c.410 spring Athenian "GOVERNMENT of 5,000" from 411 falls.  DEMOCRACY is RESTORED until 404. 411 Dur 2-449     410 B76 8-360, CAH 5, Dur 2-244, LEWH 74, OCD 63, 252, 447, RAH 261, bk
c.410 Spartan general CLEARCHOS sent with 40 ships by Agis to Byzantium and Chalcedon to cut off grain supplies to Athens. 410 DGRBM 1-780, 3-239
c.410 EPHOROS, historian, flourishes. 410 GHH
c.410 Recodification of Athenian law begins until 399. 410 CAH 6-567, CDCC 506
c.410 Spartan admiral MINDAROS dies.  CRATESIPPIDAS replaces him until 408/7, and takes command of the fleet at Chios. 410 DGRBM 1-885
c.410 ILLYRIA:  A kingdom develops, capital at Skodra, ruled by Illyrian kings until 168. end of 5th cen: B76 2-615
c.410 OdryssiansSEUTHES-I, son of Sporadokos, king of the Odrysians in Thrace from 424, ends.  AMADOKOS-I, son of Sitalces, succeeds until 390. 420-10 CAH 6-455
415 frH, rcSB2
410 wikAmdc, wikLRTD, wikSths 405 CAH 6-488
c.410 PYDNA rebels against ARCHELAOS king of Macedon 413-399, and is taken by him with aid of an Athenian squadron under Theramenes.  He orders the inhabitants to abandon their houses and rebuild Pydna 4km from the coast.  This "Greek" Pydna retains independence until 360. 410 B76 I-488, DGRBM 1-262, OCD 97
410/09 lvG
c.410 Λ CORCYRA V, ally of Athens from 434, after an unsuccessful oligarchic revolt, drops out of Peloponnesian War, breaks relations with Athens until 375. 410
B76 III-149, OCD 289, wikCrf
c.410 CONON is sent with a fleet to protect Athenian intrests at Corcyra. 410 DGRBM 1-825
c.410 THEOPOMPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 411, ends.  GLAUCIPPOS succeeds until 409. 410 wikEA
c.410 ASPASIA, former mistress of Pericles 445-29, dies. 410 Dur 2-714
c.410 HERMOCRATES commands Syracusan mercenaries helping Sparta until 408. 410 OCD 504
c.410? ANDOCIDES, imprisoned in Athens from 411, released or escapes, goes to Cyprus until 406?. no date: DGRBM 1-169
c.410 EUXINE, a 10% tax, is imposed by Athens on cargo sailing to and from Pontus until Aegospotami 405. 410 DGRA 388 409 CDGRA 617
c.410 CLEOPHON becomes "leader of the people" after Athenian democracy is restored.  He manages Athenian finances until 406. 410 B76 II-989, LEWH 74, OCD 252
c.410 BYZANTIUM, under Clearchos 410-?, rebelling against Athens 411-08 besieged by Alcibiades until 408Clearchos reserves all supplies for his troops, leaving little for the inhabitants. 410 Dur 2-449
408 DGRBM 1-780, DGRG 1-657
c.410 After Athenian victory at Cyzicus in spring, ENDIUS son of Alcibiades is sent from Sparta to Athens with generous peace proposals.  Proposes status quo to be maintained.  Athens, now under radicals, on advice of Cleophon, refuses. 410 B76 II-989, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-16, LEWH 74, OCD 252, TTPC
c.410 Athenian THERAMENES sent with 30 ships to prevent construction of the moles and bridge, which the Euboeans and Boeotians are building over the Euripus, to connect Euboea with the mainland, and so to render it more defensible against the Athenians.  He fails to interrupt this work.  He then sails among the islands, where he exacts contributions, strengthens democratic factions, and overthrows the oligarchical government at Paros. 410 DGRBM 3-1095
c.410 Athenian THERAMENES sent with a squadron to aid Archelaos, king of Macedonia, in reduction of Pydna; but, the siege lasting a long time, he sails to Thrace to join the fleet under Thrasybulos, and they then cruise about and levied money until they are called away by a despatch from the Athenian navy at Cardia. 410 DGRBM 3-1095
c.410 EURIPIDES' play  Phoenisae  "Phoenician Women".
"He who dares not to speak his free thought is a slave."
411 B76 6-1032     412-08 OCD 419 408 TTPC
c.410 EURIPIDES' play  Bacchae , not published until after his death 406.
"Happy is he who has finished the labors of his life."
410 MNDQ 22     406 Dur 2-244
c.410 EURIPIDES charged with impiety. 410 Dur 2-418
c.410 Painter ZEUXIS, pupil of Apollodoros, flourishes in Athens. 425-395 CAH 6 398 GHH
c.409 Alcibiades, Conon, and Thrasybulos are all elected strategoi of Athens. 409 DGRBM 1-825
c.409 SOPHOCLES wins 1st prize for  Philoctetes . 409 CAH 5, CDCC 834, DGRBM 3-869, MCAW 141, OHG, TTPC, bk     408 B76 17-17
c.409 Spartan CLEARCHOS, governor of Byzantium from 411, commands Hellespont until 403.  ANAXILAOS commands Byzantium until 408. 409 OCD 248, rcT
c.409 GLAUCIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 410, ends.  DIOCLES succeeds until 408. 409 wikEA
c.409 LEOBOTES, harmost of Heraclea Trachis from ?, with 700 setlers, betrayed by Achaean allies, killed in battle by Oetaeans. 409 DGRBM 2-749
c.409 CLEOPHON "leader of the people" begins selling temple properties, resumes work on the Erechtheum to provide jobs, distributes 2 obols per day to the poor. 409
RAH 261
c.409 Athenian general Anytos sent with 30 ships to relieve Pylos, now besieged by Spartans.  Prevented by bad weather, returns to Athens. 409 DGRBM 1-220, OCD 78
c.409 PYLOS in west Peloponnese, under Athens from 425, taken by Spartans.  Subsequent history is obscure.  2 other cities named Pylos exist in west Peloponnese. 410 CAH 6-28 409 LEWH 74, OCD 78, 902
c.409 Athenian general Anytos, having failed to prevent loss of Pylos, escapes condemnation by bribery. no date: DGRBM 1-220, OCD 78
c.409 JURY BRIBERY 1st recorded in Athens. 409 CAH 6-571
c.409 PLEISTOANAX dies.  Agiad king of Sparta 459-45, from 426, with Agis-II from 427.  Son PAUSANIAS succeeds to 395. 409 OCD 1007, lvG     408 CDCC 653, DGRBM 3-413, GHH, OCD 793, bk 408/7 CDCC 690
c.409 Homicide laws of Draco 621 inscribed on stone. 409 B76 8-341 409/8 OCD 364
c.408 ABDERA Thrace under Sparta from ?, taken by Athenian fleet under THRASYBULOS, comes under Athens until 376. 408 DGRG 1-2, rcSB2
407 LEWH 74
c.408 Spartan envoys under Pasippidas go to PHARNABAZUS satrap of Phrygia. 408 DGRBM 3-133
c.408 Athens sends envoys to PHARNABAZUS satrap of Phrygia to outbid Sparta. 408 DGRBM 2-921, LEWH 74, OCD 810
c.408 DIOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 409, ends.  EUCTEMON succeeds until 407. 408 wikEA
c.408 CRITIAS proposes recall of ALCIBIADES. 411 or 407 OCD 299
408 CDCC 492
c.408 BYZANTIUM, under Spartan Anaxilaos from 409, rebelling against Athens from 411, besieged by Alcibiades and Theramenes from 410, falls, under Athens until 405. 409 Dur 2-449, TTPC
408 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-164, GHH, LEWH 74, OCD 186, TToH     407 rcT
c.408 CHERSONESE, under Sparta from 411, no longer under Sparta, but within Spartan influence until 377. 408 rcT
c.408 EURIPIDES' play  Ion . 418 Dur 2-244     post-412 OCD 419
408 B76 6-1032
c.408 EURIPIDES' play  Orestes  wins.
"The beauty of Helen was a pretext for the gods to send the Greeks against the Phrygians... and to kill many men, so as to purge the earth of an insolent abundance of people."
"When fortune smiles, who needs friends?"
"We serve the gods, whatever the gods may be."
408 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-104, Dur 2-244, MCAW 143, MNDQ 431, 468, OCD 419, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.408 EURIPIDES' play  Iphigenea in Tauris .
Heroine priestess of Artemis finds that the intended victims of human sacrifice are her bro Orestes and his friends.  She outwits the barbarian king and organizes escape.
414-12 wikIiT
413 Dur 2-244
pre-412 OCD 419
411 TTPC     408 B76 6-1032, MNDQ 694
c.408 EURIPIDES, in Athens from ?, moves to Pella Macedonia at invitation of King Archelaos until death 406. 408 B76 6-1031, Dur 2-418, TTPC
c.408 GORGIAS of Leontini at the Olympic Games makes speech appealing to all warring Greeks to make peace in order to resist Persia. 408
Dur 2-360, bk
c.408 ARISTOPHANES produces  Plutus , (1st of 2 with this title, the 2nd in 388). 408 DGRBM, Dur 2-283
c.408/7 CRATESIPPIDAS, Spartan fleet commander from 410, relieved.  LYSANDER succeeds until 406, restores Peloponnesian fleet. 408 RAH 261
408/7 OCD 631 407 DGRBM 2-861, GHH
c.408/7 Spartan BOEOTIUS mission to Persian court to report Tissaphernes' failure to do as promised in treaty. 408/7 CAH 5
c.407 AGATHON, Athenian tragic poet, goes to court of Archelaos in Macedonia until death 400. 407
OCD 25
c.407 Athenian admiral CONON, commands fleets in Aegean and Hellespont until 405. 407 OCD 278
c.407 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS recovers THASOS Island until ?. 407 LEWH 74
c.407 ALCIBIADES fully reinstated by Athenian Council of 500, returns to Athens, elected strategos and commander in chief, given supreme command against Sparta, presides over Mysteries in Eleusis. 408 TTPC     407 B76 1-437, 8-360, CAH 5, CDCC 33, DGRBM 1-100, Dur 2-449, GHH, LEWH 74, MCAW 140, OCD 37, OHG, bk, lvG
c.407 EUCTEMON, eponymous archon of Athens from 408, ends.  ANTIGENES succeeds until 406. 407 wikEA
c.407 Athenian Thrasyllos leads home to Athens a portion of the triumphant armament.  Not long after, he is one of the generals appointed to supersede Alcibiades after the battle of Notium, 407 DGRBM 3-1110
c.407 ALCIBIADES, commander in chief of Athenian troops, leaves to rejoin fleet at Samos. 407 TTPC
ERECHTHEUM             Photo pub dom
c.407 ERECHTHEUM (temple of hero Erechtheos), begun on Acropolis 421, finished.
Ionic style; houses shrines of several cults;  female figures support roof.
409 MCAW 141     408 LEWH 76 407 OCD 405, TToH, TTPC
406 CAH 5, CDCC 104
405 B76 III-939, CDCC 70, 866 404 Dur 2-244
c.407/6 SILVER shortage compels Athenians to degrade the silver in their coins (a capital offense for an individual), and introduce gold coins minted from offerings in the temples on the Acropolis. 407/6 CAH 6-555, DGRA 767
393 CDGRA 178
c.407 PLATO, age 20, meets SOCRATES. 407 KPHP 67
c.406 CLEOPHON, Athenian finance manager from 410, no longer. 406 OCD 252
c.406 Athenian economy slumps.  Temple properties are sold, gold and silver removed from statues, melted down and made into coins, bronze coins plated with silver. 407 MCAW 141
406 RAH 262
c.406 Playwright SOPHOCLES dies.  Main theme:  the suffering of men who blunder into opposition to the gods. 406 B76 IX-355, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-868, Dur 2-400, MCAW 143, OCD 1001, OHG, RAH 282 TAWH 17, TToH, bk     405 GHH, LEWH 76, SHWC 77
c.406 ANTIGENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 407, ends.  CALLIAS ANGELIDES succeeds until 405. 406 wikEA
Apr 15
LUNAR ECLIPSE marks 24th year of Pelop. War.
