c.380 Illyria, under king Bardyllis 393-58, becomes a single kingdom. 380 vrb
374 Dur 2-725
c.380 GORGIAS of Leontini, sophist, showman, dies age 108 in Larissa Thessaly.  Vascillated between moralism and nihilism.
Aristotle says of him, "He attracted the attention of the most admired men, Critias and Alcibiades who were young, and Thucydides and Pericles who were already old.  Agathon too, the tragic poet, whom Comedy regards as wise and eloquent, often Gorgianizes in his iambic verse."
CDCC 400, Dur 2-727, wikGrg
B76 10-1093
c.380 EUCLEIDES, former associate of Socrates, founder of Megarian school, dies. 380 OCD 413 374 Dur 2-725
c.380 THEAETETOS, pupil of Theodoros, mathematician of Athens, flourishes.

Λ GEOMETRY V:  Constructs theoretically the 5 regular solids.  Discovers ways to inscribe them in spheres.  Believed to be source of Euclid's "Elements" books 10 and 13.
(See Archytas 390)
420-11 TTS
Dur 2-458
no date:
OCD 1051
c.380 LYSIAS, leading orator and legal speech writer in Athens from 412/1, age 80, dies. 380 CDCC 537, Dur 2-734, OCD 80, 631, 263     378 GHH, MCAW 153
c.380 DEMOPHILOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 381, ends.  PYTHEAS succeeds until 379. 380 wikEA
c.380 ISOCRATES on Chios, publishes  Panegyrics  after 10 years composition.  Presents the Greek world as being in a state of political and social turmoil.  Blasts Spartan imperialism.  Preaches repudiation of King's Peace and a panhellenic crusade against Persia under leadership of Athens. 381/0 CAH 6-164
380 B76 9-1031,
CAH 6-529, 598, Dur 2-458,
OCD 554
c.380 LEODAMAS of Thasos, mathematician, flourishes.  Proclus will say that he and Archytas of Taras increase the number of geometric theorems and arrange them more scientifically. 380 wikLdm
c.380 Pro Spartan faction in PHLIOS in northwest Argolis complains to Sparta about mistreatment by govt. Argolis 380 prsΦl
c.380 PHLIOS, population 5,000, besieged by Spartans under Agesilaeos.  Holds out 20 months. 381 CAH 6 380 GHH, wikΦl
c.380 AGESIPOLIS-I, Agiad king of Sparta, storms Torone in Chalcidice. 380 DGRBM 1-70, wikAg1
c.380 AGESIPOLIS-I dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 395, subordinate to Agesilaos-II, gets a fever in Chalcidice and dies in town of Aphytis.  Bro CLEOMBROTOS succeeds as Agiad king to 371. 381 mid CAH 6-161
380 DGRBM 1-791, GHH, MRDK, OCD 1007, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikAg1, wikKS
c.380 Spartans defeated at Olynthos Chalcidice. 380 bk
c.380 Spartan POLYBIADES is sent out as harmost to replace Agesipolis in Chalcidice. 380 CAH 6-161, DGRBM, GHH
c.380 Athenian general CHABRIAS, in Egypt from 38?, recalled to Greece by Persian instigation. 380
MCAW 152
c.380 Temple of ASCLEPIOS begun at Epidauros Argolis until 360. 380 CAH 6
c.380 Athenian SCULPTURE after 380 loses its calm majesty in favor of emotion and sensuality. 380 CAH 6
  Roman copies of missing or damaged Timotheos originals
Leda and Swan
Hygieia Epidauros
Nike Epidauros
Nereid Epidauros
c.380 TIMOTHEOS is apparently the leading sculptor at the temple of Asklepios at Epidauros, and makes decorative figures placed above the pediments for it. 380 wikTm 375 infpl
c.379 Chalcidice CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE from 432 dissolved by Spartans until ?.  Cities of Chalcidice become subordinate allies of Sparta.  Sparta imposes terms favorable to Amyntas of Macedonia. 379 B76 I-333, 711, 8-363, CAH 6-162, LEWH 77, MCAW 152, OCD 225
c.379 ACANTHOS Chalcidice, in Chalcidian League from 392, again allies with Sparta, then comes under Macedonia until 200. 379 rcSB2
c.379 OLYNTHOS on mainland Chalcidice, independent from 432, starved to surrender to Polybiades, comes under Sparta until 375. 379 B76 II-711, 8-363, CAH 6, CDCC 23, DGRBM 3-443, DGRG 1-589, GHH, LEWH 77, OCD 225, RAH 301, rcSB2
c.379 PYTHEAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 380, ends.  NIKON succeeds until 378. 379 wikEA
c.379 ArgolisPHLIOS in Argolis, besieged by Spartans 20 months, surrenders, Agesilaos appoints an oligarchic council of 100 (half from the exiles, half from the besieged), with power of life and death over citizens, and authorises a new constitution.  Anti-Spartan faction is exiled.  To ensure that the committee behaves properly, Agesilaos-II leaves a garrison and 6 months pay. 379
CAH 6-162, DGRBM, GHH, prsΦl 379/8 wikΦl
c.379 ARGOS, allied with Corinth from 395, becomes independent republic until 266. Dec 379 rcPl
c.379 Theban exiles Pelopidas, Phillidas, Menecleidas, and Melon at Athens hatch a plot to liberate Thebes in conjunction with Charon inside Thebes.  They plan to secure their own return and establish a democratic constitution at Thebes. winter 379/8 CAH 6-164
c.379/8 CADMEA (citadel of Thebes) occupied by Spartans from 382, recovered by coup of exiled Theban democrats under PELOPIDAS.  Spartans are massacred.  Pro-Spartan Theban oligarchs Leontiades, Philippos, and Archias are murdered.  New boeotarchs are elected for 1st time since 386, including Melon, Charon, Pelopidas, and perhaps Gorgidas, who claim the right to rule all Boeotia.  Democracy established in Thebes until ?. 379 B76 I-506, VII-842, 6-902, 8-363, CDCC 656, 878, DGRA 205, DGRBM 2-22, 864, 1035, 3-179, 270, Dur 2-458, GHH, LEWH 77, OHG, TToH, lvG, rcSB3
379/8 CAH 6, MCAW 152, OCD 795
378 OCD 1052, bk
c.379/8 BoeotiaCleombrotos king of Sparta, marching on the road from Kreusis Boeotia to Aegosthena Megaris in winter, overtaken by a violent storm.  The wind rips the shields from the soldiers hands, and many asses are blown over the cliff into the Corinthian Gulf. 379 DGRG 1-36, 705
c.378 Thebes and Athens ally against Agesilaos-II of Sparta until 371. 378 B76 8-363, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 77, OHG     378/7 MCAW 152
c.378 NIKON, eponymous archon of Athens from 379, ends.  NAUSINIKOS succeeds until 377. 378 wikEA
c.378 Athenians CHABRIAS, TIMOTHEOS, and Callistratos command troops sent to help Thebes against Agesilaos-II of Sparta. 378 DGRBM 1-577, 676, 3-1145
c.378 Light-armed Athenian troops under Chabrias are sent to hold the road thru Eleutherae in Megaris against Cleombrotos king of Sparta. 379/8
CAH 6-166
c.378 BoeotiaCLEOMBROTOS, Agiad king of Sparta 380-71, takes a different road thru Plataea to invade Boeotia.  Destroys a Theban guard post on top of Cithaeron Mountains between Plataea and Eleutherae, goes to Thespia, where he leaves Sphodrias as harmost with a third of his allied troops and money to hire mercenaries.  After 16 days in Theban territory Cleombrotos leads his army home, wondering whether they were at war with Thebes or not. 379/8
CAH 6-166 378 DGRBM 1-791, DGRBM 3-896
c.378 THESPIA Boeotia voluntarily becomes a Spartan base against Thebes until 373. 379
B76 IX-951
c.378 SACRED BAND formed by Gorgidas.  300 Theban soldiers grouped as pairs of lovers. 378 OCD 943     378/7 MCAW 152
c.378 SPHODRIAS, harmost of Thespia induced by Beoetarchs Pelopidas and Gorgidas to invade Attica. 378 DGRBM 3-179
c.378 SPHODRIAS, harmost of Thespia, probably with secret approval of Agesilaos-II, attacks the Piraeus, but fails to capture it.  Athenians arrest the 3 Spartan envoys (including Etymocles), who insist, probably honestly, that they and Sparta knew nothing of it, and promise that Sphodrias would be tried and condemned to death. 379/8 LEWH 77, MCAW 152
378 CAH 6-167, DGRBM 2-54, GHH, OCD 27, bk
c.378 SPHODRIAS does not present himself for trial at Sparta, where his fate is debated, and the tears of his son Cleonymos get him acquitted. 378 CAH 6-168, DGRBM 1-799
c.378 Athens declares war on Sparta. 378 CAH 6
c.378 BoeotiaAGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, invades BOEOTIA to conquer Thebes, establishes a base at Thespia.  Repulsed by Thebes and CHABRIAS of Athens, who invents a new way to defend against hoplites.  Agesilaos fortifies Thespia, leaves Phoebidas as harmost of Thespia, and goes home. 378 B76 8-363, CAH 6-168, DGRBM 3-343, LEWH 77, OCD 27, 224-5, bk, lvG, wikCha
c.378 Theban democrat PELOPIDAS is made ruler of all Boeotia until 371. 378 CDCC 656
c.378 CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna elected strategos in Athens. 378 OCD 196
c.378 2ND (technically 3rd) ATHENIAN LEAGUE formed until 338 to counter Sparta, and supposedly to uphold King's Peace.  Decisions made by a council of all members except Athens.  Token respect for King's Peace 386 is claimed.  Athens renounces former political domination, cleruchies, and garrisons, but commands in war.  CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna:  finance manager,  IPHICRATES and CHABRIAS:  generals,  TIMOTHEOS son of Conon:  admiral.  Tribute is not even mentioned until 373. 378 B76 8-363-4, BCoC 384, spring CAH 6, CDCC 104, 829, CDGRA 478, Dur 2-458, LEWH 77, OCD 196, 412, 969, 1027, OHG 170
378/7 MCAW 152, OCD 321
377 LEWH 77, OCD 320, RAH 301
c.378 Λ CORCYRA V occupied by Athenian Timotheos until ?. 378 rcSB3
c.378 CHALCIDICE joins 2nd Athenian League until 367. 378 CDCC 181
c.378 BYZANTIUM, independent from 394, under influence of Athens from 390, joins 2nd Athenian League until 357. 378 B76 8-364, CAH 6-167, OCD 186, rcT
