Greece
c.440 BYZANTIUM, under Athens from 475, joins Samos in rebellion until 439. 440 CAH 6-490, DGRG 1-657, OCD 186
c.440 Sparta votes for war with Athens, but is outvoted at a 2nd meeting of allies. 440
OHG 147
c.440 TIMOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 441, ends.  MORYCHIDES succeeds until 439. 440 wikEA
c.440
Pilos helmet
Simple conical Pilos helmet.  Worn by some Macedonian infantry.
450-425 wikGHP
Picture: pub dom
c.440
Pericles Diomedes
Athenian sculptor CRESILAS flourishes.
450-30 OCD 186

left
Marie-Lan Nguyen right
Albani Collection
c.440 Athenian painter/sculptor MICON flourishes.  Associated with Polygnotus of Thasos, in conjunction with whom he adorns the Stoa poikile at Athens, with paintings of the Battle of Marathon and other battles.  He also paints in the Anakeion at Athens.  His daughter is painter, Timarete. mid 5th wikMcn 441 GHH
c.440







c.440
LEUCIPPOS, founds a school in Abdera Thrace.
Writes:   On Mind ,  The Great World Systems 

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  "Nothing happens without a cause.  Everything has a cause and is necessary."
(See Hippasus 445, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

Λ PHYSICS VΛ ATOMIC THEORY V:
Matter is homogeneous, but consists of small indivisible particles [a contradiction] that are constantly in motion.  Compounds are formed by their collisions and regroupings.
(See Xenophanes 480, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)
450 LEWH 76
445 Dur 2-244
440 OHG
440-30 wikLcp
435 MCAW 129
430 TTPC
424 GHH
no date: B76 VI-172, KPHP 17, OCD 600
c.440








c.440
DIOGENES of Apollonia, philosopher of Athens, flourishes.
Wrote  On Nature , possibly including  Against the Sophists ,  Nature of Man .

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  Agrees with Anaximenes 545:  AIR is Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM.  (See Hippasus 445)  Air is God, SOUL V (See Alcmaeon 490, Philolaus 400), intelligent.  "Air, as the origin of all things, is necessarily an eternal imperishable substance, but as soul it is necessarily endowed with consciousness."
(See Empedocles 444)

COSMOLOGY V:  There is an infinite number of worlds in an infinite void.  Earth is round, supported in the middle, and received its shape from the whirling of warm vapors.  Its concretion and hardening comes from cold.
(See Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

ANATOMY V:  Described blood vessels, according to Aristotle.
(See Hippo 450, Empedocles 444, Hippocrates 400)
500-400 B76 III-558
440
KPHP 8
440 or 430 OCD 347
425 wikDA
c.440 LENAEA festival begins.  A festival (also to Dionysos) at the Lenaea sanctuary west of the Acropolis on the 12th of Gamelion (Jan.-Feb.).  Λ COMEDY is first.  Tragedy 432. 442 CAH 5
pre-440 OCD 269, OHG 180
440 OCD 230
no date: OCD 594
c.440 Athenian law forbids attacking persons by name in dramatic comedy.  Repealed 3 years later. 440 DGRA 344, DGRBM, Dur 2-420
c.440 Athenian law forbids areopagites to write comedy.  Repealed 437. 440 DGRA 344, GHH
c.440 THEAETETUS, son of Euphronius, becomes disciple of Socrates. 440 DGRBM 3-1021
c.440 PRODICOS of Ceos, sophist philosopher, comes to Athens as ambassador of Ceos. 465-30 wikPrd
c.440 Athenian treasury has 9,700 talents. 440 Dur 2-266
c.440 PHIDIAS, Athenian sculptor, painter, architect, flourishes. 480-30 wikΦd
450-30 CAH 5
c.440 Artist Agatharchos writes a treatise on perspective as a means of creating a theatrical illusion. 440
Dur 2-317
  Roman copies of missing or damaged Polykleitos originals
Doryphoros
Shakko
Discophoros
pub dom
Amazon
Shakko
Diadumenos
Jastrow
Amazon
{{PD-US}}
c.440 POLYKLEITOS (Latinized Polyclitus), Athenian bronze sculptor, flourishes.  Called the Elder when it is necessary to distinguish him from his son, a major architect but minor sculptor.  Said to be unsurpassed in making images of men as Phidias was of gods.  Called "The Sicyonian" by some authors relying on an error of Pliny the Elder in conflating another more minor sculptor from Sikyon. 5th cen. wikPlk
450-30 CAH 5
450s-10 CDCC 704
430 LEWH 76
430-21 MCAW 133
420 CAH 5, Dur 2-244, TToH
440/39 Athenians Thucydides, Hagnon, and Phormio bring 40 ships to reinforce Pericles blockading Samos. 440 DGRBM 2-325, 3-345, 1111     440/39 lvG
c.439 BYZANTIUM, rebelling against Athens from 440, back into Athenian League until 411. 439
OCD 186
c.439 MORYCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 440, ends.  GLAUKINOS succeeds until 438. 439 wikEA
c.438 EURIPIDES' play  Alcestis  (his earliest extant tragedy) wins 2nd prize.  King Admetos is fated to die unless someone else dies in his place.  His wife Alcestis makes the sacrifice, but is rescued by Heracles.  Admetos persuades the gods to let them both live. 438 B76 I-208, 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRA 1145, DGRBM 2-107, Dur 2-244, MCAW 129, OCD 419, OHG, bk
c.438 Old Comedy poet PHERECRATES wins 1st victory.  Immitates style of Crates, whose actor he had been. 438 DGRBM 3-258
c.438 GLAUKINOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 439, ends.  THEODOROS succeeds until 437. 438 wikEA
c.438 Athena Parthenos PARTHENON, under construction 447-32, temple dedicated during Panathenaic festival.  Statue of ATHENA PARTHENOS by sculptor Phidias, begun 447, is placed in it.  Statue is 36 ft high assembled on a wooden core, covered with shaped bronze plates covered in turn with removable gold plates, save for the ivory surfaces of the face and arms.  The gold weighs 44 talents, (1,100 kg), and lasts until 296.  Statue remains in Parthenon until 5th cen. CE. Drawing pub dom

