|c.345||AESCHINES (age 45) digs up dirt on TIMARCHOS, counter charges Timarchos. Writes speech: "Against Timarchos", an ad-hominem alledging that Timarchos had no right to charge anyone because his own moral character is defective. Demosthenes abandons his prosecution of Aeschines, who is narrowly acquitted. Timarchos loses citizen-rights.||346 CAH 6, frdh
346/5 MCAW 163 345 DGRBM 1-36, 38, GHH, hrbn, bk
no date: OCD 17
|c.345||DELOS, though not a member, appeals to the Amphictyonic Council against Athenian control over their temple of Apollo.||early 345 CAH 6-763|
|c.345||ARCHIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 346, ends. EBULOS succeeds until 344.||345
|c.345||Messene and Megalopolis apply for membership in Amphictyonic League. Refused.||345
|c.345||Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea Arcadia, burnt down from 395, rebuilding begins.||345
|c.345||ARTABAZUS, former satrap of Dascylium, in Macedonia from 352, returns to Persian Anatolia.||345
|c.345||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, campaigns against the Ardiaei, one of the 3 greatest Illyrian tribes, at the Gulf of Rhizon on the Dalmatian coast. The campaign is successful and profitable.||345 CAH 6-762|
|c.345||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, campaigns in Illyria against Pleuratus, receives a leg wound.||345 CAH 6-763, lvG|
|c.344||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, quells rebellions in Thessaly, subdues all Thessaly, garrisons Pherae, and reunites the Thessalian League, which he had previously cut into tetrarchies (4 divisions).||344 CAH 6, CDGRA 610, TAG 206|
|c.344||LARISSA Thessaly under Thebes from 368, back under Macedonia until 196.||344 B76 VI-51, rcSB2|
|c.344||PHERAE comes under Macedonia until 302.||344 CAH 6, DGRA 1094, TAG 206|
|c.344||EUDICUS Macedonian governor of Thessaly 352-44, helps Philip-II divide Thessaly into 4 districts (tetrarchies).||344 DGRBM 2-77|
|c.344||EUDICUS Macedonian governor of Thessaly from 352, ends. Philip-II takes over Thessaly, which remains under Macedonia until 336. It is divided into 4 tetrarchies. Eudicos is made tetrarch of one of them.||344 CAH 6-764, ancs, lvG, rcSB2 342 B76 IX-912|
|c.344||ARISTOTLE at Mytilene Lesbos from 345, returns to Athens until 343/2.||344
|c.344||EBULOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 345, ends. LYCISCOS succeeds until 343.||344 wikEA|
|c.344||Rumor: PHILIP-II is preparing to support Argos and Messene in the Peloponnese. Therefore DEMOSTHENES visits Argos and Messene to warn them of the dangers of doing business with Philip.||344
CAH 6, OCD 330
|c.344||Sicilians, including Syracusan exiles, send envoys to Corinth to implore help against both Dionysius-II and Hanno.||344 DGRBM 3-1139|
|c.344||PYTHON of Byzantium, envoy of Philip-II arrives in Athens at the head of a mission of Macedon's allies, including Argos and Messene.||mid 344 CAH 6-766|
|c.344||EUBULOS is weakened by opposition of DEMOSTHENES and HEGESIPPOS. His influence wanes.||346 B76 III-986
344 OCD 412, wikEub
|c.344||PYTHON of Byzantium, envoy of Philip-II to Athens, proposes to ammend the 346 Peace of Philocrates: "each side should keep the territory possessed at the moment of the official conclusion of the peace treaty". Also change it into a COMMON PEACE to include all Greeks. Reaction is at first positive, but DEMOSTHENES and HEGESIPPOS point out technical flaws. Athenians rebuff proposal.||344
CAH 6-766, DGRBM 1-985, OCD 554
|c.344||DEMOSTHENES speech "2nd Philippic" says PHILIP-II is not worth negotiating with.||344 B76 5-579, 8-368, CAH 6, CDCC 270, DGRBM 3-276, Dur 2-458, MCAW 165, OCD 330, bk|
|c.344/3||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, invades Illyria, defeats the Ardiaei, whose territory extends north from Scodra (the Ardiaei capital on a Lake named Scodra) to Naro river.||344 DGRBM 3-276, GHH
344/3 CAH 6-439
|c.343||BYZANTIUM, independent from 355, joins 2nd Athenian League until 334.||343
|c.343||Athenian general DOIPEITHES heads a body of Athenian cleruchs to settle the Chersonese. Thracian city of CARDIA, an ally of Philip-II, soon gets in a territorial dispute with them.||343
CAH 6-768, wikCard, wikDio
|c.343||HEGESIPPOS is sent by Athens to renew the Athenian claim on AMPHIPOLIS renounced in the 346 Peace of Philocrates.||343
|c.343||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, attacks Cersobleptes, ruler of Odrysians in Thrace, defeats him in several battles.||343 DGRBM 1-674|
|c.343||LYCISCOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 344, ends. PYTHODOTOS succeeds until 342.||343 wikEA|
|c.343||Possession of HALONESOS island in Aegean south of Lemnos is disputed by Philip-II and Athens.||343 DGRG 1-1028|
|c.343||Thebes presses Phocis for repayment of their debt to the Amphictyony levied in 346.||343
|c.343||PHILOCRATES is charged with taking bribes in peace negotiations with Philip-II 348-6, successfully prosecuted by HYPERIDES. Philocrates flees and is condemned to death.||343 CAH 6-767, CDCC 270, OCD 16, 330, 535, 818, bk|
|c.343||Pro-Macedonians dominant in Eretria and Oreos Euboea until 341.||343 CAH 6|
|c.343||PHILIP-II uses Megaran traitors Ptoedoros and Perilaos, tries to get control of Megara.||343 DGRBM 3-276|
|c.343||Corinthians, impressed with Timoleon's success in Sicily, prepare a 2nd expedition of 10 ships, 2,000 hoplites, and 200 cavalry, which leaves Corinth in spring.||343
|c.343||DEMOSTHENES again prosecutes AESCHINES of accepting bribes from Philip-II, and betraying Athens.||343 B76 5-579, CAH 6-768, DGRBM 1-38, bk, lvG|
|c.343||DEMOSTHENES speech in court "The False Legation" attacks AESCHINES as if Aeschines had been responsible for convincing Athens to accept the peace of 346. Aeschines, supported by orator Eubulos and military leader Phocion, is narrowly acquitted.||343 B76 5-579, CAH 6, CDCC 30, Dur 2-458, OCD 16, 17, 330, lvG|
|BOGUS QUOTE ! When Aeschines spoke, they said, "How well he speaks."
But when Demosthenes spoke, they said, "Let us march against Philip."
No ancient writer ever said this. It comes from David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising, New York: Random House, 1983.
|c.343||AMBRACIA north of Bay of Actium, comes under Macedonia until 294.||343 rcSB2|
|c.343||ANTIPHON, Athenian exiled in Macedonia from ?, returns to the Piraeos intending to burn Athenian war ships. Discovered by Demosthenes and arrested.||342 DGRBM 1-38|
|c.343||ANTIPHON executed for treason by Athens. Rumor develops that Aeschines had been his accomplice.||343 bk
342 DGRBM 1-38, 207
|c.343||Aeschines denounces Demosthenes for arrest of Antiphon, as a violation of the constitution.||342 DGRBM 1-38|
|c.343||ATHENIAN general PHOCION defends Megara.||343 OCD 826|
|c.343||Sparta responds to a Hellenic call for help.||343 MCAW 162|
|c.343||PHILIP-II searches for a tutor for son Alex, considers Isocrates and Speusippos, who offers to resign his current position in order to take the job. Philip chooses Aristotle, a choice influenced by Aristotle's early association with the Macedonian court and by recommendation of Hermias, a Macedonian sympathizer. Philip agrees to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed in 348.||343 CAH 6
Alex age 13: wikLx
|c.343||ARISTOTLE in Athens from 344, at invitation of Philip-II, moves to Pella, capital of Macedonia, to tutor Alexander age 13 until 340. Philip provides a complex of caves and shaded walks known as the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as a classroom.||343 Dur 2-525, MCAW 163, OHG, TToH, wikArstt 343/2 B76 8-369, 373, OCD 114, RAH 367
342 CAH 6-771, DGRBM 1-318, Dur 2-458, EoΦ 1-151, GHH, TTPC, bk
|c.343||PHILIP-II begins southwestern expedition.||fall-winter 343 CAH 6-769|
|c.343||PHILIP-II sends final proposal to Athens to ammend the 346 Peace of Philocrates. Again he points out the benefits his friendship would bring, and invites Athenians to extend the treaty to all interested participants. This time he offers the island of Halonesos, and proposes a joint campaign to rid the Aegean of pirates. Both are bribes to ignore his rapacity and dishonesty.||343
|c.343/2||PHILIP-II goes to Epirus unopposed.||343/2 CAH 6-439, 769|
|c.343/2||ARYBBAS, 3rd Aeacid king of Molossia and Epirus from 368, expelled by Philip-II, goes to Athens. Philip-II installs his own bro-in-law ALEXANDER-I, age 20, until 330.||350 lvG
343/2 CAH 6-439 342 CAH 6, OCD 41, MRDK, rcSB2
|c.343/2||EUBULOS, manager of Theoric fund in Athens from 350, ends. Cephisophon of Aphidna succeeds until 337.||343/2 wikTh|
|c.342||PHILIP-II extends and strengthens the south border of Molossia, takes 3 Greek cities north of the Ambracian Gulf - Buchetium, Elatria, and Pandosia - and incorporates them and their lands into Molossia.||342
CAH 6-769, OCD 330
|c.342||PYTHODOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 343, ends. SOSIGENES succeeds until 341.||342 wikEA|
|c.342||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, again proposes to ammend the 346 Peace of Philocrates into a COMMON PEACE to include all Greeks. DEMOSTHENES and HEGESIPPOS again oppose this. Proposal collapses.||342
OCD 330, 492
|c.342||PHILIP-II begins to intervene directly in Greece.||342 OCD 330|
|c.342||HEGESIPPOS (or Demosthenes) speech: "On Halonesos"
The orator rejects Philip's proposals and demands an arbitrator to settle their differences.