c.378 Athenian admiral IPHICRATES is sent as a mercenary commander to Anatolia to help Persian Pharnabazus to reconquer Egypt. 378 wikIΦ
c.378 THEBES joins 2nd Athenian League against Sparta until 371. 378 B76 8-363, CAH 6, DGRBM, OCD 969, bk
c.378 The whole taxable property of Athens is about 6,000 talents. 378 CDGRA 267
c.378 PHOEBIDAS harmost of Thespia raids Theban territory.  Thebans attack Thespia and fail, but Phoebidas is killed. 378
CAH 6-168
c.378 An Athenian orator named DEMOSTHENES (unrelated to Demosthenes d.413) dies, and leaves widow and 2 children: Demosthenes age 7, and a dau age 5. 378 DGRBM 1-981
c.378 RHODES, and LESBOS join 2nd Athenian League until 357. 393 B76 8-364, CAH 6-167, OCD 186
378/7 EUBOEA, independent from 386, joins 2nd Athenian League until 371. 378/7 OCD 406, 412
377 CDCC 332
c.377 Thebes is forced to import grain. 377 CAH 6-559
c.377 2nd Athenian League quickly builds a new fleet, totally paid for by Athens. 377 LEWH 77, OCD 140
c.377 Athens, by  Decree of Aristoteles  (Nobody seems to know who this guy is.), renounces claims to allied territories, including forced tribute and the policy of installing garrisoned CLERUCHIES in allied lands.  This attracts more members to 2nd Athenian League. 377 spring
CAH 6-169, OCD 320, 969, 1027
c.377 Athenian tax structure, revised based on a reassessment of taxable wealth of both citizens and metics in Attica.  Richer people collect taxes from less rich.  Total assessment comes to 5,750 talents.  Henceforth the eisphora (an emergency tax on capital wealth for military purposes, 1st levied 428) reverts to an emergency tax. 378/7
CAH 6-547
377 DGRA 449, MCAW 153
c.377 BoeotiaAGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, invades BOEOTIA 2nd time, ravages land between Thebes and Tanagra, leaves garrisons behind in Boeotia, which will not last long.  He is then forced to withdraw.  After settling a civil disturbance at Thespia, Agesilaos returns home by way of Megara, where he gets sick and disappears from history till 371. 377
CAH 6-172, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 152, OCD 27, bk, lvG
c.377 JASON, tyrant of Pherae Thessaly 385-70, helps Theogenes sieze acropolis of Histiaea in Euboea. 377 DGRBM 2-554
c.377 NAUSINIKOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 378, ends.  KALLEAS succeeds until 376. 377 wikEA
c.377 HIPPOCRATES of Cos Island, physician, dies age 83 at Larissa Thessaly. 380 EoΦ 4-6    377 or 359 Dur 2-730
377 B76 V-55, 8-943, RAH 284, TAWH 311, TToH, bk     357 DGRA 272, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 161
c.377 CHERSONESE, under Spartan influence from 408, joins 2nd Athenian League until 340. 377 rcT
c.376 30,000 Triballi under King Hales crossed Mount Haemus and attack and destroy ABDERA Thrace under Athens from 408.  Abdera joins 2nd Athenian League until 347. 376 DGRG 1-2, rcSB2, wikCha
375 CAH 6-463
c.376 Because Agesilaos is ill, the annual Spartan invasion of Boeotia is entrusted to CLEOMBROTOS Agiad king of Sparta.  But he finds the Thebans and Athenians holding passes of the Cithaeron mountains against him, turns back without engaging the enemy, and goes home. spring 376
CAH 6-173, DGRBM 1-791, GHH
c.376 Spartan allies, angry with Cleombrotos, urge Spartans to take to the sea and starve Athens into submission by a blockade, and point out that an army could be shipped to Boeotia. 376 CAH 6-173, DGRBM 3-440
c.376 Spartans man 60 ships under Pollis, which control waters around Aegina, Ceos and Andros, and during summer 376 interferes with import of grain from Black Sea to Athens. 376 CAH 6-173, DGRBM 3-440
c.376 CHABRIAS of Athens sails with 83 ships to besiege Naxos, crushes Spartan fleet under Pollis near Naxos in Cyclades, takes 3,000 prisoners, wins sea supremacy for Athens.  Sale of the prisoners as slaves brings 100 talents. 376 Sep CAH 6-173, CAH 6-557, CDCC 610, LEWH 77, OCD 140, 225, bk
c.376 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, dissolved from 386, renewed (in defiance of King's Peace 386) under Thebes as a democracy until 338. 378 rcSB3
376 LEWH 77
371 B76 8-364
c.376 KALLEAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 377, ends.  CHARISANDROS succeeds until 375. 376 wikEA
c.376 DEMOSTHENES age 7, is orphaned.  His guardians Aphobos and 2 others handle his inheritance. 376 DGRBM
c.376 Athenian Middle Comedy poet ANAXANDRIDES wins his 1st of 10 prizes, this one at the Lenaea. 376 GHH, wikAnx
c.376 CHABRIAS of Athens defeats Thracians. 376 wikθW
c.376/5 CHABRIAS of Athens negotiates peace between the Triballi and the king of Maronia, winning the Triballi to the Athenian side. 376/5 wikCha
c.375 Thebans invade Phocis. 375 CAH 6
c.375 CHARISANDROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 376, ends.  HIPPODAMAS succeeds until 374. 375 wikEA
c.375 King's Peace 386 renewed at Sparta, because Artaxerxes-II wants Greek mercenary help against Egypt. 375 CAH 6-83, 175
c.375 AMPHIPOLIS allies with Athens until 374. 375 rcSB2
c.375 POLYDAMAS is elected tagos (boss) of Pharsalos Thessaly until 370 to resist Jason of Pherae. 375 DGRBM 3-460 374 DGRA 1094, DGRBM
c.375 ThessalyJASON, tyrant of Pherae Thessaly 385-70, elected tagos (boss) of Thessaly, controls all Thessalian towns except Pharsalos, which is under Polydamas. 375
CDGRA 610, DGRBM 2-554
c.375 Λ CORCYRA, uncommitted from 410, joins 2nd Athenian League until 360, thereby gaining enmity of Sparta. 375 B76 III-149, OCD 289, wikCrf
c.375 THYMARIDAS, Pythagorean, noted for work on prime numbers and simultaneous linear equations.

MATH V:  If the sum of n quantities be given, and also the sum of every pair containing a particular quantity, then this particular quantity is equal to 1/(n + 2) of the difference between the sums of these pairs and the first given sum.
(See Hippasus 445, Theodoros 400, Archytas 390, Euclid 300)
400-350 wikTmrd
c.375 BoeotiaSpartan garrison at Orchomenos in Boeotia raids Locris area, so Theban democrat PELOPIDAS, ruler of all Boeotia 378-71, hoping to find Orchomenos undefended, leads the Sacred Band to attack it.  Orchomenos is defended successfully, but on his way home Pelopidas intercepts Spartans returning from Locris at Tegyra and defeats them. 375
B76 VII-842, IX-928,
mid CAH 6, CDCC 656, DGRBM 3-179, OCD 795, 943
c.375 Molossian state joins 2nd Athenian League until ?. 375 CAH 6-438
c.375 Athamanians of southeast Epirus join 2nd Athenian League until ?. 375 wikAθm
c.375 Acarnanians, under Sparta from 390, rebel, join 2nd Athenian League until 371. 375 OCD 2
c.375 Thebes asks Athens to send a fleet around the Peloponnese, so that Sparta would be too busy protecting its allies to bother with Boeotia. 375 CAH 6-174
c.375 Athenian Timotheos sent with 60 ships, but low funds, to circle the Peloponnese, hopefully to prevent the Spartans from invading Boeotia.  He ravages Laconia. 375 CAH 6-174, DGRBM 3-1145
c.375 Timotheos with 60 ships sails on to Corcyra, which he brings into Athenian alliance. 375 DGRBM 3-1145
c.375 Athenian Timotheos gains alliance of Cephallenians, Acarnanians, and Alcetas-I, king of Epirus. 375 DGRBM 3-1145
c.375 55 Spartan ships under Nicolochos are sent against Athenian Timotheos. 375 DGRBM 3-1145
c.375 Timotheos with 60 ships defeats Spartan Nicolochos with 55 ships at Alyzia in Aetolia. 375 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-1145 374 wikBN
c.375 ChalcidiceOLYNTHOS under Sparta from 379, independent in Chalcidian League until 348. 375 rcSB2
c.375 Eirene and Ploutos KEPHISODOTOS (Cephisodotus) the Elder sculpts Eirene (peace) bearing the infant Ploutos (wealth), commissioned by Athens and set up on the Areopagus.  He also made, as did his son, a figure of Hermes carrying the child Dionysus, unless ancient critics have made 2 works of 1.  Only Roman copies of his works survive.  380-70 wikCΦ

Photo Jastrow
400-350 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.375 Oxybeles OXYBELES "bolt thrower" first used by Greeks.  An oversized gastraphetes, a composite bow placed on a stand with a stock and trigger. 375 wikOx

Picture by Arz
c.375/4 MONEY:  Athenian coinage law provides for acceptance of silver coins struck from the official die. 375/4
CAH 7.1-281
c.374 TIMOTHEOS, son of Conon, in Adriatic from 375, recalled to Athens. 374 CDCC 891, DGRBM 3-1145, MCAW 152, OCD 1077
c.374 Timotheos with 60 ships on his way home, drops some democratic Zakynthian exiles, who had fought with him at Alyzia, on Zakynthos and establishes them in a stronghold.  This is a violation of the peace with Sparta.  The oligarch party in Zakynthos complains to Sparta. 374 CDCC 891, DGRBM, MCAW 152, OCD 1077 no date CAH 6-176
c.374 Spartan expedition, 23 ships under Aristocrates, to help ZAKYNTHOS. 375/4 CAH 6-177
374 SPARTA, threatened by recruiting success of 2nd Athenian League, but backed by Syracuse and Persia, makes a new peace treaty with Athens.  Sparta recognizes 2nd Athenian League, and retains supremacy in Peloponnese.  Lasts until later 374. 375 OCD 554, OHG 170
374 B76 8-364, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 152
c.374 HIPPODAMAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 375, ends.  SOCRATIDES succeeds until 373. 374 wikEA
c.374 JASON, tyrant of Pherae Thessaly 385-70, allies with Athens until ?. Thessaly 374 MCAW 152