"In the ensuing year--the year in which there was an eclipse of the moon one evening, and the old temple of Athena at Athens was burned, Pityas being now ephor at Sparta and Callias archon at Athens--the Lacedaemonians sent Callicratidas to take command of the fleet, since Lysander's term of office had ended (and with it the twenty-fourth year of the war)."   (Xenophon: Hellenica 1-6-1)
Apr 15
hbar, nasaS
c.406 ALCIBIADES, because of Notium, loses confidence of Athenians, deposed, possibly banished again by Athenian Council of 500.  In any case, he withdraws to Chersonese until 405.  CONON is first of 10 generals appointed to replace him. 407 GHH
406 B76 8-360, CDCC 492, DGRBM 1-100, 825, LEWH 74, OCD 37, 299, bk
c.406 CRITIAS, supporter of Alcibiades, exiled from Athens, goes to Thessaly until 404. 406
OCD 299

ThessalyLYCOPHRON becomes tyrant of Pherae Thessaly until 390. 406
OCD 628
c.406 OdryssiansAMADOKOS-I, king of the Odrysae in Thrace 410-390, courted by ALCIBIADES. 406 OCD 49
c.406 SOCRATES becomes member of Athenian Council of 500 until 405. 406 B76 16-1001
c.406 LYSANDER, Spartan fleet commander from 407, replaced by CALLICRATIDAS until 405.  Callicratidas does not get along with CYRUS, so Lysander stays around for PR purposes. 406 DGRBM 2-861, LEWH 74, OCD 194
c.406 CONON, Athenian fleet commander of Aegean and Hellespont, defeated at Mytilene Lesbos by CallicratidasAthenian fleet crippled. 406
c.406 Athenians build another fleet to relieve Conon at Mytilene. 406 LEWH 74, TTPC
c.406 SLAVES are conscripted into the Athenian navy for the 1st and only time. 406
CAH 6-538
c.406 EURIPIDES' play  Iphigenea in Aulis .
Agamemnon sacrifices his dau Iphigenia to appease Artemis before sailing against Troy.
408-06 wikIiA     407 TToH
406 Dur 2-244     405 bk
c.406 EURIPIDES, Athenian playwright, in Macedonia from 408, age 75, killed by royal hounds, leaving play  Iphigenea in Aulis  unfinished. 406 B76 6-1031, CAH 5, CDCC 332, DGRBM 2-103, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 76, OCD 418, OHG, RAH 282, SHWC 77, TAWH 17, TToH, bk     407/6 TTPC
c.406 A decree of CALLIXENOS brings negligence charges against the 8 admirals and captains who failed to rescue shipwrecked sailors at ARGINUSAE Islands.  The admirals are illegally charged as a group, rather than individually. 406 DGRBM 1-580
c.406 8 Athenian admirals and captains who are tried before the Council of 500 in group, without individual hearings, which is illegal.  Only Socrates opposes this illegal act.  The 8 are tried.  6 are convicted and executed in group. Plato's Apology, wikArg
406 CAH 5, GHH, bk
c.406 Sparta again offers peace to Athens based on status quo.  Spartans to evacuate Decelea.  Athens would not have to dismantle their alliance.  CLEOPHON again gets the Council of 500 to reject it, preferring to plunder coastal towns of Sparta and her allies for the rest of the year. 406 B76 II-989, LEWH 74,
OCD 252, 796, TToH, TTPC
406/5 lvA
c.405 Athenian fleet defeated at AEGOSPOTAMI river in Chersonese by Lysander.  Spartans, control the Aegean until 394. 406 IDB 2-493, bk     405 B76 I-109, III-88, 14-23, BCoC 375, CAH 5, CDCC 129, 537, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 74-5, MCAW 140, OCD 186, 631, 796, OHG, RAH 262, TToH, anan, lvA, lvG     404 CDCC 74
c.405 CONON, Athenian fleet commander of Aegean and Hellespont from 407, is the only Athenian admiral alert at AEGOSPOTAMI.  He slips away with 8 triremes to Salamis island, sends a ship to inform Athens of the disaster, seeks refuge with Evagoras on Cyprus. 405 CAH 6-313, DGRBM 1-825, 2-54, GHH, OCD 278, RAH 262, TTPC
c.405 OdryssiansSEUTHES-II, son of Maisades, becomes co-king of Odrysians of Thrace until 387, with AMADOKOS-I, 410-391. 405 rcSB2, wikLRTD
c.405 SEUTHES-II and AMADOKOS-I, co-kings of Odrysians promise to support Alcibiades, in war against Spartans. 405 DGRBM 3-809
c.405 DECARCHIES (boards of 10 men) under Spartan harmosts (military commanders) are set up until 403 by Lysander in all former Athenian subject states in the Aegean. 405 LEWH 75
c.405 CALLICRATIDAS, official Spartan fleet commander from 406, must be replaced because Spartan law forbids the same man to be admiral twice.  ARACOS is appointed admiral of Spartan fleet with LYSANDER as vice-admiral but Lysander holds real power. 405 DGRBM 1-254, 2-862
c.405 The 10% tax imposed by Athens on cargo sailing to and from Pontus from 410 is lifted until 391. 405 DGRA 388
c.405 CALLIAS ANGELIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 406, ends.  ALEXIAS succeeds until 404. 405 wikEA
c.405 Athenian THERAMENES is sent to negotiate with Spartan Lysander, now beseiging Athens.  He stays with Lysander 3 months while Athens starves. 405
B76 IX-943
c.405 Spartan LYSANDER appoints general GLYPPOS to transfer the wealth he had accumulated to the Spartan ephors. 405 wikLs
c.405 Athenian THERAMENES is rejected from the office of general because he was opposed to the democratic government.  3 new commanders are appointed as colleagues to Conon, Adeimantus, and Philocles. early 405
DGRBM 3-1096
c.405 Nicomachos joins and helps oligarch party against Cleophon at Athens. 405 DGRBM 2-1194
c.405 Spartan LYSANDER is the 1st living Greek awarded divine honors.  Spartans put his statue among statues of gods at Delphi.  Altars, games, and festivals are dedicated to him. 406
IDB 2-493
c.405 PAUSANIAS Agiad king of Sparta 409-395, with main Peloponnesian army, besieges Athens. 405 CAH 5, 6-25,
c.405 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399 collaborates with Lysander, who sails to Piraeus and blockades Athens 405-4.  Lysander orders Athens to demolish its walls and accept a pro-Spartan party in control. 405 B76 14-23, OCD 27, GHH, bk 404 B76 8-361, OCD 631
c.405 CLEOPHON, former Athenian finance manager 410-06, holds out against the surrender to Sparta. 405
OCD 252
c.405 ARCHESTRATOS, member of Athenian boule, advises surrendering to Sparta.  Imprisoned. 405 DGRBM 1-265
c.405 PHRYNICOS-2, Old Comedy dramatist, produces  Muses .  Wins 2nd prize at the City Dionysia. 405
B76 VII-974
c.405 BYZANTIUM, under Athens from 408, taken by Lysander, under Spartans until 394.  A Spartan harmost rules until 403. 405 B76 9-1069, CAH 6-40, DGRG 1-657, OCD 186 404 rcT
c.405 DACHOS, king of Thessaly from 432, ends.  Vacant until 371. 405 rcSB2
c.405 Spartan general GYLIPPOS convicted of embezzling public funds.  Flees into exile, and is condemned to death in absentia. 405
OCD 484
c.405 AEGINA Island, under Athenian cleruchy from 431, restored by Lysander to its original inhabitants, who were cast out by Athens in 431.  Receives a Spartan harmost. 405 OCD 13
404 CAH 6-563, CDCC 30
c.405 ARISTOPHANES performs  Frogs , produced by Philonides, winning 1st prize at Lenaea.  Now that Euripides is dead, Dionysos is dissatisfied with Athenian tragedy, goes to Hades to bring back Euripides.  Compelled to judge a poetry contest between Aeschylus and Euripides, Dionysos brings back Aeschylus. 405 B76 1-1155, CAH 5, 6, DGRBM 1-313, 3-316, Dur 2-427, MCAW 143, OCD 113, OHG 206, TToH, TTPC, bk
c.405 EURIPIDES' plays  Bacchae  and  Iphigenea in Aulis  produced postumously by his son. 405 OCD 419, OHG, bk
no date: B76 6-1032
c.404 SCIONE in Chalcidice, destroyed from 421, restored to original inhabitants by Spartans. 404
CAH 6-563
c.404 CHERSONESE peninsula comes under Spartans until 386. 404
OCD 229
c.404 SESTOS in Chersonese, under Athens from 479/8, main Athenian base in Dardanelles from 411, comes under Sparta until 393 or 386. 404
OCD 981
Macedonia Thrace
c.404 Λ ECONOMY V in Attica:  Prices from 480 to 404 have doubled, and will double again by 330. 404
Dur 2-281
c.404 ATHENIAN LEAGUE operating from 454, disbanded. 404 lvG
c.404 ALEXIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 405, ends.  PYTHODOROS succeeds until 403. 404 wikEA
404 spring 2nd PELOPONNESIAN WAR from 431, resumed from 414, ends.
ATHENS surrenders to Lysander.  CRITIAS, exiled in Thessaly from 406, now pro-Spartan, returns to Athens and begins gathering supporters.
404 B76 I-109, 136, CAH 6, CDCC 100, 492, 658, DGRBM 2-862, DGRG 1-258, Dur 2-244, GHH, GRG 282, IDB 1-770, MCAW 140, OCD 299, 631, OHG, RAH, Sdl 5-189, SHWC 68, TToH, bk, lvA, lvG
c.404 CHOERILOS of Samos, epic poet, moves from Samos to court of Archelaos, king of Macedon until death 401. 404 wikCS
c.404 Athenian THERAMENES has foremost part in obtaining the decree of the assembly to destroy the old constitution and establish the Thirty, among whom Theramenes is included.  Opposition to the decree is suppressed by threats of Lysander, whose presence Theramenes had secured. 404 DGRBM 3-1096
c.404 Athenian THERAMENES goes to Sparta, negotiates peace with Sparta.  Athens must surrender all but 12 remaining ships, destroy all walls including the long walls to the Piraeus, forfeit all foreign possessions, and become ally of Sparta. 404 B76 8-361, CDCC 684, LEWH 75, MCAW 141, OCD 631, 1060, RAI3, SHWC 68, TTPC
c.404 NAUPACTOS in Aetolia, under Messenians from 456, restored to the Locrians until 399. 404 wikNp
c.404 THERAMENES brings the treaty back to Athens.  The democrats under Strombichides are powerless to do anything.  Athenian DEMOCRACY from 410 is abolished until 403;. 404 B76 8-361, CDCC 684, DGRBM 3-927, LEWH 75, MCAW 141, OCD 631, 1060, RAI3, TTPC
c.404 Athenian oligarchs led by CRITIAS and THERAMENES and supported by Spartan LYSANDER set up a COMMISSION of THIRTY to make a new constitution. 404 CAH 6, CDCC 104, 211, DGRBM 1-101, Dur 2-451, GHH, LEWH 75, MCAW 140, OCD 631, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.404 CLEOPHON, former Athenian finance manager 410-06, protests against surrender, condemned to death and executed. 405 TTPC     404 B76 II-989, Dur 2-719, LEWH 75, OCD 252
404 Sep. Athenian COMMISSION of THIRTY headed by CRITIAS assisted by Charmides and Charicles siezes power and rules as THIRTY TYRANTS until 403. Sep. 404 B76 8-361, CAH 6, RAH 264     404 CDCC 492, DGRBM 1-684, LEWH 75, OCD 228, TTPC, bk
c.404 Teaching rhetoric is forbidden by Athenian oligarchs. 404 Dur 2-430
c.404 Spartan CALLIBIOS becomes harmost of Athens at request of Thirty Tyrants. 404
DGRBM 1-568
c.404 THERAMENES advocates a more moderate course, and is compelled to drink hemlock by Critias and THIRTY TYRANTS. 404 LEWH 75, RAH 265, TTPC     404/3 B76 IX-943 403 Dur 2-751
c.404 Athenian THUCYDIDES, exiled from 424, returns to Athens. 404 Dur 2-433, EoΦ 8-123, θuc 403 DGRBM 3-1113, MCAW 143
c.404 THRASYBULOS, wealthy ex-general and leader of Athenian democrats, banished by 30 Tyrants, flees to Thebes until later 404. 404
OCD 1066
c.404 3,000 rich Athenians are tecnically enfranchised by THIRTY TYRANTS, but never given any real power. 404
c.404 ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, under Athenian cleruchy from 430, comes under Chalcis until 363. 404
OCD 870 401 rcSB2
c.404 Surviving Aeginetan exiles from the Threatis massacre 424, are restored to Aegina island by Spartans. 404
B76 I-108
c.404 LYSIAS with bros Polemarchos and Euthydemos are proscribed by the Thirty Tyrants for their democratic sympathies and wealth.  Lysias is arrested, but escapes to Megara until 403.  Polemarchos is killed. 405 GHH
404 B76 VI-420, DGRBM, OCD 631
c.404 Many Athenians are exiled by THIRTY TYRANTS, or flee from them.  Exiles are supported by Argos and Thebes, which now fear Sparta more than Athens. 404
c.404 THIRTY TYRANTS order 5 men to go to Salamis and extradite Leon.  One of these 5, SOCRATES, disobeys. 404 B76 16-1001,
KPHP 64, MCAW 141
c.404 LYCOPHRON, tyrant of Pherae Thessaly 406-390, wishing to rule all Thessaly, runs for Tagus of Thessaly, loses election, defeats Larissa and other states. 404 CDGRA 610, DGRBM 2-847,
OCD 628,
Sep CAH 6-32
Sep 3
SOLAR ECLIPSE marks victory of Lycophron.