|343 DGRBM 1-985 342 CAH 6, DGRBM|
|c.342||DEMOSTHENES and his war party gain full control of Athens. Eubulos fades out of history.||342
|c.342||DEMOSTHENES visits the Peloponnese, proposes a Hellenic League to defend against Philip-II. Gets little enthusiasm.||342
|c.342||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, leaves Antipater in charge of Macedonia, invades eastern Thrace and Thracian Chersonese, planning to cut grain supply from Black Sea to Greece. Athenian Diopeithes opposes him. Thracian campaign lasts until 339.||342 B76 14-226,
mid CAH 6-778, DGRBM 3-277, GHH, OCD 224, RAH 312, bk, vrb, lvG, wikAnt
|c.342||TERES-II, son of Amadokos-II, vassal king of Maronia and Chersonese under Philip-II from 351, deposed. Land comes under Macedonia until 331.||342 frH, wikLRTD|
|c.342||CARDIA begins hostilities with Athenian cleruchs, there from 342. PHILIP-II sends help to Cardians. Athenian Diopeithes ravages Thracian coast, destroys 2 cities under Macedonia, and tortures Philip's envoy. Philip-II proposes settlement by Arbitration. Athens refuses.||343 wikCard, wikDio
|c.342||EUMOLOPIA, Thracian city from c.1300, commanding the main road from Macedonia to Black Sea, refounded by Philip-II as PHILIPOPOLIS.||342
|c.342||BEROE Thrace (location disputed) founded by Philip-II.||342 wikBr|
|c.342||CERSOBLEPTES, king of Odrysians in Thrace 359-41, defeated by Philip-II. Odrysian kingdom of Thrace comes under Macedonia.||342 DGRBM 3-277, OCD 224, vrb, lvG|
|c.342||Northern Thrace, weakened by Macedonia, occupied by Scythians.||342 vrb|
|c.342||ATHENS politically divided from 346, is now united behind the anti-Macedonian war party.||342 OCD 98, 412|
|c.342||ATHENS sends troops to Acarnania and seeks alliances.||343 GHH
342 CAH 6, DGRBM
|c.342||PARMENIO intervenes in Euboea, supports pro-Macedonian party at Eretria.||342 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-126|
|c.342||Oreos Euboea taken by Parmenio, who executes Euphraeos, leader of the resistance.||342 DGRBM 3-126|
|c.342||Athenians try to assume control of Euboean towns and expel pro-Macedonian rulers. Antipater, regent of Macedonia for Philip-II, sends troops to stop them.||342 wikAnt|
|c.342||ARISTOTLE, tutoring Alexander in Pella 343-40, writes On Monarchy and Alexander or About Colonists . Content unknown.||tutoring period: OCD 115|
|c.342||ARCHIDAMOS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 360-38 invited to help Tarentum against the Lucanians, lands in Italy.||343 bk 343/2 CAH 6-766
342 OCD 98
338 DGRBM 1-267
|c.342||COTHELAS, king of the Getae, from northern Thrace to the Danube, allies with Philip-II.||late 342
|342/1||Philip-II winters in Thrace.||342/1 DGRBM|
|c.341||Son of Cotys-I, CERSOBLEPTES deposed. King of Odrysians in Thrace from 359, under Macedonia from 342, deposed by Philip-II. THRACE, independent from 479, annexed by Philip-II, under Macedonia until 323. Son of Cotys-I, SEUTHES-III is client king until 306.||342/1 MCAW 164
341 B76 8-368, CAH 6, OCD 224, frH, rcSB2, wikLRTD
|c.341||Athens, persuaded by Demosthenes, makes anti-Macedonian alliances in Euboean cities, including Chalcis.||341 CAH 6, LEWH 78|
|c.342||Sculptor LYSIPPOS sculpts "Coridas", a Pythian victor at the pancratium.||342
|c.341||SOSIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 342, ends. NICOMACHOS succeeds until 340.||341 wikEA|
|c.341||EUBOEAN LEAGUE incorporated until 338.||341 CDCC 332, OCD 412|
|c.341||Eretria and Oreos in Euboea, under pro-Macedonian tyrants Cleitarchos and Philistides from 443, taken by Atheian general Phocion. This gives supremacy of Euboea to Callias tyrant of Chalcis.||341 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-568, 3-340, OCD 826|
|c.341||Cleitarchus, pro-Macedonian tyrant of Eretria, and Philistides pro-Macedonian tyrant of Oreos expelled by Athenian Phocion.||341 DGRBM 2-1041, DGRG 1-847|
|c.341||Demosthenes and Callias tyrant of Chalcis canvass support in west Greece and Peloponnese.||341 CAH 6|
|c.341||On request of Philip-II, Athenian general DIOPEITHES is charged with misconduct in the Chersonese in 343-2. DEMOSTHENES successfully defends Diopeithes, who is allowed to retain his command.||341
DGRBM 1-1049, OCD 330, wikDio
|c.341||DEMOSTHENES speeches "On the Chersonese" in which he defends actions of Diopeithes against Cardia; and "3rd Philippic": a reaction to Philip's conquest of Thrace and appeal for a Hellenic league against him.||342 DGRBM 1-985
341 B76 5-579, CAH 6, CDCC 270, 330, DGRBM 1-1049, GHH, MCAW 165, bk
|c.341||DEMOSTHENES speech "4th Philippic". Demands an appeal to Persia to join in attacking Philip-II. Athens agrees.||341 CAH 6, CDCC 330, DGRBM|
|c.341||Athenian embassy to Susa to make alliance against Philip-II finds Artaxerxes-III receptive.||fall 341
|c.341/40||DEMOSTHENES speech "Against Lacritos".||341/40 CAH 6-501|
|c.341/0||Athens, persuaded by Demosthenes, makes anti-Macedonian alliances with Byzantium.||343 B76 9-1069
341/0 OCD 186, 331
|c.341/0||CHERSONESE peninsula, last Athenian possession in northeast, invaded By Philip-II.||341/0
|c.341/0||PERINTHOS on west bank of Sea of Marmara, refuses to fight against Athenians, besieged by Philip-II until 340. He uses a siege tower 37 meters high. Artaxerxes-III helps Perinthos.||342 CDCC 88, 316
341 DGRBM 1-985, OCD 388
winter 341/0 OCD 801, lvG
340 B76 I-550, CAH 6-690, 775, DGRBM, GHH, lvA, lvG
|c.340||LYCCEIOS (Lycaeios), son of Agis, king of Paeonia from 359, vassal of Macedonia from 358, ends. PATRAOS succeeds until 315.||340 rcEB, wikPn|
|c.340||SELYBRIA (Selymbria) between Perinthos & Byzantium, besieged by Philip-II.||340 DGRBM, GHH|
|c.340||PERINTHOS, besieged by Philip-II from 341/0, is helped by Byzantium, Athens, and Persian coastal satraps. Philip abandons siege.||340 B76 III-918,
CAH 6, OCD 801, 987
340/39 CAH 6-95
|c.340||History of Ephoros ends with siege of Perinthos.||340 DGRBM, wikEΦ|
|c.340||ANAXARCHOS, philosopher of Abdera Thrace, flourishes. A man of unknown stance, who will be most remembered for his flattery of Alex-III.||340 DGRBM 1-163|
|ARISTOTLE publishes 6 treatises on LOGIC: "Categories", "On Interpretation", "Prior Analytics", "Posterior Analytics", "Topics", "Sophistical Refutations" . They will later be grouped by commentators under the title Organon (Instrument).
