border of Molossia, takes 3 Greek cities north of the Ambracian Gulf - Buchetium, Elatria, and Pandosia - and incorporates them and their lands into Molossia. 342 CAH 6-769, OCD 330
c.342 PYTHODOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 343, ends.  SOSIGENES succeeds until 341. 342 wikEA
c.342 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, again proposes to ammend the 346 Peace of Philocrates into a COMMON PEACE to include all Greeks.  DEMOSTHENES and HEGESIPPOS again oppose this.  Proposal collapses. 342
OCD 330, 492
c.342 PHILIP-II begins to intervene directly in Greece. 342 OCD 330
c.342 HEGESIPPOS (or Demosthenes) speech: "On Halonesos"
The orator rejects Philip's proposals and demands an arbitrator to settle their differences.
343 DGRBM 1-985
342 CAH 6, DGRBM
c.342 DEMOSTHENES and his war party gain full control of Athens.  Eubulos fades out of history. 342
OCD 412
c.342 DEMOSTHENES visits the Peloponnese, proposes a Hellenic League to defend against Philip-II.  Gets little enthusiasm. 342
OCD 330
c.342 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, leaves Antipater in charge of Macedonia, invades eastern Thrace and Thracian Chersonese, planning to cut grain supply from Black Sea to Greece.  Athenian Diopeithes opposes him.  Thracian campaign lasts until 339. 342 B76 14-226,
mid CAH 6-778, DGRBM 3-277, GHH, OCD 224, RAH 312, bk, vrb, lvG, wikAnt
c.342 Philip-II .conquers Odrysian heartland, deposing reigning kings or rebel vassals. 342 wikOK
c.342 Son of Amadokos-II, TERES-II deposed.  Vassal king of Maronia and Chersonese under Philip-II from 351.  Land comes under Macedonia until 331. 342 frH, wikLRTD, wikOK
Macedonia Thrace
c.342 CARDIA begins hostilities with Athenian cleruchs, there from 342PHILIP-II sends help to Cardians.  Athenian Diopeithes ravages Thracian coast, destroys 2 cities under Macedonia, and tortures Philip's envoy.  Philip-II proposes settlement by Arbitration.  Athens refuses. 343 wikCard, wikDio
CAH 6-773
c.342 EUMOLPIA, Thracian city from ?, commanding the main road from Macedonia to Black Sea, refounded by Philip-II as PHILIPOPOLIS. Argolis 342
OCD 816
341 lvG
c.342 BEROE Thrace (location disputed) founded by Philip-II. 342 wikBr
c.342 CERSOBLEPTES, king of Odrysians in Thrace 359-41, defeated by Philip-II.  Odrysian kingdom of Thrace comes under Macedonia. 342 DGRBM 3-277, OCD 224, vrb, lvG
c.342 Northern Thrace, weakened by Macedonia, occupied by Scythians. 342 vrb
c.342 ATHENS politically divided from 346, is now united behind the anti-Macedonian war party. 342 OCD 98, 412
c.342 ATHENS sends troops to Acarnania and seeks alliances. 343 GHH
342 CAH 6, DGRBM
c.342 PARMENIO intervenes in Euboea, supports pro-Macedonian party at Eretria. 342 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-126
c.342 Oreos Euboea taken by Parmenio, who executes Euphraeos, leader of the resistance. 342 DGRBM 3-126
c.342 Athenians try to take control of Euboean towns and expel pro-Macedonian rulers.  Antipater, regent of Macedonia for Philip-II, sends troops to stop them. 342 wikAnt
c.342 Sculptor LYSIPPOS sculpts "Coridas", a Pythian victor at the pancratium. 342
B76 VI-421
c.342 ARISTOTLE, tutoring Alexander in Pella 343-40, writes  On Monarchy  and  Alexander or About Colonists .  Content unknown. tutoring period: OCD 115
c.342 ARCHIDAMOS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 360-38 invited to help Tarentum against the Lucanians, lands in Italy. 343 bk     343/2 CAH 6-766
342 OCD 98
338 DGRBM 1-267
c.342 COTHELAS, king of the Getae, from northern Thrace to the Danube, allies with Philip-II. late 342
CAH 6-773
342/1 Philip-II winters in Thrace. 342/1 DGRBM
c.341 Son of Cotys-I, CERSOBLEPTES deposed.  King of Odrysians in Thrace from 359, under Macedonia from 342, deposed by Philip-II.  THRACE, independent from 479, annexed by Philip-II, under Macedonia until 330.  Son of Cotys-I, SEUTHES-III is client king until 306. 342/1 MCAW 164
341 B76 8-368, CAH 6, OCD 224, frH, rcSB2, wikLRTD, wikOK
c.341 Athens, persuaded by Demosthenes, makes anti-Macedonian alliances in Euboean cities, including Chalcis. 341 CAH 6, LEWH 78
c.341 CHALCIS Euboea joins Delian League until 338. 342 rcSB3
c.341 SOSIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 342, ends.  NICOMACHOS succeeds until 340. 341 wikEA
c.341 EUBOEAN LEAGUE incorporated until 338. 341 CDCC 332, OCD 412
c.341 Eretria and Oreos in Euboea, under pro-Macedonian tyrants Cleitarchos and Philistides from 443, taken by Atheian general Phocion.  This gives supremacy of Euboea to Callias tyrant of Chalcis. 341 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-568, 3-340, OCD 826
c.341 Cleitarchus, pro-Macedonian tyrant of Eretria, and Philistides pro-Macedonian tyrant of Oreos expelled by Athenian Phocion. 341 DGRBM 2-1041, DGRG 1-847
c.341 Demosthenes and Callias tyrant of Chalcis canvass support in west Greece and Peloponnese. 341 CAH 6
c.341 On request of Philip-II, Athenian general DIOPEITHES is charged with misconduct in the Chersonese in 343-2.  DEMOSTHENES successfully defends Diopeithes, who is allowed to retain his command. 341 DGRBM 1-1049, OCD 330, wikDio
c.341 DEMOSTHENES speeches "On the Chersonese" in which he defends actions of Diopeithes against Cardia;  and "3rd Philippic":  a reaction to Philip's conquest of Thrace and appeal for a Hellenic league against him. 342 DGRBM 1-985
341 B76 5-579, CAH 6, CDCC 270, 330, DGRBM 1-1049, GHH, MCAW 165, bk
c.341 DEMOSTHENES speech "4th Philippic".  Demands an appeal to Persia to join in attacking Philip-II.  Athens agrees. 341 CAH 6, CDCC 330, DGRBM
c.341 Athenian embassy to Susa to make alliance against Philip-II finds Artaxerxes-III receptive. fall 341
CAH 6-774
341/0 DEMOSTHENES speech "Against Lacritos". 341/40 CAH 6-501
341/0 Athens, persuaded by Demosthenes, makes anti-Macedonian alliances with Byzantium. 343 B76 9-1069
341/0 OCD 186, 331
Macedonia Thrace
341/0 CHERSONESE peninsula, last Athenian possession in northeast, invaded By Philip-II. 341/0
B76 8-368
341/0 PERINTHOS on west bank of Sea of Marmara, refuses to fight against Athenians, besieged by Philip-II until 340.  He uses a siege tower 37 meters high.  Artaxerxes-III helps Perinthos. 342 CDCC 88, 316
341 DGRBM 1-985, OCD 388
winter 341/0 OCD 801, lvG
340 B76 I-550, CAH 6-690, 775, DGRBM, GHH, lvA, lvG
c.340 LYCCEIOS (Lycaeios), son of Agis, king of Paeonia from 359, vassal of Macedonia from 358, ends.  PATRAOS succeeds until 315. 340 rcEB, wikPn
c.340 SELYBRIA (Selymbria) between Perinthos & Byzantium, besieged by Philip-II. 340 DGRBM GHH
c.340 PERINTHOS, besieged by Philip-II from 341/0, is helped by Byzantium, Athens, and Persian coastal satrapsPhilip abandons siege. 340 B76 III-918,
CAH 6, OCD 801, 987
340/39 CAH 6-95
c.340 History of Ephoros ends with siege of Perinthos. 340 DGRBM, wikEΦ
c.340 ANAXARCHOS, philosopher of Abdera Thrace, flourishes.  A man of unknown stance, who will be most remembered for his flattery of Alex-III. 340 DGRBM 1-163
c. 340