"It was near this date, and at about the time of an eclipse of the sun, that Lycophron of Pherae, who wanted to make himself ruler of all Thessaly, defeated in battle those among the Thessalians who opposed him, namely the Larisaeans and others, and slew many of them."   (Xenophon: Hellenica 2-3-2)
404 Sep 3 hbar
c.404 DECELEA, a fortress on a hill in Attica, under Sparta from 413, no longer occupied by Spartans. 404
OCD 315
c.404 fall THRASYBULOS and ANYTOS, wealthy ex-generals exiled in Thebes from earlier that year, lead 70 exiled Athenian democrats back to Attica.  They occupy PHYLE (Phylae), a defensible location on the border of Attica and Boeotia.  A storm prevents the Thirty from expelling him immediately, and many exiles join the democrats. 404 B76 IX-977, DGRBM 1-220, DGRG 1-329, GHH, LEWH 75,
fall OCD 1066, OHG, late CAH 6-36, wikBM
403 wikθrs
c.404 Long WallsLONG WALLS connecting Ports PHALAERUM and PIRAEUS to Athens from 457, increased in 445, are destroyed by Spartan LYSANDER.  Rebuilt in 393. 404 CAH 5, DGRG 1-258, GHH,
MCAW 140, OCD 619, 835
c.403 THRASYBULOS and democrats, occupying PHYLE Attica from fall 404, now 1,000 strong, defeat troops of Thirty Tyrants and sieze the Piraeus, and start a civil war until Sep. 403.  They are too few to hold the whole Piraeus, and therefore hold up on Munychia, a steep hill (86m. high). late 404 lvG
403 B76 8-362, CAH 6-36, CDCC 886, DGRBM, OCD 703, RAH 265
c.403 The chaotic mob at Athens ask help from Sparta rather than from the democrats at the Piraeus. 403
c.403 spring THRASYBULOS leader of Athenian democrats at Munychia in the Piraeus, defeat the Thirty Tyrants at Athens.  CHARMIDES and CRITIAS are killed in battle on the river Cephisos. 404 DGRBM 1-790, 893
404/3 OCD 1064
spring 403 OCD 299
403 B76 8-362, CDCC 492, Dur 2-721, LEWH 75, OCD 228, MCAW 140, RAH 265
c.403 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399 sends LYSANDER from Samos to restore order at Athens.  He besieges Thrasybulos in the Piraeus. 403 CAH 4-160, DGRBM 3-159, 6, LEWH 75
c.403 PAUSANIAS Agiad king of Sparta 409-395, enters Attica, supposedly to help Lysander. 403 DGRBM 2-1143, 3-159
c.403 Lysander's opponents at Sparta get king PAUSANIAS to replace Lysander besieging Thrasybulos in the Piraeus. 403 DGRBM 2-1143, LEWH 75, OCD 793
c.403 LYSANDER, in Athens from 404, goes home.   PAUSANIAS Agiad king of Sparta 409-395 at Athens, reverses Lysanders policy, advises a general amnesty (with a few exceptions), removes the 30 TYRANTS, and RESTORES DEMOCRACY!  Invites the democrats back from the Piraeus. 403 B76 8-362, CAH 6-567, CDCC 793, 885, Dur 2-452, LEWH 75, OCD 793, OHG, lvG
c.403 Thucydides, Andocides, and Lysias exiled from ?, return to Athens. 403 GHH
c.403 PYTHODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 404, ends.  EUCLEIDES succeeds until 402. 403 CDGRA 445, Dur 2-468, GHH, OCD 47, 413, wikEA
c.403 THIRTY TYRANTS from 404 deposed by Athenian democrats.  Remnants withdraw to Eleusis and set up a COUNCIL of TEN (1 from each tribe) until later 403.  DEMOCRACY and autonomy restored in Athens until 322. 404 GHH     403 B76 8-362, spring CAH 6, CDCC 104, 623, 885, DGRA 211, 385, early LEWH 75, MCAW 140, OCD 53, RAH 299, SHWC 69, TToH, bk
c.403 LYSIAS, in Megara from 404, returns to Athens, granted citizenship by the ekklesia, but this is voided on a technicality. 403 B76 VI-420, DGRBM, OCD 631     401 GHH
c.403 LYSIAS makes his longest and most famous speech "Against Eratosthenes". 403 bk
c.403 COUNCIL of TEN overthrown by Thrasybulos.  Survivors last until 401. 404 GHH
c.403 Athenian democracy revises laws, votes AMNESTY for former enemies except refugees of the Thirty Tyrants, and some of their higher officers.  By proposal of Aristophon, a law of Pericles in 444 is re-enacted restricting CITIZENSHIP (unrestricted from 429) to those with 2 freeborn Athenian parents. 404 DGRBM 1-316 403 CAH 6, DGRA 289, GHH, LEWH 70
403-2 B76 8-362
c.403 ANDOCIDES, exiled at various places from 410, returns to Athens under amnesty, resumes public life until 400. 403 B76 I-357, DGRBM 1-169, OCD 63, 140, wikAnd
c.403 CHAEREPHON, banished by Thirty Tyrants from ?, returns with Thrasybulos to Athens under amnesty. 403 OCD 63, 140, 225
c.403 Lysander's DECARCHIES (boards of 10 men) under Spartan harmosts from 405 to manage former Athenian subject states in the Aegean are disbanded by ephors, the cities returned to their ancestral constitutions. 403 CAH 6
fall CAH 6-40, CDGRA 445
c.403 BYZANTIUM, under a Spartan harmost from 405, reverts to local tyranny, but has problems with internal stasis and neighboring Thracians, and ask for a Spartan general.  The experienced Clearchos is sent, but sets himself up as tyrant. 403 CAH 6-41
c.403 CLEARCHOS, Spartan commander of Hellespont from 409, and Byzantium 403, refuses to withdraw from Byzantium, expelled by Spartan troops, flees to Ionia, seeks refuge with CYRUS-II, who commissions him to recruit Greek mercenaries. 403 OCD 248
c.403 Sparta, having won the 2nd Peloponnesian War, refuses to share spoils with allies.  Chief ally Thebes is thoroughly miffed. 403
B76 8-364
c.403 After the fall of Athens gives Sparta undisputed supremacy of Greece, they require the Eleans to renounce their authority over their dependent towns, and pay arrears due to Sparta for carrying on the war against Athens.  Elis refuses to pay. no date: DGRG 1-819
c.403 Λ GREEK ALPHABET, having different uncials from 750:  Chalcidian in the west, Ionic in the east, Athens accepts the Ionic Alphabet of Miletos as standard.  All other forms are replaced within the next 50 years.  Spelling now becomes standardized.   (see Oscan 480) 403 B76 IV-706, 1-623, CGS 680, GHH     403/2 OCD 47
c.402 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399 invades Elean territory.  Sparta / Elis war begins until 400. 402 CAH 6-41, DGRG 1-819
402 or 400 B76 I-138
400 DGRBM 3-1109
c.402 Spartan attack causes oligarchs of Elis, led by Xenias, to try to overpower the democrats.  They kill, among others, a man, who looks like Thrasydaeus.  The mistake is soon discovered, and Thrasydaeus, who, at the beginning of the outbreak, was dead drunk, takes over, and conquers the oligarchs. 400 DGRBM 3-1109
c.402 Argos equals Athens in population, according to a speech by Lysias.  Athens now has a total free population of 66,000. 402 DGRG 1-205
c.402 EUCLEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 403, ends.  MIKON succeeds until 401. 402 wikEA
c.402 Isocrates speech against Callimachos. 402 bk
c.401 CHOERILOS of Samos, epic poet, at court of Archelaos, king of Macedon from 404, dies. 401 GHH
c.401 Spartan ephors, at request of Cyrus, satrap of Anatolia, vote to help him, lends Cyrus the Spartan fleet, and provides troops. 401
CAH 6-42
c.401 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399 given command of the war with Elis (which he apparently didn't have when he began the war) by ephors. 401 DGRBM 1-72
c.401 XENOPHON leaves Athens, goes to Anatolia, joins Ionian mercenaries. 401
OCD 1141
c.401 Mercenary MENON sent by Aristippos of Larissa with 1500 men to help Cyrus, at Colossae Caria. 401 DGRBM 2-1043
c.401 AGATHON, Athenian tragic poet, at court of Archelaos in Macedonia from 407, dies. 401 OCD 25
400 B76 I-133, Dur 2-710
c.401 MIKON, eponymous archon of Athens from 402, ends.  XENAINETOS succeeds until 400. 401 wikEA
c.401 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399 posts a Spartan garrison in Epitalion, and leaves Elis. no date:
DGRBM 3-1109
c.401 COUNCIL of TEN (survivors of the Thirty Tyrants), at Eleusis from 403, ambushed and massacred by Athenian democrats.  Eleusis comes back under Athens. 401 B76 8-362, CAH 6-38, bk
c.401 SOPHOCLES'  Oedipus at Colonus  produced posthumously by Sophocles Jr. 402 bk     401 B76 17-17,
CAH 5, 6, CDCC 834, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, OHG, TTPC
c.401 Customs revenue at Athens is 200,000 drachmas.  The rate of duty is 2%. 401
RAH 394
PELTASTS first mentioned by Xenophon at battle of Cunaxa.  Originally Thracian mercenaries, armorless with 3 javelins, a short sword - usually a sica, and a pelta (crescent shaped shield).  Later any troops with these armaments will be called peltasts.
401 wikPl
Peltasts 6-400 wikθW
c.400 Chalcidian helmet Chalcidian bronze helmet discovered north of Danube. 400 wikCH
Photo: GNU FDL
c.400 ARCHELAOS king of Macedon 413-399 installs pro-Macedonian oligarchy at Larissa Thessaly, probably annexes Perrhaebia (northeast Thessaly). 400 B76 I-488 OCD 97
c.400 Capital of Macedonia, AEGAE from 640, moved to PELLA until ?.  Agae still has a palace and a theater. 410 lvG
400 CDCC 539
c.400 HIGH CLASSICAL Period ends.  Began 450.
LATE CLASSICAL Period begins until 323.