B76 1-468, OCD 114, RAH 367
no date: stnf, wikOrg
|c.340||NICOMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 341, ends. THEOPHRASTOS succeeds until 339.||340 wikEA|
|c.340||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, puts son ALEXANDER in charge of Macedonia while Philip leaves to attack Byzantuim.||340 B76 1-468, GHH, bk, wikLx|
|c.340||ARISTOTLE, Alex's tutor from 345, is dismissed and commissioned by Philip to oversee the restoration of Stagira Chalcidice until 335.||342 GHH 340 Dur 2-525, OCD 114, RAH 367, bk
338 Dur 2-458 336 bk
|c.340||BYZANTIUM, in 2nd Athenian League 343-34, besieged by PHILIP-II until 339. He uses 80 cubit siege towers and arrow-shooting catapults, 1st large scale use of artillery in Greek world.||341/0 lvG 340 B76 I-550, 8-368, CAH 6, CDGRA 637, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 186, 987, lvG|
|c.340||New ARSENAL for the Piraeos designed by Philo of Eleusis.||340 CAH 7.1-374|
|c.340||DEMOSTHENES gets law revised so that richer Athenians are responsible for financing ship building.||340
|c.340||Military conscription of young men introduced in Athens. Civic duties included.||340
|c.340||DEMOSTHENES gets Athenians to vote Theoric fund (money reserved for festivals, sacrifices, and public entertainments) to military purposes.||340 MCAW 167 339 DGRA 1126|
|c.340||Athens declares war on Philip-II.||340 Oct CAH 6, DGRBM|
|c.340||Athenian CHARES sent to help Byzantium against Philip-II, but Byzantines don't trust Chares because of his actions in 346. They refuse to receive him. Chares plunders allies of Athens until 339.||340 DGRBM 1-683, 3-340,|
|c.340||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, in Thrace from 342, returns to Pella and sends son ALEXANDER to subdue revolts in south Thrace.||340 wikLx|
|c.340||ALEXANDER defeats the Maedi tribe of Thrace.||340 B76 1-468, CAH 6|
|c.340||ALEXANDROPOLIS Thrace founded by Alexander. He expels the locals and settles a mixed population. It soon disappears.||340 CAH 6, wikAM|
|c.340||PHILIP-II attacks Athenian possessions in Bosporus area, using newly devised towers and rams, but is successfully resisted by Athenian navy.||340
MCAW 166-7, OCD 141
|c.340||Λ CORCYRA under independent oligarchy 360-303, rejoins Athens to counter Macedonian incursions into the Adriatic.||340
|c.340||DICAEARCHOS of Messana, who lived in Peloponnese, makes a Λ MAP of EARTH, using two reference lines. One goes thru Rhodes and the Pillars of Hercules. The other goes north and south at Rhodes. This line becomes standard on maps. He also makes a Λ SPHERICAL map of Earth. (See Ecphantus 390) Writes Life of Greece .||340 Dur 2-488 fl. 326-296
300 B76 11-471 no date: TTT 54
|c.340||DERVENI PAPYRUS deposited in a grave in Dreveni Macedonia contains a philosophical treatise that is an allegorical commentary on an Orphic poem in hexameters, the "Protogonos Theogony" concerning the birth of the gods, produced in the circle of Anaxagoras, written in 2nd half of 5th century BCE. Begins "Close the doors, you uninitiated", an admonition to secrecy, recounted by Plato. Nyx (Night) give birth to Heaven (Uranos), who becomes the first king. Cronus takes kingship, but is succeeded by Zeus, who having "heard oracles from his father", goes to the sanctuary of Nyx, who tells him "all the oracles which afterwards he was to put into effect." Upon hearing them, Zeus "swallowed the phallus [of Uranos] who first had ejaculated the brilliance of heaven."||400 or&or
340 orti, wikDP, wikOrΦ 300 aja
|c.340||2 gold Orphic tablets shaped like ivy leaves are buried in a grave near ancient Pelinna Thessaly. They are regarded as instructions on what to say when confronted by Persephone in the Underworld. "Tell Persephone that Bacchus himself has set you free," meaning the dead are Orphic initiates asking for release from punishment that would otherwise befall them.||4th cen or&or late 4th cen wikPl|
|c.340||Sculptor SCOPAS of Paros (fl. 370) dies.||350 wikSc 340 LEWH 80, TToH 330 CAH 6|
|c.340||Sculptor TIMOTHEOS, apparently the leading sculptor at the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus, c.380, dies. Worked on the Mausoleum.||340 wikTm|
|c.340||Euboean League under hegemony of Chalcis approved by Athens.||340 CAH 6|
|c.340||Courtesan LAIS of Hyccara, in Thessaly, lured into the temple of Aphrodite by jealous Thessalian women and stoned to death.||340 wikLH 320 atl4|
|c.340 fall||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, breaks Peace of Philocrates 346, declares war on Athens, siezes a grain fleet bound for Athens.||fall 340 B76 8-368, CAH 6, OCD 331, lvG
339 CDCC 775
|c.340||TORSION SIEGE ENGINE developed by Philip-II.||fall 340 wikTSE|
|c.340||Scythians under Ateas attack and repel Macedonians near the mouth of the Danube.||340 MCAW 166|
|c.340||CHERSONESE, in 2nd Athenian League from 377, comes under Macedonia until 323.||340 rcT|
|c.340||Demosthenes and Callias tyrant of Chalcis, canvassing support in west Greece and Peloponnese from 341, report massive support, and many anti-Macedonian alliances in the Peloponnese.||340 late
CAH 6-775, LEWH 78
|c.340||This is the earliest year in which it is proven that tragic poets exhibit less than 3 plays each at the Dionysia at Athens. This year they produce 2 each.||340 CDGRA 639|
|c.340||Theater of Dionysus, on southeast slope of Acropolis at Athens, begun 500, finished.||340 DGRG 1-257, 284|
|c.339||Athenian CHARES supposedly helping Byzantium against Philip-II, having proven a liability to his own cause, is releived by PHOCION, who camps outside the walls and behaves respectfully.||340/39 DGRBM 1-683, 3-340|
|c.339||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, campaigns north of the Balkans, near the Danube.||339
CAH 6, lvG
|c.339||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, attacks Scythians.||339 GHH|
|c.339||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, returning from expedition against Scythians, the Triballi refuse to allow him to pass the Haemus range unless they receive a share of the loot. A battle ensues. Philip is defeated and wounded by a spear in his right thigh.||339 wikTr|
|c.339||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, reduces the Thracian Triballi in the area of Naissos (Nis).||339
|c.339||ODESSOS Thrace unsuccessfully besieged by Philip-II. Priests of the Getae persuade him to make a treaty.||339 wikOd|
|c.339||DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Thracians from 480, comes under Macedonia until 305.||339 rcEB|
|c.339||ATEAS, king of Scythians age 90, defeated and killed in Rumania by Philip-II, who captures 20,000 women and kids, 20,000 horses, and much cattle, and returns south.||339 B76 9-597, 16-249, 439, CAH 6-473, CHEIA 106, T1H 70, NES|
|c.339||THEOPHRASTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 340, ends. LYSIMACHIDES succeeds until 338.||339 wikEA|
|c.339||Athens, persuaded by Demosthenes, urges BYZANTIUM to resist Philip-I.||339
|c.339||BYZANTIUM, in 2nd Athenian League 343-34, under Leon of Byzantium, besieged by Macedonians from 340, helped by Athenian general PHOCION, breaks the siege.||340 DGRG 1-658 339 CAH 6-777, DGRBM 3-277, OCD 186, 595, 826|
|c.339||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36 is forced by Athenians to abandon his attempt on Byzantium and Perinthos and extricate his fleet from Black Sea.||339 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-340|
|c.339||Men of Amphissa in Locris west of Delphi, trespass on property of Delphic Apollo. Delphi demands vengeance.||339
|c.339||Aeschines again sent to represent Athens at meeting of Amphictionic council at Thermopylae.||340 DGRBM 1-38, 985|
|c.339||Amphictyonic League meets, this time at Thermopylae.||340 DGRBM 1-985 339 Jun CAH 6|
|c.339||AESCHINES, Athenian rep at Amphictyonic League, botches negotiations by attacking Locrians of Amphissa for plowing some sacred lands, and causing division when unity against Philip-II is paramount.||340 DGRBM 1-985 340/39 CDCC 30
339 LEWH 78,
|c.339||4th SACRED WAR begins until 338. Amphictyonic League, provoked by Aeschines, declares war on Amphissa. It stalls from lack of enthusiasm, so Amphictyons asks PHILIP-II, (now in Thrace) to lead it. Philip-II accepts.||340/39 CDCC 30
339 B76 8-368,
fall CAH 6, CDCC 775, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 78, OCD 17, RAH 312, bk
|c.339||Amphictyons appoint Philip-II hegemon for sacred war against Amphissa.||339 fall CAH 6, DGRBM 1-985 338 GHH|
|c.339||Still occupied in Thrace, Philip-II orders son Alexander to raise an army for a campaign in Greece.||no date: wikLx|
|c.339||Concerned that other Greek states might intervene, Alexander pretends he is preparing to attack Illyria, which takes him seriously and invades Macedonia, and is repelled by Alex.||no date: wikLx|
|339 Sep||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, and son ALEX join forces and with 30,000 men march south toward Thermopylae.||338 B76 14-226, wikLx|
|339 Sep||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, secretly outflanks Thermopylae, takes ELATEA Phocis, only 3 days march from Attica, blocks all routes from Boeotia northward.||339 Sep
OCD 331, 377 338 DGRA 211, DGRBM, MCAW 166, RAH 312, wikLx
|339||ELATEA Phocis taken by Philip-II. This alarms all Greece.||339 Nov CAH 6 338 DGRBM 1-38|
|c.339||Macedonian and Athenian envoys go to Thebes.||339 CAH 6|
|c.339||Philip-II fails in skirmishes on River Cephisus in Phocis.||339 CAH 6|
|c.339||ISOCRATES publishes Panathenaicus : Isocrates argues with a student about the literacy of the Spartans. It indicates that some Spartans are literate, and often use written documents in public affairs.||340 DGRBM
339 B76 9-1031, CAH 6, Dur 2-488, OCD 554
|c.339||ISOCRATES writes 2nd Letter to Philip .||339 CAH 6|