c. 340
ARISTOTLE publishes 6 treatises on LOGIC:   "Categories", "On Interpretation", "Prior Analytics", "Posterior Analytics", "Topics", "Sophistical Refutations" .  They will later be grouped by commentators under the title  Organon  (Instrument).
  1.  Categories :  A category is a classification of kinds of relation that may hold between a subject and predicate - i.e. a predication.  Distinguishes 3 predications:  homonymy, synonymy, and paronymy (aka equivocal, univocal, and derivative).  There are 10 kinds of categories:  substance (what-it-is), quantity, quality, relative, where, when, situation (being-in-a-position), having, doing, undergoing (being-acted-on).
  2.  On Interpretation :  Distinguishes terms (symbols for things), proposition (the content of a meaningful declarative statement), relationships between affirmative, negative, universal, and particular propositions.  A single assertion must either affirm or deny a single predicate of a single subject.  Spells out the relationships of contradiction for sentences with universal subjects.  A contradiction is a pair of propositions one of which must be true and the other false.
  3.  Prior Analytics :  Introduces syllogistic method.  Deduction is defined as "speech (Λ LOGOS V) in which, certain things having been supposed, something different from those supposed results of necessity because of their being so".  It is contrasted to induction, "argument from the particular to the universal".
  4.  Posterior Analytics :  Deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge.  Even if a syllogism is faultless, the premises of which it is composed may be true or false, probable or improbable.  When premises are not certain, a syllogism is called "dialectical".  These are dealt with in Topics.  A syllogism which seems perfect in matter and form, but is not, is called "sophistical".  These are dealt with in Sophistical Refutations.
  5.  Topics  V:  Does not explicitly define topos, though it is "at least primarily a strategy for argument not infrequently justified or explained by a principle."  Topics are places from which dialectical syllogisms (i.e. arguments in which the propositions rest upon commonly-held opinions) may be discovered or invented.  Repeats the 10 kinds of categories.  An accident, a genus, a peculiar property and a definition will always be in one of these categories.  The means by which arguments may be obtained are summarized as:
    • the provision of propositions
    • discovery of the number of senses of a term
    • the discovery of differences
    • the investigation of similarities
    Links to his future work on rhetoric.
  6.  Sophistical Refutations :  Discusses 13 logical fallacies:
    Verbal fallacies:  accent or emphasis, amphiboly, equivocation, composition, division, figure of speech
    Material fallacies:  accident, affirming the consequent, converse accident, irrelevant conclusion, begging the question, false cause, multiple questions
B76 1-468, OCD 114, RAH 367
no date: stnf, wikOrg
c.340 NICOMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 341, ends.  THEOPHRASTOS succeeds until 339. 340 wikEA
c.340 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, puts son ALEXANDER in charge of Macedonia while Philip leaves to attack Byzantuim. 340 B76 1-468, GHH, bk, wikLx
c.340 ARISTOTLE, Alex's tutor from 345, is dismissed and commissioned by Philip to oversee the restoration of Stagira Chalcidice until 335. 342 GHH     340 Dur 2-525, OCD 114, RAH 367, bk
338 Dur 2-458     336 bk
c.340 BYZANTIUM, in 2nd Athenian League 343-34, besieged by PHILIP-II until 339.  He uses 80 cubit siege towers and arrow-shooting catapults, 1st large scale use of artillery in Greek world. 341/0 lvG     340 B76 I-550, 8-368, CAH 6, CDGRA 637, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 186, 987, lvG
c.340 New ARSENAL for the Piraeos designed by Philo of Eleusis. 340 CAH 7.1-374
c.340 DEMOSTHENES gets law revised so that richer Athenians are responsible for financing ship building. 340
MCAW 167
c.340 Military conscription of young men introduced in Athens.  Civic duties included. 340
MCAW 167
c.340 DEMOSTHENES gets Athenians to vote Theoric fund (money reserved from 350 for festivals, sacrifices, and public entertainments) to military purposes. 340 MCAW 167 339 DGRA 1126
c.340 Athens declares war on Philip-II. 340 Oct CAH 6, DGRBM
c.340 Athenian CHARES sent to help Byzantium against Philip-II, but Byzantines don't trust Chares because of his actions in 346.  They refuse to receive him.  Chares plunders allies of Athens until 339. 340 DGRBM 1-683, 3-340,
c.340 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, in Thrace from 342, returns to Pella and sends son ALEXANDER to subdue revolts in south Thrace. 340 wikLx
c.340 ALEXANDER defeats the Maedi tribe of Thrace. 340 B76 1-468, CAH 6
c.340 ALEXANDROPOLIS Thrace founded by Alexander.  He expels the locals and settles a mixed population.  It soon disappears. 340 CAH 6, wikAM
c.340 PHILIP-II attacks Athenian possessions in Bosporus area, using newly devised towers and rams, but is successfully resisted by Athenian navy. 340 MCAW 166-7, OCD 141
c.340 Λ CORCYRA under independent oligarchy 360-303, rejoins Athens to counter Macedonian incursions into the Adriatic. 340
OCD 289
c.340 Dicaerchos MapDICAEARCHOS of Messana, who lived in Peloponnese, makes a Λ MAP of EARTH, using two reference lines.  One goes thru Rhodes and the Pillars of Hercules.  The other goes north and south at Rhodes.  This line becomes standard on maps.  He also makes a Λ SPHERICAL map of Earth.   (See Ecphantus 390)   Writes  Life of Greece . 340 Dur 2-488 fl. 326-296
OCD 338
300 B76 11-471 no date: TTT 54
c. 340 Derveni Papyrus Derveni Papyrus  deposited in a grave in Dreveni Macedonia contains a philosophical treatise that is an allegorical commentary on an Orphic poem in hexameters, the  "Protogonos Theogony"  concerning the birth of the gods, produced in the circle of Anaxagoras, written in 2nd half of 5th century BC.  Begins "Close the doors, you uninitiated", an admonition to secrecy, recounted by Plato.  Nyx (Night) give birth to Heaven (Uranos), who becomes the first king.  Cronus takes kingship, but is succeeded by Zeus, who having "heard oracles from his father", goes to the sanctuary of Nyx, who tells him "all the oracles which afterwards he was to put into effect." Upon hearing them, Zeus "swallowed the phallus [of Uranos] who first had ejaculated the brilliance of heaven." photo: {{PD-US}}

400 or&or
340 orti, wikDP, wikOrΦ 300 aja
c.340 orphic tab Two gold Orphic tablets shaped like ivy leaves are buried in a grave near ancient Pelinna Thessaly.  They are regarded as instructions on what to say when confronted by Persephone in the Underworld.  "Tell Persephone that Bacchus himself has set you free," meaning the dead are Orphic initiates asking for release from punishment that would otherwise befall them. photo: Remi Mathis

4th cen or&or late 4th cen wikPl, wikTp
c.340 Sculptor SCOPAS of Paros (fl. 370) dies. 350 wikSc     340 LEWH 80, TToH     330 CAH 6
c.340 Sculptor TIMOTHEOS, apparently the leading sculptor at the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus, c.380, dies.  Worked on the Mausoleum. 340 wikTm
c.340 Euboean League under hegemony of Chalcis approved by Athens. 340 CAH 6
c.340 Courtesan LAIS of Hyccara, in Thessaly, lured into the temple of Aphrodite by jealous Thessalian women and stoned to death. 340 wikLH 320 atl4
c.340 fall PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, breaks Peace of Philocrates 346, declares war on Athens, siezes a grain fleet bound for Athens. fall 340 B76 8-368, CAH 6, OCD 331, lvG
339 CDCC 775
c.340 onagre TORSION SIEGE ENGINE developed by Philip-II.  Possibly similar to this onagre. pic {{PD-US}}