400 B76 19-293, 295


DEMOCRITOS of Abdera flourishes.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  Accepts Eleatic "Being" hypothesisas 1 of 2 ingredients in the universe.  The other ingredient "Non-being" is empty space.
Λ SOULS V (See Philolaus) are made of specialized round atoms like those that make up fire.  They are scattered thruout the body and die with the death of the body.
PERCEPTION happens thru the impact of films shed from surfaces of objects on soul atoms thru sense organs.
"I would rather discover one cause than gain the kingdom of Persia."

Λ PHYSICS VΛ ATOMIC THEORY V, invented by his teacher Leucippos, is developed further:  "Being" is composed of indivisible eternal solid units - atoms. Atoms differ only in size and weight. Water atoms are smooth and round. Iron atoms are jagged and uneven.  Atoms change only in movement and position. Compounds differ in quality according to the shape, size, and arrangement of atoms and amount of space between them. Color, sweetness, and other qualities are caused by the shape of atoms sensed by the experiencing organism
"By convention there is sweet; by convention, bitter... but in truth there exists atoms and the void."
MOTION, like atoms, is uncaused and eternal.  It is natural for atoms to move.  Change of motion occurs thru random collision.  Motion requires a void.
(See Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

Λ GEOMETRY V:  Discovers that volumes of pyramids and cones are ⅓ the volume of prisms and cyllinders of the same base and height.
(See Theodoros 400, Archytas 390)

POLITICS:  Democracy is the best government.

RELIGION comes from desire to explain extraordinary phenomena (thunder, earthquakes) by superhuman agency.
460-370 MMWP 17
EoΦ 5-447
430 OHG
424 GHH
Dur 2-244, MCAW 137
400 BHM 69
no date:
B76 III-460, IV-460, 6-1021, OCD 328
c.400 XENAINETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 401, ends.  LACHES succeeds until 399. 400 wikEA
Jun 21
SOLAR ECLIPSE recorded by Ennius.
"For when the sun suddenly obscured and darkness reigned, and the Athenians were overwhelmed with the greatest terror, Pericles, who was then supreme among his countrymen in influenle, eloquence, and wisdom, is said to have communicated to his fellow citizens the information he had received from Anaxagoras, whose pupil he had been - that this phenomenon occurs at fixed periods and by inevitable law, whenever the moon passes entirely beneath the orb of the sun, and that therefore, though it does not happen at every new moon, it cannot happen except at certain periods of the new moon."   (Cicero: De Re Publica 1-25)
400 Jun 21 hbar
c.400 MEDICINE V:  the DOGMATICI (Dogmatic school) is founded by Thessalus, son of Hippocrates and Poltbus, son-in-law of Hippocrates.  Called so because they dogmatically follow the doctrines of Hippocrates. 400
CDGRA 410, DGRA 746, wikθs
c.400 CLEANDER harmost of Byzantium from ?, ends.  ARISTARCHOS succeeds until ?. 400 DGRBM 1-290, 778
c.400 Partisans of Cyrus at Byzantium are deceived by adventurer Coeratadas.  Phryniscos is among those who advise the Cyreans to enter the service of Seuthes-II the Odrysian, who wants their aid to recover his lands. 400 DGRBM 3-361
c.400 SEUTHES-II, co-king of Odrysians 405-387, asks Athenian mercenary Xenophon, currently at Chrysopolis near Chalcedon, to reinstate him in his dominions.  Xenophon declines at first. 400 DGRBM 3-809
c.400 SEUTHES-II renews offer to Xenophon, when the Greeks had been expelled from Byzantium, and found themselves at Perinthos without means to cross to AnatoliaThese Greeks are now induced, principally by Xenophon, to accept the offer of Seuthes-II.  With their help, Seuthes conquers the mountain tribes, and recovers his father's dominions, but then refuses to pay the Greeks.  Disputes arise, and Seuthes is compelled to pay up.  The Greeks then cross into Anatolia. 400 DGRBM 3-809, GHH
c.400 Sparta, ally of Persia from ?, breaks alliance, sends harmost THIBRON to Ionia to hire mercenaries and free Ionians from Persia. 400 B76 I-549, DGRBM 3-1103, LEWH 76, wikθb
c.400 Philolaus, Pythagorean of Croton, in Greece from 454, returns to Croton. no date: wikPhl
c.400 Sparta / Elis war from 402 ends.  Elis loses much territory, but the democratic regime which had come to power during the war is left undisturbed. 400 CAH 6-42, DGRG 1-819
400 or 398 B76 I-138 399 DGRBM
c.400 Lysippos, left as harmost of Epitalion in Elis, when Agis-II returns to Sparta.  Lysippos devastates Elean land until 399. 400 DGRBM 2-871
c.400 MARGANA, under Elis from ?, removed from Elean control by Sparta. 400
CAH 6-190
c.400 Hippias of Elis compiles a list of Olympic victors.  (not completely accurate) See Timaios 290. 400
CDCC 193
c.400 Attendance at Athenian Assembly, until now dominated by the propertied class, is now paid 1 obol per day. 400
Dur 2-469
c.400 Citizen class in Attica, 43,000 in 431, has dropped to 22,000. 400
Dur 2-468
c.400 TRIPHYLIA region of south Elis, under Elis from ?, removed from Elean control by Sparta. 400 CAH 6-190, wikLp
c.400 PHAEDON of Elis, slave philosopher, brought to Athens, meets Socrates, runs away from his master, and joins Socrates. 400 DGRBM 3-230
c.400 OLD COMEDY:  political satire from 465, represented by 41 dramatists, 14 of whom preceeded Aristophanes, gradually replaced by MIDDLE COMEDY:  manners and romance until 323.  The chorus is diminished to where it has no influence on the plot;  public characters are not impersonated or personified onstage;  objects of ridicule are general rather than personal, literary rather than political.  There will be 39 MC dramatists.  No complete example survives. 404
DGRA 344 400 Dur 2-482
early 4th cen.: B76 10-1092
no date:
Dur 2-429
c.400 Athenian orator ANDOCIDES, in Athens from 403, is prosecuted for impiety for his part in the mutilation of the Hermae 415.  He is defended by Anytos, and acquitted. 400 B76 I-357, CAH 6-39, DGRBM 1-169
c.400 ANDOCIDES writes  On the Mysteries : a defense against the charge of impiety in attending the Eleusinian Mysteries. 400 CAH 6, DGRBM 399 B76 12-779
c.400 THUCYDIDES the historian dies. soon after 404 B76 18-359     401 MCAW 115, 143     400 LEWH 76, OCD 1067, SHWC 77, TAWH 17   399 Dur 2-752, RAH 293    395 TToH
c.400 Temple of Apollo Epikurios at Bassae Messenia , begun 420, finished. 420 OHG 390 CAH 6
c.400 PERFUME:  Greeks use different scents for different body parts.  A writer recommends mint for the arms, cinnamon or rose for the chest, almond oil for hands and feet, marjoram extract for hair and eyebrows. 400 EOET 240
c.400 Ionian cities send envoys to Greece for help against Tissaphernes.  They begin with Sparta, which agrees. 400
CAH 6-43
c.400 Sparta declares war on Tissaphernes. 400 CAH 6, GHH
c.400 SPHERICAL EARTH V is gaining credibility. 420 OHG 140
c.400 HERACLEA TRACHIS a Spartan colony 5 miles west of Thermopylae having troubles with its neighbors and with Thessalians from 426, receives help from a Spartan army. 400/399 CAH 6-32
c.400 Greek tragedy begins decline.  Many tragedians appear, but none rival the former great ones. 400
c.400 ANTIPHANES of Argos, sculptor, disciple of Periklytos, and teacher of Cleon, flourishes.  Known especially a bronze horse at Delphi. 400 wikAntΦ
c.399 ARCHELAOS dies.  Argead king of Macedon from 413.  CRATERUS succeeds and is murdered by a favorite while hunting.  Son of Archelaos ORESTES succeeds until 398.  40 years of palace revolutions follow. 399 B76 I-488, 8-366, CAH 6-725, DGRBM 1-261, Dur 2-713, GHH, IDB 3-216, MRDK, OCD 97, OHG 167, RAH 309, lvG, rcSB2, wikArcl, wikArg
c.399 SEUTHES-II co-king of Odrysians of Thrace 405-387, sends an auxiliary force to help Spartan general, Dercyllidas in Ionia. 399 DGRBM 3-809
c.399 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON, in Ionia from 400, is recalled to Sparta and succeeded by DERCYLLIDAS until 396/5. 399 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-993, 3-240, 1155, LEWH 76, OCD 332, 1141
c.399 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON is prosecuted for letting his troops plunder Spartan allies.  He is fined, unable to pay, and goes into exile until ?. 399 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-993, 3-240, 1103, LEWH 76, OCD 332, 1141
c.399 Spartan mercenary leader THIBRON besieges Larissa unsuccessfully, and is ordered to abandon it. no date: wikθb
c.399 LACHES, eponymous archon of Athens from 400, ends.  ARISTOCRATES succeeds until 398. 399 wikEA
c.399  Athenian law code , begun 410, completed. 399 CAH 6-567
c.399 Office of Athenian tax collector is auctioned off for 30 talents.  Next year the winning bid is 36 talents. 400/399 CAH 6-545
c.399 Thrasydaeos, democratic boss of Elis, sues for peace with Sparta, offers absolute submission. 399 DGRBM 2-871, 3-1109
c.399 Locrians in NAUPACTOS from 404, expelled by Spartans.  Naupactos is colonized by Achaeans, who hold it until 338 399
OCD 723
c.399 CHAEREPHON, in Athens from 403, dies before Socrates' trial. 399
OCD 225
c.399 MELETOS, a tool of Anytos, accuses SOCRATES. 399 OCD 667
c.399 SOCRATES charged with "impiety":
  • corrupting the young
  • neglecting the gods
  • practicing religious novelties
B76 IX-317

SOCRATES indicted by orator Anytos, tragedian Meletos, and poet Lycon:  "because he does not believe in the gods recognized by the city, but introduces strange supernatural beings.  He is also guilty because he corrupts the youth,"
Found guilty by a majority of 60 out of 501, he is condemned to exile or death.  Socrates refuses exile, chooses to drink hemlock rather than recant.  At this time, His most eminent disciples are Aeschines, Cebes, and Xenophon.

IDEAS:  Objective truth exists.  Man's conduct is most important topic of study.  Right action is based on knowledge, and will result from practice of the 4 "natural virtues": prudence, courage, self-control, justice.
"All I know is that I know nothing."   (Phaedros)
"I am a citizen not of Athens or Greece, but of the world."
"No one knows but that death is the greatest of all goods to man.  Yet men fear it as if they knew that it is the greatest of evils."
B76 8-362, 14-532,
CAH 6,
Dur 2-453, EoΦ 7-480, GHH, KPHP 67, LEWH 80, MCAW 145, MNDQ 182, 259, 637, OCD 141, OHG,
RAH 287, SHWC 81, TAWH 17, TTPC, bk
c.399 HIPPIAS of Elis is a leading Sophist when Socrates dies. 399 EoΦ 4-5
c.399 EUCLEIDES of Megara is present at death of SOCRATES.  He houses Plato, Euclid, and other members of the circle in Megara. 399 B76 14-532, DGRBM
no date: CAH 6-603,
OCD 412
c.399 Son of Archidamos, AGIS-II dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 427, with Pausanias from 408, gets sick at Heraea Arcadia, returns to Sparta,
"Spartans ask not how many the enemy number, but where they are."
Alcibiades is suspected of being biological father of Agis's wife's son Leotychidas.  Lysander disrupts succession by trying to make kingship elective.  Agis's lame half bro (age @45), helped by Lysander, AGESILAOS-II succeeds to 360 defeating LEOTYCYIDAS whose legitimacy is suspect.