|339/8||KYTINION in Doris taken by Philip-II who then marches to Amphissa.||339 Nov CAH 6 338 DGRG 1-739|
|c.338||DEMOSTHENES calls for and gets alliance with Thebes against Philip-II. Athens makes concessions to THEBES for an alliance. Coalition wins 2 minor victories, but no follow up.||339 B76 8-368,
CAH 6-199, OCD 331
338 CDCC 270, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, wikLx
|c.338||Philip-II marches on Amphissa Locris (ostensibly on request of Amphictyonic League).||338 DGRG 1-810, hmLx, lvG, wikLx|
|c.338||Athenian CHARES sent to help Amphissa against Philip-II. Chares and Theban general Proxenos are tricked by Philip-II and Parmenio and defeated in Gravia Pass.||338
CAH 6, DGRBM 1-683
|c.338||LYSIMACHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 339, ends. CHAERONDAS succeeds until 337.||338 wikEA|
|c.338||Philip-II captures mercenaries sent to Amphissa by Demosthenes.||338 DGRG 1-810, hmLx, lvG, wikLx|
|c.338||AMPHISSA Locris, independent from 346, taken by Parmenio, walls destroyed.||338 CAH 6, DGRG 1-127, 810, OCD 55, bk|
|c.338||Coalition troops fall back to Chaeronea Boeotia.||338 CAH 6|
|c.338||After Amphissa, Philip returns to Elatea Phocis, occupies it, and begins to restore its fortifications. He sends a final peace offer to Athens and Thebes, who both reject it. Philip marches southeast, and is blocked near Chaeronea on road from Thermopylae to Thebes.||338 DGRG 1-810, GHH, hmLx, lvG, wikLx|
|338||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, with son Alexander on left, defeats Athenians, Thebans under Theagenes, Boeotians, and Phocians at CHAERONEA west of Thebes. He occupies and garrisons Thebes, but lets Athens go free.||338 B76 IX-928, 1-468, 5-579, 8-368, BCoC 406, Aug 22 CAH 6, CDCC 30, 104, 181, DGRA 81, DGRBM 1-38, 119, 985, 3-1022, Aug 7 DGRG 1-595, Dur 2-488, GHH, GRG 284, IDB 2-478, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, OCD 141, 225, 290, 943, OHG 174, RAH 312, TAWH 17, TToH, hmLx, lvA, lvG, wikLx mid 338 RAH 312, TTPC fall 338 OCD 331|
|c.338||SACRED BAND, 300 Theban soldiers grouped as pairs of lovers from 378, annihilated by Alexander at Chaeronea Boeotia.||338 OCD 943|
|c.338||CHAERONEA Boeotia taken by Macedonians.||338 bk|
|c.338||DEMADES, Athenian diplomat, captured by Macedonians at Chaeronea.||no date: wikDmd|
|c.338||DEMOSTHENES, leader of Athens, quickly returns from Chaeronea to Athens.||338
|c.338||After Chaeronea, Athenian general PHOCION befriends Philip-II and Alexander.||338
|c.338||After Chaeronea, MESSENE is absorbed into Macedonian kingdom until ?.||338
|c.338||HYPERIDES, desperate to oppose Philip-II, proposes that all Athenian women & kids be taken to the Piraeus, all slaves freed, all resident aliens be given full citizenship, amnesty for all exiles.||338 DGRBM 2-539|
|c.338||4th SACRED WAR from 339 ends.||338 CDCC 775, LEWH 78|
|c.338||NAUPACTOS occupied by Achaeans from 399, taken by Parmenio, given to Aetolian Confederacy. Gives Aetolia a good seaport and some of her most intelligent citizens.||339/8 TAG 63
338 CAH 6, OCD 723
|c.338||BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, democracy under Thebes from 376, dissolved by Philip-II. THEBES comes under Macedonia until 290.||338
B76 IX-928, OCD 55, rcSB3
|c.338||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, advances unopposed from Boeotia into Peloponnese, subdues Sparta.||338 CAH 6, MCAW 166, wikLx|
|c.338||CORINTH, oligarchy from 386, immediately surrenders to Philip-II and Alexander, comes under Macedonia until 309.||338 CAH 6-783, rcPl|
|c.338||LEOCRATES leaves Athens until 332.||338 OCD 629|
|c.338||MEGARA, independent from 395, quickly surrenders to Philip-II, under Macedonia until 280.||338 CAH 6-783, rcSB3|
|c.338||EUBOEA, in 2nd Athenian League from 350, conquered by Philip-II. CHALCIS Euboea receives a Macedonian garrison and remains under Macedonia until 200.||338 B76 8-369, LEWH 78, OCD 226, rcSB3|
|c.338||EUBOEAN LEAGUE from 341 dissolved by Philip-II until 196.||338 CDCC 332, rcSB3|
|c.338||ERETRIA Euboea under an Athenian colony from 445, under Macedonia until ?.||338 rcSB3|
|c.338||PHILIP-II, king of Macedonia 356-36, calls for a congress of Greek states and islands at Corinth. 2nd ATHENIAN LEAGUE from 378 is dissolved. All states except Sparta enter a HELLENIC LEAGUE (aka League of Corinth). All members autonomous. A proportionally represented council is ruled by Philip-II in wartime and by a chairman in peacetime. No alterations of existing constitutions, no tribute, no property confiscated. A few Macedonian garrisons are left up. Limited military requirements. Amphictyonic Council serves as supreme court. Philip announces plan to invade Anatolia. Since that makes it wartime, Philip obliges Athens to provide him ships and cavalry.||338 CAH 7.1-59, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, OCD 290, 1027
337 B76 8-369, 14-226, CAH 6, CDCC 907, DGRA 81
337/6 CDCC 674
|c.338||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, goes home to Macedonia.||338 DGRBM 3-277|
|c.338||DAOCHOS becomes tetrarch of Thessaly until 334.||338 OCD 632|
|c.338||CHERSONESE peninsula, under Athenians from 386, occupied by Macedonians from 340, ceded to Macedon until ?.||338
|c.338||Statesman orator LYCURGOS is appointed finance minister in Athens for 5 years. He will be reappointed twice, and end 326. Begins large building program. Rebuilds Theater of Dionysus, Stadium, Lyceum.||338 B76 VI-412, Dur 2-468, 491, OHG, bk 337 DGRBM 2-858 336 CAH 6-850|
|c.338||PLATAEA Boeotia, destroyed 373, rebuilt, under Macedonia until ?.||338 rcSB3|
|c.338||MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, republic from 362, comes under Macedonia until 266.||338 rcPl|
|c.338||Son of Agesilaos-II, ARCHIDAMOS-III dies. Eurypontid king of Sparta from 360, mercenary for Tarentum, in Italy from 342, killed in battle with Lucanians at Manduria. Son AGIS-III succeeds to 331.||338 B76 I-489, DGRBM 1-72, 267, MCAW 166, OCD 27, 98, 643, 1007, 1037, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS|
|c.338||Spartans make a statue of Archidamos-III, and put it in Olympia.||no date: DGRBM 1-267|
|c.338||SPEUSIPPOS head of Academy from 348, dies of a lingering paralytic illness. Heraclides Ponticos narrowly loses election to XENOCRATES of Chalcedon, in Ionia from 347, who returns and heads Academy until his death in 314. Heraclides Ponticos returns to Heraclea Pontica on coast of Black Sea until death 310.||339 B76 X-778, 14-539, CAH 6, CDΦ 4, DGRBM 3-894, Dur 2-641, EoΦ 3-383, GHH, KPHP 74, OCD 1009, 1141, OHG, TToH, bk
339/8 B76 IX-416, CHHΦ, wikHP, wikSp 338 CAH 6-609, OCD 500 347 LEWH 80
|c.338||HERACLIDES PONTICOS (not Cyme) flourishes. Diogenes Laertius says he forged plays under the name of Thespis.
Λ ASTRONOMY V: Proposed that the apparent motion of stars is created by rotation of Earth. Simplicius says Heraclides proposed that the irregular movements of the planets can be explained if Earth moves and sun stays still.
(See China 350, astro diary 331)
TTS 34, wikHrcl
|c.338||ISOCRATES, rhetorician, poet, speech writer, advocate of pan-Helenism, suicides out. Legend says he starved himself to death. Within 5 days after Chaeronea according to Aristotle.||338 B76 10-1093, CAH 6, CDCC 466, DGRBM, Dur 2-485, GHH, KPHP 21, LEWH 80, MCAW 166, OCD 135, 555, OHG, RAH 363, TToH, bk, wikIso|
|c.337||PLEURATOS, king of the Taulanti 356, 35, becomes king of the Illyrian Autariate (between the Ardiaei and the Triballi) until 335.||337 wikPl|
|c.337||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, invades Illyria until 337/6, fights Pleuratos.||337 CAH 6-439, 785|
|c.337||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, calls for a 2nd congress at Corinth, sends Antipater as his rep to Athens until 336. All but Sparta respond. It is decided that Philip should lead the Hellenic League in a WAR on PERSIA. LEAGUE of CORINTH begins until 323. Representation is proportional to military contribution. War on Persia is declared.||337 B76 III-150, 8-369, 373, CAH 6-528, 783, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, OHG, RAH 313, SHWC 70, lvG, wikAnt|
|c.337||CEPHISOPHON of Aphidna, manager of Theoric fund in Athens from 343/2, ends. DEMOSTHENES succeeds until 333.||337 CAH 6-569, bk|
|c.337||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, returns from Corinth to Pella, marries Cleopatra Eurydice, niece of general Attalus. This hurts Alex's position as heir, since any son of Cleopatra Eurydice would be fully Macedonian, while Alex is only half-Macedonian. During the wedding banquet, a drunken Attalus publicly prays to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir. Alex throws a cup at Attalus. Philip rises to attack Alex, trips and falls. Alex comments that Philip, who plans to cross to Anatolia, can't even cross the room.||338 B76 14-227
337 B76 VII-526, fall CAH 6-787, DGRBM 3-22, GHH
no date: wikLx
|c.337||CHAERONDAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 338, ends. PHRYNICHOS succeeds until 336.||337 wikEA|
|c.337||PYXODOROS, satrap of Caria 340-35, offers to marry a daughter to Macedonian prince Arrhidaeos. Philip-II likes the idea.||337 lvA|
|c.337||Alexander, son of Philip-II, sends embassy to Pyxodoros, satrap of Caria asking for the hand of his daughter. Philip learns of it, punishes Alex, and the alliance is canceled.||337 lvA|
|c.337||OLYMPIAS, wife of Philip-II from 357, mother of Alex, divorced, flees with Alex to Epirus until 336. Friend Ptolemy accompanies. Olympias stays at Dodona with her bro Alexander-I king of the Molossians 342-30. Alex goes to Illyria.||337 B76 VII-526, 1-468, 15-180, DGRBM 3-22, lvG, wikOly
no date: wikLx
|c.337||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, changes the name of his new wife Cleopatra, to Eurydice, possibly so as not to confuse her with his own dau by Olympias.||337 wikOly|