c.374 JASON, tyrant of Pherae, wins over PHARSALOS, gains control of all Thessaly. 374 OCD 652
c.374 THESSALIAN LEAGUE re-established by Jason of Pherae.  Run by Thessalian families: Aleuadae and Skopadae.  Headquarters at Larissa. 374 ancs
c.374 Pro-Spartan faction in CORCYRA, eager to overthrow the democracy, appeal to Sparta, promise to betray Zakynthos to the Spartans if Sparta would send a fleetSparta sends 22 ships under Alcidas. 375/4 CAH 6 374
CAH 6-177
c.374 Athenian STESICLES (Ctesicles) sent to ZAKYNTHOS to take command of the democratic exiles. 374 CAH 6
374/3 CAH 6-177
c.374 TANAGRA Boeotia, allied with Sparta from 386, recovered by Thebes until ?. 374 rcSB3
373 CAH 6-177
c.374 CORCYRA, in 2nd Athenian League 375-60, besieged by Spartan fleet under Alcidas with Syracusan help until 373.  The Corcyrans appeal to Athens, which votes to help them and the Zakynthian exiles. 374 CAH 6-177, MCAW 152
373 DGRBM 1-1035, wikCrf
c.374 Zakynthian exiles, in Athens from ?, restored by Athenian Timotheos. 374 GHH
c.373 Athenian TIMOTHEOS is given 60 ships to help Corcyra against Spartans, but not enough funds to man them.  He sails among the Cyclades in search of crews and may even have ranged as far as Thrace.  He fritters away the sailing season, and is recalled. mid 373
CAH 6-177, DGRBM 3-909, 1145, OCD 1077
c.373 Spartan MNASIPPOS is given 60 ships and sent to recover Corcyra soon after Timotheos is sent with 60 ships. 373 CAH 6-179, DGRBM 2-1105, 3-909, wikMn     373/2 CAH 6-73
c.373 IPHICRATES Athenian mercenary commander in Egypt from 374, returns to Athens. 374 GHH
373 OCD 550
c.373 TIMOTHEOS is charged with treason by Callistratos and Iphicrates.  But Alcetas-I of Epirus and Jason of Thessaly (now an ally of Athens) both come to Athens and speak in his favor, and Timotheos is acquitted.  He is not reinstated in command, and departs 372 to Anatolia to serve the Persian King in his war against Egypt. 373 B76 IX-1018, CAH 6-177, DGRBM 1-98, 577, 2-555, OCD 196
373/2 CDCC 464
c.373 SOCRATIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 374, ends.  ASTEIOS succeeds until 372. 373 wikEA
c.373 Spartan MNASIPPOS ravages Corcyra, then dismisses some of his mercenaries and keeps the pay of the rest. 373 DGRBM 2-1105, wikMn
373/2 CAH 6-73
c.373 Athenian STESICLES, at Zakynthos from 374, with 600 peltasts, sent to Corcyra to oppose Mnasippos, while Athens prepares for a more serious expedition under Iphicrates.  Stesicles is successful. 373
CAH 6-179, DGRBM 3-909
c.373 Athenian STESICLES, with help of Alcetas-I, king of Epirus, enters the town under cover of night, reconciles dissensions of the democratic party, unites them against Mnasippos. 373 DGRBM 3-909
c.373 Spartan MNASIPPOS, having mismanaged his mercenaries, is defeated by Stesicles and Corcyrans, and killed in battle. 373 DGRBM, GHH, wikMn spring 372 CAH 6-179
no date: wikMn
c.373 IPHICRATES Athenian admiral, briefly in Athens, sent for Corcyra to counter Mnasippos.  He stops at Cephallenia island and learns that Mnasippos is dead. 373 OCD 550, DGRBM 2-617
372 CAH 6-179
c.373 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral, defeats Spartan fleet off Corcyra. 373 DGRBM, bk
c.373 Spartan fleet besieging Corcyra from 374 fails, goes home. 373 OCD 289
c.373 THESPIA Boeotia, under Sparta from 378, recovered by Thebes. 373 CAH 6-177 372 B76 IX-951
c.373 BoeotiaPLATAEA Boeotia, independent from 386, rebuilt 382, siezed and destroyed by Thebes.  Inhabitants expelled with whatever they can carry, told never to return to Boeotia.  They go to Athens and are granted equal rights.  Plataea inactive until 338. 374 DGRA 204, DGRBM
373 CAH 6-178, OCD 554, 839 373/2
CAH 6-563
372 rcSB3
c.373 ISOCRATES publishes  Plataicos :
Urges Athenian assembly to aid Plataeans and punish Thebes for taking Plataea.
373 CAH 6, OCD 554, bk
c.373 Doric temple of Apollo at DELPHI from 512 destroyed by earthquake.  Rebuilding begins on same plan. 373 B76 8-372, Dur 2-226,
OCD 3, 322, OHG
346 CAH 6
c.373 HELICE near mouth of Selinous River, capital of Achaean League from ?, destroyed by an EARTHQUAKE at night, and following tidal wave.  Helice and a space of 12 stadia below it sink into the earth, and are covered by the sea.  All inhabitants killed.  Poseidon is blamed, because Helice had refused to give their statue of Poseidon (or even a model) to Ionian colonists in Anatolia.  Nearby city BURA is also destroyed by tidal wave, but rebuilt. 373 CDCC 295, DGRA 4, DGRG 1-457, 1016, 1034, OCD 3
372 GHH
c.372 BARDYLLIS king of Illyria 393-58 forces Macedonian king to pay tribute. 372
CAH 6-428
c.372 CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna acts as strategos in Athens. 372 OCD 196 372/1 CAH 6-573
c.372 THESSALY, rulerless from 405, taken over by JASON, tyrant of Pherae 385-70, who makes himself perpetual commander until 370. 372 LEWH 77 371 rcSB2
c.372 Spartan naval power broken.  This means Thebes is now the main opponent of Athens. 372
OCD 196
c.372 Athenian IPHICRATES sails back to Corcyra. 372 CAH 6
c.372 10 Syracusan ships under Crinippos appear at Corcyra to help Spartans.  They are ambushed by Iphicrates, and contain expensive dedications intended for Delphi and OlympiaCrinippos suicides.  Iphicrates, with clearance from home, sells the treasures, attracting an angry letter from Delphi to Athens with a complaint of sacrilege. 373
DGRBM 1-891 372
CAH 6-150, CDCC 464
c.372 ANTALCIDAS Spartan general, diplomatic mission to Persians in Anatolia until 367. 372 OCD 66
c.372 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral in Adriatic prepares for a campaign against Laconia itself.  Asks Athens to send him as colleagues Chabrias, and Callistratos. 372/1
CAH 6-179
c.372 ASTYDAMAS, son of Morsimos, son of Aeschylus' nephew Philocles wins his first prize for a tragedy. 372 DGRBM, GHH
c.372 Sculptor LYSIPPOS sculpts "Trolius", an Olympic victor. 372 B76 VI-421
c.372/1 THESPIA Boeotia destroyed by Thebans until 336.  It will soon be rebuilt. 372/1 CAH 6     371 B76 IX-951
c.372 ASTEIOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 373, ends.  ALCISTHENES succeeds until 371. 372 wikEA
c.371 In defiance of Sparta, ELIS claims SCILLOS on west coast of Peloponnese, and tries to regain supremacy over Triphylian towns. 371
OCD 1142
c.371 XENOPHON, living in Scillos Elis from 394, is exiled by Athens (rescinded 368) because of allegiance to Sparta, takes his family to Corinth until 366/5. 371 B76 19-1056, OCD 1142
c.371 XENOPHON publishes  Anabasis :  Narrates his march back from Babylonia with 10,000 mercenaries called Cyreans because they worked for Cyrus. 1st part soon after 386,
2nd part c.377:
OCD 1142
371 TToH     370 wikAnab
c.371 Athenian embassy including Callias-III sent to Sparta.  CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna negotiates peace settlement in summer. 371 DGRBM 1-567, LEWH 77, OCD 196     371/0 OCD 194
c.371 PEACE CONFERENCE at Sparta to renegotiate King's Peace 387, includes reps of all Greek states plus Dionysios-I of Syracuse, Amyntas-III of Macedon, Jason of Pherae, and envoys from PersiaEPAMINONDAS of Thebes, leader of Boeotian League, opposes demands of AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, who then refuses to allow Epaminondas to claim to represent all Boeotia.  Therefore Epaminondas, with all Thebes, withdraws from the conference, which then dissolves having accomplished nothing. 371 B76 I-136, 6-902, 8-364, mid CAH 6-180, CDCC 315, DGRBM 1-69, GHH, LEWH 77, OCD 27, RAH 301, bk
c.371 Thebans invade Phocis again to assert control. 371 spring CAH 6-180
c.371 ALCISTHENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 372, ends.  PHARASICLEIDES succeeds until 370. 371 wikEA
c.371 CLEOMBROTOS Agiad king of Sparta sent across Corinthian gulf to Phocis to counter Thebans.  He halts at Chaeronea.  Thebans retreat into Boeotia.  Epaminondas of Thebes takes up his position at Coronea. 375 DGRBM, GHH 374 DGRBM 1-791 371 CAH 6-180, 182, DGRBM
371 July 6 BoeotiaCLEOMBROTOS Agiad king of Sparta with 10,000 hoplites including 700 Spartans invades Boeotia to punish EPAMINONDAS of Thebes and dissolve the new Boeotian League, but is decisively defeated by him and PELOPIDAS with 6,000 hoplites and 1,000 cavalry at LEUKTRA (Leuctra) Boeotia.  1st defeat of Spartan infantry by a smaller army !  Spartans are expelled from central Greece.  Spartan supremacy in Greece turns to Theban supremacy until 362. 371 B76 I-136, 549, VI-173, VII-842, 6-902, 8-364, BCoC 386, CAH 6, CDCC 23, 79, DGRBM, Dur 2-194, 458, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 152, OCD 27, 98, 386, 480, 795, 943, 969, 1052, OHG, RAH 303, SHWC 69, TToH, bk, lvG
c.371 CLEOMBROTOS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 380, and 400 Spartans, killed at Leuktra.  Cleombrotos' son AGESIPOLIS-II succeeds to 370. 371 DGRBM 1-71, Dur 2-719, GHH, OCD 98, 1007, MRDK, RAH 303, bk, lvG, rcPl
c.371 Spartan survivors of Leuktra withdraw from Boeotia, meeting Archidamos and his force at Megara.  Archidamos leads them home. 371 CAH 6-185, DGRBM 1-267
c.371 After Leuktra Thebes renews alliance with Persia. 371 B76 I-549
c.371 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, weakened by illness, sends his son ARCHIDAMOS north to rescue Spartan survivors of Leuktra. 371 DGRBM 1-267