400 Jun CAH 6-42, CDCC 22, 23, 27, 1007, bk, lvG
400 or 398 B76 I-138     399 B76 I-136, CDCC 486, Dur 2-461, MCAW 144, OCD 27, 1007
398 DGRBM 1-69, 2-863, GHH, MRDK, OHG, rcPl
no date: MNDQ 341
c.399 PAUSANIAS Agiad king of Sparta 409-395, displaced to subordinate position by Eurypontid AGESILAOS-II aided by Lysander.  Agesilaos then turns against Lysander for trying to make kingship elective. 399
OCD 27
c.399 CINADON CONSPIRACY:  Valiant but poor Spartan officer Cinadon gathers 4,000 other poor soldiers aiming to break the power of the elite, and give rights to poorer Spartans, and even to helots.  Discovered by ephors, who keep it hushed.  Cinadon is sent to Elis, arrested, interrogated to reveal names.  All accomplices are bound, flogged, and dragged thru Sparta until dead. 399 CAH 6
DGRBM 1-751 no date: wikCCn
c.399 The only work written by Anaxagoras (d.428) is on sale in Athens for 1 drachma. 399 EoΦ 1-115
c.398 Son of Archelaos, ORESTES ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 399.  Son of Perdiccas-II, AEROPOS-II succeeds until 395. 399 DGRBM 1-36, GHH
398 MRDK, wikArg
396 lvG, rcSB2, wikLKM
c.398 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS during truce with Persians in Ionia, crosses to Chersonese, helps Greeks by building a wall across the isthmus. 398 LEWH 76
no date: OCD 332
c.398 PLATO writes  Apology :  Supposed speech given by Socrates as he defended himself in 399.  Socrates said he was only aware of his ignorance.  Delphic oracle called Socrates the wisest of men. 399 B76 14-538 396 TToH
393 Dur 2-458 386 OCD 842
no date: wikAplg
c.398 ARISTOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 399, ends.  EUTHYCLES succeeds until 397. 398 wikEA
c.398 PHILOXENOS of Kythera, dithyrambic poet, exponent of "new music", flourishes, reciting in Sicily, Greece, Italy and Anatolia. 398 GHH
c.398 ASTYDAMAS, son of Morsimos, son of Aeschylus' nephew Philocles produces his first play. 398 DGRBM, GHH, Oxfrd
c.397 EUTHYCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 398, ends.  SOUNIADES succeeds until 396. 397 wikEA
c.397 A plot at Sparta leads to a massacre of citizens.  AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, supported by Lysander, massacres the conspirators. 397
B76 8-362
c.397 Sparta learns of Persian rebuilding of navy in Phoenicia. fall 397
CAH 6-44
c.396 CONON, Athenian admiral, hiding from Athenians on Cyprus from 405, appointed to command a Persian fleet to fight Spartans. 397 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-825
396 CAH 6-314    395 MCAW 144
no date: wikCn
c.396 SOUNIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 397, ends.  PHORMION succeeds until 395. 396 wikEA
c.396 NEFAURUD-I, pharaoh 399-93, sends equipment for 100 triremes to Agesilaos of Sparta. 396
Shaw 381
c.396 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, decides to personally command troops in Anatolia until 394.  At Aulis the Boetarchs interfere with his pre-trip sacrifices.  He sails anyway with 30 officers including Lysander to Ephesus, then sends Lysander with 8,000 troops overland back to Greece. 396 B76 8-362, CDCC 23, 537, DGRA 204, DGRBM 1-69, 2-863, OCD 27
no date: lvG
c.396 First Thebes and Corinth, then Athens refuses to contribute to Agesilaos-II's planned expedition. 396
CAH 6-98
c.396 Temple of Athena Alea built at Tegea Arcadia by Scopas.  Lasts until 345. 396 DGRBM 1-572
c.396 ANTISTHENES of Cyrene, disciple of Socrates, opens a school. 396 CAH 6
c.396/5 Pharnabazos sends TIMOCRATES of Rhodes with 50 talents to bribe leaders of Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos to attack Sparta so to compel the return of Agesilaos.  His encouragement prompts Thebes to provoke Sparta into war 395. 396 fall CAH 6, wikTR
396/5 LEWH 76
395 DGRBM 3-1137, GHH
c.395 Corinthian Polyanthes receives money from Timocrates of Rhodes, whom Pharnabazos had sent to Greece. 395 DGRBM 3-442
c.395 PHORMION, eponymous archon of Athens from 396, ends.  DIOPHANDOS succeeds until 394. 395 wikEA
c.395 Thebans Ismenias and Androclidas, bribed with Persian money, contrive to involve Sparta in a war, to force Agesilaos to leave Anatolia and to weaken friends of Sparta around Leontiades in Thebes. 395 brlAnd
c.395 Athamanians dissolve alliance with Sparta and ally with Athenians, Boeotians, Thessalians and others. 395 wikAθm
c.395 Son of Perdiccas-II, AEROPOS-II ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 398.  Cousin AMYNTAS-II succeeds until 394. 396 wikArg 395 MRDK 393 lvG
c.395 LYCOPHRON, tyrant of Pherae 406-390, ally of Sparta, fights MEDIOS tyrant of Larissa Thessaly and Boetians. Thessaly 395 DGRBM 2-847, 1004, rcSB3
c.395 PHARSALOS, taken by Medios of Larissa, who is at war with Lycophron of Pherae.  Medios expells the Spartan garrison. 395 DGRBM 2-847, 1004, OCD 628, lvΦrs
c.395 THARYPS king of Epirus from ?, dies.  ALCETAS-I succeeds until 370. 400 MRDK
395 rcSB2    385 frH
c.395 Athens makes defensive alliance with Boeotia.  Corinth, Megara, Euboea, Argos and other states join.  Lasts until 386. 395 B76 I-506, 8-362, LEWH 76, OCD 106, TToH
c.395 MEGARA, allied with Sparta from 429, independent until 338. 395 rcSB3
c.395 War between Phocis and Locris. 395 mid CAH 6
c.395 Thebans invade Phocis. 395 CAH 6
c.395 Phocis appeals to Sparta against Thebes. 395 DGRBM 3-160
c.395 Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea Arcadia from 396 burnt down until 345. 395 OCD 1040
394 DGRBM 1-107, 3-754, wikTg
c.395 Spartans LYSANDER and PAUSANIAS with separate armies invade Boeotia.  Pausanias refuses to cooperate with Lysander.  Pausanias returns to Sparta. 395 DGRBM 2-863,
OCD 793
c.395 PLATO, in Megara from 399, returns to Athens until 387. 395 DGRBM, Dur 2-510, GHH
c.395 PLATO defends Socrates in Athens. 395 bk
c.395 Athenians begin rebuilding Long Walls to the Piraeos. 395 CAH 6-101
c.395  History of the Peloponnesian War  published by Thucydides.  Implies that the Athenians lost because of their own choices, rather than gods or fate. 395 OHG
no date: SHWC 77
c.395 CORINTHIAN WAR begins until 386.  Thebes, Boeotia, Athens, Argos, Megara, Euboea, and Corinth ally against Sparta and Pherae Thessaly. 395 B76 I-136, 8-362, BCoC 384, CAH 6, CDCC 237, 878, DGRG 1-677, GHH, MCAW 144, OCD 106, 290, OHG, RAH 300, lvG, wikCorWar 394 GHH
c.395 Spartan LYSANDER invades Boeotia. 395 GHH
c.395 Spartan LYSANDER surprised, defeated, and killed in battle by Thebans at Haliartos in Boeotia. 395 DGRBM 2-863, DGRG 1-1026, Dur 2-734, CAH 6-44, CDCC 129, GHH, OCD 70, 631
c.395 PAUSANIAS ends.  Agiad king of Sparta from 409, prosecuted for quitting at Boeotia, sentenced to death, flees to Tegea Arcadia.  Minor sons Agesipolis and Cleombrotos are placed under guardianship of Aristodemos.  Son AGESIPOLIS-I succeeds to 380. 395 B76 8-362, CDCC 653, OCD 793, 1007, bk, lvG, wikKS     394 DGRBM 1-70, 3-160, GHH, MRDK, OCD 793, wikAg1
c.395 Sparta, now short of leaders, recalls king Agesilaos-II from Anatolia.  (Exactly as Pharnabazos had planned) 395 B76 8-362
395/4 CAH 6-101
c.394 AMYNTAS-II ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 395, ends.  Son PAUSANIAS succeeds until 393. 394 GHH, MRDK
393 lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM
c.394 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, commander in Anatolia from 396, recalled to Sparta, takes overland route with most of his troops.  Xenophon is with him. 394 B76 8-362, DGRBM 3-1289, 1299, LEWH 76, OCD 27
c.394 DIOPHANDOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 395, ends.  EBULIDES succeeds until 393. 394 wikEA
c.394 Spartans, defeat coalition of Thebes, Athens, Argos, and Corinth in Corinthian territory, at dry bed of NEMEA River in Peloponnese. 394 B76 VII-249, 8-362, spring CAH 6-102, LEWH 76, OCD 27, 1141, wikNm
c.394 Spartan mercenary leader DERCYLLIDAS sent to report Spartan victory at Corinth to Agesilaos. 394 DGRBM 1-993
c.394 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS sent to Amphipolis to inform AGESILAOS-II of Spartan victory at Corinth, and from there to sail to Hellespont to report the same. 394
OCD 332
c.394 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, reaches Amphipolis when he hears of Spartan victory at Nemea. 394
CAH 6-102
c.394 Boeotians, Corinthians, Athenians, and Persian navy gather at Corinth to invade the Peloponnese, but are defeated by the Spartans. mid 394
DGRG 1-677, bk, lvG
c.394 Boeotians and town of Crannon Thessaly, hassle Agesilaos-II marching thru Thessaly. Thessaly 394 DGRG 1-699
c.394 Agesilaos-II marching thru Thessaly, sends Xenocles and Scythes to Larissa to propose peace terms.  They are arrested by Larissans. 394 DGRBM 3-1289
c.394 BoeotiaSpartans under AGESILAOS-II meet Boeotians at CORONEA Boeotia.  Both right wings win.  Agesilaos claims victory, but abandons Boeotia and continues to Sparta. 395/4 CAH 6
394 B76 8-362,
Aug CAH 6-102-3, CDCC 491, DGRBM, DGRG 1-677, 688,
Dur 2-458, GHH, OCD 1067, TToH, lvG
c.394 Athenian Xenophon fought on the side of Agesilaos against Athens at Coronea, and is therefore banished from Athens.  He retires under Spartan protection on Spartan donated land in Scillos in Elis on west coast until 371. 394 DGRBM
c.394 AGESILAOS-II and Xenophon go to Delphi, make offering to Apollo in treasury of Athenians. 394
B76 19-1056
c.394  History of Theopompos  from the battle of Cynossema 411, ends this year with the battle of Knidos. 394 DGRBM, GHH
Aug 14
"When he was at the entrance to Boeotia, the sun seemed to appear crescent-shaped, and word was brought to him that the Lacedaemonians had been defeated in the naval battle and the admiral, Peisander, had been killed.  It was also stated in what way the battle had been fought.  For it was near Knidos that the fleets sailed against one another, and Pharnabazus, who was admiral, was with the Phoenician ships, while Conon with the Greek fleet was posted in front of him."   (Xenophon: Hellenica 4-3-10)
Aug 14
GHH, hbar
c.394 BYZANTIUM, under Sparta from 405, goes independent until 378, joins anti-Athenian league until 390. 394
OCD 186
c.394 PHILYLLIOS, Athenian Middle Comedy poet, flourishes. mid 394 GHH
c.393 SIRRAS, king of Dardanians of Illyria from 423, ends.  BARDYLLIS succeeds until 358. 393 wikBrd, wikSrs
390 wikLRI     385 rcWB
c.393 Corinthians, Pasimelos and Alcimanes, to restore Corinth to connection with Sparta, offer to admit Spartan Praxitas polemarch at Sicyon by night within the long walls joining Corinth with Lechaeum.  Praxitas defeats the Argive forces there, killing many.  Praxitas, joined by allies, demolishes the long walls, then crosses the isthmus, takes and garrisons Sidos and Crommyon. 393 DGRBM 3-519
c.393 EBULIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 394, ends.  DEMOSTRATOS succeeds until 392. 393 wikEA
c.393 XENOPHON defends Socrates in Athens. 393 bk
c.393 CONON, Athenian admiral working for Pharnabazos, ravages coast of Peloponnese. 393 DGRBM 1-825
c.393 KYTHERA island south of Peloponnese, under Sparta from 421, taken by Conon, back under Athens until 386. 393 DGRBM 1-825, OCD 308