|c.337/6||ALEXANDER, son of Philip-II, in Illyria from 337, reconciled to father, returns to Macedonia.||no date:
B76 1-468, wikLx
|c.336||PHILIP-II has his own statue carried in procession with the 12 gods of Olympos.||336 IDB 2-493|
|c.336||PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, in order to weld together the League of Corinth, proposes an attack on "barbarians" in Ionia, sends 10,000 troops under generals PARMENIO, Amyntas, and Attalus across Hellespont to Abydos. Philip plans to follow, but is delayed by domestic affairs.||336 B76 VII-766, 8-369, 14-22, spring CAH 6-787, DGRBM 3-278, IDB 3-126, 216, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, RAH 313, bk, lvG|
|c.336||PHILIP-II, to patch up relations with Alexander-I king of Molossia and Epirus 342-30, offers him the hand of his dau by Olympias - Cleopatra (Alex-I's own niece) in marriage.||336 CAH 6-440, wikOly|
|c.336||PHILIP-II dies. Argead king of Macedon from 356, regent 359-6, at Aegae, celebrates wedding of his dau Cleopatra to king Alexander-I of Molossia Epirus. Philip, age 47, is murdered by one of his nobles, Pausanias, who flees on horse, but is caught and immediately executed. Recently divorced wife OLYMPIAS is immplicated. Son age 20 ALEXANDER-III succeeds to 323.||337 RAI3 337/6 OCD 331
336 B76 1-469, 8-369, Oct CAH 6, CDCC 674, DGRBM 1-119, 3-160, Dur 2-481, GHH, GRG 284, IDB 2-468, LEWH 78, MCAW 166, MRDK, OHG, RAH 313, RAI2, SHWC 70, TToH, bk, hmLx, hwD, lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM, wikLx
|c.336||Men exiled by Philip-II: HARPAGOS, LAOMEDON, NEARCHOS, PTOLEMY, son of Lagos, and others are recalled by Alex-III.||336 GHH|
|c.336||AMYNTAS, son of Antiochus, friend of Pausanias, flees to Ephesus.||336 DGRBM 1-155|
|c.336||ALEX-III, king of Macedon 336-23, helped by Antipater, executes princes of Lyncestis accused of murdering Philip-II, also executes Caranus, son of Philip, Attalus and anyone else who looks like they might oppose him. Olympias has Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa, her dau by Philip, burned alive.||336 B76 1-469, DGRBM 1-609, Dur 2-542, MCAW 166, hwD, wikAnt, wikLx|
|c.336||AMYNTAS-IV, former king of Macedon 359-56, executed by neph Alex-III for an alleged plot. Widow CYNANE, dau of Philip-II and Audata, is now a pawn of Alex-III.||336 DGRBM 1-155|
|c.336||At news of death of PHILIP-II, Thracian tribes north of Macedon rebel.||336 LEWH 79, wikLx|
|c.336||At news of death of PHILIP-II, Thebes, Athens, Arcadia, Elis, Aetolia, Thessaly rebel.||336 B76 IX-928, LEWH 79, wikLx|
|c.336||DEMOSTHENES proposes religious honors for Pausanias, assassin of Philip-II. Phocion points out the political stupidity of such a move, and is persuasive.||336 DGRBM 3-340|
|c.336||CTESIPHON proposes that DEMOSTHENES be crowned at the Dionysia for his services to Athens.||336 OCD 17, 331|
|c.336||CALIPPOS, astronomer mathematician, flourishes. Observes movements of planets and tries to use Eudoxus' scheme of connected spheres to account for it. He finds that 27 spheres cannot account for planetary movements, so he adds 7 more for a total of 34. He measures lengths of the seasons, finding them (starting with the spring equinox) to be 94 days, 92 days, 89 days, and 90 days. This variation in the seasons implies a variation in the speed of the Sun, called the solar anomaly. He follows up on the work of Meton to measure the length of the year and construct an accurate lunisolar calendar. His observations will be used by later astronomers to calibrate their observations in relation to subsequent eclipses.||336 GHH
no date: wikCl
|c.336||PHRYNICHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 337, ends. PYTHODELOS (Pythodoros) succeeds until 335.||336 wikEA|
|c.336||Corinthian DINARCHOS (Deinarchus) age 26, begin career as orator and speech writer for law courts in Athens, due to the death or exile of the competition. Being a metic (resident alien), he cannot participate in the debates. He befriends Phocion and his pro-Macedonian party until 307.||336
|c.336||ALEX-III, king of Macedon 336-23, learns of rebellion of Attalus in Anatolia. He orders Hecataeos tyrant of Cardia to take an army, and conquer Attalus.||336
|c.336||AESCHINES indictes CTESIPHON for illegally proposing that DEMOSTHENES be crowned, but because of the political situation, prosecution is delayed until 330.||336
CAH 6-575, CDCC 30
|ALEX-III musters 3,000 Macedonian cavalry and rides south. Thessalians occupy Tempe, the pass on a river between Mount Olympos and Mount Ossa. Alex orders his men to ride over Mount Ossa. Thessalians find Alex at their rear and surrender, adding their cavalry to Alex's force. Alex continues south.||336 wikLx|
|c.336||ALEX-III, king of Macedon 336-23, descends on Thermopylae, subdues Thebes, secures succession to Philip-II in Amphictyonic Council, appointed commander of Greeks by League of Corinth.||336 B76 8-373, CAH 6, Dur 2-542, MCAW 166, bk, wikLx|
|c.336||OLYMPIAS, widow of Philip-II, mother of Alex-III, in Epirus from 337, returns to Macedonia until 331.||guess|
|c.336||ALEX-III is recognized as defacto ruler of Greece.||336 hmLx|
|c.336||A law of Eucrates at Athens prohibits all attempts to subvert the democracy.||mid 336
|c.336||PLATAEA Boeotia, rebuilt and under Macedonia 338, rebuilt more by Alex-III.||336 CAH 6-563|
|c.336||ORCHOMENOS Boeotia, rebuilt by Alex-III.||336 CAH 6-563|
|c.336||THESPIA Boeotia, destroyed by Thebans 372/1, rebuilt by Alex-III.||336 CAH 6-563|
|c.336||PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE, together in varrying degrees from 418, dissolved.||336 B76 8-340|
|c.336||ALEX-III goes to Delphi, acclaimed invincible by Pythian priestess.||336 B76 1-469|
|c.336||ALEX-III goes to Corinth, organizes another conference, receives assurances from all Greek cities except Sparta that they would obey the treaty with Macedonia.||336 lvLx|
|c.336||ALEX-III supposedly meets cynic DIOGENES of Sinope at Corinth. He says, "I am Alexander the great king". Response, "I am Diogenes the dog." Alex offers him any favor. Diogenes says, "Stand out of the sun."||336 MCAW 169
no date: Dur 2-507, IDB 2-496, wikLx
|c.336||ALEX-III goes north to Thrace to suppress rebellious barbarians, sends Zepyrion, his newly appointed governor of Thrace to subdue Scythians north of Macedonia.||336 B76 1-469, 8-373, CAH 6,
Dur 2-542, T1H 28
335 bk, wikLx
|c.336/5||Unrest and dissidence in southern Greece is suppressed.||winter 336/5 CAH 6-795|
|c.336/5||Hyperides speech "Against Philippides".||winter 336/5 B76 V-253|
|c.335||CLEITOS, son of Bardylis, becomes king of the Dardani and of Illyria until 317.||335 wikClt, wikLRI
fl. 335 rcWB
|c.335||CLEITOS, king of Illyria 335-17, with promised aid from king Glaucias of the Taulanti, rebels against Alex-III.||335 DGRBM 1-785, 2-273|
|c.335||ODESSOS Thrace surrenders to Alex-III. Under Macedonians until 313.||335 wikOd|
|c.335||LYSANIAS, friend of Alex-III, sent with Philotas and loot taken from Thracians to the coast.||335 DGRBM 2-864|
|c.335||SYRMUS king of the Triballi figures Alex-III is about to invade his country, sends all women and children to an island of the Danube called Peuce. When Macedonians approach, he goes there himself, with his personal followers.||335 DGRBM 3-966|
|c.335||ALEX-III marches from Amphipolis, north thru the Rhodope range to the Hebros valley, then to the passes of the central Haemus range, crushes the Triballi, near the Lyginus river, marches thru north forests and swamps.||335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1175, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx|
|c.335||SOPOLIS son of Hermodoros, commands Amphipolitan cavalry in the army of Alex-III in the battle against the Triballi on the banks of the Lyginus river.||335 DGRBM 3-877|
|c.335||ALEX-III tries unsuccessfully to land on Peuce island, crosses Danube, interviews some Celts near the Adriatic, defeats the Getae, re-establishes control over barbarians, returns to Danube. Syrmus sends envoys to sue for peace, which is granted.||335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1175, 3-966, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx|
|c.335||ALEX-III recrosses Danube into Thrace.||335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRBM 1-119, 2-1175, 3-966, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx|
|c.335||Alex-III turns west, defeats Illyrian coalition under Cleitos, which had invaded Macedonia. Cleitos flees to Taulantian land.||335 B76 1-469, 8-373, DGRBM 1-119, 2-273, bk, lvLx|
|c.335||CYNANE, dau of Philip-II and Audata, widow of Amyntas-IV, is promised by Alex-III to Langaros, king of the Agrianians, but he dies of illness. Cynane remains unmarried, caring for dau Eurydice.||336 DGRBM 1-911|
|c.335||Kings Glaucias of the Taulanti and Cleitos of the Dardanians submit to Alex-III.||335 CAH 6-440, DGRBM 1-119|
|c.335||PLEURATOS-I, king of the Taulanti from 356 and the Autariate from 337, ends.||335 wikLRI, wikPl|
|c.335||FALSE RUMOR: ALEX-III DEAD in Illyria, circulates in Greece.||336 B76 8-373, LEWH 79, MCAW 166, OCD 331, lvG 335 B76 5-579, 8-373, OCD 331|
|c.335||PYTHODELOS (Pythodoros), eponymous archon of Athens from 336, ends. EUAINETOS succeeds until 334.||335 wikEA|
|c.335||THEBES: Exiles return and kill Macedonian governors, but Philotas holds up in the Cadmea citadel. Arcadians, Eleans, and Athenians secretly help Thebans in Boeotia.||336 B76 8-373, LEWH 79, MCAW 166, OCD 331, lvG
335 B76 5-579, 8-373, DGRBM 3-329, GHH, OCD 331
|c.335||Alex-III rushes from Illyria 240 miles to Thebes in 14 days.||335 B76 1-469, 8-373-4, LEWH 79, lvLx, wikLx|
|c.335||DEMOSTHENES harangs against Macedonians. Phocion rebukes him for endangering Athens.||335 DGRBM 3-340|