fall 340 wikTSE
c.340 Scythians under Ateas attack and repel Macedonians near the mouth of the Danube. 340 MCAW 166
c.340 Demosthenes and Callias tyrant of Chalcis, canvassing support in west Greece and Peloponnese from 341, report massive support, and many anti-Macedonian alliances in the Peloponnese. 340 late
CAH 6-775, LEWH 78
c.340 This is the earliest year in which it is proven that tragic poets exhibit less than 3 plays each at the Dionysia at Athens.  This year they produce 2 each. 340 CDGRA 639
c.339 Athenian CHARES supposedly helping Byzantium against Philip-II, having proven a liability to his own cause, is releived by PHOCION, who camps outside the walls and behaves respectfully. 340/39 DGRBM 1-683, 3-340
c.339 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, campaigns north of the Balkans, near the Danube. 339
CAH 6, lvG
c.339 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, attacks Scythians. 339 GHH
c.339 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, returning from expedition against Scythians, the Triballi refuse to allow him to pass the Haemus range unless they receive a share of the loot.  A battle ensues.  Philip is defeated and wounded by a spear in his right thigh. 339 wikTr
c.339 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, reduces the Thracian Triballi in the area of Naissos (Nis). 339
CAH 6-439
c.339 ODESSOS Thrace unsuccessfully besieged by Philip-II.  Priests of the Getae persuade him to make a treaty. 339 wikOd
c.339 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of the Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Thracians from 480, comes under Macedonia until 305. 339 rcEB
c.339 ATEAS, king of Scythians age 90, defeated and killed in Rumania by Philip-II, who captures 20,000 women and kids, 20,000 horses, and much cattle, and returns south. 339 B76 9-597, 16-249, 439, CAH 6-473, CHEIA 106, T1H 70, NES
c.339 THEOPHRASTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 340, ends.  LYSIMACHIDES succeeds until 338. 339 wikEA
c.339 Athens, persuaded by Demosthenes, urges BYZANTIUM to resist Philip-I. 339 LEWH 78
c.339 BYZANTIUM, in 2nd Athenian League 343-34, under Leon of Byzantium, besieged by Macedonians from 340, helped by Athenian general PHOCION, breaks the siege. 340 DGRG 1-658 339 CAH 6-777, DGRBM 3-277, OCD 186, 595, 826
c.339 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36 is forced by Athenians to abandon his attempt on Byzantium and Perinthos and extricate his fleet from Black Sea. 339 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-340
c.339 Men of Amphissa in Locris west of Delphi, trespass on property of Delphic Apollo.  Delphi demands vengeance. 339
B76 8-368
c.339 Aeschines again sent to represent Athens at meeting of Amphictionic council at Thermopylae. 340 DGRBM 1-38, 985
c.339 Amphictyonic League meets, this time at Thermopylae. 340 DGRBM 1-985 339 Jun CAH 6
c.339 PHLIOS, a city in northwest Argolis, aristocracy from 379, comes under Macedonia until 228. 339 rcPl
c.339 AESCHINES, Athenian rep at Amphictyonic League, botches negotiations by attacking Locrians of Amphissa for plowing some sacred lands, and causing division when unity against Philip-II is paramount. 340 DGRBM 1-985 340/39 CDCC 30
339 LEWH 78,
OCD 17
c.339 4th SACRED WAR begins until 338.  Amphictyonic League, provoked by Aeschines, declares war on Amphissa.  It stalls from lack of enthusiasm, so Amphictyons asks PHILIP-II, (now in Thrace) to lead it.  Philip-II accepts. 340/39 CDCC 30
339 B76 8-368,
fall CAH 6, CDCC 775, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 78, OCD 17, RAH 312, bk
c.339 Amphictyons appoint Philip-II hegemon for sacred war against Amphissa. 339 fall CAH 6, DGRBM 1-985     338 GHH
c.339 Still occupied in Thrace, Philip-II orders son Alexander to raise an army for a campaign in Greece. no date: wikLx
c.339 Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander pretends he is preparing to attack Illyria, which takes him seriously and invades Macedonia, and is repelled by Alex. no date: wikLx
339 Sep PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, and son ALEX join forces and with 30,000 men march south toward Thermopylae. 338 B76 14-226, wikLx
339 Sep PhocisPHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, secretly outflanks Thermopylae, takes ELATEA Phocis, only 3 days march from Attica, blocks all routes from Boeotia northward. 339 Sep
B76 8-368,
OCD 331, 377 338 DGRA 211, DGRBM, MCAW 166, RAH 312, wikLx
339 ELATEA Phocis taken by Philip-II.  This alarms all Greece. 339 Nov CAH 6 338 DGRBM 1-38
c.339 Macedonian and Athenian envoys go to Thebes. 339 CAH 6
c.339 Philip-II fails in skirmishes on River Cephisus in Phocis. 339 CAH 6
c.339 ISOCRATES publishes  Panathenaicus :  Isocrates argues with a student about the literacy of the Spartans.  It indicates that some Spartans are literate, and often use written documents in public affairs. 340 DGRBM
339 B76 9-1031, CAH 6, Dur 2-488, OCD 554
c.339 ISOCRATES writes 2nd  Letter to Philip . 339 CAH 6
339/8 KYTINION in Doris taken by Philip-II who then marches to Amphissa. 339 Nov CAH 6     338 DGRG 1-739
c.338 DEMOSTHENES calls for and gets alliance with Thebes against Philip-II.  Athens makes concessions to THEBES for an alliance.  Coalition wins 2 minor victories, but no follow up. 339 B76 8-368,
CAH 6-199, OCD 331
338 CDCC 270, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, wikLx
c.338 Philip-II marches on Amphissa Locris (ostensibly on request of Amphictyonic League). Phocis 338 DGRG 1-810, hmLx, lvG, wikLx
c.338 Athenian CHARES sent to help Amphissa against Philip-IIChares and Theban general Proxenos are tricked by Philip-II and Parmenio and defeated in Gravia Pass. 338
CAH 6, DGRBM 1-683
c.338 LYSIMACHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 339, ends.  CHAERONDAS succeeds until 337. 338 wikEA
c.338 Philip-II captures mercenaries sent to Amphissa by Demosthenes. 338 DGRG 1-810, hmLx, lvG, wikLx
c.338 AEGINA Island, under Athens from 455, comes under Macedonia until 229. 338 rcAg
c.338 AMPHISSA Locris, independent from 346, taken by Parmenio, walls destroyed. 338 CAH 6, DGRG 1-127, 810, OCD 55, bk
c.338 Coalition troops fall back to Chaeronea Boeotia. 338 CAH 6
c.338 After Amphissa, Philip returns to Elatea Phocis, occupies it, and begins to restore its fortifications.  He sends a final peace offer to Athens and Thebes, which both reject it.  Philip marches southeast, and is blocked near Chaeronea on road from Thermopylae to Thebes. 338 DGRG 1-810, GHH, hmLx, lvG, wikLx
338 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, with son Alexander on left, defeats Athenians, Thebans under Theagenes, Boeotians, and Phocians at CHAERONEA west of Thebes.  He occupies and garrisons Thebes, but lets Athens go free. 338 B76 II-114, IX-928, 1-468, 5-579, 8-368, BAA 331, BCoC 406, BI+N 120, Aug 22 CAH 6, CDCC 30, 104, 181, DGRA 81, DGRBM 1-38, 119, 985, 3-1022, Aug 7 DGRG 1-595, Dur 2-488, GHH, GRG 284, IDB 2-478, ISBE 3-832, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, OCD 141, 225, 290, 943, OHG 174, RAH 312, TAWH 17, TToH, hmLx, lvA, lvG, wikLx     mid 338 RAH 312, TTPC     fall 338 OCD 331
c.338 BoeotiaSACRED BAND, 300 Theban soldiers grouped as pairs of lovers from 378, annihilated by Alexander at Chaeronea Boeotia. 338 OCD 943
c.338 CHAERONEA Boeotia taken by Macedonians. 338 bk
c.338 DEMADES, Athenian diplomat, captured by Macedonians at Chaeronea. no date: wikDmd
c.338 DEMOSTHENES, leader of Athens, quickly returns from Chaeronea to Athens. 338
B76 III-454
c.338 After Chaeronea, Athenian general PHOCION befriends Philip-II and Alexander. 338
CDCC 682
c.338 After Chaeronea, MESSENE in Messenia is absorbed into Macedonian kingdom until ?. 343 rcPl
338 B76 VI-822
c.338 4th SACRED WAR from 339 ends. 338 CDCC 775, LEWH 78
c.338 HYPERIDES, desperate to oppose Philip-II, proposes that all Athenian women & kids be taken to the Piraeus, all slaves freed, all resident aliens be given full citizenship, amnesty for all exiles. 338 DGRBM 2-539
c.338 NAUPACTOS occupied by Achaeans from 399, taken by Parmenio, given to Aetolian Confederacy.  Gives Aetolia a good seaport and some of her most intelligent citizens. 339/8 TAG 63
338 CAH 6, OCD 723
c.338 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, democracy under Thebes from 376, dissolved by Philip-II.  THEBES comes under Macedonia until 290, but is destroyed 335. 338 B76 II-114, IX-928, OCD 55, rcSB3
c.338 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, advances unopposed from Boeotia into Peloponnese, subdues Sparta. 338 CAH 6, MCAW 166, wikLx
c.338 MEGARA, independent from 395, quickly surrenders to Philip-II, under Macedonia until 280. 338 CAH 6-783, rcSB3
c.338 LEOCRATES leaves Athens until 332. 338 OCD 629
c.338 EUBOEA, in 2nd Athenian League from 350, conquered by Philip-II.  CHALCIS Euboea in Delian League from 341, receives a Macedonian garrison and remains under Macedonia until 200. 338 B76 8-369, LEWH 78, OCD 226, rcSB3
c.338 CORINTH, oligarchy from 386, immediately surrenders to Philip-II and Alexander, comes under Macedonia until 308. 338 CAH 6-783, rcPl
c.338 EUBOEAN LEAGUE from 341 dissolved by Philip-II until 196. 338 CDCC 332, rcSB3
c.338 ERETRIA Euboea under an Athenian colony from 445, under Macedonia until ?. 338 rcSB3
c. 338 PHILIP-II, king of Macedonia 356-36, calls for a congress of Greek states and islands at Corinth.  2nd ATHENIAN LEAGUE from 378 is dissolved.  All states except Sparta enter a HELLENIC LEAGUE (aka League of Corinth).  All members autonomous.  A proportionally represented council is ruled by Philip-II in wartime and by a chairman in peacetime.  No alterations of existing constitutions, no tribute, no property confiscated.  A few Macedonian garrisons are left up.  Limited military requirements.  Amphictyonic Council serves as supreme court.  Philip announces plan to invade Anatolia.  Since that makes it wartime, Philip obliges Athens to provide him ships and cavalry. 338 CAH 7.1-59, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, OCD 290, 1027     337 B76 8-369, 14-226, CAH 6, CDCC 907, DGRA 81
337/6 CDCC 674
c.338 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, goes home to Macedonia. 338 DGRBM 3-277
c.338 DAOCHOS becomes tetrarch of Thessaly until 334. 338 OCD 632
c.338 CHERSONESE, in 2nd Athenian League from 386, occupied by Macedonians, comes under Macedonia until 323. 340 rcT
338 OCD 229
c.338 Statesman orator LYCURGOS is appointed finance minister in Athens for 5 years.  He will be reappointed twice, and end 326.  Begins large building program.  Rebuilds Theater of Dionysus, Stadium, Lyceum. 338 B76 VI-412, Dur 2-468, 491, OHG, bk 337 DGRBM 2-858 336 CAH 6-850
c.338 Theater of DionysusTheater of Dionysus, on southeast slope of Acropolis at Athens, begun 500, finished by Lycurgos. left: Fiechter
right: dronepicr