c.393 CONON, Athenian admiral working for Pharnabazos, returns triumphant to Athens.  The fact that it was a Persian victory is ignored, and Conon is hailed as liberator of the allies.  With Pharnabazos' approval and Persian money and contributions from Thebes, rebuilds the LONG WALLS to the Piraeus, in defiance of treaty of 404.  The peace of 404 is now dead, and any city which had been an ally of Athens before 404 is still an ally, whether it likes it or not.  Persia now dominates Greek politics. 395 Dur 2-458, lvG
394 bk, lvG
393 B76 III-88, 8-362, mid CAH 6-104, DGRBM, DGRG 1-258, GHH, LEWH 76, MCAW 144, OCD 186, 278, RAH 300
c.393 Long WallsLONG WALLS connecting ports PHALAERUM and PIRAEUS to Athens, destroyed by Spartans in 404, are rebuilt by CONON. 393 B76 8-362, mid CAH 6, LEWH 76, OCD 186, 278, 619, 835, OHG, bk
c.393 CORINTH uses its share of Persian money to man a fleet in the Corinthian Gulf.  Agathinos is commander. 393
CAH 6-105
c.393 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, ravages Argolis. Argolis 393 DGRBM 1-69
c.393 PHLIOS, a city in northwest Argolis, exiles some of its citizens who had professed friendship with Sparta.  But Phlios remains faithful to Sparta, for which it is severely defeated by Athenian Iphicrates. 393 prsΦl
c.393 SEUTHES-II and AMADOKOS-I, co-kings of Odrysians, quarrel until they are broken up by Thrasybulus.  Seuthes-II allies with Athens. 393 DGRBM 3-809
c.393 Son of Amyntas-II, PAUSANIAS dies.  Argead king of Macedon from 394, murdered by AMYNTAS-III, who succeeds and is forced out by Illyrians.  ARGAEUS-II succeeds until 392. 393 B76 8-366, CAH 6-726, GHH, MRDK, OCD 56, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM, wikPM
392 lvG
c.393 Kings of Macedon are puppets of BARDYLLIS king of Illyria until 391. 393
CAH 6-428
c.393 ARGAEUS-II Argead king of Macedon 393-2, with help of Illyrians, expells former king Amyntas-II from Macedonia. 393 DGRBM 1-279
c.393 Athens makes alliances with CHIOS, RHODES, and COS, also with Ionian cities of MYTILENE and KNIDOS, most of which end with the dissolution of the Athenian League 386. 393
c.393 Spartan admiral PODANEMOS killed, leaving POLLIS commander until 392. late 393
CAH 6-105
c.392 Argead king of Macedon from 393, ARGAEUS-II ends.  AMYNTAS-III resumes until 370. 393 B76 I-332, CAH 6-726, OCD 56     392 MRDK, lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikLKM     390 RAH 309
c.392 CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE begins until 358. 392 rcSB2
c.392 ACANTHOS Chalcidice, allied with Sparta from 421, joins Chalcidian League until 379. 392 rcSB2
c.392 Spartan admiral POLLIS is wounded, returns to Sparta. spring 392 CAH 6-105
c.392 TELEUTIAS bro of Agesilaos-II appointed fleet commander. 393 DGRBM 3-993
c.392 Athenian envoys go to Sparta to discuss a common peace.  Nothing comes of it, but to dissuade Dionysius-I of Syracuse from sending a squadron he had prepared to help the Spartans. 392 CAH 6-582, 588
392/1 MCAW 144, OCD 63
c.392 DEMOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 393, ends.  PHILOCLES succeeds until 391. 392 wikEA
c.392 CORINTH, oligarchic republic from 550, (now pro-Spartan) overthrown by anti-Spartan democrats with Argive help, democratic government established until 386. 393 DGRBM 3-132
392 CAH 6-106, OCD 290, rcPl
c.392 CORINTH, new democracy allies with Argos, and is under control of Argos. 392 spring CAH 6-106
c.392 Pro-Spartan exiles from Corinth led by Pasimelos and Alcimenes cooperate with Spartan Praxitas, polemarch of Sicyon, to gain control of Lechaeum, Corinth's port on the Corinthian Gulf. 392
CAH 6-106, wikBL
c.392 PAY for Athenian Assemblymen (1 obol per day in 400) has increased to 3 obols per day. 392
CAH 6-38
c.392 Athenian generals Iphicrates and Callias-III are sent to help Argives and democracy at Corinth.  Argives drive Sicyonians to the sea, but are then paniced by the Spartans and Corinthian exiles and suffer heavy losses.  The Boeotian garrison which had held Lechaeum for the allies is wiped out, and the port falls to Spartans.  Despite this success Praxitas cannot force entry into Corinth.  Instead he breaches the walls between Corinth and Lechaeum to strengthen his hold on the port, then captures and garrisons Sidos and Crommyon and fortifies Epieicea before disbanding his troops and withdrawing to Sparta. 392
CAH 6-106, DGRBM 1-567, 2-617, DGRG 1-677, wikBL
c.392 CONON, Athenian admiral of a Persian fleet, ravages Peloponnesian coastline. 393 GHH     392 OHG 169
c.392 ANTALCIDAS Spartan general, goes to Sardis, tries to convince satrap Tiribazus that the main threat to Persian interests is resurgence of Athenian naval power, even though the 4,000 men whom Agesilaos had left behind under Euxenus are still in Anatolia.  As Athenian ambitions grow with confidence, Conon may betray Artaxerxes-II by using Persian money to restore the Athenian empireAntalcidas offers Tiribazus all Greek cities in Anatolia, proposes autonomy to the islands and cities of Greece, Sparta not to fight Persia for Greeks in Anatolia.  Convinces Tiribazus to do business with Sparta rather than Athens. 392
CAH 6-75, 107,
CDCC 237 OCD 66, 278
CAH 6-74
c.392 CONON, Athenian admiral, on diplomatic mission to Sardis, to say that the Spartan proposal will not be accepted by Greeks, arrested by satrap Tiribazus. 392 CAH 6-104, LEWH 76, OCD 278, wikθrs
no date: wikCn
c.392 Sophist GORGIAS, speaking at Olympic games, advocates unity of all Greeks, a position taken up later by Lysias and Isocrates. 392
B76 8-371
c.392 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, ravages Corinthian territory. 392 DGRBM 1-69, GHH
c.392 ARISTOPHANES produces  Ecclesiazusae  (Women in Parliament).  A baudy comedy.  Women take over and run Athens, instituting communal wealth, property, and sex.  Ridicules political theories of Plato. 393 Dur 2-427, TTPC
392 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-283, OHG 205, bk 392/1 OCD 113
391 B76 1-1155
392 late MEETING at SPARTA:  Reps of the Greek states meet again to make peace.  Agesilaos-II, king of Sparta, supports autonomy of Greek cities, but proposes that Ionian cities come under rule of Artaxerxes-II. late 392
CAH 6-108, CDCC 237     392/1 CAH 6
391 B76 8-363
c.392 4 Athenian envoys (including Andocides) go to Sparta. 392 B76 I-357
c.392/1 Athenian mercenary peltasts under Iphicrates and Calias-III at Corinth defeat 600 Spartan hoplites at Lechaeum250 Spartans killed.  The walls which linked it with Corinth are rebuilt. 393 GHH     392 GHH, wikC3     392/1 CAH 6-109 391 CAH 6, DGRG 1-677, wikBL     390 CAH 6-681
c.391 Athenian envoys (including Andocides) to Sparta reject the Spartan peace plan. 394 DGRBM 1-169 391 bk, wikAnd
c.391 Athenian envoys to Sparta (including Andocides), now back in Athens, propose peace with Sparta.  They are prosecuted by CALLISTRATOS of Aphidna.  Andocides delivers speech: "On the Peace with the Lacedaemonians", still extant.  Andocides is banished, never returns. 393 DGRBM 1-169
391 DGRBM GHH, OCD 196, bk
c.391 10% tax imposed by Athens on cargo sailing to and from Pontus, defunct from 405, is reinstated by Thrasybulos until ?. 391
DGRA 388
c.391 PHILOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 392, ends.  NICOTELES succeeds until 390. 391 wikEA
c.391 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, attacks Argos, ravages widely in the Argolid, then turns towards Corinth by way of Tenea.  fights near Corinth until 390. 391 B76 I-136, CAH 6-109
c.391 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, ravages Acarnania. 391 DGRBM, GHH
389 B76 I-136
c.391 ACARNANIANS forced to submit to AGESILAOS-II. 391 DGRBM 1-69
390 B76 I-48, GHH
c.391 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, recaptures the newly rebuilt walls connecting Lechaeum to Corinth, while his bro Teleutias, with only 12 ships, seizes the port and dockyards of Lechaeum, driving the survivors of the garrison back to Corinth.  This restores Spartan naval supremacy in the Gulf. 391
CAH 6-109, mid
DGRG 1-677
c.390 CONON, Athenian admiral, imprisoned. 390 DGRBM
c.390 CONON, Athenian admiral, dies, probably in Cyprus. 392 LEWH 76, OCD 278
390 B76 III-88     388 bk
c.390 AMYNTAS-III, Argead king of Macedon 392-70, marries EURYDICE, dau of Sirras. 390 CDCC 334
c.390 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS active in Thrace and Hellespont, reconciles Thracian rivals Amadokos-I and Seuthes-II. 390 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-135
c.390 OdryssiansAMADOKOS-I, son of Sitalces, king of Odrysians of Thrace from 410, ally of Athens, dies.  His son HEBRYZELMIS succeeds with SEUTHES-II co-king from 405, until 384. 391 frH, rcSB2
390 wikAmdc, wikHbrz
389 wikLRTD
c.390 BYZANTIUM, independent 394-78, again comes under influence of Athens. 390 OCD 186
c.390 BYZANTIUM, under oligarchy from ?, under influence of Athens from 390, democracy established by Thrasybulos, who revives the 10% duty, imposed in 410, on all goods coming from the Black Sea. 390
CAH 6-114, DGRG 1-657
c.390 LYCOPHRON, tyrant of Pherae Thessaly from 406, ends. 390 OCD 628
c.390 Temple of AsclepiusTemple of Aesculapios (Asclepius) built at Epidauros Argolis. 390 MCAW 149

Creative Commons
c.390 NICOTELES, eponymous archon of Athens from 391, ends.  DEMOSTRATOS succeeds until 389. 390 wikEA
c.390 AGESIPOLIS-I, Agiad king of Sparta 395-80, subordinate to Agesilaos-II, with sanction of Olympic and Delphic gods, commands an invasion of Argolis, ravages farther than Agesilaos had done in 393, but it yields no fruit but the plunder. 390 DGRBM 1-70, GHH, wikAg1
c.390 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, again invades Corinthian territory. 390
CAH 6-110
c.390 MegarisPeraeum, Oenoe, and the Heraeum, all on the Corinthian Gulf side of Megaris, taken by Agesilaos-II. 390
DGRG 1-685, mid CAH 6, DGRG 1-685
c.390 Athenian general  IPHICRATES commands a company of peltasts who annihilate a Spartan division near Corinth.  Agesilaos returns to Sparta, then Iphicrates retakes Crommyon, Sidos, Peraeum, and Oenoe. 390 CAH 6, DGRG 1-677, OCD 550
c.390 TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II, at Lechaeum from ?, sent with 12 ships to supersede Ecdicos in command of Spartan fleet at Rhodes. 391 CAH 6-113, 315, wikTl     390 CAH 6, DGRBM 3-302, 993
c.390 ISOCRATES founds a school of rhetoric, which becomes the most successful in Athens. 391 Dur 2-485
390 CAH 6, OCD 370
c.390 GOLDEN RULE attested by Isocrates.  "Do not do to others that which angers you when they do it to you."    (See 500BCE Egypt, Leviticus, China, Mahabharata) 436-338 wikGR
c.390 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS sent with 40 ships to oppose Teleutias. 390 DGRBM 3-993
c.390 LYSIS of Tarentum, Pythagorean philosopher, moves from Italy to Greece, settles in Thebes. 390
B76 VI-421
c.390 XENOPHON writes  Memoirs of Socrates . 390 bk
c.390/89 Athenian general  IPHICRATES plans a coup of his own to seize Corinth for Athens.  But his plan is thwarted and the Argives ask for his removal.  Athenians comply. winter 390/89 CAH 6-111