|c.335||DEMOSTHENES actively helps THEBES resist Macedonians, and narrowly escapes being delivered to Alex-III.||335
|c.335||THEBES taken by Alex-III and destroyed, sparing only the house of Pindar. Philotas and his garrison in the Cadmea citadel is rescued. 6,000 inhabitants slaughtered, 30,000 enslaved, territory divided among adjacent states until 316. The rest of Greece submits. Then Alex repents and asks pardon from Delphic Apollo.||335 B76 1-469, 8-373-4, CAH 6-582, CDCC 270, 878, DGRBM 1-986, 3-329, Dur 2-377, GHH, LEWH 79, MCAW 166, 169, OCD 227, OHG, TToH, lvG, lvLx 334 CDCC 34|
|c.335||TIMOCLEIA, a woman of Thebes, has her house broken into by Thracian allies of Macedonians. Their commander rapes her, then asks where she hides her valuables. She leads him to a well in her garden, where she claims to have thrown her chief treasures when the city was taken. While he stoops to look, she pushes him in, and kills him. She is brought by the Thracians before Alex-III, and displays such noble character that Alex orders her freed with her children.||335 DGRBM 3-1136|
|c.335||Wealthy Athenian hetaira (courtesan) PHRYNE offers to rebuild the walls of Thebes if she is allowed a plaque stating, "Alexander destroyed them, but Phryne the hetaira rebuilt them". The offer is declined.||no date: DGRBM 3-359|
|c.335||Athenian MENESTHEOS, son of Iphicrates, sent with 100 galleys to oppose Macedonians which had intercepted Athenian ships coming from the Black Sea.||335 DGRBM 2-1040|
|c.335||Athenian DEMADES mediates between Greeks and Alex-III.||335 OCD 323|
|c.335||Alex-III pardons the demagogues, but demands surrender of 8 anti-Macedonians including Athenian orators CALLISTHENES, CHARES, EPHIALTES, LYCURGOS, HYPERIDES, and CHARIDEMOS. Demades pays Alex-III 5 talents to spare them. Alex agrees to spare all but Charidemos.||335 DGRBM 1-576, 683, 685, 2-25, GHH, OCD 227, 535, 629|
|c.335||CHARIDEMOS, Euboean mercenary, escapes to Persians in Anatolia until 333.||335 B76 II-752, DGRBM 1-685, OCD 227|
|c.335||ARISTOTLE, probably at Stagira Chalcidice from 343/2, returns to Athens until 323 with pupil Theophrastos. He does not rejoin the Academy. He rents buildings in grove of Apollo Lyceius, including a covered court, which becomes the LYCEUM. Like the Academy, the Lyceum has no fees or orthodoxy agenda. Like the Academy under Xenocrates, Aristotle appoints someone leader every 10 days. Unlike the Academy, the Lyceum thinks itself as a collective within which groups could be identified. They call themselves Peripatetics because they walk around while talking. No women are reported in it.||337/6 CHHΦ 336 bk
335 B76 8-373, CAH 6-612, CDΦ 38, EoΦ 1-152, GHH, MCAW 167, OCD 114, 370, 1058, OHG 294, TToH, TTPC, wikArstt, wikPr
335/4 OCD 801
334 DGRBM, Dur 2-525, TTS
|c.335||Comic poet PHILIPPIDES flourishes.||335 DGRBM, GHH|
|c.335||EUDEMOS of Rhodes, student of Aristotle, flourishes in Athens until Aristotle dies 322. Writes History of Λ Geometry V , also histories of Greek math and astronomy. Edits and systematizes Aristotle's works. His works are often cited, but all lost.||340-31 TTS
335 BHM 680
320 BHM 46
no date: wikER
|c.335||Painter APELLES of Kos, pupil of Ephorus of Ephesus, flourishes, paints a portrait of Alex-III.||350-20 CAH 6|
|c.335||Aetolian tribes each send an embassy to Alex-III.||335 CAH 6-584|
|c.335/4||Pro-Macedonians DEMADES and PHOCION put in charge of Athens until 323.||no date: OCD 323|
|c.334||ANTIGONUS Monophthalmus given a command in army of Alex-III.||334 OCD 69|
|c.334||PYRRHO, pupil of Anaxarchus at Elis, becomes court philosopher to Alex-III, remains with him until Alex dies, then returns to Elis.||334
|c.334||ANTIPATER, general of Alex-III, made governor of Macedonia and "General of Europe" by Alex-III until 323. Given 13,000 troops.||334 B76 I-424, 1-469, 8-374, DGRBM 1-201,
OCD 73, hmLx, hwD, wikAnt
|c.334||BYZANTIUM, in 2nd Athenian League from 343, taken by ALEX-III. Under Macedon until 306.||334 CDCC 230|
|c.334||DAOCHUS, tetrarch of Thessaly from 338 ends.||334 OCD 632|
|334 spring||ALEX-III, with 32,000 inf (only 12,000 Macedonian), 5,000 cav, surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, and historians, supported by 160 ships, crosses Hellespont into Anatolia. He takes his imbecillic half bro Philip Arrhidaeos to guard against a potential coup in Macedonia.||spring 334 B76 III-380, 1-469, 8-374, CAH 6-798, DGRBM 1-119, Dur 2-544, GHH, IDB 3-743, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, OCD 495, 815, OHG, RAH 323, SHWC 87, TAWH 17, anan, hmLx, lvA, lvG, lvLx, vrb, wikLx|
|c.334||Philosopher CALLISTHENES of Olynthos, neph of Aristotle accompanies Alex-III, on recommendation of Aristotle.||334 DGRBM 1-575|
|c.334||EUAINETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 335, ends. KTISICLES succeeds until 333.||334 wikEA|
|c.334||Athens reorganizes forces while Alex-III is in Anatolia.||no date: OCD 141|
|c.334||Monument of Lysicrates at Athens.||334 CAH 6|
|c.333||DEMOSTHENES, manager of Theoric fund in Athens from 337, no longer so.||333 bk|
|c.333||KTISICLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 334, ends. NICOCRATES succeeds until 332.||333 wikEA|
|c.333||AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, sails with 1 trireme to Ionia, asks Pharnabazus and Autophradates for money and arms to fight Macedonians in Greece. Pharnabazus gives him 30 talents and 10 triremes.||333 DGRBM 1-72,
|c.333||Hyperides speech "For Lycophron".||333 B76 V-253|
|c.333||AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, at Siphnos Island in Cyclades, learns of Issus, sends word to his bro Agesilaos to meet him in Crete, so that together they might secure it for Sparta.||333 DGRBM 1-72|
|333/2||AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, working for Pharnabazus with mercenaries, invades Crete. This forces Alex-III to send ships commanded by Amphoterus with reinforcements to the Aegaean.||winter 333/2 lvG|
|c.332||Tribes in Thrace, under Memnon of Thrace, rebel against Macedonians until 331.||332 wikAnt 331 hwD|
|c.332||NICOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 333, ends. NIKETES (Nikeratos) succeeds until 331.||332 wikEA|
|c.332||LEOCRATES, away from Athens from 338, returns.||332 OCD 629|
|c.332||Athenian CALLIPOS bribes competitors in the Olympic games to let him win the pentathalon. Caught. He and his competitors are fined by the Eleans. Athenians send Hyperides to get the fine voided. Eleans refuse. Athenians never pay it, and boycott the games until Apollo, thru his oracle at Delphi, tells them to. The money is used to erect 6 statues to Zeus (not Apollo). Inscriptions on them blast the Athenians.||332 DGRBM 1-574|
|c.333||THEOPOMPOS, Athenian comic poet, in Anatolia from 353, returns to Athens, gets a job with the aristocratic party. Remains in Greece until 305.||333 DGRBM 3-1093|
|c.332||Phalanx commander Amyntas, son of Andromenes, is sent with 10 triremes from Gaza to Macedon to recruit troop replacements.||332 late CAH 6-809, DGRBM 2-283|
|c.331||ZOPYRION becomes Macedonian governor of Thrace until 325/4.||331 frH|
|c.331||ZOPYRION, Macedonian governor of Thrace, with 30,000 troops, attacks Scythian lands just to look busy, besieges Olbia unsuccessfully, retreats, attacked by Scythians, Getae, and Triballi. Annihilated near Black Sea. Scythians set up outposts in Balkans before returning home.||331 T1H 70, NEH, wikZop
326 CAH 6-843
325 OCD 968
no date: T1H 28
|c.331||SEUTHES-III, son of Cotys-I, ruler of Odryssians in Thrace, uses Zopyrion's fall as reason to rebel. Becomes king until 306.||331 wikLRTD 325 DGRBM 3-809|
|c.331||Rebellion in Thrace under Memnon from 332, and recently Seuthes, suppressed by Antipater.||331 DGRBM 1-201|
|c.331||NIKETES (Nikeratos), eponymous archon of Athens from 332, ends. ARISTOPHANES succeeds until 330.||331 wikEA|
|c.331||AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, with financing from Pharnabazus, makes anti-Macedonian alliance with Elis, Achaea, and part of Arcadia.||331 CAH 6, lvLx, wikLx
no date: LEWH 79, lvG
|c.331||AGIS-III, allied with Elis, Achaea, and part of Arcadia (20,000 inf and 2,000 cav), starts anti-Macedonian rebellion in Peloponnese, defeats a Macedonian force under Corragus, besieges MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, under Macedonia from 338.||331 B76 I-138, DGRBM 1-72, LEWH 79, OCD 27, hwD, wikAnt
331/0 OCD 73, 629
no date: lvG
|c.331||Population of Athens estimated at 20,000 citizens (males above age 20) by Demosthenes.||331 DGRG 1-262|
|c.331||DEMADES, co-ruler of Athens 335/4- 23, keeps Athens out of the anti-Macedonian rebellion. Argos, Megalopolis, and Messene also stay out.||331 hwD
no date: OCD 27, 323
|c.331||AMPHOTEROS, fleet commander of Hellespont 333-? leads 100 Cypriot and Phoenician ships against Sparta.||mid 331 CAH 6-332, DGRBM 1-153|
|331/0||OLYMPIAS, divorcee of Philip-II 357-36, mother of Alex-III, moves back from Macedonia to Epirus, serves as a regent to her cousin Aiakides (Aeacides), king 331-16. Olympias becomes virtual ruler of part of Epirus until 317.||331 B76 VII-526, OCD 751
330 lvG, wikOly
|c.331/0||Antipater pardons Memnon of Thrace and lets him keep his office, so as to better deal with Agis-III. Antipater receives much money from Alex-III, hires mercenaries.||331/0 wikAnt no date: lvG|
|c.331/0||With Thessalian help, Antipater builds a force double that of Agis-III, which Antipater in person leads south.||331/0 wikAnt no date: lvG|
|c.331/0||Son of Archidamos-III, AGIS-III dies. Eurypontid king of Sparta from 338, besieging pro-Macedonian MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia, attacked by an army twice his size under Antipater, defeated, mortally wounded in battle. Bro EUDAMIDAS-I, succeeds to 305.