340 DGRG 1-257, 284
c.338 PLATAEA Boeotia, destroyed 373, rebuilt, under Macedonia until ?. 338 rcSB3
c.338 MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, republic from 362, comes under Macedonia until 266. 338 rcPl
c.338 Son of Agesilaos-II, ARCHIDAMOS-III dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 360, mercenary for Tarentum, in Italy from 342, killed in battle with Lucanians at Manduria.  Son AGIS-III succeeds to 331. 338 B76 I-489, DGRBM 1-72, 267, MCAW 166, OCD 27, 98, 643, 1007, 1037, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.338 Spartans make a statue of Archidamos-III, and put it in Olympia. no date: DGRBM 1-267
c.338 Head of Academy from 348/7, SPEUSIPPOS dies of a lingering paralytic illness.  Heraclides Ponticos narrowly loses election to XENOCRATES of Chalcedon, in Ionia from 347, who returns and heads Academy until his death in 314.  Heraclides Ponticos returns to Heraclea Pontica on coast of Black Sea until death 310. 339 B76 X-778, 14-539, CAH 6, CDΦ 4, DGRBM 3-894, Dur 2-641, EoΦ 3-383, GHH, KPHP 74, OCD 1009, 1141, OHG, TToH, bk
339/8 B76 IX-416, CHHΦ, wikHP, wikSp     338 CAH 6-609, OCD 500 347 LEWH 80
c.338 HERACLIDES PONTICOS (not Cyme) flourishes.  Diogenes Laertius says he forged plays under the name of Thespis.

Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Proposed that the apparent motion of stars is created by rotation of Earth.  Simplicius says Heraclides proposed that the irregular movements of the planets can be explained if Earth moves and sun stays still.
(See China 350, astro diary 331)
350 TToH
Dur 2-458
no date:
TTS 34, wikHrcl
c.338 ISOCRATES dies.  Rhetorician, poet, speech writer, advocate of pan-Helenism, suicides out.  Legend says he starved himself to death.  Within 5 days after Chaeronea according to Aristotle. 338 B76 10-1093, CAH 6, CDCC 466, DGRBM, Dur 2-485, GHH, KPHP 21, LEWH 80, MCAW 166, OCD 135, 555, OHG, RAH 363, TToH, bk, wikIso
c.337 PLEURATOS, king of the Taulanti 356, 35, becomes king of the Illyrian Autariate (between the Ardiaei and the Triballi) until 335. 337 wikPl
c.337 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, invades Illyria until 337/6, fights Pleuratos. 337 CAH 6-439, 785
c.337 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, calls for a 2nd congress at Corinth, sends Antipater as his rep to Athens until 336.  All but Sparta respond.  It is decided that Philip should lead the Hellenic League in a WAR on PERSIA.  LEAGUE of CORINTH begins until 323.  Representation is proportional to military contribution.  War on Persia is declared. 337 B76 III-150, 8-369, 373, CAH 6-528, 783, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, OHG, RAH 313, SHWC 70, lvG, wikAnt
c.337 CEPHISOPHON of Aphidna, manager of Theoric fund in Athens from 343/2, ends.  DEMOSTHENES succeeds until 333. 337 CAH 6-569, bk
c.337 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, returns from Corinth to Pella, marries Cleopatra Eurydice, niece of general Attalus.  This hurts Alex's position as heir, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be fully Macedonian, while Alex is only half-Macedonian.  During the wedding banquet, a drunken Attalus publicly prays to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir.  Alex throws a cup at Attalus.  Philip rises to attack Alex, trips and falls.  Alex comments that Philip, who plans to cross to Anatolia, can't even cross the room. 338 B76 14-227
337 B76 VII-526, fall CAH 6-787, DGRBM 3-22, GHH
no date: wikLx
c.337 CHAERONDAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 338, ends.  PHRYNICHOS succeeds until 336. 337 wikEA
c.337 PYXODOROS, satrap of Caria 340-35, offers to marry a dau to Macedonian prince Arrhidaeos.  Philip-II likes the idea. 337 lvA
c.337 Alexander, son of Philip-II, sends embassy to Pyxodoros, satrap of Caria asking for the hand of his daughter.  Philip learns of it, punishes Alex, and the alliance is canceled. 337 lvA
c.337 MolossiaOLYMPIAS, wife of Philip-II from 357, mother of Alex, divorced, flees with Alex to Epirus until 336.  Friend Ptolemy accompanies.  Olympias stays at Dodona with her bro Alexander-I king of the Molossians 342-30.  Alex goes to Illyria. 337 B76 VII-526, 1-468, 15-180, DGRBM 3-22, lvG, wikOly
no date: wikLx
c.337 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, changes the name of his new wife Cleopatra, to Eurydice, possibly so as not to confuse her with his own dau by Olympias. 337 wikOly
c.337/6 ALEXANDER, son of Philip-II, in Illyria from 337, reconciled to father, returns to Macedonia. no date:
B76 1-468, wikLx
c.336 PHILIP-II has his own statue carried in procession with the 12 gods of Olympos. 336 IDB 2-493
c.336 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, in order to weld together the League of Corinth, proposes an attack on "barbarians" in Ionia, sends 10,000 troops under generals PARMENIO, Amyntas, and Attalus across Hellespont to Abydos.  Philip plans to follow, but is delayed by domestic affairs. 336 B76 VII-766, 8-369, 14-22, spring CAH 6-787, DGRBM 3-278, IDB 3-126, 216, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, RAH 313, bk, lvG
c.336 PHILIP-II, to patch up relations with Alexander-I king of Molossia and Epirus 342-30, offers him the hand of his dau by Olympias - Cleopatra (Alex-I's own niece) in marriage. 336 CAH 6-440, wikOly
c. 336 PHILIP-II dies.  Argead king of Macedon from 356, regent 359-6, at Aegae, celebrates wedding of his dau Cleopatra to king Alexander-I of Molossia Epirus.  Philip, age 47, is murdered by one of his nobles, Pausanias, who flees on horse, but is caught and immediately executed.  Recently divorced wife OLYMPIAS is immplicated.  Son age 20 ALEXANDER-III succeeds to 323. 337 RAI3     337/6 OCD 331
336 B76 1-469, 8-369, BI+N 120, Oct CAH 6, CDCC 674, DGRBM 1-119, 3-160, Dur 2-481, GHH, GRG 284, IDB 2-468, ISBE 3-832, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, MRDK, OHG, RAH 313, RAI2, SHWC 70, TToH, bk, hmLx, hwD, lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM, wikLx
c.336 Men exiled by Philip-II: HARPAGOS, LAOMEDON, NEARCHOS, PTOLEMY, son of Lagos, and others are recalled by Alex-III. 336 GHH
c.336 AMYNTAS, son of Antiochus, friend of Pausanias, flees to Ephesus. 336 DGRBM 1-155
c.336 ALEX-III, king of Macedon 336-23, helped by Antipater, executes princes of Lyncestis accused of murdering Philip-II, also executes Caranus, son of Philip, Attalus and anyone else who looks like they might oppose him.  Olympias has Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa, her dau by Philip, burned alive. 336 B76 1-469, DGRBM 1-609, Dur 2-542, MCAW 166, hwD, wikAnt, wikLx
c.336 AMYNTAS-IV, former king of Macedon 359-56, executed by neph Alex-III for an alleged plot.  Widow CYNANE, dau of Philip-II and Audata, is now a pawn of Alex-III. 336 DGRBM 1-155
c.336 At news of death of PHILIP-II, Thracian tribes north of Macedon rebel. 336 LEWH 79, wikLx
c.336 At news of death of PHILIP-II, Thebes, Athens, Arcadia, Elis, Aetolia, Thessaly rebel. 336 B76 IX-928, LEWH 79, wikLx
c.336 DEMOSTHENES proposes religious honors for Pausanias, assassin of Philip-II.  Phocion points out the political stupidity of such a move, and is persuasive. 336 DGRBM 3-340
c.336 CTESIPHON proposes that DEMOSTHENES be crowned at the Dionysia for his services to Athens. 336 OCD 17, 331
c. 336 CALIPPOS, astronomer mathematician, flourishes.  Observes movements of planets and tries to use Eudoxus' scheme of connected spheres to account for it. He finds that 27 spheres cannot account for planetary movements, so he adds 7 more for a total of 34.  He measures lengths of the seasons, finding them (starting with the spring equinox) to be 94 days, 92 days, 89 days, and 90 days.  This variation in the seasons implies a variation in the speed of the Sun, called the solar anomaly.  He follows up on the work of Meton to measure the length of the year and construct an accurate lunisolar calendar.  His observations will be used by later astronomers to calibrate their observations in relation to subsequent eclipses. 336 GHH no date: wikCl
c.336 PHRYNICHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 337, ends.  PYTHODELOS (Pythodoros) succeeds until 335. 336 wikEA
c.336 Corinthian DINARCHOS (Deinarchus) age 26, begin career as orator and speech writer for law courts in Athens, due to the death or exile of the competition.  Being a metic (resident alien), he cannot participate in the debates.  He befriends Phocion and his pro-Macedonian party until 307. 336
DGRBM 1-950
c.336 ALEX-III, king of Macedon 336-23, learns of rebellion of Attalus in Anatolia.  He orders Hecataeos tyrant of Cardia to take an army, and conquer Attalus. 336
DGRBM 2-361
c.336 AESCHINES indictes CTESIPHON for illegally proposing that DEMOSTHENES be crowned, but because of the political situation, prosecution is delayed until 330. 336
CAH 6-575, CDCC 30