438 B76 II-462, VII-774, 935, 2-266, 13-565, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-244, DGRG 1-270, Dur 2-244, LEWH 76, OCD 141, 785, 812, OHG, RAH 272, TToH, TTT, lvG     437 MCAW 129
437 SIRRAS becomes king of Lyncestis until 423. 437 wikLRI
437 PROPYLAEA, monumental gateway serving as entrance to the Acropolis, designed by architect Mnesicles, construction begun until 432.  Constructed entirely of Pentelic marble, covered the whole west end of the Acropolis, which was 168 feet wide, and cost 2000 talents. 437 B76 VI-952, CAH 5, CDCC 104, DGRBM 3-463, DGRG 1-268, Dur 2-244, LEWH 76, OCD 141, OHG, RAH 280     436 GHH
c.437 THEODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 438, ends.  EUTHYMENES succeeds until 436. 437 wikEA
c.437 GRABUS becomes king of the Illyrian Taulantii until 423. 437 wikGr
c.437 Hoping to relieve Athens from dependence on Sicily, PERICLES sails into BLACK SEA to thwart a Scythian / Thracian alliance and solidify commercial ties.  He establishes good relations with princes of Panticapaeum, from whom he needs grain exports.  He expells a local tyrant at Sinope and repopulates the area with 600 Athenians.  Remains until 436. 438 CAH 6-491
437 LEWH 70, MCAW 128, RAH 232
436 B76 8-356
c.437 PHORMIO expedition into Gulf of Corinth, makes alliances with some Acarnanians. 438 CAH 5     437 LEWH 70
c.437 Odeium (Music Hall) built at Athens. 437 GHH
c.437/6 Ennea Hodoi, a timber-rich site on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice is taken by Athenians under Hagnon son of Nicias, renamed AMPHIPOLIS, and colonized.  It is a base for gathering minerals and timber, and controls the mines at Pangaeus and the only bridge over the Strymon River.  Receives an Athenian garrison until 424. 437 CDGRA 189, DGRBM 3-196, DGRG 1-126, GHH, IDB 1-121, LEWH 70, OCD 800, OHG 143, RAH 232, TToH, wikAm     437/6 CAH 5, OCD 54, 775, lvG
436 B76 8-356, MCAW 128, OCD 799
c.436 EUTHYMENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 437, ends.  LYSIMACHOS succeeds until 435. 436 wikEA
c.436 PERICLES, in Black Sea from 437, returns to Athens. 436 CAH 6-491
c.436 Comic poet CRATINOS wins 1st prize. 436 DGRBM, GHH
c.436 20 Athenian ships under Andocides and Glaucon sent to Corcyra to protect it from Corinthians. 436 DGRBM 1-168
c.435 EPIDAMNOS Illyria, held jointly by Corcyra and CORINTH from 625:  Commoners overthrow oligarchs, who then besiege it.  Commoners ask Corcyra for help.  Corcyra refuses.  Commoners ask Corinth for help.  Corinthians reinforce democracy in power.  Corcyrans recapture Epidamnos and begin hostilities with Corinth. 436 GHH, lvG, bk
435 B76 8-356, CAH 5, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 289, 392, OHG, bk, wikCrf
c.435 Corcyran fleet defeats Corinthian fleet at Leucimme (low promontory protruding north, on southeast coast of Corcyra), sinks 15 Corinthian ships. 435 B76 8-356, CAH 5, Dur 2-244, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 289, 392, OHG, bk, wikCrf
c.435 LYSIMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 436, ends.  ANTIOCHIDES succeeds until 434. 435 wikEA
c.435 CYLLENE, seaport town of Elis, burnt by Corcyrans for furnishing ships to the Corinthians. 435
DGRG 1-724
c.435 CORINTH begins building new fleet to punish Corcyra. 435 B76 8-356
c.435 Zeus Statue of ZEUS completed by Phidias of Elis at Olympia for the temple of Zeus there.  It is 13m tall, ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden frame, and represents Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedar throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold and precious stones.  It lasts until 5th cen. CE.  A Roman copy survives. 435 CAH 5, TTPC, wikSZO 431 MCAW 129
430 B76 X-878, OHG