c.371 STASIPPOS, leader of pro-Spartan party at Tegea Arcadia, helps ARCHIDAMOS with reinforcements. 371 DGRBM 3-900
c.371 After Leuktra Thebes asks help from ally JASON, tyrant of Pherae. 371 DGRBM 2-555
c.371 JASON, tyrant of Pherae 385-70, mans some triremes as if to help the Thebans by sea.  Thus throwing the Phocians off guard, he marches thru Phocis, and arrives safely at Leuktra in Boeotia. 371 DGRBM 2-555
c.371 JASON, tyrant of Pherae 385-70, summoned by Thebans to Leuktra in Boeotia.  Refuses to rent them his mercenaries to finish off the Spartans.  Negotiates armistice between Thebes and Sparta. 371
CAH 6-185, OCD 562
c.371 CALYDON Aetolia, under Achaeans from ?, restored (after Leuktra) by Epaminondas to the Aetolians. 371 DGRG 1-384
c.371 HERACLEA TRACHIS, a Spartan colony 5 miles west of Thermopylae, destroyed by Jason of Pherae, on his way home from Leuktra in Boeotia. 371 CAH 6-185
370 DGRBM 2-555
c.371 LEUKTRA so stuns Greeks that cities defect from Peloponnesian League, and even 2nd Athenian League to Boeotian League. 371
B76 8-364
c.371 ANTALCIDAS Spartan general, after Leuktra, goes on another mission to Persia, where he is coolly received by Artaxerxes-II. 371 DGRBM 1-182
c.371 Messenian exiles north of Corinthian Gulf from 460, resettled in Messenia by Epaminondas. 371
B76 VI-822
c.371 CARYAE Lacedaemonia, near the Arcadian border, under Sparta from ?, rebels until 368.  Offers to guide a Theban army into Lacedaemonia. 371 DGRG 1-555
c.371 Athens invites a conference to renew King's Peace at Athens to close ranks in the face of the Theban threat.  Thebans do not attended.  Signatories agree to abide by King's Peace and by decrees of Athens and allies.  It does not mean that all signatories join 2nd Athenian League.  Only the Eleans object, out of reluctance to concede autonomy to Margana, Scillos, and Triphylia (southern Elis).  This is the 1st renewal of the Peace of Antalcidas in which Persia played no part. 371
CAH 6-185
c.371 After the peace is signed, general IPHICRATES is recalled to Athens. 371 DGRBM 2-617
c.371 PELOPIDAS, ruler of all Boeotia (Boeotarch) from 378-?, succeeded by EPAMINONDAS of Thebes until ?. 371 CDCC 315, OCD 386
c.371 THEBES, in 2nd Athenian League from 378, withdraws.  ACARNANIA, EUBOEA, and Chalcidian cities follow. 371 LEWH 77
c.371 ACARNANIA, in 2nd Athenian League from 375, drops out.   Joins Boeotian League until ?. 371 LEWH 77
c.371 ChalcidiceChalcidian cities, in 2nd Athenian League from 379, drop out.   Join Boeotian League until 356. 371
c.371 AMYNTAS-III, Argead king of Macedon 392-70, recognizes Athens' rights over Amphipolis, technically under Athens 421-357. 371
B76 6-366
c.371 EUBOEA, in 2nd Athenian League from 377, withdraws, defects to Thebes until ?. 371 CDCC 332, LEWH 77
no date: CAH 6-188
c.370 MANTINEA, broken up into villages from 385, restored as a city.  Walls of Mantinea, destroyed from 387, restored. 371 OCD 644
370 CAH 6, LEWH 77, rcPl
c.370 POLYDAMAS, tagos (boss) of Pharsalos Thessaly from 375, murdered.  His family is torn apart by civil discord. 370
DGRA 1094
c.370 PASION, former slave, shield maker and richest banker in Athens, dies of illness, leaving estate to freedman Phormion, with instructions to marry his widow Archippe.  They inherit his wealth and guardianship of his younger son Pasicles.  Archippe lives until 360.  Older son Apollodoros age 24 becomes a lawyer. 370
DGRBM 1-232, 3-132,
OCD 786
c.370 PLATO publishes  Parmenides :  A young Socrates expounds Plato's theory of Λ FORMS V to Parmenides and Zeno of Elea as a solution to the alleged "problem of the one and the many".
Presents and debunks a criticism of his own theory of Forms.
B76 14-536-8, OCD 842
no date: wikPrmn

PLATO publishes  Phaedo :  On what Socrates said on his last day.

Λ METAPHYSICS VΛ SOUL V is divine and immortal because:
Nature is cyclical, so souls probably are too.
Divine element of soul must survive death.
Life is an essential attribute of a soul.

Λ COSMOLOGY V:  "The Earth is a round body in the center of the heavens, and needs no air or any other thing for support, but is kept in place by the equability of the surrounding heavens and its own equipoise."
(See Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)
380 bk
B76 14-538, OCD 842
MNDQ 326
no date: wikPhaed


PLATO publishes  Republic :  What is justice?  Is it always beneficial?  Cardinal virtues:  wisdom, courage, temperance, justice.
There are 3 kinds of people: philosophers, pleasure seekers, action seekers.  There are 3 principles of action: rational judgment of good, appetite gratification, justice seeking.  There are 3 social strata: statesmen, general citizens, military.  There are 4 main virtues: wisdom, courage, temperance, justice.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  Theory of Λ FORMS V:  Every concept exists in an abstract and eternal form logically and temporally prior to its existence in space/time.
(rejected by Speucippos, Aristotle)
Allegory of the Cave:  That which men believe to be reality is a metaphorical shadow projected onto a screen by true reality.
Λ SOUL V consists of:
reason:  awareness of a value or goal
spirit:  drive toward the value or goal
appetite:  desire for gratification
(See Philolaus 400)

POLITICS V:  The ideal society is unity achieved thru communism V dominated by good people.  Next best: a benign military state.  Next, oligarchy dominated by merchants.  Next, democracy.  Last, tyranny.
DEMOCRACY:  "a state in which the poor, gaining the upper hand, kill some and banish others, and then divide the offices among the remaining citizens equally, usually by lot."   "Until philosophers take government, or those who know how to govern become philosophers, there will be no end to the misery of states."
CENSORSHIP:  "Establish a censorship of fiction.  Let censors accept any tale that is good, and reject any that is bad."
EUGENICS:  "The best of either sex should be united with the best as often as possible, and the inferior with the inferior as seldom as possible."
LIES:  "If anyone is to have the privilege of lying, the rulers of the state should be such persons."   "A lie is useful only as a medicine.  Use of them should be confined to physicians."

THEOLOGY V:  "GOD, if he be good, is not the author of all things, but of a few things only, and not of most things that occur to man."
(See Xenophanes 480, Svetasvatara 400)

POETRY is "an utter delusion".
380 wikRpblc
B76 14-535-8, MNDQ 150, 275, 362, 461, 480, 729, OCD 842, bk
MCAW 155
no date:
S2S 66
CRUCIFIXION: "...the just man will have to endure the lash, the rack, chains, branding irons in his eyes, and finally after every extremity of suffering, he will be impaled [Greek word: anaskolopizo]..."   Close enough to crucified [Greek word: stauroo] for Christians to marvel at. Republic 2:362a
c.370 PHARASICLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 371, ends.  DYSCINITOS succeeds until 369. 370 wikEA
c.370 ARCADIAN LEAGUE (Arcadia, Boeotia, Elis, Argos) formed until 362 under Thebes to counter Sparta.  Governed by a general assembly, the TEN THOUSAND, of all freeborn citizens, ruled by a general. 371 MCAW 152
370 CAH 6-190, LEWH 77,
OCD 433
c.370 STASIPPOS, leader of pro-Spartan party at Tegea Arcadia, successfully resists in the assembly the anti-Spartan attempt of democrats Callibios and Proxenos to include Tegea in a proposed union of all Arcadian towns.  The democrats resist, and Stasippos defeats them in battle. 370
DGRBM 3-900
c.370 MolossiaALCETAS-I, Argead king of Epirus from 395, ends.  NEOPTOLEMUS-I becomes king of Molossia and Epirus until 368. 370 frH, OCD 400
c.370 MOLOSSIAN LEAGUE unifies the 3 main tribes of Epirus:  Molossians, Thesprotians, Chaonians.  Dodona is the religious, political and cultural center.  Lasts until 330. 370 wikEL
c.370 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, organizes defense of Sparta. 370 OCD 27
c.370 JASON, tyrant of Pherae from 385, ruler of Thessaly from 372, mobilizes whole Thessalian army at time of Pythian Games, marches to Delphi, alarms all Greece, murdered by 7 young men.  His bros Polydoros and Polyphron succeed, but Polydoros is soon poisoned, possibly by POLYPHRON, who succeeds to 369.  Thessaly again becomes disunified and powerless. 370 CAH 6-188-9, CDCC 884, DGRBM 1-124, 2-555, 3-460, 469, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 157, OCD 562, RAH 301, bk, rcSB2 369 OCD 41
c.370 THESSALIAN LEAGUE held together by Jason of Pherae from 374, falls to infighting, invites Philip-II to arbitrate disputes. 370 ancs
c.370 Son of Cleombrotos, AGESIPOLIS-II dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 371, subordinate to Agesilaos-II.  Bro CLEOMENES-II succeeds to 309. 370 DGRBM 1-71, 793, OCD 1007, bk, lvG
369 MRDK, rcPl, wikAg2
c.370 DEMOCRITOS of Abdera, pupil of Leucippos, developer of Λ ATOMIC THEORY, age 90, dies. 370 B76 III-460, BHM 79, BNTH 41, EoΦ 5-446, GHH, KPHP 17, MMWP 17, SHWC 80     362 Dur 2-722
361 MCAW 157     360 TToH
357 DGRBM 1-975, GHH
no date: OCD 327
c.370 HERAEA Arcadia, ally of Sparta, has territory ravaged by Arcadians. 370 DGRG 1-1051