ThessalyALEX-III musters 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rides south.  Thessalians occupy Tempe, the pass on a river between Mount Olympos and Mount Ossa.  Alex orders his men to ride over Mount Ossa.  Thessalians find Alex at their rear and surrender, adding their cavalry to Alex's force.  THESSALY, mostly under Macedonia from 344, remains so until 168.  Alex continues south. 336 wikLx
c.336 ALEX-III, king of Macedon 336-23, descends on Thermopylae, subdues Thebes, secures succession to Philip-II in Amphictyonic Council, appointed commander of Greeks by League of Corinth. 336 B76 8-373, CAH 6, Dur 2-542, MCAW 166, bk, wikLx
c.336 OLYMPIAS, widow of Philip-II, mother of Alex-III, in Epirus from 337, returns to Macedonia until 331. guess
c.336 ALEX-III is recognized as defacto ruler of Greece. 336 hmLx
c.336 A law of Eucrates at Athens prohibits all attempts to subvert the democracy. mid 336
CAH 6-846
c.336 PLATAEA Boeotia, rebuilt and under Macedonia 338, rebuilt more by Alex-III. 336 CAH 6-563
c.336 ORCHOMENOS Boeotia, rebuilt by Alex-III. 336 CAH 6-563
c.336 THESPIA Boeotia, destroyed by Thebans 372/1, rebuilt by Alex-III. 336 CAH 6-563
c.336 ALEX-III goes to Delphi.  The Pythian priestess (wisely?) acclaims him invincible. 336 B76 1-469
c.336 PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE, together in varrying degrees from 418, dissolved. 336 B76 8-340
c.336 ALEX-III goes to Corinth, organizes another conference, receives assurances from all Greek cities except Sparta that they would obey the treaty with Macedonia. 336 lvLx
c.336 ALEX-III supposedly meets cynic DIOGENES of Sinope at Corinth.  He says, "I am Alexander the great king".  Response, "I am Diogenes the dog."  Alex offers him any favor.  Diogenes says, "Stand out of the sun." 336 MCAW 169
335 lvLx
no date: Dur 2-507, IDB 2-496, wikLx
c.336 ALEX-III goes north to Thrace to suppress rebellious barbarians, sends Zepyrion, his newly appointed governor of Thrace to subdue Scythians north of Macedonia. 336 B76 1-469, 8-373, CAH 6,
Dur 2-542, T1H 28
335 bk, wikLx
c.336/5 Unrest and dissidence in southern Greece is suppressed. winter 336/5 CAH 6-795
c.336/5 Hyperides speech "Against Philippides". winter 336/5 B76 V-253
c.335 CLEITOS, son of Bardylis, becomes king of the Dardani and of Illyria until 317. 335 wikClt, wikLI
fl. 335 rcWB
c.335 CLEITOS, king of Illyria 335-17, with promised aid from king Glaucias of the Taulanti, rebels against Alex-III. 335 DGRBM 1-785, 2-273
c.335 ODESSOS Thrace surrenders to Alex-III.  Under Macedonians until 313. 335 wikOd
c.335 LYSANIAS, friend of Alex-III, sent with Philotas and loot taken from Thracians to the coast. 335 DGRBM 2-864
c.335 SYRMUS king of the Triballi figures Alex-III is about to invade his country, sends all women and children to an island of the Danube called Peuce.  When Macedonians approach, he goes there himself, with his personal followers. 335 DGRBM 3-966
c.335 ALEX-III marches from Amphipolis, north thru the Rhodope range to the Hebros valley, then to the passes of the central Haemus range, crushes the Triballi, near the Lyginus river, marches thru north forests and swamps. 335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1175, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx
c.335 SOPOLIS son of Hermodoros, commands Amphipolitan cavalry in the army of Alex-III in the battle against the Triballi on the banks of the Lyginus. 335 DGRBM 3-877
c.335 CELTS invade Balkans. 335 wikCiT
c.335 ALEX-III tries unsuccessfully to land on Peuce island, crosses the Danube, interviews some Celts near the Adriatic, defeats the Getae, re-establishes control over barbarians, returns to DanubeSyrmus sends envoys to sue for peace, which is granted. 335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1175, 3-966, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx
c.335 ALEX-III recrosses Danube into Thrace. 335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1175, 3-966, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx
c.335 The TRIBALLI of Thrace come under Macedonia until 323. 335 rcWB
c.335 Alex-III turns west, defeats Illyrian coalition under Cleitos, which had invaded Macedonia.  Cleitos flees to Taulantian land. 335 B76 1-469, 8-373, DGRBM 1-119, 2-273, bk, lvLx
c.335 CYNANE, dau of Philip-II and Audata, widow of Amyntas-IV, is promised by Alex-III to Langaros, king of the Agrianians, but Langaros dies of illness.  Cynane remains unmarried, caring for dau Eurydice. 336 DGRBM 1-911
c.335 Kings Glaucias of the Taulanti and Cleitos of the Dardanians submit to Alex-III. 335 CAH 6-440, DGRBM 1-119
c.335 PLEURATOS-I, king of the Taulanti from 356 and the Autariate from 337, ends. 335 wikLI, wikPl
c.335 FALSE RUMOR:  ALEX-III DEAD in Illyria, circulates in Greece. 336 B76 8-373, LEWH 79, MCAW 166, OCD 331, lvG     335 B76 5-579, 8-373, OCD 331
c.335 PYTHODELOS (Pythodoros), eponymous archon of Athens from 336, ends.  EUAINETOS succeeds until 334. 335 wikEA
c.335 THEBES:  Exiles return and kill Macedonian governors, but Philotas holds up in the Cadmea citadel.  Arcadians, Eleans, and Athenians secretly help Thebans in Boeotia. 336 B76 II-114, 8-373, LEWH 79, MCAW 166, OCD 331, lvG
335 B76 5-579, 8-373, DGRBM 3-329, GHH, OCD 331
c.335 Alex-III rushes from Illyria 240 miles to Thebes in 14 days. 335 B76 1-469, 8-373-4, LEWH 79, lvLx, wikLx
c.335 DEMOSTHENES harangs against Macedonians.  Phocion rebukes him for endangering Athens. 335 DGRBM 3-340
c.335 DEMOSTHENES actively helps THEBES resist Macedonians, and narrowly escapes being delivered to Alex-III. 335
OCD 331
c.335 THEBES, under Macedonia 338-290, taken by Alex-III and destroyed, sparing only the house of Pindar.  Philotas and his garrison in the Cadmea citadel is rescued.  6,000 inhabitants slaughtered, 30,000 enslaved, territory divided among adjacent states until 316.  The rest of Greece submits.  Then Alex repents and asks pardon from Delphic Apollo. 335 B76 1-469, 8-373-4, CAH 6-582, CDCC 270, 878, DGRBM 1-986, 3-329, Dur 2-377, GHH, LEWH 79, MCAW 166, 169, OCD 227, OHG, TToH, lvG, lvLx     334 CDCC 34
c.335 TIMOCLEIA, a woman of Thebes, has her house broken into by Thracian allies of Macedonians.  Their commander rapes her, then asks where she hides her valuables.  She leads him to a well in her garden, where she claims to have thrown her chief treasures when the city was taken. While he stoops to look, she pushes him in, and kills him.  She is brought by the Thracians before Alex-III, and displays such noble character that Alex orders her freed with her children. 335 DGRBM 3-1136
c.335 Wealthy Athenian hetaira (courtesan) PHRYNE offers to rebuild the walls of Thebes if she is allowed a plaque stating, "Alexander destroyed them, but Phryne the hetaira rebuilt them".  The offer is declined. no date: DGRBM 3-359
c.335 Athenian MENESTHEOS, son of Iphicrates, sent with 100 galleys to oppose Macedonians which had intercepted Athenian ships coming from the Black Sea. 335 DGRBM 2-1040
c.335 Athenian DEMADES mediates between Greeks and Alex-III. 335 OCD 323
c.335 Alex-III pardons the demagogues, but demands surrender of 8 anti-Macedonians including Athenian orators CALLISTHENES, CHARES, EPHIALTES, LYCURGOS, HYPERIDES, and CHARIDEMOS.  Demades pays Alex-III 5 talents to spare them.  Alex agrees to spare all but Charidemos. 335 DGRBM 1-576, 683, 685, 2-25, GHH, OCD 227, 535, 629
c.335 CHARIDEMOS, Euboean mercenary, escapes to Persians in Anatolia until 333. 335 B76 II-752, DGRBM 1-685, OCD 227
c. 335 ARISTOTLE, probably at Stagira Chalcidice from 343/2, returns to Athens until 323 with pupil Theophrastos.  He does not rejoin the Academy.  He rents buildings in grove of Apollo Lyceius, including a covered court, which becomes the LYCEUM.  Like the Academy, the Lyceum has no fees or orthodoxy agenda.  Like the Academy under Xenocrates, Aristotle appoints someone leader every 10 days.  Unlike the Academy, the Lyceum thinks itself as a collective within which groups could be identified.  They call themselves Peripatetics because they walk around while talking.  No women are reported in it. 337/6 CHHΦ     336 bk
335 B76 8-373, CAH 6-612, CDΦ 38, EoΦ 1-152, GHH, MCAW 167, OCD 114, 370, 1058, OHG 294, TToH, TTPC, wikArstt, wikPr
335/4 OCD 801     334 DGRBM, Dur 2-525, TTS
c.335 Comic poet PHILIPPIDES flourishes. 335 DGRBM, GHH
c.335 Navigator PSEUDO-SCYLAX, writes a  Periplus , a list of ports and coastal landmarks in order and with intervening distances, in this case a clockwise circumnavigation of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, from Spain to West Africa.  It is falsely ascribed to Scylax of Caryanda.  A 13th century CE copy survives. 350 Jud 13-1336
340-30 wikΨS
c.335 EUDEMOS of Rhodes, student of Aristotle, flourishes in Athens until Aristotle dies 322.  Writes  History of Λ Geometry V , also histories of Greek math and astronomy.  Edits and systematizes Aristotle's works.  His works are often cited, but all lost. 340-31 TTS
335 BHM 680
320 BHM 46
no date: wikER
c.335 Painter APELLES of Kos, pupil of Ephorus of Ephesus, flourishes, paints a portrait of Alex-III. 350-20 CAH 6
c.335 Aetolian tribes each send an embassy to Alex-III. 335 CAH 6-584
c.335/4 Pro-Macedonians DEMADES and PHOCION put in charge of Athens until 323. no date: OCD 323