c.390/89 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS intervenes in dispute between Odryssian royals Hebryzelmis & Seuthes-II. 390/89 CAH 6-458
c.389 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS recovers THASOS, SAMOTHRACE, TENOS, the CHERSONESE, BYZANTIUM, CHALCEDON, and others, but is not supported financially. 389 LEWH 76, OCD 1066
c.389 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, diverted to northwest Greece, tells Acarnanians he would ravage their land unless they renounce their alliance with Boeotia and Athens and changed sides.  They refuse.  Agesilaos forces Acarnanians to surrender.  Acarnania under Sparta until 375. 390 OCD 2
389 B76 I-136, CAH 6-111, lvG
c.389 Spartan naval commander HIERAX sails for Rhodes, but stations Gorgopas with 12 ships at Aegina.  The Athenians must mount a relief expedition to evacuate their fort. mid 389 CAH 6-115
c.389 DEMOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 390, ends.  ANTIPATROS succeeds until 388. 389 wikEA
c.389 Spartan ETEONICOS becomes harmost at Aegina until ?. mid 389 DGRBM 2-53
c.389 Athenian general  IPHICRATES, in charge of Corinthian campaign, removed by Athens, replaced by Chabrias, who had recently returned from Thrace. 392 DGRBM 1-676 mid 389 CAH 6-111
c.389/8 Athenian general  CHABRIAS, succeeds at Phlios and Mantinea and raids into Laconia. 389 or 88 CAH 6-111
c.388 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, murdered in his tent by natives at Aspendos on south coast of Anatolia. 389 CAH 6, DGRBM
388 B76 IX-977, LEWH 76, MCAW 151, OCD 1066, bk
c.388 Athenians, under Pamphilus establish a fortified post in Aegina island, and annoy the locals. no date: DGRBM 3-993
c.388 Athenian admiral ARGYRHIOS, sent to the Hellespont to try to retain control of Thrasybulos' gains. 388
CAH 6-115
c.388 TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II, sails to Aegina, chases away the Athenian ships, but Pamphilus still holds the fort. 388 DGRBM 3-993
c.388 Spartan admiral ANAXIBIOS, sent to succeed Dercyllidas as harmost of Abydos. 389 DGRBM 1-164 388 CAH 6-115
c.388 Athenian IPHICRATES sent to Sestos in Chersonese opposite Abydos to oppose Spartan admiral ANAXIBIOS. 388
CAH 6-458
c.388 Spartan admiral ANAXIBIOS, harmost of Abydos, sailing unguarded from a mission to win over Antandros in the Troad, ambushed by Athenian Iphicrates, sees no escape, orders most of his fleet to flee, remains with a small body of comerades and dies fighting.  But Iphicrates cannot prevail against Antalcidas 388
CAH 6-115, DGRBM 1-164, 2-617
c.388 Athenian EUNOMOS is sent with 13 triremes against Spartan Gorgopas, vice-admiral to Hierax, and Aeginetan privateers. 388 CAH 6-116, DGRBM 2-95
c.388 Athenian CHABRIAS commands the fleet sent to assist Evagoras, king of Cyprus, against Persians.  Enroute he ambushes an defeats Spartans under Gorgopas and Aeginetans on Aegina 388 B76 II-702, CAH 6-116, DGRBM 1-676 wikCha
c.388 Spartan GORGOPAS vice-admiral to Hierax, returning from Ephesus, encounters Athenian EUNOMOS with 13 triremes, who chases him to Aegina.  Eunomos sails away after dark.  Gorgopas follows him, captures 4 of his triremes off Zoster Attica.  Eunomos escapes with the rest to Piraeus. 388 DGRBM 2-95
c.388 Athens allies with Achoris of Egypt, against Artaxerxes-II. 389 Grim 374
388 CAH 6-116, 315
c.388 ANTALCIDAS Spartan admiral, made commander of Spartan fleet, assigned to reopen negotiations with Tiribazus, helps Persia against Athens, especially in Hellespont. 388 CAH 6-116, OCD 66, wikAntl 387 CAH 6
c.388 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, allies with Sparta against Athens. 388
B76 VII-928
c.388 Corinthian War 395-86:  Sparta asks and gets support from Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 388
MCAW 148
c.388 AGESILAOS-II, Eurypontid king of Sparta 399-60, threatens another invasion of Acarnania.  Acarnanians make peace with Achaeans and ally with Sparta. 388
CAH 6-112
c.388 Spartans invade Argolis. 388 CAH 6
c.388 Speech writer LYSIAS delivers speech "Olympiacos" at Olympics.  Criticizes Greek wars, appeals to Greeks to unite against Dionysius-I tyrant of Syracuse. 388
B76 VI-420, bk
c.388 XENOPHON publishes  Spartan Constitution .  Praises the Spartan system, written when he was grateful to Sparta for settling him in Scillos near Olympia 394-71. 388
OCD 1142
c.388 ANTIPATROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 389, ends.  PYRGION succeeds until 387. 388 wikEA
c.388 ALCAEOS, Athenian Old to Middle Comedy poet, produces  Pasiphae , takes 5th (last) place in the Dionysia.  Titles and fragments of 7 other plays suggest that he worked mainly in mythological subjects. 388 wikAl 385 GHH
c.388 Nicophon and Nicovhares compete against Aristophanes. 388 GHH
c.388 ARISTOPHANES produces  Plutus , (his 2nd with this title, the 1st in 408).  The god of wealth is cured of blindness, and makes social reforms. 388 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-313, OCD 113, OHG 204, TTPC, bk
c.387 OdryssiansSon of Maisades, SEUTHES-II ends.  King of Odrysians of Thrace from 405, (with Hebryzelmis from 390).  son of Seuthes-I, HEBRYZELMIS continues until 384. 387 wikLRTD
c.387 PLATO, pupil of Socrates and Theodoros of Cyrene, in Athens 395-87, opens the ACADEMY in a public park called the grove of Academos adjacent, to Plato's estate on outskirts of Athens.  It contains a gymnasium, sacred olive trees, and several shrines to various divinities.  The Academy is neither a cult group, nor an esoteric community like the Pythagorean schools in Italy.  It is open to anyone, and attracts even 2 women.  There are no fees, but only those who do not to have to work for a living could afford to join it.  No orthodoxy is propounded or expected to be followed.  It is the first serious challenge to Isocrates' school, and lasts until 529CE. 390-81 TTS
CAH 6-596 387
B76 8-372, CAH 6-602-4, OHG, RAH 364, bk
386 Dur 2-458
385 CDΦ 4, MCAW 149, OCD 1
c.387 ANTALCIDAS Spartan admiral, sent to Sardis, then Susa to get Persians to do business with Sparta rather than Athens.  He succeeds. 388 CAH 6
387 B76 8-362
c.387 Corinthian War 395-86:  Sparta gets Persian support. 387 CDCC 237
c.387 Teleutias plunders merchant ships sailing to and from Athens. 387 CAH 6-557
c.387 PIRAEUS raided by Teleutias. 387 spring CAH 6-557
c.387 ARTAXERXES-II withdraws financial support from Athens and Thebes. 387 Dur 2-461
c.387 IPHICRATES introduces new weaponry to Athenian army:  lighter shield, lighter armor, longer sword, spear. 387 MCAW 149
c.387 EUDOXOS of Knidos age 23, with physician Theomedon, goes to Athens to hear the Socratics, becomes pupil of Plato. 387 DGRBM 3-1079, wikUdx
377 B76 6-1021
c.387 PLATO, in Athens from 395, visits Italy, remains there and Sicily until 386. 388 MCAW 149
387 Dur 2-458, 510, OCD 839
c.387 PYRGION, eponymous archon of Athens from 388, ends.  THEODOTOS succeeds until 386. 387 wikEA
c.387 ARISTOPHANES produces last 2 comedies  Aeolosicon  and  Cocalos , (produced by his son Araros).  Aeolosicon parodizes the Aeolos of Euripides.  Cocalos parodizes a poem on the death of Minos, supposedly killed by Cocalos king of Sicily. 387 DGRBM 1-313
c.387 ANTIPHANES, Athenian middle comedy writer, begins to exhibit. 387 DGRBM 383 GHH
c.386 CORINTHIAN WAR from 395 ends.  Sparta, supported by Persians, force Athens and allies to make peace. 387 B76 I-136, 8-362, BCoC 384, wikCorWar     386 CDCC 237, 878, OCD 290, OHG, lvG
c.386  KING'S PEACE (Peace of Antalcidas)  negotiated by Spartan ANTALCIDAS and ARTAXERXES-II at Sardis.  No Spartan intervention in Anatolia.  Thebes to grant independence to Boeotia - Boeotian League disbanded.  All Greek cities to be autonomous except those in Anatolia, which come under PersiaLemnos, Imbros, and Skyros come under Athens.  Rest of Aegean islands to be independent.  Cyprus and Clazomenae (sold out by Sparta) also under Persia.  Renegotiated 371.  Evagoras is not mentioned. 387 BCoC 384, DGRBM, DGRG 1-677, Dur 2-458, GHH, RAH 300, wikPA
387/6 LEWH 76, MCAW 148, OCD 63, 276, 306
386 B76 I-549, 8-362-3, 9-836, CAH 6-582,
spring CAH 6, CDCC 23, 88, DGRBM, IDB 1-241, OCD 969, OHG, bk
c.386 Envoys from all Greece assemble at Sparta to swear allegiance to King's Peace. spring 386 CAH 6-117
c.386 ATHENIAN LEAGUE from 484 (or at least 395) dissolved by King's Peace until 377. 386 LEWH 67-7, 76
c.386 THEODOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 387, ends.  MYSTICHIDES succeeds until 385. 386 wikEA
c.386 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE from 457 dissolved by King's Peace until 376. 386 B76 IX-928, LEWH 76 382 rcSB3
no date: OCD 433
c.386 BOEOTIA, under Thebes from 446, independent until ?. 386 GHH
c.386 CORINTH:  Agesilaos-II forces Argives to withdraw from the city, Corinthians to restore pro-Spartan exiles, democratic republic from 392 ends, oligarchy restored until 338.  Corinth restored to alliance with Sparta. 386 DGRG 1-677, rcPl
c.386 Spartan fleet under Antalcidas blockades Hellespont, forces KING'S PEACE on Athens. 386 LEWH 76, OCD 66, 126
Macedonia Thrace
c.386 IPHICRATES Athenian mercenary commander in Thrace marries a dau of Cotys. 386
OCD 550
c.386 CHERSONESE peninsula, under Spartans from 404, recovered by Athenians until 338. 386
OCD 229
c.386 SESTOS in Chersonese, under Sparta from 404, no longer under Sparta, but doesn't come back under Athens until 365. 393 or 386 OCD 981
c.386 PLATAEA Boeotia, destroyed 427, under control of Sparta from 426, rebuilt by Spartans, independent until 372. 386 mid CAH 6, CAH 6-563, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 839, rcSB3, wikPlat
382/1 MCAW 148
c.386 TANAGRA Boeotia, in Boeotian League from 520, allies with Sparta until 374. 386 rcSB3
c.386 Terms of King's Peace (Peace of Antalcidas) accepted by Sparta. 386 wikAnt
c.386 PLATO in Sicily from 387, returns to Athens until 367. 386 Dur 2-510
c.386 PLATO publishes  Charmides :  Socrates engages a popular boy in discussion about the meaning of sophrosyne (self knowledge, temperance, self-control, restraint).  The virtue of sophrsyne is shown in graceful command of the passions and dutiful respect to superiors in balance, and sanity amid the turns of fortune. 390 bk
386 B76 14-538
no date:
B76 14-534, wikChrm
c.386 PLATO's early dialogues contain 3 theories:
theory of Λ FORMS V or ideas
Knowledge = recollection.
tripartite Λ SOUL V :  reason, appetite, superego
no date:
B76 14-533, OCD 840
c.386 PLATO publishes  Crito :  Socrates refuses to escape death because that would violate the law.  To remain in a state is to abide by its laws.  Living honorably is more important than life itself.  Retaliation is never right. 386
B76 14-538
no date: wikCrit
c.386 PLATO publishes  Euthyphro :  Is something good because the gods say it is?  Or do the gods say something is good because it is good? 386 B76 14-538
no date: wikEythy
c.386 PLATO publishes  Gorgias :  Argues for absolute right over expediency.  Politically right is tied to morally right.  Good legislators and judges are necessary to the health of humanity.  Sophists counterfeit the legislator's art.  Rhetoricians counterfeit the judge's art.