c.370 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, invades Arcadia. 370 DGRBM 1-69, GHH, MCAW 154
c.370 ARCADIA appeals to Athens for help against Agesilaos-II.  Fails, appeals to Thebes. 370
MCAW 154
c.370 EUDOXOS of Knidos returns to Athens with his students, joins Plato until 350. 377 B76 6-1021     368 wikUdx 367 OCD 414, EoΦ 3-383
c.370 MAP V of Earth, 1st attempted by Hecataeus 500, improved by Eudoxos. 380-71 TTS
c.370 AETOLIAN LEAGUE formed under Theban influence. 370 OCD 21    367 B76 I-117
c.370 TEGEA Arcadia, allied with Sparta 469-369, violence between pro-Spartan oligarchs and anti-Spartan democrats.  With Mantinean help, the democrats win.  Oligarch leaders including Stasippos are executed.  1,400 pro-Spartan oligarchs are expelled, 800 flee to Sparta. 370
CAH 6-190, 534, DGRBM 3-900
c.370 Democrats of Argos suddenly attack the rich, kill 1200, confiscate their property. 371/0 CAH 6-189 370 Dur 2-466
  Roman copies of missing or damaged Scopas originals
Dancing Maenad
Pothos Apollo
Albani Collection
Hope Herakles
Hearst Collection
Warrior Head
c.370 Sculptor SCOPAS of Paros flourishes.  Works with Praxiteles, sculpts parts of the Mausoleum, especially the reliefs, leads the building of the new temple of Athena Alea at Tegea.  Like Lysippos, Scopas is artistically a successor of Polykleitos.  The faces of the heads are almost in quadrat.  Deeply sunken eyes and a slightly opened mouth are characteristics of Scopas. 395-50 wikSc
370 late MANTINEA attacked by AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60. 370 late CAH 6-190, DGRBM 1-69
370 late Thebes secures central Greece by a network of alliances. by late 370 CAH 6-189
370 late EPAMINONDAS ruler of BOEOTIA, and Theban PELOPIDAS, and Phocians, invade Peloponnese at Eurotas River valley to help Arcadians throw off Spartan control.  They attack and defeat Spartans.  Spartans successfully defend Sparta itself, but cannot prevent attacks on many towns in Laconia and on dockyards at Gytheum on the south coast.  Thebes/Sparta war begins until 366. 370 B76 IX-928, DGRG 1-1022, bk
370/69 B76 6-903, 8-337, CAH 6, CDCC 315, 682, MCAW 154, OCD 386, 551, 795, lvG     369 B76 6-903, CAH 6-191, DGRA 205, 887, DGRBM 3-179, GHH, OCD 386, 676     368/7 MCAW 154
370/69 AMYNTAS-III dies.  Argead king of Macedon from 392, dies leaving widow Eurydice and 3 legit sons:  Alexander, Perdiccas, and Philip.  Son ALEXANDER-II succeeds until 368.  Alexander-II is forced to send his younger bro Philip as hostage to the Illyrians. 371 GHH     370 CAH 6-188, DGRBM 1-155, 2-108, OCD 56, lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM
370/69 B76 I-332, 8-366
369 CAH 6-726, DGRBM 1-118, Dur 2-711, MRDK, RAH 309
c.369 Spartan Ischolaos at village of Ium with troops and 400 Tegean exiles surrounded and killed with most of his men by Thebans. 369 DGRBM 2-625
c.369 Argos attacks Phlios and Epidauros. 369 CAH 6-192
c.369 Arcadians attack Asine Argolis. 369 CAH 6-192
c.369 Arcadians attack Pellene Achaea. 369 CAH 6-192
c.369 Arcadia, and Elis jointly try unsuccessfully to help democratic exiles take over Phlios Argolis. 369 CAH 6-192
c.369 EPAMINONDAS, invading Laconia from 370, moves into Messenia. 369 CAH 6-191
369 MESSENIA, under Sparta from ?, liberated by Theban army under EPAMINONDAS.  Independent until ?.  HELOTS are liberated by Epaminondas, who claims to have restored Messenia after 230 years oppression.  This means economic collapse of Sparta. 370 LEWH 77
370/69 CAH 6
369 B76 8-337, CAH 6-191, MCAW 154, OCD 495, 676, OHG 171     369 GHH     368 lvG
369 MESSENE fortress founded in a valley between 3 hills as capital of Messenia in Peloponnese by Epaminondas. 370 LEWH 77     370/69 CAH 6369 B76 VI-822, 8-365, CAH 6-191, DGRBM, MCAW 155, OCD 675
c.369 Sparta sends envoys (including Etymocles, Ocellos, Pharax, Timocrates) to Athens to negotiate alliance. 369 DGRBM 2-54, 3-2, 239, 1137
c.369 Athens and Sparta ally against Thebes.  Sparta asks for help. 369 CAH 6-199, GHH
c.369 Athenian general IPHICRATES sent to help Sparta against Thebes, but accomplishes little. 369 B76 8-365, CAH 6-191, DGRBM 2-617, LEWH 77, OCD 196
c.369 CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna, leader of 2nd Athenian League, alarmed by Thebes, negotiates an equitable peace with Sparta, proposes sending IPHICRATES to aid Sparta militarily. 369 B76 8-365, LEWH 77, MCAW 154, OCD 196
c.369 ThessalyPOLYPHRON, tyrant of Pherae from 370, murdered by Alexander, son or neph of Jason.  ALEXANDER succeeds as tyrant of Pherae until 358.  Strongly opposed by other Thessalians, Alex tries to secure control in Thessaly, nominally as chief federal magistrate but effectively as tyrant.  His Thessalian opponents appeal to King Alexander-II of Macedon. 370 DGRBM
CAH 6-189, 194, DGRBM 1-124, 3-469, GHH, rcSB2
c.369 ALEXANDER-II king of Macedonia 370- moves into Thessaly. 369
CAH 6-194
c.369 LARISSA Thessaly taken by Alexander-II of Macedonia, comes under Macedonia until 368. 369 CAH 6-194, rcSB2
c.369 CRANNON Thessaly taken by Alexander-II of Macedonia, comes under Macedonia until ?. 369
CAH 6-194
c.369 ALEXANDER-II king of Macedonia 370-68, challenged by pretender Ptolemy Alorites, returns to Macedonia. 369
CAH 6-194
c.369 Theban democrat PELOPIDAS, at request of Thessalians, drives Alex of Pherae out of Thessaly. 369
B76 VII-842
c.369 ALEXANDER-II king of Macedonia 370-68, and pretender Ptolemy Alorites, both appeal to Pelopidas. 369
CAH 6-194
c.369 Theban democrat PELOPIDAS enters Macedonia, allies with king Alexander-II, who delivers to Pelopidas hostages including his own younger bro Philip, the future king.  Pelopidas then returns thru Thessaly to Boeotia. 369 CAH 6-194-5
369 Arcadians, Argives, and Eleans persuade Boeotians to undertake another campaign in the Peloponnese. 369
CAH 6-191
c.369 A line of palisades and trenches is thrown across the Isthmus by Spartans and their allies, to prevent the Thebans from marching into Peloponnese. 369
DGRG 1-684
c.369 SICYON, in northeast Peloponese, in Achaean League mostly from 565, comes to terms with Epaminondas, who instals a garrison in the citadel but leaves ruling oligarchs in control.  Under Thebes until 323. 369
CAH 6-191, 206, rcPl
c.369 DYSCINITOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 370, ends.  LYSISTRATOS succeeds until 368. 369 wikEA
c.369 ArgolisEPAMINONDAS attacks Trozen and Epidauros, and later Corinth, where defence is strengthened by Athenian troops and by mercenaries sent by Dionysius of Syracuse to help Sparta. 369
CAH 6-192
c.369 MEGALOPOLIS founded by Arcadians as a federal capital of ARCADIAN LEAGUE until 362, though Epaminondas of Thebes is given credit for it.  Democracy is set up with an Assembly of 10,000 and a Council of 50. 371 DGRBM 3-101, DGRG 1-1006     370 DGRBM 2-846, MCAW 155, OCD 665, bk, rcPl     369 LEWH 77, OHG, RAH 304     368 CAH 6-193
c.369 Theban PAMMENES and 1,000 troops sent by Epaminondas to defend Megalopolis. 371 DGRBM 3-101
c.369 Most inhabitants of Gortys Arcadia are moved to Megalopolis. 371 DGRG 1-1006
c.369 EPAMINONDAS and allies, in Peloponnese from 370, return to their homes. 369
CAH 6-192
c.369 Arcadian general LYCOMEDES defeats Spartans under Polytropos near Orchomenos Arcadia. 369 DGRBM 2-846
c.369 Arcadian general LYCOMEDES takes Pellana Lacedaemonia, enslaves inhabitants, ravages the land. 369 DGRBM 2-846
c.369 TEGEA Arcadia allied with Sparta from 469, joins Arcadian League until ?. 369 rcPl
c.369 More than 20 Syracusan ships from Dionysius-I with 2,000 Celts and Iberians, with 50 cavalry and pay for 5 months arrive in Greece to help Sparta, but with instructions to return within a fixed time. 369
CAH 6-150
c.369 THEAETETOS, mathematician of Athens, killed in battle. 369 B76 IX-925, 14-533, BHM 83, EoΦ 3-383, OCD 1051
c.369/8 ISOCRATES, unable to find moral conscience among democrats or oligarchs, appeals to Dionysius-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, to appoint to management positions the most competent citizens, i.e. those who will direct affairs of state most effectively and justly.  Isocrates is ignored. 369/8
CAH 6-599
c.369/8 PHILISCOS of Abydos, emissary of Persian satrap Ariobarzanes, arrives in Greece presumably to win influence for Ariobarzanes and recruit mercenaries. 369/8
CAH 6-192
c.368 MolossiaNEOPTOLEMUS-I, 2nd Aeacid king of Molossia and Epirus from 370, dies.  Bro ARYBBAS succeeds until 342. 373 wikAryb
368 OCD 400
DGRBM 2-1155, MRDK, lvG, rcSB2, wikOly     358 frH
c.368 EPAMINONDAS again leads a Theban army into Peloponnese.  A Spartan/Athenian coalition force briefly opposes them at the isthmus.  Epaminondas compells Sicyon and Pellene to renounce alliance with Sparta, then returns, attacks Corinth, and is repulsed by Athenian Chabrias. 368 DGRBM 2-23, 2-100, GHH
c.368 Thessaly, having no one to save it from Alex of Pherae, now that Alexander-II of Macedonia is gone, appeals to Thebes. 369 CAH 6-194
369/8 DGRBM 1-124
368 CAH 6-195, DGRBM 3-180
c.368 Thebes sends Pelopidas and Ismenias to Thessaly merely as envoys to investigate. Thessaly 369 CAH 6-194
368 CAH 6-195, DGRBM
c.368 Theban democrat PELOPIDAS arrives at Larissa, expells Macedonian garrison.
LARISSA Thessaly under Macedonia from 369, comes under Thebes until 344.