Men killed in battle: 5,300 Spartans and allies, 3,500 of Antipater's troops.
|331 B76 I-138, 8-375, CAH 6, CDCC 74, DGRBM 1-201, GHH, MCAW 168, MRDK, OCD 27, 73, 1007, RAH 349, bk, lvG, lvLx, rcPl, wikAcr, wikKS
331/0 lvG 330 DGRBM 2-76, TToH, hwD, wikAnt, wikLx
|c.331/0||ALEXANDER-I, bro-in-law of Philip-II, king of Molossia and Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy from 334, defeated by Samnites at Pandosia Italy. Murdered by one of his allies. Widow Cleopatra returns to Epirus. Their infant son NEOPTOLEMUS-II technically succeeds to 313. ARYBBAS, former king of Epirus 368-42, resumes over part of Epirus until 319, while his son Aiakides and Olympias rule the rest. Aiakides is challenged by rivals until 323.||334 CAH 7.1-405
331 B76 III-926, CAH 6-441, MCAW 170, MRDK, frH, lvG, rcSB2, wikAl1Ep
331/0 Agθ 32, CAH 7.2
330 CDCC 325, LEWH 80, OCD 41, 400, bk, lvG, wikAryb
326 DGRBM 1-799, 2-1155
|c.330||Spartans sue for peace with Macedonia. Antipater negotiates directly with League of Corinth, but Spartan emissaries prefer to go to Anatolia and deal with Alex-III, who fines Sparta's allies 120 talents and requires Sparta to join the League of Corinth.||330 wikAnt|
|c.330||Sparta decrees amnesty for all who had fled in battle 331/0 abainst Macedonia. Acrotatos son of Cleomenes-II opposes decree, gaining hatred of some Spartans, and respect of others.||no date: DGRBM 1-16|
|c.330||MOLOSSIAN LEAGUE, made of Molossians, Thesprotians, and Chaonians from 370, evolves into EPIROTE LEAGUE, a larger coalition of tribes. Lasts until 170.||370-20 wikEL
330 B76 III-926, CAH 6-441
|c.330||SCYTHIANS penetrate into Thrace.||350-300 B76 2-615|
|c.330||ARISTOPHANES, eponymous archon of Athens from 331, ends. ARISTOPHON succeeds until 329.||330 wikEA|
|330||Bronze Statues of Harmodios and Aristogiton, in Susa from 480 returned by Alex-III to Greece.||330 wikHA|
|330||With Athens isolated and subject to Macedon, AESCHINES decides to prosecute CTESIPHON for his 336 support of Demosthenes.||330 B76 5-579, CAH 6-575, CDCC 30, OCD 16, 17, bk, lvG mid 330 OCD 331|
|c.330||AESCHINES, Athenian orator, argues in court with DEMOSTHENES over the crown affair 336. Speech "Against Ctesiphon".||330 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-38, LEWH 80, OCD 16, OHG, bk|
|c.330||DEMOSTHENES speech "On the Crown".||330 DGRBM 1-986, Dur 2-458, MCAW 173, OHG, bk|
|c.330||Hyperides speech "For Euxenippos".||330 B76 V-253|
|c.330||AESCHINES knows he is defeated, and bugs out before the verdict. He gets less than ⅕ of the votes. He is fined and sails to Ionia where he teaches rhetoric until death 315.||330 B76 5-579, CAH 6-575, CDCC 30, DGRBM, OCD 16, 17, bk, lvG
mid 330 OCD 331
|c.330||Grain shortage in Greece until 326.||330 CAH 6, RAH 353|
|CALLIPOS of Cyzicus, astronomer, moves from Anatolia to Athens and lives with Aristotle.
Λ COSMOLOGY V: Together they improve and complete Eudoxos' theory of concentric spheres. Callipos says at least 34 spheres are needed. He adds a sphere for the sun, one for the moon and another for each of the known planets. (See Chinese models 350)
Λ CALENDAR: He improves the Metonic cycle by dropping 1 day after 4 Metonic cycles: Says solar year is not 365 days, but 365¼. Proposes 76 year cycle to harmonize solar and lunar years. The month error of Meton was 1.9 minutes whereas that of Callipus was only 22 seconds. His cycle is adopted in 330 and used by all later astronomers for dating observations.
(See Babylonian 331)
330 DGRBM 1-575, OCD 196, brian
no date: B76 3-598
|c.330||Λ ECONOMY in Attica: Prices from 404 to 330 have doubled.||330 Dur 2-281|
|c.330||Athenian architect Philo flourishes. He designed the porticoe of the temple of Demeter at Eleusis.||330 MCAW 173|
|c.330||EPHORUS of Cumae, historian, pupil of Isocrates, dies. Author of 1st Universal History, 29 vols, no longer extant.||330 Dur 2-724, OCD 388|
|c.330||LANION, 1st stone theater of Dionysus in Athens, renovated by LYCURGOS, finance minister 238-26. Consists of a stone wall with 2 small wings on sides. Temporary scenery of wood and canvas are placed in front of it. Stone seats are added for the audience.||330 CDGRA 622, 623, MCAW 173, OCD 350|
|c.330||LYCURGOS speech "Against Leocrates". Still extant. He accuses blacksmith Leocrates of treason for fleeing Athens in the panic following the Battle of Chaeronea.||330 DGRBM|
|c.330||LYCURGOS causes standard texts of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Eurypides to be deposited in the public archives.||330 CDGRA 641|
Ricardo Andre Frantz
|c.330||Sculptor LYSIPPOS of Sicyon, flourishes. He is a favorite of ALEX-III, and creates statues of him. Ancient authors say Alex was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from sculpting him. Lysippos often used the contrapposto sculptural scheme to portray Alex and other characters such as Apoxyomenos, Hermes and Eros. Lysippos also does Heracles and Kairo. His work is often indistinguishable from that of Scopas. Only Roman copies of his works survive.||4th cen. wikLsp 360-15 OHG 340 OCD 632
B76 11-1096, CAH 6,
Dur 2-458, MCAW 173
|c.330||Beaten metal for decoration of armor, vases, and domestic objects reaches finest form. Some is made by a hammer, worked from behind, outlines on the front being then emphasized by a chisel or punch. Some metal plate is beaten into a mold formed by carving the subject in intaglio on a resistant material.||330 B76 11-1096|
|c.330||4th cen. wikLeo
330 CAH 6
left Marie-Lan Nguyen
|c.330||Historian EPHOROS of Cyme dies.||330 wikEΦ|
|c.330||Temple of Zeus at NEMEA (8km southeast of Phlios), the last important Doric temple built on Greek mainland, a U-shaped pattern of free-standing Corinthian columns frames the cult image.||330 CAH 6-654|
|c.330||PYRRHO, pupil of Anaxarchus, founds philosophy school at Elis.||330 B76 VIII-325 323 EoΦ 7-36|
|c.330||PHILEMON, New Comedy poet of Syracuse, produces 1st play in Athens.||330 DGRBM 328 B76 VII-939|
|c.330||ARISTOTLE publishes Λ Physics V in Athens. A collection of treatises dealing with general principles of natural or moving things, living and non-living.
"Prime matter" exists. It is the substratum in things that is changeable. Prime matter becomes the 4 "simple bodies": earth, air, fire, water. The simple bodies have within themselves a "principle of motion and rest", by which things ghange between solid/liquid/gas, wet/dry, hot/cold, etc.
330-23 MCAW 171
no date: S2S 100
|ARISTOTLE's Λ METAPHYSICS V, begun 346, is published in Athens.
The study of BEING, its principles, its causes. What does "be" mean? What does it mean to be anything whatsoever?