c.334 ANTIGONUS Monophthalmus given a command in army of Alex-III. 334 OCD 69
c.334 Only now is Alex-III undisputed master of the Macedonian empire. 334 BI+N 121
c.334 PYRRHO, pupil of Anaxarchus at Elis, becomes court philosopher to Alex-III, remains with him until Alex dies, then returns to Elis. 334 EoΦ 7-36
c.334 ALEXANDER-I king of Molossia Epirus, at invitation of Greeks in Italy, under Taras to rule them, sails with 15 warships to Italy until 331/0. 337 GHH     334 Agθ 32, CAH 6-440, 7.2, LEWH 80, MCAW 168, bk, lvG, lvS     332 DGRBM 1-116, GHH, LdHR 1-221
c.334 ANTIPATER, general of Alex-III, made governor of Macedonia and "General of Europe" by Alex-III until 323.  Given 13,000 troops. 334 B76 I-424, 1-469, 8-374, DGRBM 1-201, OCD 73, hmLx, hwD, wikAnt
c.334 BYZANTIUM, in 2nd Athenian League from 343, taken by ALEX-III.  Under Macedon until 306. 334 CDCC 230
c.334 DAOCHUS, tetrarch of Thessaly from 338 ends. 334 OCD 632
334 spring ALEX-III, with 32,000 inf (only 12,000 Macedonian), 5,000 cav, surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, and historians, supported by 160 ships, crosses Hellespont into AnatoliaHe takes his imbecillic half bro Philip Arrhidaeos to guard against a potential coup in Macedonia. spring 334 B76 III-380, 1-469, 8-374, CAH 6-798, DGRBM 1-119, Dur 2-544, GHH, IDB 3-743, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, OCD 495, 815, OHG, RAH 323, SHWC 87, TAWH 17, anan, hmLx, lvA, lvG, lvLx, vrb, wikLx
c.334 Philosopher CALLISTHENES of Olynthos, neph of Aristotle accompanies Alex-III, on recommendation of Aristotle. 334 DGRBM 1-575
c.334 EUAINETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 335, ends.  KTISICLES succeeds until 333. 334 wikEA
c.334 Athens reorganizes forces while Alex-III is in Anatolia. no date: OCD 141
c.334 Monument of Lysicrates at Athens. 334 CAH 6
c.333 DEMOSTHENES, manager of Theoric fund in Athens from 337, no longer so. 333 bk
c.333 THEOPOMPOS, Athenian comic poet, in Anatolia from 353, returns to Athens, gets a job with the aristocratic party.  Remains in Greece until 305. 333 DGRBM 3-1093
c.333 KTISICLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 334, ends.  NICOCRATES succeeds until 332. 333 wikEA
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, sails with 1 trireme to Ionia, asks Pharnabazus and Autophradates for money and arms to fight Macedonians in Greece.  Pharnabazus gives him 30 talents and 10 triremes. 333 DGRBM 1-72,
spring lvG
c.333 Hyperides speech "For Lycophron". 333 B76 V-253
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, at Siphnos Island in Cyclades, learns of Issus, sends word to his bro Agesilaos to meet him in Crete, so that together they might secure it for Sparta. 333 DGRBM 1-72
333/2 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, working for Pharnabazus with mercenaries, invades Crete.  This forces Alex-III to send ships commanded by Amphoterus with reinforcements to the Aegaean. winter 333/2 lvG
c.332 Tribes in Thrace, under Memnon of Thrace, rebel against Macedonians until 331. 332 wikAnt 331 hwD
c.332 NICOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 333, ends.  NIKETES (Nikeratos) succeeds until 331. 332 wikEA
c.332 LEOCRATES, away from Athens from 338, returns. 332 OCD 629
c.332 Athenian CALLIPOS bribes competitors in the Olympic games to let him win the pentathalon.  Caught.  He and his competitors are fined by the Eleans.  Athenians send Hyperides to get the fine voided.  Eleans refuse.  Athenians never pay it, and boycott the games until Apollo, thru his oracle at Delphi, tells them to.  The money is used to erect 6 statues to Zeus (not Apollo).  Inscriptions on them blast the Athenians. 332 DGRBM 1-574
c.332 Phalanx commander Amyntas, son of Andromenes, is sent with 10 triremes from Gaza to Macedon to recruit troop replacements. 332 late CAH 6-809, DGRBM 2-283
c.331 ZOPYRION becomes Macedonian governor of Thrace until 325/4. 331 frH
c.331 ZOPYRION, Macedonian governor of Thrace, with 30,000 troops, attacks Scythian lands just to look busy, besieges Olbia unsuccessfully, retreats, attacked by Scythians, Getae, and Triballi.  Annihilated near Black SeaScythians set up outposts in Balkans before returning home. 331 T1H 70, NEH, wikZop
326 CAH 6-843
325 OCD 968
no date: T1H 28
c.331 SEUTHES-III, son of Cotys-I, ruler of Odryssians in Thrace, uses Zopyrion's fall as reason to rebel.  Becomes king until 306. 331 wikLRTD 325 DGRBM 3-809
c.331 Rebellion in Thrace under Memnon from 332, and recently Seuthes, suppressed by Antipater. 331 DGRBM 1-201
c.331 NIKETES (Nikeratos), eponymous archon of Athens from 332, ends.  ARISTOPHANES succeeds until 330. 331 wikEA
c.331 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, with financing from Pharnabazus, makes anti-Macedonian alliance with Elis, Achaea, and part of Arcadia. 331 CAH 6, lvLx, wikLx
no date: LEWH 79, lvG
c.331 AGIS-III, allied with Elis, Achaea, and part of Arcadia (20,000 inf and 2,000 cav), starts anti-Macedonian rebellion in Peloponnese, defeats a Macedonian force under Corragus, besieges MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, under Macedonia from 338. 331 B76 I-138, DGRBM 1-72, LEWH 79, OCD 27, hwD, wikAnt
331/0 OCD 73, 629
no date: lvG
c.331 Population of Athens estimated at 20,000 citizens (males above age 20) by Demosthenes. 331 DGRG 1-262
c.331 DEMADES, co-ruler of Athens 335/4- 23, keeps Athens out of the anti-Macedonian rebellion.  Argos, Megalopolis, and Messene also stay out. 331 hwD
no date: OCD 27, 323
c.331 AMPHOTEROS, fleet commander of Hellespont 333-? leads 100 Cypriot and Phoenician ships against Sparta. mid 331 CAH 6-332, DGRBM 1-153
331/0 OLYMPIAS, divorcee of Philip-II 357-36, mother of Alex-III, moves back from Macedonia to Epirus, serves as a regent to her cousin Aiakides (Aeacides), king 331-16.  Olympias becomes virtual ruler of part of Epirus until 317. 331 B76 VII-526, OCD 751
330 lvG, wikOly
331/0 Antipater pardons Memnon of Thrace and lets him keep his office, so as to better deal with Agis-IIIAntipater receives much money from Alex-III, hires mercenaries. 331/0 wikAnt no date: lvG
331/0 With Thessalian help, Antipater builds a force double that of Agis-III, which Antipater in person leads south. 331/0 wikAnt no date: lvG
331/0 Son of Archidamos-III, AGIS-III dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 338, besieging pro-Macedonian MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, attacked by an army twice his size under Antipater, defeated, mortally wounded in battle.  Bro EUDAMIDAS-I, succeeds to 305.
Men killed in battle:  5,300 Spartans and allies, 3,500 of Antipater's troops.
331 B76 I-138, 8-375, CAH 6, CDCC 74, DGRBM 1-201, GHH, MCAW 168, MRDK, OCD 27, 73, 1007, RAH 349, bk, lvG, lvLx, rcPl, wikAcr, wikKS
331/0 lvG     330 DGRBM 2-76, TToH, hwD, wikAnt, wikLx
331/0 MolossiaALEXANDER-I dies.  Bro-in-law of Philip-II, king of Molossia and Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy from 334, murdered by one of his allies.  Widow Cleopatra returns to Epirus.  Their infant son NEOPTOLEMOS-II technically succeeds to 313.  Former king of Epirus 368-42, ARYBBAS resumes over part of Epirus until 319, while his son Aiakides and Olympias rule the rest.  Aiakides is challenged by rivals until 323. 334 CAH 7.1-405
331 B76 III-926, CAH 6-441, MCAW 170, MRDK, frH, lvG, rcSB2, wikAl1Ep
331/0 Agθ 32, CAH 7.2
330 CDCC 325, LEWH 80, OCD 41, 400, bk, lvG, wikAryb
326 DGRBM 1-799, 2-1155
c.330 Spartans sue for peace with Macedonia.  Antipater negotiates directly with League of Corinth, but Spartan emissaries prefer to go to Anatolia and deal with Alex-III, who fines Sparta's allies 120 talents and requires Sparta to join the League of Corinth. 330 wikAnt
c.330 Sparta decrees amnesty to all who had fled in battle 331/0 abainst Macedonia.  Acrotatos son of Cleomenes-II opposes decree, gaining hatred of some Spartans, and respect of others. no date: DGRBM 1-16
c.330 MOLOSSIAN LEAGUE, made of Molossians, Thesprotians, and Chaonians from 370, evolves into EPIROTE LEAGUE, a larger coalition of tribes.  Active until 317.  Lasts until 165. 370-20 wikEL
330 B76 III-926, CAH 6-441
c.330 THRACE, under Macedonian from 341 invaded by SCYTHIANS, contested until 310. 350-300 B76 2-615
c.330 ARISTOPHANES, eponymous archon of Athens from 331, ends.  ARISTOPHON succeeds until 329. 330 wikEA
330 Bronze Statues of Harmodios and Aristogiton, in Susa from 480 returned by Alex-III to Greece. 330 wikHA
330 With Athens isolated and subject to Macedon, AESCHINES decides to prosecute CTESIPHON for his 336 support of Demosthenes. 330 B76 5-579, CAH 6-575, CDCC 30, OCD 16, 17, bk, lvG     mid 330 OCD 331
c.330 AESCHINES, Athenian orator, argues in court with DEMOSTHENES over the crown affair 336.  Speech "Against Ctesiphon". 330 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-38, LEWH 80, OCD 16, OHG, bk
c.330 DEMOSTHENES speech "On the Crown". 330 DGRBM 1-986, Dur 2-458, MCAW 173, OHG, bk
c.330 Hyperides speech "For Euxenippos". 330 B76 V-253
c.330 AESCHINES knows he is defeated, and bugs out before the verdict.  He gets less than ⅕ of the votes.  He is fined and sails to Ionia where he teaches rhetoric until death 315. 330 B76 5-579, CAH 6-575, CDCC 30, DGRBM, OCD 16, 17, bk, lvG
mid 330 OCD 331
c.330 Grain shortage in Greece until 326. 330 CAH 6, RAH 353
c. 330