DGRBM 1-124 368 rcSB2
c.368 Once in Thessaly, Pelopidas, who has no Boeotian troops, has to recruit in Thessaly. 368
CAH 6-195
c.368 Son of Amyntas-III & Euridice, ALEXANDER-II dies.  Argead king of Macedon from 370, murdered by Ptolemy Alorites, lover of Eurydice.  Bro PERDICCAS-III succeeds until 359 under regency of Euridice & PTOLEMY until 365. 369 GHH
368 CAH 6-195, MRDK, OCD 39, bk, lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM
367 B76 8-366
366 CAH 6-727
c.368 PTOLEMY, co-regent of Macedonia, is challenged by a further pretender, PAUSANIAS, who captures places in north Chalcidice. 368
CAH 6-195
c.368 Theban democrat PELOPIDAS also enters Macedon with only unreliable mercenaries, and reaches agreement with Ptolemy, who now allies with Thebes.  Pelopidas then returns to Thessaly, still with no effective military. 368
CAH 6-195
c.368 Athens tries to profit from the uncertainty in Macedonia, sends general IPHICRATES assisted by mercenary Charidemos to recover Amphipolis, technically under Athens 421-357.  Iphicrates fails to recover it, but campaigns successfully against Pausanias, and remains in Chalcidice until 365. 368 B76 8-365, CAH 6-195, CDCC 464, bk
367 B76 II-752, DGRBM 1-684, 2-617, OCD 551
c.368 Theban democrats PELOPIDAS and Ismenias attack Alexander of Pherae at Pharsalos Thessaly.  Both are captured by Alex and imprisoned in Pherae until 367. 369 CDCC 656
368 CAH 6-195, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 795, bk
c.368 ThessalyThebes sends an army to Thessaly to free the 2 Thebans.  Alex of Pherae allies with Athens, which sends Autocles with 30 ships and 1,000 men to Thessaly.  Thebans fail to overcome tyrant Alex and his allies.  Thebans have trouble trying to withdraw. 368 CAH 6-195, DGRBM 1-124, 2-23
c.368 LYSISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 369, ends.  NAUSIGENES succeeds until 367. 368 wikEA
c.368 EUPHRON, claims to be a democrat in order to get help from Arcadia and Argos to overthrow the ologarchy of Sicyon.  Then relying on mercenary troops and popular support, he banishes opponents and kills or exiles other democratic leaders, becomes tyrant of Sicyon until 366. spring 368
CAH 6-192, skyn
c.368 PHILISCOS of Abydos sent by Ariobarzanes satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia to Greece to reconcile Thebes and Sparta. 368 DGRBM 3-293
c.368 At Delphi PHILISCOS of Abydos, distributes money provided by Ariobarzanes for Greek mercenaries.  This is ostensibly to help Sparta but probably for Ariobarzanes in his planned revolt 366.  Philiscos also organizes a peace conference attended by the major Greek states.  But Sparta will not grant independence of Messenia, and Thebes demands sovereignty over Boeotia, so the talks collapse. 368
CAH 6-85, 192, DGRBM 3-293, GHH
c.368 Philiscos gives Sparta 2,000 mercenaries, paid for in advance, and goes home to Hellespontine Phrygia. 368 CAH 6-192, DGRBM 3-293
c.368 More Syracusan ships from Dionysius-I under CISSIDAS arrive in Greece to help Sparta, with instructions to return within a fixed time. 368
CAH 6-150
c.368 CARYAE Lacedaemonia, near the Arcadian border, independent from 371, reconquered by Archidamos aided by Philiscos' mercenaries and Syracusan CissidasArchidamos kills everyone he captures.  They then invade south-west Arcadia. 368 CAH 6-192
367 DGRBM 1-758
no date: DGRG 1-555
c.368 Arcadia receives help from Argos and Messenia. 368 CAH 6-192
c.368 Arcadians and allies Argos and Messenia cut off the Spartan army and force a battle.  ARCHIDAMOS, wipes out an Arcadian force in the "Tearless Battle" (called so by Spartans because not a single Spartan is killed). 368 CAH 6-168-9, wikAL     367 B76 I-489, DGRBM 1-758, DGRG 1-192, GHH
c.368 TRIPHYLIA (southern Elis) joins Arcadian League until ?. 369-7 CAH 6-194
c.368 Syracusan CISSIDAS helps Spartans against Arcadians, until his appointed time expires. 367 DGRBM 1-758
c.368 Anti-Spartan faction from PHLIOS Argolis, exiled from 379, gets help from Arcadians and Elians, take the Phlian acropolis by night, but are repulsed. 368
CAH 6-193, prsΦl

PLATO publishes  Theaetetos .

Λ EPISTEMOLOGY V:  Discusses knowledge as:
nothing but perception
true judgment
true judgment with account
Debunks the ideas that knowledge is perception or that it is true belief.  Hypothesizes that knowledge is analyzing things down to their unknowable elements.  Pure relativism is epistemically impossible.
(See Xenophanes 480,  Parmenides 460, Meno 386)
B76 14-536-8, OCD 842, bk
no date: wikThea
c.368 Exile of Xenophon from Athens 371 is voided. 368 OCD 1142
c.368 EUDOXOS of Knidos, student of Plato, traveling from ?, returns with his students to Athens. 368 wikEC
c.368 EUDOXOS of Knidos, student of Plato, traveling from ?, returns with his students to Athens. 368 wikEC
c.368 APHAREOS, son of Hippias the sophist, and adopted son of Isocrates, pupil of Isocrates, tragedian orator, exhibits a tragedy.  He will leave 37 tragedies, winning 4 victories. 368 GHH
c.368/7 People of TRAPEZOS Arcadia who are not willing to move to newly-founded Megalopolis, migrate to Pontic Trapezos instead. 368/7 lvA
c.367 CHALCIDICE, in 2nd Athenian League from 378, drops out until ?. 367 CDCC 181
Macedonia Thrace
c.367 SESTOS in Chersonese, independent ally of Athens, attacked by Cotys-I, king of Odrysians in Thrace 382-59. 367
CAH 6-464
c.367 PERINTHOS attacked by Cotys-I, king of Odrysians in Thrace 382-59. 367
CAH 6-464
c.367 MELIBOIA and SKOTUSSA Thessaly:  citizens massacred by Alexander of Pherae. 367 CAH 6-195, wikAlxΦ
c.367 ThessalyEpaminondas, serving as a private soldier on the prestige of his name alone, leads a 2nd Theban expedition to free Pelopidas and Ismenias.  Epaminondas proceeds cautiously to avoid provoking Alex of Pherae.  The tyrant had recently massacred inhabitants of Thessalian towns, Meliboia and Scotussa.  Alex of Pherae offers to release his prisoners in return for a treaty of peace and friendship.  Epaminondas agrees to only a 30 day truce.  Alex accepts. spring 367
CAH 6-195, DGRBM 1-124, 2-23
c.367 Theban democrats PELOPIDAS and ISMENIAS prisoners of Alexander of Pherae from 368, rescued by Epaminondas of Thebes.  All return to Boeotia with the army. 367 B76 6-903, CAH 6-195, CDCC 315, DGRBM 3-180
no date: OCD 795
c.367 Sparta sends envoys under Antalcidas to Artaxerxes-II king of Medo-Persia at Susa to bid for favor.  When Thebans and Athenians learn of this, they too send envoys:  Athenians Timagoras and Leon, Theban PelopidasArtaxerxes demands the King's Peace to be renewed, with Thebes as supreme Greek power. 368 lvG
367 B76 8-365, CAH 6-196, DGRBM 2-734, 3-1132, GHH, MCAW 155, OCD 66
c.367 Elean envoys, including Argeius, sent to Persia to cooperate with Theban Pelopidas. 367 DGRBM 1-279-80
c.367 After Artaxerxes' decision, Athenian Timagoras separates from his colleagues, and sides with the Thebans. 367 DGRBM 2-734
c.367 After the Greek envoys return from Susa, Thebes holds a conference asking other states to swear compliance with Atraxerxes' decree.  Arcadian general LYCOMEDES and his colleagues walk out.  The conference collapses. 367 B76 8-365, DGRBM 2-846
c.367 Athens and Sparta faced with alliance of Thebes and Persia, ally with each other and Dionysius of Syracuse.  Athens and Thebes are enemies until 365. 367
B76 8-365
c.367 NAUSIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 368, ends.  POLYZELOS succeeds until 366. 367 wikEA
c.367 LASION Arcadia joins Arcadian League until 365. 369-5 CAH 6-194
c.367 PHLIOS attacked by Argos, Pellene, and the Theban commander at Sicyon, helped by Euphron, tyrant of Sicyon.  Attack is repulsed. 367
CAH 6-193, prsΦl
c.367 Athenian CHARES sent to help Phlios, against Arcadians, Argives, and the Theban commander at Sicyon.  Successful. 367 DGRBM 1-682
c.367 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse (now an ally of Greece against Persia), wins Lenaea competition with  Ransom of Hector . 367 B76 8-370, Dur 2-472, OCD 350
c.367 Writer AENEAS TACITOS becomes general of the Arcadian League until ?. 367 CDCC 16
c.367 PLATO, in Athens from 386, leaves Eudoxus of Knidos in charge of Academy, goes on 2nd visit to Syracuse until 366/5. 367 CAH 6-608, EoΦ 6-314, KPHP 67, MCAW 155, OCD 839, OHG, bk, wikUdx     367/6 CDCC 276
no date: B76 14-532, LEWH 80
c.367 ARISTOTLE, age 18, in Stagira Chalcidice from ?, arrives in Athens, enters Plato's Academy while Plato is away, remains until Plato dies 348.  age 17: CAH 6-608, KPHP 75, OCD 114, age 18 S2S 51
367 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-317, EoΦ 1-151, GHH, KPHP 75, MCAW 155, OHG, S2S 51     366 OCD 114
c.367 Athenians TIMAGORAS and LEON, envoys to Persia, returns to Athens.  Timagoras is indicted for treason by colleague Leon, and executed. 367 CAH 6-196, DGRBM 2-734, 3-1132, bk
c.367 ARCHIDAMOS, son of Agesilaos-II king of Sparta 399-60, fights Arcadians until 364. 367 OCD 98
367/6 EPAMINONDAS ruler of BOEOTIA, invades Achaea, 3rd invasion of Peloponnese to strengthen Theban position.  Gets assurance of fidelity from several states.  Decides not to overthrow oligarchies. 367 DGRBM, OCD 386
366 B76 6-903, CAH 6-197, CDCC 315, DGRBM 2-23, GHH
c.366 Achaean oligarchs agree to ally with Thebes, if they remain in control in Achaea.  Epaminondas nonetheless "liberates" 3 strategically important places, Dyme in western Achaea, Naupactos and Calydon, both north of the Gulf of Corinth but at the time Achaean; Epaminondas then returns home. 366