SUBSTANCE is the primary essence of things. We know a thing better when we know the category in which it is, than when we know its attributes. Distinguishes between essential attributes (what makes a thing what it is) and accidental (non-essential) attributes.
Rejects Plato's universal Λ FORMS, because though universals exist, the reality of any particular thing is not outside the thing itself. Furthermore the theory of Forms doesn't help us understand any thing better. Form & matter are separate in abstraction, and united in space/time. They never exist separately in space/time. Matter is always potentiality; form is actuality.
CHANGE always exists in extension, and means: motion, generation, degeneration.
Of any thing, 4 questions exist:
What is it?
What is it made of?
What is made by it?
For what end is it made?
These questions imply 4 CAUSES (explanations):
formal cause: (which determines what a thing is) (altered during a change)
matterial cause: (that of which it is made) (usually not altered during a change)
efficient cause: (by what a thing is made) (the agency that brings about change)
final cause: (the purpose served by change)
Recognized logical priority in addition to, and distinct from, temporal priority.
An Unmoved Mover exists. The relation of a logical Unmoved Mover to a temporal First Mover is never clarified.
Λ EPISTEMOLOGY: Deals with KNOWLEDGE at the highest levels of abstraction. Knowledge of 1st principles and causes is the most important knowledge.
Λ THEOLOGY: A Supreme Being is necessary because there must be an unmoved mover
330-23 MCAW 171
no date: S2S 92-99, wik4cz, wikM(A)
|c.330||INDETERMINISM asserted by Aristotle: "Nor is there any definite cause for an accident, but only chance, namely an indefinite cause."
"There are principles and causes which are generable and destructible apart from the actual processes of generation and destruction; for if this is not true, everything will be of necessity: that is, if there must necessarily be some cause, other than accidental, of that which is generated and destroyed. Will this be, or not? Yes, if this happens; otherwise not."
|ARISTOTLE publishes On the Soul in Athens.
Λ METAPHYSICS: Λ SOUL is "the first grade of actuality of a natural organized body". i.e. a form that occurs within organized bodies that distinguishes living from non-living things. matter/body = form/soul. Soul cannot exist without body, and dies with body.
LIFE is "self nutrition and growth (within its corelative decay)"
"We can wholly dismiss as unnecessary the question whether the soul and body are one. It is as meaningless as to ask whether the wax and the shape given to it by the stamp are one."
3 levels of soul: vegetative, sensitive, rational.
vegetative soul: takes in matter as food, but doesn't absorb qualities or forms.
sensitive soul: absorbs qualities and forms of things by the senses, without taking in their matter. It combines this info into an organized whole.
rational soul: applies memory and imagination to sensory data, and distinguishes between them and things that cause them. Also has the faculty of deliberation, i.e. decides what to do.
no date: S2S 101-103
|c.330||ARISTOTLE publishes Poetics in Athens: Specifically concerned with drama. Earliest surviving work of dramatic theory, 1st extant philosophical treatise on literary theory.
"Homer has taught all other poets the art of telling lies skillfully."
335-22 OCD 116
330-23 MCAW 171
322 MNDQ 544
|c.330||ARISTOTLE publishes Constitutions in Athens. 170 Constitutions of various states, mostly written by his students. Assumed to be research for his Politics.||335-22 OCD 116|
|ARISTOTLE publishes Λ Politics in Athens. The city is a partnership arising for self-sufficiency but exists primarily for the sake of living well. The city is prior to the individual. Sketches connection of philosophy to politics.
"Man is by nature a political animal", because he can dialogue about justice and the good.
"At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice, he is the worst." Women are inferior. Slavery is approved.
Book 1: Discusses the city (polis) as opposed to other types of communities and partnerships such as the household and village. Highest form of community is the polis. Public life is more virtuous than private.
Book 2: Examines views on the best regime in Plato's Republic and Laws. Examines regimes commonly considered well managed: Spartan, Cretan, and Carthaginian.
Book 3: Who is a citizen? - anyone who can take part in government. Most people in the polis can be citizens, contrary to Plato who says few can take part in government. Classifies constitutions. Examines just distribution of political power, types of monarchies.
Book 4: Tasks of political theory. Why are there many types of constitutions? Types of democracies and oligarchies. Polity (constitutional government) is optimal form of govenment. When perverted, a polity becomes a democracy, the least harmful derivative government.
Book 5: Constitutional change, revolutions in different types of constitutions and ways to preserve constitutions, instability of tyrannies.
Book 6: Democratic and oligarchic constitutions.
Book 7: Best state and best life. Ideal state. Its population, territory, position, etc. Citizens of the ideal state. Marriage and children.
Book 8: Education in the ideal state.
330-23 MCAW 171
329/8 OCD 115
330-23 MCAW 171
no date: B76 1-1163, wikPltc
|c.330||QUADRIREMES 1st attested by inscriptions in Athenian navy. The number and management of their oars is unknown. They gradually start replacing triremes.||330 CDGRA 434, DGRA 785
330-29 CGS 584
|c.330||Boeotian helmet found in the Tigris, believed to have been lost by a cavalryman of Alex-III. Though it does not have cheek pieces, it has a flaring rim which is folded into a complex shape offering face protection.||time of Alex-III: wikNHM
|c.330||GREEK POTTERY: Attic vase painting, degenerating in quality from 480, dies out in Attica.||330
|c.330||PAINT: Minium - red oxide of lead is 1st used as a pigment by Nicias at Athens.||330
|c.329||ARISTOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 330, ends. KEPHISOPHON succeeds until 328.||329 wikEA|
|ARISTOTLE publishes Meteorology in Athens.
Λ PHYSICS: Meteorology is, "all the affections we may call common to air and water, and the kinds and parts of the earth and the affections of its parts." "Water is every day carried up." The water is then "condensed again by the cold and so returns to the earth". No part of Earth is always land or always water.
Λ COSMOLOGY V: The universe has no beginning or end. Every process of change in the world is cyclical.
Λ GEOCENTRIC THEORY V Earth is in the center of a giant, spherical universe. No time or space can exist outside this sphere. Universe consists of terrestrial and celestial regions. Terrestrial includes everything that changes (earth, air, fire, and water) including comets and shooting stars. Celestial region has minimal change, due to an eternal substance called aither, which changes only in place, evidenced by circular movement of celestial bodies. (see Chinese 350)
|335-22 OCD 116
no date: yahoo
|c.328||ARISTOTLE publishes On the Heavens in Athens.
Λ COSMOLOGY: Considers the universe as a whole in terms of its parts. Heavenly bodies are the most perfect substances, made of imperishable aether, and not subject to generation and corruption. They move in perfect circles. (see Chinese 350)
B76 1-1168, wikOtH
|ARISTOTLE writes Nicomachean Ethics in Athens. Notes from lectures at the Lyceum, which are either edited by or dedicated to his son, Nicomachus.
Book 1: Politics is the science of the good for man. Good popularly means happiness. "Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good..." "Children cannot be happy, for they are not old enough to be capable of noble acts."
Book 2: Definition of moral virtue, how it's produced, in what materials and in what manner exhibited.
Book 3: Moral virtue implies that the action is done by choice; the object of choice is the result of previous deliberation. Discusses courage and temperance.
Book 4: Virtues concerned with money, honor, and anger.
"All flaterers are mercenary, and all low minded men are flaterers."
"The older dramatists found their fun in obscenity; the moderns employ inuendo, which makes a great advance in decorum."
"We praise a man who is angry on the right grounds, against the right persons, in the right manner, at the right moment, and for the right length of time."
Book 5: The meaning of justice. "A man may commit adultery with a woman knowing well who she is, but not of free choice because he is under the influence of passion."
"It makes no difference whether a good man has defrauded a bad man or a bad man defrauded a good man, or whether a good or bad man has committed adultery: the law can look only to the amount of damage done."
Book 6: Intellectual Virtue: intellect divided into the contemplative and the calculative. Chief intellectual virtues: science, art, intuitive reason, practical & philosophical wisdom.
Book 7: Continence and Incontinence; Pleasure
Book 8: Kinds, causes, and reciprocity of friendship.
"A flaterer is a friend who is your inferior, or who pretends to be so."
Book 9: Internal nature, and need of friendship.
Book 10: Pleasure and happiness.
|340 MNDQ 15, 43, 167, 404, 655
S2S 103, ntng, wikNE
|c.328||FREE WILL V considered by Aristotle: "But if it is manifest that a man is the author of his own actions, and if we are unable to trace our conduct back to any other origins than those within ourselves, then actions of which the origins are within us, themselves depend upon us, and are voluntary."||Nicomachean Ethics III-6|
|ARISTOTLE publishes Rhetoric in Athens. It relies on his his previous work, Topics.
Book 1: Overview, presenting a definition, types, and purposes of rhetoric.
"All human actions have one or more of these 7 causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reason, passion, desire." "The intention makes the crime."
Book 2: Discusses 3 means of persuasion: those grounded in credibility (ethos), in emotions of the audience (pathos), and in patterns of reasoning (logos). Defines Λ LOGOS as argument from reason.
"Fear is pain arising from the anticipation of evil." "No one can love the man he fears." "Anger, even violent anger, against one person will cease if vengeance is taken on another." "A democracy, when put to the strain, grows weak, and is supplanted by oligarchy."
Book 3: introduces elements of style (word choice, metaphor, sentence structure) and arrangement (organization).
322 MNDQ 43, 275, 394, 596
no date: wikRht
|c.328||KEPHISOPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 329, ends. EUTHICRITOS succeeds until 327.||328 wikEA|
|c.328||DEMOSTHENES becomes Athenian wheat commissioner until 324.||328 bk|
|c.328||MIRRORS: Greeks establish a school for mirror making. Students learn to polish metal without scratching the surface.||328 EOET 229|
Balkan Peninsula 327-301