c. 330
CALLIPOS of Cyzicus, astronomer, moves from Anatolia to Athens and lives with Aristotle.

Λ COSMOLOGY V:  Together they improve and complete Eudoxos' theory of concentric spheres.  Callipos says at least 34 spheres are needed.  He adds a sphere for the sun, one for the moon and another for each of the known planets.  (See Chinese models 350)

Λ CALENDAR:  He improves the Metonic cycle by dropping 1 day after 4 Metonic cycles:  Says solar year is not 365 days, but 365¼.  Proposes 76 year cycle to harmonize solar and lunar years.  The month error of Meton was 1.9 minutes whereas that of Callipus was only 22 seconds.  His cycle is adopted in 330 and used by all later astronomers for dating observations.
(See Babylonian 331)
370-61 TTS
330 DGRBM 1-575, OCD 196, brian
no date: B76 3-598
c.330 Λ ECONOMY in Attica:  Prices from 404 to 330 have doubled. 330 Dur 2-281
c.330 Athenian architect Philo flourishes.  He designed the porticoe of the temple of Demeter at Eleusis. 330 MCAW 173
c.330 EPHORUS of Cumae, historian, pupil of Isocrates, dies.  Author of 1st Universal History, 29 vols, no longer extant. 330 Dur 2-724, OCD 388
c.330 1st stone theater of Dionysus in Athens, finished 340, renovated by LYCURGOS, finance minister 238-26.  Consists of a stone wall with 2 small wings on sides.  Temporary scenery of wood and canvas are placed in front of it.  Stone seats are added for the audience. 330 CDGRA 622, 623, MCAW 173, OCD 350
c.330 LYCURGOS speech "Against Leocrates".  Still extant.  He accuses blacksmith Leocrates of treason for fleeing Athens in the panic following the Battle of Chaeronea. 330 DGRBM
c.330 LYCURGOS causes standard texts of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Eurypides to be deposited in the public archives. 330 CDGRA 641
Roman copies of missing or damaged Lysippos originals
Hermes of Atalante
Ricardo Andre Frantz
Farnese Hercules
Tyszkiewicz Collection
Victorious Youth
pub dom
Carole Raddato
c.330 Sculptor LYSIPPOS of Sicyon, flourishes.  He is a favorite of ALEX-III, and creates statues of him.  Ancient authors say Alex was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from sculpting him.  Lysippos often used the contrapposto sculptural scheme to portray Alex and other characters such as Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros.  Lysippos also does Heracles and Kairo.  His work is often indistinguishable from that of Scopas.  Only Roman copies of his works survive. 4th cen. wikLsp 360-15 OHG 340 OCD 632
330 B76 11-1096, CAH 6, Dur 2-458, MCAW 173
c.330 Beaten metal for decoration of armor, vases, and domestic objects reaches finest form.  Some is made by a hammer, worked from behind, outlines on the front being then emphasized by a chisel or punch.  Some metal plate is beaten into a mold formed by carving the subject in intaglio on a resistant material. 330 B76 11-1096
Apollo Belvedere Diana
Sculptor LEOCHARES, flourishes.  Works:  Ganymede, Apollo Belvedere, Diana.  Only Roman copies of his works survive.
left Marie-Lan Nguyen

Eric Gaba

4th cen. wikLeo
330 CAH 6
c.330 Historian EPHOROS of Cyme dies. 330 wikEΦ
c.330 Temple of Zeus at NEMEA (8km southeast of Phlios), the last important Doric temple built on Greek mainland, a U-shaped pattern of free-standing Corinthian columns frames the cult image. 330 CAH 6-654
c.330 PYRRHO, pupil of Anaxarchus, starts a philosophy school at Elis. 330 B76 VIII-325 323 EoΦ 7-36
c.330 PHILEMON, New Comedy poet of Syracuse, produces 1st play in Athens. 330 DGRBM     328 B76 VII-939
c. 330 ARISTOTLE publishes Λ Physics V in Athens.  A collection of treatises dealing with general principles of natural or moving things, living and non-living.
"Prime matter" exists.  It is the substratum in things that is changeable.  Prime matter becomes the 4 "simple bodies": earth, air, fire, water.  The simple bodies have within themselves a "principle of motion and rest", by which things ghange between solid/liquid/gas, wet/dry, hot/cold, etc.
335-23 wikAri
330-23 MCAW 171
no date: S2S 100
c. 330

c. 330
ARISTOTLE's Λ  Metaphysics  V, begun 346, is published in Athens.
The study of BEING, its principles, its causes.  What does "be" mean?  What does it mean to be anything whatsoever?

SUBSTANCE is the primary essence of things.  We know a thing better when we know the category in which it is, than when we know its attributes.  Distinguishes between essential attributes (what makes a thing what it is) and accidental (non-essential) attributes.

Rejects Plato's universal Λ FORMS, because though universals exist, the reality of any particular thing is not outside the thing itself.  Furthermore the theory of Forms doesn't help us understand any thing better.  Form & matter are separate in abstraction, and united in space/time.  They never exist separately in space/time.  Matter is always potentiality;  form is actuality.

CHANGE always exists in extension, and means: motion, generation, degeneration.

Of any thing, 4 questions exist:
What is it?
What is it made of?
What is made by it?
For what end is it made?

These questions imply 4 CAUSES (explanations):
formal cause: (which determines what a thing is) (altered during a change)
matterial cause: (that of which it is made) (usually not altered during a change)
efficient cause: (by what a thing is made) (the agency that brings about change)
final cause: (the purpose served by change)

Recognized logical priority in addition to, and distinct from, temporal priority.
An Unmoved Mover exists.  The relation of a logical Unmoved Mover to a temporal First Mover is never clarified.

Λ EPISTEMOLOGY:  Deals with KNOWLEDGE at the highest levels of abstraction.  Knowledge of 1st principles and causes is the most important knowledge.