CAH 6-197, 207
c.366 Thebans and their allies, notably Arcadians, impose democracies in Achaea. 366
CAH 6-206
c.366 Achaean oligarchies overthrown and restored. 366 CAH 6
c.366 Athenian troops under Timomachos and Spartans guard the Isthmus of Corinth against Thebans.  But they fail to occupy the passes of Oneium, and Epaminondas, who is preparing to invade Achaia, persuades Argive general Peisias to seize a commanding height of the mountain.  Thebans are thus enabled to get thru the Isthmus. 366 DGRBM 3-1141
c.366 Thebes organizes a congress of states to accept the terms of the peace announced by a rep of Artaxerxes-II.  The congress rejects it.  spring 366
CAH 6-197
c.366 TIMOPHANES, bro of Timoleon, with mercenaries, promises support for the poor, tries to make himself tyrant in Corinth until 364. 366
CAH 6-530
c.366 POLYZELOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 367, ends.  CIPHISODOROS succeeds until 365. 366 wikEA
c.366 Corinth allies with Phlios. 367 GHH
c.366 EUPHRON tyrant of Sicyon from 368, forced by Arcadians to allow return of exiled oligarchs, flees to the harbor with his mercenaries, invites Spartans to take Sicyon (They decline.), returns to Sicyon to face ologarchs. 367 DGRBM 3-132
366 CAH 6-198, skyn
c.366 EUPHRON former tyrant of Sicyon, goes to Thebes, tries to get Thebans to expel oligarchs from Sicyon and reinstate him as their vassal.  Murdered by former exiles at the Cadmea.  Son ADEAS succeeds as tyrant of Sicyon until ?. 366
CAH 6-198, skyn
c.366 Themison, tyrant of Eretria, assists exiles of Oropos in surprising and recovering Oropos from the Athenians.  The Athenians march against them with their whole force.  Themison calls in the Thebans to assist.  Thebans receive Oropos as a deposit, but then refuse to give it up. 366 DGRBM 3-1023, DGRG 1-847
c.366 BoeotiaOROPOS on the border between Attica and Boeotia, ally of Athens from ?, siezed by Themison, tyrant of Eretria Euboea.  Athens sends troops to recover Oropos.  Thebans, Themison's allies, take over Oropos to protect it, then keep it. 366 mid
CAH 6-198, bk
c.366 ARIOBARZANES, then in revolt, appeals to both Athens and Sparta for help.  Despite their difficulties in Greece, both respond. 366
CAH 6-200
c.366 After loss of Oropos, Arcadian Lycomedes proposes alliance with Athens.  Athens at first declines, because it would damage their relations with Sparta.  Then Athens allies with Arcadians. 366 CAH 6,
DGRBM 2-846, bk
c.366 Phlios Argolis is forced to import grain. 366 CAH 6-559
c.366 CHABRIAS and CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna are accused of treachery in advising surrender of Oropos to Thebans.  They are prosecuted by Leodamas for that and for failing to check Thebes.  Aquitted. 366 B76 II-702, DGRBM 1-676, OCD 196, 225, 1077, wikCha
c.366 LYCOMEDES of Mantinea, who led effort to found the Arcadian League in 371, sent to Athens to negotiate alliance with Arcadian League. 366 wikLM
no date: CAH 6-199
c.366 LYCOMEDES of Mantinea, returning from Athens by ship, lands where some Arcadian exiles live.  Murdered by them. 366 bk, wikLM
c.366 Syracusan TIMOCRATES sent with 12 galleys by Dionysius-II to help Sparta.  Enables Spartans to reduce Sellasia 365. 366 DGRBM 3-1137
c.366 Thebes/Sparta war from 370 ends.  Sparta makes peace. 366 MCAW 154
365 CAH 6
c.366 Thebes, on advice of Epaminondas, begins building 100 triremes to fight Athens. 366 CAH 6-201 364 MCAW 154
c.366 ISOCRATES publishes  Archidamos .  An imagined speech of the future king of Sparta about the Peace of 366. 366 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-267, OCD 554, bk
c.366 ISOCRATES:  "The rich have become so unsocial that those who own property had rather throw their possessions into the sea than lend aid to the needy, while the poorer would less gladly find a treasure than sieze the possessions of the rich." 366
Dur 2-465
c.366 DEMOSTHENES comes of age: 18, and demands that his guardians Aphobos and 2 others, account for their handling of his inheritance.  They stall legally for 2 years. 366 DGRBM 1-982
c.366 ELIS & ARCADIA begin hostilities.  Eleans seize Lasion and other towns in the Acroreia, which form part of the Arcadian League.  These had been taken by Sparta in 400. 366 DGRG 1-819 365 DGRBM, GHH
Theban Hegemony
Theban power peaks 371-62.             Picture by Megistas
c.366/5 Congress at Sparta. 366/5 OCD 98
c.366/5 ARCHIDAMOS, son of Agesilaos-II king of Sparta 399-60 appeals to congress at Sparta to refuse Theban demand for recognition of the independence of Messene. 366/5
OCD 98
c.366/5 PLATO, in Syracuse from 367, returns to Athens until 361. 366 EoΦ 6-314, LEWH 80
366/5 OCD 351     365 CAH 6-608
c.366/5 CORINTH expells Athenians.  XENOPHON, in Corinth from 371, returns to Athens, lives there until death 354. 366/5
OCD 1142
c.365 Evidence of Plato's personal relationship with 20 year-old Aristotle on his return to the Academy is anecdotal at best.  But whereas Plato shunned rhetoric, Aristotle thought it worthy of study, not necessarily to use it, but to prevent it being used against philosophy. 364
CAH 6-618
c.365 Peloponnesian League dimantled. 365 lvG
c.365 ChersoneseSESTOS in Chersonese, possibly independent from 386, recovered by Athenian Timotheos, comes back under Athens until 362. 365 OCD 981 364 CAH 6-464
c.365 SELLASIA in Lacedaemonia occupied by Arcadians. as late as 365 CAH 6-194
c.365 CIPHISODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 366, ends.  CHION succeeds until 364. 365 wikEA
c.365 SELLASIA occupied by Arcadians 365?, recovered by Sparta, with help of Syracusan mercenaries under Timocrates, under Sparta until ?. 365
CAH 6-203
c.365 LASION, in Arcadian League from 367, seized by Elis. 365 CAH 6-203
c.365 Arcadians, disputing ownership of Triphylian towns, invade Elis and defeat Eleans, who appeal to Sparta for help. 365 DGRBM 2-315, DGRG 1-819
c.365 GRYLLOS and DIODOROS, sons of Xenophon, sent by Xenophon to Lepreum for security.  Xenophon soon joins them, and they all go to Corinth. 365 DGRBM 2-315
c.365 Elis breaks with Boeotian-Peloponnesian alliance, allies with Achaea and Sparta against Arcadia until 362. 365 CAH 6-203, DGRG 1-192
365/4 CAH 6-203
c.365 Athens sides with Arcadia under mutual defence pact of 366. 365 CAH 6-203
c.365 PTOLEMY ALORITES regent of Macedon from 368, murdered by stepson PERDICCAS-III, Argead king of Macedon 368-56, who succeeds with AMYNTAS-IV until 359. 365 B76 8-366, CAH 6-727, MRDK, bk, lvG, wikArg
364 DGRBM 3-568, GHH
c.365 IPHICRATES, Athenian attempting to recover Amphipolis from 367, fails, fired as strategos, replaced by TIMOTHEOS until ?.  Iphicrates retires to Thrace. 365 CAH 6-195
364 DGRBM 3-1146, OCD 551     360 Dur 2-458
c.365 Young Macedonian king Perdiccas-III needs Athenian help, and is forced to cooperate with the Athenian commander (Iphicrates or Timotheos) to reconquer Amphipolis. 365 lvG
c.365 Pro-Spartan party of CALLISTRATOS in Athens is replaced in power by party of TIMOTHEOS, and peace is made with Thebes on status quo basis, but Athens and Thebes remain at odds. 365 CAH 6, LEWH 77
c.365 ANTIPHANES, Athenian comedy writer, flourishes. 365 MCAW 157
c.365 AFTERLIFE in a fragment of Antiphanes:  "Let us not lament too much the passing of our friends.  They are not dead, but simply gone before us along the road which all must travel." 350 MNDQ 574
c.364 ARCHIDAMOS, son of Agesilaos-II king of Sparta 399-60 invades southwest Arcadia.  Boeotia, Argos, and Messenia send troops to help Arcadia. 364 CAH 6-203, DGRBM 1-267, GHH
c.364 ELIS:  Oligarchs take control and expel democrats, who are friendly to Arcadia.  Much Elis territory falls under Arcadian control. 365 CAH 6-206 364 CAH 6-203
c.364 TIMOPHANES, trying to make himself tyrant in Corinth from 366, murdered by his own bro Timoleon. 364
DGRG 1-677
c.364 ISOCRATES speech "Evagoras". 364 OCD 554
c.364 Arcadians and their allies capture a Spartan force under Archidamos-III at Cromnos in south-west Arcadia. 364
CAH 6-203
c.364 Independent states in Acrorea and Pisatis created by Arcadia out of territory taken from Elis. 364
CAH 6-204
c.365 HERACLIDES of Heraclea in Pontus enters Plato's Academy.  He is as versatile as Eudoxos in his interests, but less profound and more dependent on Plato's thinking. 365/4
CAH 6-609
c.364 DEMOSTHENES age 20 defeats his guardians Aphobos and 2 others in a lawsuit.  Gets little money - 10 talents, but learns speech making and legal strategy.  Decides to go into politics. 364 DGRA 1159, DGRBM 1-982, GHH, MCAW 157, bk 363 B76 5-578
c.364 PHILIP, bro of Alexander-II king of Macedon 369-8, hostage in Thebes from ?, returns to Macedon. 364
MCAW 154
c.364 MAGNESIA Thessaly taken and garrisoned by Alex of Pherae. 364 CAH 6-202
c.364 ALEXANDER tyrant of Pherae 369-58, ally of Athens, tries to expand into Boeotia. 364 CDCC 673
c.364 Phthiotic Achaea taken and garrisoned by Alex of Pherae. 364 CAH 6-202
c.364 CHION, eponymous archon of Athens from 365, ends.  TIMOCRATES succeeds until 363. 364 wikEA
c.364 Magnesia, Phthiotis, and other Thessalian regions opposed to Alex of Pherae appeal to Thebes for help.  Thebes agrees, and prepares to send Pelopidas. 364 CAH 6-202, DGRBM 1-124, 3-180
Jun 13
ECLIPSE disturbs the army of Theban democrat PELOPIDAS preparing to march against Alexander of Pherae. 364 Jul 13 CAH 6-202
364 Jun 13 DGRBM 1-125, 3-180, hbar, wikAlxΦ