Law makers make laws and distribute praises and censures with a view to their own interests.
386 B76 14-538 380 bk, wikGrg
no date:
B76 14-534, MNDQ 655
c.386 PLATO publishes  Hippias Minor :  Socrates dialogs with polymath / literary critic Hippias who says Homer can be taken at face value, and that Achilles spoke honestly when he said he hates liars.  Socrates argues that Achilles was a smart liar who threw people off the scent of his own deceptions.
Plato says wrong doing is involuntary.  A man who does wrong intentionally is better than one who does it unwittingly.
B76 14-538
no date:
B76 14-534, wikHipM
c.386 PLATO publishes  Ion :  A man named Ion won a prize for praising Homer, but reveals that he knows little of any author except Homer.  Socrates deduces that Ion has no real skill, but is like a soothsayer or prophet blabbering by nonrational inspiration. 386
B76 14-538
no date:
B76 14-534, wikIon
c.386 PLATO publishes  Laches :  Discusses education, the Value of military training, the nature of bravery and valor. 390 bk     386 B76 14-538, OCD 842
no date: B76 14-534, wikLac

PLATO publishes  Lysis : Socrates proposes 4 possible notions on the nature of friendship:
1.  friendship between people who are similar, interpreted by Socrates as friendship between good men
2.  friendship between men who are dissimilar
3.  friendship between men who are neither good nor bad and good men
4.  Gradually emerging: friendship between those who are related by the nature of their souls
Socrates thinks the only logical possibility is friendship between men who are good and men who are neither good nor bad.
400 bk
B76 14-538, OCD 842
no date: B76 14-534, wikLis
c.386 PLATO publishes  Meno :  What is virtue?  Virtue can be taught only if virtue is knowledge.  Since men are unable to teach virtue, it must be a gift from the gods.

EPISTEMOLOGY V: How can you inquire about something if you don't already understand enough to make the inquiry?
(See Xenophanes 480,  Parmenides 460, Theaetetos 368)

Λ METAPHYSICS VΛ Souls V (see Philolaus 400) are immortal, and acquire knowledge in process of REINCARNATION (See Upanishad 500, Empedocles 444).  Therefore knowledge = recollection.
B76 14-538, OCD 842
380 bk
no date:
B76 14-534, wikMen
c.386 PLATO publishes  Menexenus :  Socrates repeats a long funeral oration that he claims to have learned from Aspasia, consort of Pericles.  Apparently a satire on the patriotic distortion of history. 386 B76 14-538, OCD 842
no date: B76 14-534, wikMnx
c.386 PLATO publishes  Protagoras :  Socrates argues that virtue is knowledge and is therefore one thing, not many.  He argues that people act harmfully to others because they only see short term gains while ignoring long term losses which might outweigh them.
Right conduct is not teachable.  Virtue = knowledge and is teachable.
390 bk     386
B76 14-538, OCD 842
no date:
B76 14-534, wikPrtg
c.386 THEBES, fearing Sparta, drops alliance with Athens, allies with Sparta. 387 CAH 6, RAH 300 386 LEWH 76
c.386 KYTHERA island south of Peloponnese, under Athens from 393, back under Sparta until 195. 386 OCD 308
c.385 LYCOPHRON-I tyrant of Pherae from ?, ends.  JASON, probably a son, succeeds until 370. 385 OCD 562, wikJΦ
c.385 LISSUS Illyria, north of Epidamnos, founded by by Dionysius-I of Syracuse to secure Syracusan trade routes along Adriatic. 385 wikL
c.385 MANTINEA ordered by Sparta to tear down its walls, refuses. 385
CAH 6-156
c.385 MYSTICHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 386, ends.  DEXITHEOS succeeds until 384. 385 wikEA
c.385 AGESIPOLIS-I, Agiad king of Sparta 395-80, takes a command declined by Agesilaos to attack Mantinea.  Assisted by Theban allies Epaminondas and Pelopidas, who narrowly escape death in battle with the Mantineans, Agesipolis takes MANTINEA by diverting the river Ophis. 385 B76 VII-842, CAH 6, DGRBM 1-70, 2-17, 3-160, GHH, wikAg1
c.385 MANTINEA forced by Agesipolis-1 to tear down its walls and live among its original 4 or 5 villages until 371. 385 CDCC 23, 547, DGRBM,
DGRG 1-191, LEWH 77, rcPl
384 RAH 300     no date: OCD 433
c.385 ARISTOPHANES, 1st great comedy writer, dies.  Also known as a pleasure lover.  3 sons: Philippos, Araros, and Nicostratos are all middle comedy poets. 387 TToH     385 LEWH 76, RAH 283, SHWC 77, TAWH 17, bk     380 Dur 2-713
c.385 Dionysius-I of Syracuse sends an embassy to Athens for the Olympic festival.  A crowd plunders their tents. 385
B76 III-560
c.385 PLATO publishes  Helen :  Helen is praised for inspiring Theseus to bring unity, peace and political reform to Attica, and the Greeks to undertake a common expedition against the barbarians. 385
CAH 6-598
c.385/4 BARDYLLIS king of Illyrians 393-58, with troops and weapons sent from Dionysius-I of Syracuse, invades Epirus, kills 15,000 Molossians in battle, controls Molossia. 385/4
CAH 6-148, 428
c.384 ArgolisPhlian exiles of 393, enforced by Spartans, return to PHLIOS, in northwest Argolis. 384
CAH 6-161 383 prsΦl
c.384 OdryssiansSon of Seuthes-I, HEBRYZELMIS ends.  King of Odrysians of Thrace from 387.  Son of Seuthes-II, COTYS-I succeeds until 359. 384 frH, rcSB2, wikHbrz, wikLRTD
DGRBM 1-869, OCD 1065
c.384 DEXITHEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 385, ends.  DIETREPHES succeeds until 383. 384 wikEA
c.384 PLATO publishes  Cratylos :  Are names significant by nature or convention?  Is language a system of arbitrary signs, or do words have an intrinsic relation to the things they signify.  "The body is the tomb of the soul." 384 B76 14-538, OCD 842
no date: B76 14-534, wikCrat
c.384 PLATO publishes  Euthydemos :  Contrasts Socratic vs. sophistic methods.  Satyrizes those who try to entangle others in fallacies based on ambiguities of language.  Socrates says happiness is not guaranteed by possession of things, but by right use of them. 390 bk
384 B76 14-538, OCD 842
no date: B76 14-534, wikEuthd
c.384 PLATO publishes  Symposium :  Love(eros) is examined in a sequence of speeches by men attending a symposium (drinking party).  What is highest manifestation of love?  Socrates in his speech asserts that the highest purpose of love is to become a lover of wisdom. 387 TToH     385 MCAW 149
385-80 wikSym
384 B76 14-538, OCD 842     380 bk
no date: B76 14-533, 535
c.383 XENOPHON writes  Hellenica :  History beginning at 411, where Thucydides' history breaks off. 383
MCAW 149
c.383 DIETREPHES, eponymous archon of Athens from 384, ends.  PHANOSTRATOS succeeds until 382. 383 wikEA
c.383 BARDYLLIS king of Illyria 393-58 overruns Macedonia until 382. 383 CAH 6-428
c.383 Athenian general Iphicrates helps Amyntas-III to regain Macedon. 383 CAH 6-464
c.383 Chalcidians ask Sparta for help against Olynthos.  Spartan EUDAMIDAS with 2,000 men is sent to Olynthos. 383 DGRBM 2-76
c.383 Acanthos Chalcidice, Thracian Apollonia and other cities, pressed by Chalcidian League to join them, sends an embassy to Sparta asking for help. 382 DGRBM 1-70, wikAg1
Macedonia Thrace
c.382 Phoebidas sent to reinforce bro Eudamidas besieging Olynthos. 383 DGRBM 3-343
c.382 TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II, appointed general against the Olynthians.  His high reputation induces the allies of Sparta to furnish their contingents for the war. 382 DGRBM 3-993
c.382 Spartan TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II with 10,000 men moves slowly north thru Greece and Thessaly, gathers contingents from allied states. 383 MCAW 148 382 CAH 6-161, OCD 225, wikTl
c.382 Spartan TELEUTIAS intervenes in CHALCIDICE until 381 to thwart the CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE.  Wins an initial victory outside the walls of Olynthos.  Spartans campaign in Chalcidice until 379. 382 CAH 6-161, OCD 225, wikTl
c.382 OLYNTHIAN WAR begins until ?. 382 DGRBM, GHH
c.382 OLYNTHOS, capital of Chalcidian League, besieged by Teleutias until 382. 383 OHG 170     382 CAH 6
c.382 TELEUTIAS gets assistance of Amyntas II, king of Macedonia, and of Derdas, prince of Elymia. He does not, however gain any advantage over the enemy in his first campaign. 382 DGRBM 3-993
c.382 OLYNTHOS, capital of Chalcidian League, besieged by Teleutias, falls, but doesn't come under Sparta until 379. 382 LEWH 77, OCD 751
c.382 POTIDAEA Chalcidice, in Chalcidian League from 401, comes under control of Sparta until 356. 382 rcSB2
c.382 With approval of Agesilaos-II, Spartan general PHOEBIDAS enroute to Olynthos Chalcidice, is helped by pro-Spartan Thebans to sieze the CADMEA (citadel of Thebes).  300 anti-Spartan Thebans flee.  Spartans control Thebes until 379. 383 Dur 2-458, MCAW 148
382 B76 VII-842, 6-902, CAH 6-534, CDCC 878, DGRA 929, DGRBM 2-754, 3-179, 270, 363, GHH, LEWH 77, OCD 27, 795, 1052, OHG, RAH 300, bk
c.382 Athens offers refuge to Thebans Androclidas and his supporters who had escaped Leontiades' coup. 382
CAH 6-164
c.382 PHANOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 383, ends.  EUANDROS succeeds until 381. 382 wikEA
c.381 A body of his Spartan allied targeteers having been routed, and their commander slain by Olynthian cavalry, TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II, reacts emotionally, and orders his whole force to charge.  He advances to the walls within reach of enemy missiles.  His men are confused, whereupon the Olynthians sally out, Teleutias is slain, and his army routed. 381 DGRBM 3-993, GHH
c.382 PELOPIDAS, Theban democrat, flees to Athens until 379. 382 B76 VII-842, 6-902, CDCC 656, OCD 795
c.381 Local king Derdas defeats Olynthians at Apollonia Chalcidice. spring 381 CAH 6-161
c.381 Spartan general TELEUTIAS killed fighting Chalcidian League at Olynthos.  Spartan army is dispersed among friendly cities of Spartolus, Acanthos, Apollonia and Potidaea.  Agiad king Agesipolis takes command, and sets out, but does not begin operations until spring 380. 381 spring
CAH 6-161, DGRBM 1-70, GHH, wikAg1, wikTl
c.381 EUANDROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 382, ends.  DEMOPHILOS succeeds until 380. 381 wikEA
Balkan Peninsula 380-361