Λ THEOLOGY:  A Supreme Being is necessary because there must be an unmoved mover
335-23 wikAri
330-23 MCAW 171
no date: S2S 92-99, wik4cz, wikM(A)
c. 330 INDETERMINISM asserted by Aristotle:  "Nor is there any definite cause for an accident, but only chance, namely an indefinite cause."

"There are principles and causes which are generable and destructible apart from the actual processes of generation and destruction;  for if this is not true, everything will be of necessity:  that is, if there must necessarily be some cause, other than accidental, of that which is generated and destroyed.  Will this be, or not?  Yes, if this happens;  otherwise not."
Metaphysics V-1025a25

c. 330

c. 330
ARISTOTLE publishes  On the Soul  in Athens.

Λ METAPHYSICS:  Λ  SOUL is "the first grade of actuality of a natural organized body".  i.e.  a form that occurs within organized bodies that distinguishes living from non-living things.  matter/body = form/soul.  Soul cannot exist without body, and dies with body.
LIFE is "self nutrition and growth (within its corelative decay)"
"We can wholly dismiss as unnecessary the question whether the soul and body are one.  It is as meaningless as to ask whether the wax and the shape given to it by the stamp are one."
3 levels of soul:  vegetative, sensitive, rational.
vegetative soul: takes in matter as food, but doesn't absorb qualities or forms.
sensitive soul: absorbs qualities and forms of things by the senses, without taking in their matter.  It combines this info into an organized whole.
rational soul: applies memory and imagination to sensory data, and distinguishes between them and things that cause them.  Also has the faculty of deliberation,  i.e.  decides what to do.
335-23 wikAri
no date: S2S 101-103
c. 330 ARISTOTLE publishes  Poetics  in Athens:  Specifically concerned with drama.  Earliest surviving work of dramatic theory, 1st extant philosophical treatise on literary theory.
"Homer has taught all other poets the art of telling lies skillfully."
335 wikPoet
335-23 wikAri
335-22 OCD 116
330-23 MCAW 171
322 MNDQ 544
c.330 ARISTOTLE publishes  Constitutions  in Athens.  170 Constitutions of various states, mostly written by his students.  Assumed to be research for his Politics. 335-22 OCD 116
c. 330

c. 330
ARISTOTLE publishes Λ Politics  in Athens.  The city is a partnership arising for self-sufficiency but exists primarily for the sake of living well.  The city is prior to the individual.  Sketches connection of philosophy to politics.
"Man is by nature a political animal", because he can dialogue about justice and the good.
"At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice, he is the worst."  Says members of some oligarchic clubs took an oath: "I will be an adversary of the people." ... "and in the Council, I will do all the evil I can."    Women are inferior.  Slavery is approved.
Book 1:  Discusses the city (polis) as opposed to other types of communities and partnerships such as the household and village.  Highest form of community is the polis.  Public life is more virtuous than private.
Book 2:  Examines views on the best regime in Plato's Republic and Laws.  Examines regimes commonly considered well managed: Spartan, Cretan, and Carthaginian.
Book 3:  Who is a citizen? - anyone who can take part in government.  Most people in the polis can be citizens, contrary to Plato who says few can take part in government.  Classifies constitutions.  Examines just distribution of political power, types of monarchies.
Book 4:  Tasks of political theory.  Why are there many types of constitutions?  Types of democracies and oligarchies.  Polity (constitutional government) is optimal form of govenment.  When perverted, a polity becomes a democracy, the least harmful derivative government.
Book 5:  Constitutional change, revolutions in different types of constitutions and ways to preserve constitutions, instability of tyrannies.
Book 6:  Democratic and oligarchic constitutions.
Book 7:  Best state and best life.  Ideal state.  Its population, territory, position, etc.  Citizens of the ideal state.  Marriage and children.
Book 8:  Education in the ideal state.
335-23 wikAri
330-23 MCAW 171
329/8 OCD 115
330-23 MCAW 171
no date: B76 1-1163, Dur 2-465, wikPltc
c.330 QUADRIREMES 1st attested by inscriptions in Athenian navy.  The number and management of their oars is unknown.  They gradually start replacing triremes. 330 CDGRA 434, DGRA 785
330-29 CGS 584
c.330 Boeotian  helmetBoeotian helmet found in the Tigris, believed to have been lost by a cavalryman of Alex-III.  Though it does not have cheek pieces, it has a flaring rim which is folded into a complex shape offering face protection. photo: BabelStone

time of Alex-III: wikNHM
c.330 GREEK POTTERY:  Attic vase painting, degenerating in quality from 480, dies out in Attica. 330
B76 14-900
c.330 PAINT:  Minium - red oxide of lead is 1st used as a pigment by Nicias at Athens. 330
DGRA 321
c.329 ARISTOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 330, ends.  KEPHISOPHON succeeds until 328. 329 wikEA
c. 328

c. 328
ARISTOTLE publishes  Meteorology  in Athens.

Λ PHYSICS:  Meteorology is, "all the affections we may call common to air and water, and the kinds and parts of the earth and the affections of its parts."  "Water is every day carried up." The water is then "condensed again by the cold and so returns to the earth".  No part of Earth is always land or always water.

Λ COSMOLOGY V:  The universe has no beginning or end.  Every process of change in the world is cyclical.
Λ GEOCENTRIC THEORY V  Earth is in the center of a giant, spherical universe.  No time or space can exist outside this sphere.  Universe consists of terrestrial and celestial regions.  Terrestrial includes everything that changes (earth, air, fire, and water) including comets and shooting stars.  Celestial region has minimal change, due to an eternal substance called aither, which changes only in place, evidenced by circular movement of celestial bodies.   (see Chinese 350)
335-22 OCD 116
no date: yahoo
c. 328 ARISTOTLE publishes  On the Heavens  in Athens.

Λ COSMOLOGY:  Considers the universe as a whole in terms of its parts.  Heavenly bodies are the most perfect substances, made of imperishable aether, and not subject to generation and corruption.  They move in perfect circles.   (see Chinese 350)
350-41 TTS
no date:
B76 1-1168, wikOtH
c. 328

c. 328

c. 328
ARISTOTLE writes  Nicomachean Ethics  in Athens.  Notes from lectures at the Lyceum, which are either edited by or dedicated to his son, Nicomachus.
Book 1:  Politics is the science of the good for man.  Good popularly means happiness.  "Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good..."  "Children cannot be happy, for they are not old enough to be capable of noble acts."
Book 2:  Definition of moral virtue, how it's produced, in what materials and in what manner exhibited.
Book 3:  Moral virtue implies that the action is done by choice; the object of choice is the result of previous deliberation.  Discusses courage and temperance.
Book 4:  Virtues concerned with money, honor, and anger.
"All flaterers are mercenary, and all low minded men are flaterers."
"The older dramatists found their fun in obscenity; the moderns employ inuendo, which makes a great advance in decorum."
"We praise a man who is angry on the right grounds, against the right persons, in the right manner, at the right moment, and for the right length of time."
Book 5:  The meaning of justice.  "A man may commit adultery with a woman knowing well who she is, but not of free choice because he is under the influence of passion."
"It makes no difference whether a good man has defrauded a bad man or a bad man defrauded a good man, or whether a good or bad man has committed adultery: the law can look only to the amount of damage done."
Book 6:  Intellectual Virtue:  intellect divided into the contemplative and the calculative.  Chief intellectual virtues:  science, art, intuitive reason, practical & philosophical wisdom.
Book 7:  Continence and Incontinence; Pleasure
Book 8:  Kinds, causes, and reciprocity of friendship.
"A flaterer is a friend who is your inferior, or who pretends to be so."
Book 9:  Internal nature, and need of friendship.
Book 10:  Pleasure and happiness.
340 MNDQ 15, 43, 167, 404, 655
335-23 wikAri
OCD 116
MCAW 171
no date:
S2S 103, ntng, wikNE
c.328 FREE WILL V considered by Aristotle:  "But if it is manifest that a man is the author of his own actions, and if we are unable to trace our conduct back to any other origins than those within ourselves, then actions of which the origins are within us, themselves depend upon us, and are voluntary." Nicomachean Ethics III-6

ARISTOTLE publishes  Rhetoric  in Athens.  It relies on his his previous work, Topics.
Book 1:  Overview, presenting a definition, types, and purposes of rhetoric.
"All human actions have one or more of these 7 causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reason, passion, desire."  "The intention makes the crime."
Book 2:  Discusses 3 means of persuasion:  those grounded in credibility (ethos), in emotions of the audience (pathos), and in patterns of reasoning (logos).  Defines Λ LOGOS as argument from reason.
"Fear is pain arising from the anticipation of evil."  "No one can love the man he fears."  "Anger, even violent anger, against one person will cease if vengeance is taken on another."  "A democracy, when put to the strain, grows weak, and is supplanted by oligarchy."
Book 3:  introduces elements of style (word choice, metaphor, sentence structure) and arrangement (organization).
OCD 116
322 MNDQ 43, 275, 394, 596
MCAW 171
no date: wikRht
c.328 KEPHISOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 329, ends.  EUTHICRITOS succeeds until 327. 328 wikEA
c.328 DEMOSTHENES becomes Athenian wheat commissioner until 324. 328 bk
c.328 MIRRORS:  Greeks establish a school for mirror making.  Students learn to polish metal without scratching the surface. 328
EOET 229

Balkan Peninsula 327-301