364 ThessalyTheban democrat PELOPIDAS then leads only 300 volunteer cavalry and mercenaries, and joins Thessalian allies, defeats ALEXANDER of Pherae at CYNOSCEPHALAE Thessaly, but PELOPIDAS is killed in battle. 364 B76 VII-842, 8-365, CAH 6-202, CDCC 656, 878, DGRBM 3-180, DGRG 1-726,
Dur 2-741, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 155, OCD 41, 795, bk
364 Thebes immediately sends a powerful force, which defeats ALEXANDER of Pherae 369-58 again, obliges him to withdraw from the Thessalian cities he had occupied, and to become an ally of Thebes. 364
CAH 6-202
c.364 EPAMINONDAS of Thebes, ruler of Boeotia, challenges Athenian naval supremacy, leads a fleet as far as Byzantium.  Gets several cities in Athenian League to rebel.  Fleet returns home. 364 CAH 6-201-2, OCD 386, 969 364/3 B76 6-903 363 DGRG 1-657
c.364 LACHES and his Athenian squadron forced out of Byzantium by Epaminondas of Thebes. 363
DGRG 1-657
c.364 ChersoneseCHERSONESE, under Athens 377-40, disputed by Cotys-I king of Odrysians in Thrace.  Cotys employs mercenary captain Charidemos of Oreos. 364
DGRBM 1-869
c.364 ORCHOMENOS Boeotia, suspected of a plot by Orchomenian knights and Theban exiles to overthrow the Theban constitution, destroyed by Boeotian Confederacy. 364 CAH 6-189, 205, MCAW 154, OCD 755
c.364 104th Olympic games disrupted by Arcadian invasion of Elis.  Arcadians revive claims of the Pisans to control the Olympic games.  Arcadian government takes some of the sacred treasures at Olympia to pay their troops. 364 CAH 6-203-4, DGRG 1-192, 819, GHH, OCD 835, bk
c.364 STRATOLAS, leader of the oligarch party at Elis, leads a band called "The 300".  falls in battle at Olympia against the Arcadians, who had invaded Elis, and were attempting to celebrate the Olympic games under the presidency of Pisa. 364 DGRBM 3-923
c.364 While the games are going on, the Eleans march into the consecrated ground and attack the Arcadians.  The Eleans are driven back.  Elean leader Andromachos suicides.  No more fighting in this war is recorded after the battle at Olympia. 364 DGRBM 1-172, DGRG 1-819
c.364 Sculptor LYSIPPOS of Sicyon creates statues of Thebans. 364 CAH 6
c.364 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, tries to increase revenue by hiring out as mercenary to Ariobarzanes in Anatolia. 364
OCD 27
c.364 Sidonian merchants exempt from taxes by Athenian decree. 364 CAH 6-328
Jun 13
"When the common council of the Boeotians convened and the envoys had explained the matters on which they had been instructed, the Boeotians concurred with the Thessalians in every matter, gave Pelopidas seven thousand men and ordered him speedily to assist as requested;  but as Pelopidas was hastening to leave with his army, the sun, as it happened, was eclipsed."   (Diodoros: Historical Library 15-80-2)
364 Jun 13 hbar
c.364 Thebans march north into Thessaly. 364 CAH 6-202
c.364/3 ARCADIAN LEAGUE has internal dispute over use of Olympic funds. 364/3 CAH 6
c.363 EPAMINONDAS of Thebes, ruler of Boeotia, defeats Athenian ally ALEXANDER tyrant of PHERAE 369-58, who is compelled to join Boeotian League. 363 LEWH 77
no date:
OCD 41
c.363 ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, under Sparta from 382, recovered by Timotheos, under Athens until 356. 364 DGRG 1-560, rcSB2 363 OCD 870
c.363 TIMOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 364, ends.  CHARICLEIDES succeeds until 362. 363 wikEA
c.362 ARCADIAN LEAGUE under Thebes from 369 disbands for lack of funds.  Wealthy oligarchs take over cities and make peace with Elis and Achaea.  Radicals appeal to Epaminondas.  TEGEA and MEGALOPOLIS Arcadia remain pro-Theban.  MEGALOPOLIS becomes republic until 338. 363 fall CAH 6, DGRBM 2-23
362 B76 6-903, LEWH 77, OCD 665, rcPl
c.362 AMPHIPOLIS becomes Macedonian Protectorate until 357. 362 rcSB2
c.362 MILTOCYTHES, a chief inder Cotys-I, rebels, solicits Athenian help by promising to deliver Chersonese. 362 DGRBM 1-869
c.362 COTYS-I, king of Odrysians in Thrace 384-59, sends letter to Athens, outbids Miltocythes, and secures alliance with Athens. 362 DGRBM 1-869
c.362 ChersoneseCHERSONESE recaptured by Cotys-I king of Odrysians in Thrace and mercenary captain Charidemos of Oreus.  Under Odrysians until 357, except Sestos, which is lost 361. 362
CAH 6-464
c.362 Other cities of former Arcadian League ally with Elis and Achaea.  All these jointly ally with Athens. 362
c.362 CHARICLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 363, ends.  MOLON succeeds until 361. 362 wikEA
c.362 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, invades Arcadia. 362 DGRBM 1-69
c.362 MANTINEA Arcadia, newly restored from 370, allies with Sparta. 362 LEWH 77
c.362 EPAMINONDAS of Thebes advances into Peloponnese, makes an attempt on Sparta, but is foiled by Archidamos. 363 B76 I-489     362 DGRBM 1-267
c.362 CALLISTRATOS and CHABRIAS, both out of favor in Athens from 366, restored before battle of Mantinea. 362
OCD 225
c.362 EPAMINONDAS of Thebes with 33,000 south Arcadians, Messenians, and Argives, fights 22,000 Spartans under Agesilaos-II, Athenians, Eleans, and north Arcadians at MANTINEA.  Who won is disputed.  Both sides are exhausted. 362 B76 VI-581, IX-928, 6-903, 8-365, BCoC 386, CAH 6, CDCC 129, 547, DGRBM 1-69, DGRG 1-192, Dur 2-463, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 154, OCD 644, OHG, RAH 304, SHWC 69
c.362 EPAMINONDAS of Thebes mortally wounded at Mantinea, advises Boeotians to make peace before dying. 362 B76 IX-928, 6-903, 8-365, CAH 6, CDCC 315, 878, DGRBM 1-125, Dur 2-463, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 154, OCD 385, OHG, RAH 304, TToH, bk
c.362 GRYLLOS, son of Xenophon, in Athenian cavalry, killed at battle of Mantinea.  After his death, elaborate eulogies are made for him by Isocrates and others. 362 CAH 6-618, DGRBM 2-315, enot
c.362 GREECE:  exhausted by Mantinea.  Theban supremacy of Greece from 371 ends.  Internal quarrels continue.  Athens slightly dominant. 362 B76 8-365, CDCC 878, MCAW 154
c.362 Xenophon's History,  Hellenica , ends with battle of Mantinea. 362 DGRBM GHH
c.362 AUTOCLES appointed by Athens to command in Thrace until 361. 362 DGRBM 1-446
c.362 A general peace is made based on status quo, but is rejected by Sparta, which wants to rule Messenia. 362 B76 8-365, CAH 6, DGRBM, LEWH 77
c.362 COTYS-I opposes Ariobarzanes and SATRAP'S REVOLT because they compete with him for dominance of the Hellespont. 362 DGRBM 1-870
c.362 CHARIDEMOS, Euboean mercenary, hires out to COTYS-I until 360 in Thrace.  Joins SATRAP'S REVOLT. 362
OCD 227
c.362 HYPERIDES, Athenian son of Glaucippos, prosecutes ARISTOPHON. 362 OCD 535
c.362 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, organizes defense of Sparta again. 362 OCD 27
362/1 The anti-Theban section of Arcadia (Mantinea and its allies), Achaea, Elis and Phlios ally with Athens, to form a league of Greek city-states pledging mutual assistance against invasion or any attempt to subvert their respective constitutions, and to observe a general peace.  Sparta refuses to join, preferring to force Messenia back into servitude. winter 362/1 CAH 6-207, lvG
361 GHH
c.361 Orator CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna, in Arcadia, impeached again in Athens, this time condemned to death, flees to Methone on coast of Macedonia, reorganizes finances for Perdiccas-III. 361 DGRBM 1-578, GHH, IDB 3-786, OCD 196, wikCal
c.361 ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, nominally independent under Athens 363-56, is forced to accept an Athenian cleruchy. 362 OCD 225
361 CAH 6-737, LEWH 77, OCD 252, 870
361/0 CAH 6-201
c.361 SESTOS Chersonese, under Cotys-I from 362, recovered by Athens temporarily. 361
CAH 6-464
c.361 Athenian CHARES appointed to succeed Athenian admiral Leosthenes after his defeat by Alex of Pherae. 361 DGRBM 1-125, 682
c.361 MOLON, eponymous archon of Athens from 362, ends.  NICODEMOS succeeds until 360. 361 wikEA
c.361 Athenian admiral LEOSTHENES condemned to death by Athenians and executed. 361 DGRBM 2-760, wikL
c.361 DEMOSTHENES writes speech "Against Polycles". 361 DGRA 1159
c.361 AUTOCLES Athenian commander in Thrace from 362, replaced by TIMOMACHOS until 360.  Timomachos is unfit for command. 361 DGRBM 3-1142
May 12
SOLAR ECLIPSE foretold by Helicon
"Helicon, the Cyzicenian, one of Plato's followers, foretold an eclipse of the sun, which happened according to his prediction;  for which he was much admired by the tyrant, and rewarded with a talent of silver;"   (Plutarch: Dion 19)
361 May 12 hbar
c.361 PLATO, in Athens from 366/5, leaves pupil Heracleides Ponticos in charge of the Academy while he and nephew Speusippos sail on Plato's 3rd & last visit to Syracuse until 360. 361 B76 IX-416, 8-370, 14-532, CAH 6-608, Dur 2-458, EoΦ 6-314, GHH, KPHP 68, MCAW 155, OCD 351, 500, 1009, OHG
361/0 CHHΦ, OCD 500, wikHP
c.361 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, goes to Egypt, hires out to pharaoh Teos who is preparing to attack Persian territory in Syria. 361 DGRBM 1-70, GHH, Grim 377, lvG, OCD 27
361/60 Shaw 380
c.361 Athenian CHABRIAS, also hires out to pharaoh Teos. 361 B76 II-702, DGRBM 1-676
c.361 Athenian CHARES for some reason helps the oligarchs of Corcyra against the democrats. 361 DGRBM 1-682
c.361/0 Callistratos of Aphidna doubles revenue from a Macedonian harbor tax from 20 to 40 talents. 361/0
CAH 6-545
c.361/0 Thessalian opponents of Alex of Pherae ally with Athens against him. 361/0 CAH 6-203, 208

Balkan Peninsula 360-345