Photo
Sanne Smit
c.434 CORCYRA V, under Corinth from 470?, rebels, asks Athens for help.  Joins Athenian League until 410. 435 B76 III-149, CAH 5, Dur 2-440
434 B76 8-356
433 GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 289, 392, 800, OHG
c.434 ANTIOCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 435, ends.  KRATES succeeds until 433. 434 wikEA
c.434 Lysippos, Old Comedy dramatist, flourishes.  Only 3 titles of plays are extant. 434 GHH 400 bril
c.434 Athenian treasury deposited in the Parthenon. 434 Dur 2-266
c.434/3 EISPHORA TAX:  an emergency levy on capital wealth for military purposes, is first attested in the financial decrees of Callias. 434/3
CAH 6-546
c.433 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, is strengthened by immigrations, receives territory from Macedon. 433
OCD 751
c.433 PERDICCAS-II king of Macedon 452-13 fights Athenians, (who had supported one of his dynastic rivals) until 431. 433 lvG
c.433 CORCYRA, in Athenian League 434-10, sends envoys to Athenian Assembly, asking for help.  A Corinthian envoy happens to be present.  Both present arguments.  Athens offers Corcyra a "defensive only" alliance, the 1st entirely defensive pact in Greek history. 433 CAH 5, DGRBM,
bk, lvG
c.433 KRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 434, ends.  APSEUDES succeeds until 432. 433 wikEA
c.433 CORINTH appeals to SPARTA for help against Athens.  Megara and Aegina back Corinth. 433 TTPC
433 fall Athens sends 10 ships to Corcyra, with orders not to fight the Corinthians unless they try to land on Corcyra.  20 more ships under LACEDAEMONIOS, son of Cimon arrive soon after. 433 LEWH 72, OCD 240, 289, 392, 800, TTPC, lvG fall 433 OCD 796
c.433 Corinthian fleet (90 ships + 60 allied ships) builds a base on the mainland, southeast of Corcyra.  Corcyrans counter by sending 110 galleys to the bay of SYBOTAThe 30 Athenian ships keep the Corinthians in check, but would not begin the attack themselves because of orders.  The Corcyrans lose 70 ships.  Corinthian allies lose 30 ships.  Corinthian fleet goes home.  Both sides claim victory. 433 CAH 5, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, lvG
432 DGRBM
no date: B76 8-356
c.433 Athens orders POTIDAEA Chalcidice, a Corinthian colony in the Athenian League, to quit receiving Corinthian magistrates, to tear down its seaward wall, and to send hostages to Athens. 433 B76 8-356-7, LEWH 72, MCAW 128     432 lvG
c.433 ANACTORIUM Acarnania, founded 630, colonized jointly by Corinthians and Corcyrans from ?, taken by fraud by Corinthians until 425. 433 bk
432 DGRG 1-128
c.432 spring ChalcidiceAssured of Peloponnesian aid, POTIDAEA, (a Corinthian colony in Chalcidice that is also in Athenian League from 479), rebels against Athens, allies with Perdiccas and the Corinthians, besieged and blockaded by Athens until 430.   Socrates is among Athenian soldiers. 433 B76 8-356-7, GHH
432 B76 8-357, CAH 5, DGRBM, DGRG 1-560, Dur 2-365, 441,
LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 796, 870, 987, OHG, TTPC, bk, rcSB2
c.432 APSEUDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 433, ends.  PYTHODOROS succeeds until 431. 432 wikEA
c.432 MEGARA has been cultivating land consecrated to Demeter, and now kills an Athenian herald. 433/2 lvG
c.432 MEGARA is barred by Pericles'  Megarian Decree  from all markets of Athens and all harbors in the Athenian Empire, which Megara had been guaranteed in the 30 Year Treaty of 445.  This ruins Megara's economy. 433/2 B76 14-20, bk, lvG
432 CAH 5, 6-488, LEWH 72, MCAW 129, OCD 665, 801
c.432 Athenian architect PHEIDAS dies. 432 IDB 1-308, Dur 2-326
c.432 LENAEA festival, specializing in comedy from 440, now produces tragedy. pre-432 OHG 180
c.432 Congress at Lacedaemon. 432 GHH
c.432 Corinthian XENOCLEIDES sent with a fleet to Corcyra. 432 DGRBM 3-1289
c.432 Athenian astronomer METON flourishes.

Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Observes the summer solstice.  Calculates comparative chronology of solar and lunar cycles.
(See Naburimannu 450, Oenopides 450, China 350)

Λ CALENDAR V:  Proposes METONIC CYCLE.  Assuming 235 lunar months = 19 solar years.   235/12 = 19.583.  19 x 12 = 228.   235 minus 228 = 7.   Therefore he proposes adding 7 months every 19 years.  There is no evidence that it was ever used for the civil calendar.
(See Chinese 444, Zoroastrian 441, Mayan 400, Babylonian 380)
432 B76 3-599, CDGRA 131, DGRA 229, DGRBM 2-1069, MCAW 129, 4nel
432/1
CDCC 157
430 B76 3-597, OHG
no date:
OCD 679
c.432 PARTHENON, begun on Acropolis 447, is completed with the finishing of the sculptures.  432 B76 VII-774, CDCC 104, LEWH 76, OCD 141, TTT, lvG
431 B76 II-462, Dur 2-244
Propylaea
PROPYLAEA             Photo by Ricardo Andre Frantz
c.432 PROPYLAEA, the monumental gateway to the Acropolis, begun 437, finished. 432 CDCC 104, DGRBM 3-463, LEWH 76, OCD 141, OHG, RAH 431 B76 VI-952
c.432 ChalcidiceCities of CHALCIDICE, in Athenian League from ?, rebel, establish a common capital at OLYNTHOS, begin CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE until 379. 432 B76 II-711, CDCC 181, OCD 320
432/1 OCD 225
c.432 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, in Athenian League from 454, independent until 379. 432 rcSB2
c.432 PERDICCAS-II, king of Macedon 452-13, encourages Olynthos to join together of to form a single community with its neighbors. 432
CAH 6-454
c.432 Athens sends fleet and army to Macedonia to help Philip and Derdas against Perdiccas. 432 DGRBM 3-188
c.432 Callias and 4 other Athenians command forces sent against Perdiccas and the rebelling Chalcidians. 432 DGRBM 1-567
Macedonia Thrace
c.432 BEROEA Macedonia attacked unsuccessfully by Athenians under Callias. 432 DGRG 1-393
c.432 THERME on northwest corner of Chalcidice, under Macedonia from ?, taken by Athens, under Athens until 431. 432 DGRBM 2-1217, wikNA
c.432 ECONOMY V:  Athens has 9,000 talents in gold and silver reserves, which equals 54,000,000 drachmas.  1 drachma is a hoplite's daily wage.  A third of a drachma = 2 obols = daily subsistence money.  Athens spends 800 talents per year on its fleet.  Building costs of 447-425 total 8,000 talents.  It assesses subject states 460 talents per year. 432
Dur 2-439, OCD CDCC 587
c.432 Citizens of AMPHILOCHIAN ARGOS, allies of Athens, expelled by Corinthians from Ambracia.  The Acarnanians, in order to restore the expelled Amphilochians, ask Athens for help.  Athens sends Phormio, who takes Argos, expells the Ambracians, and restores the town to Amphilochians and Acarnanians. 432 DGRG 1-10, 119, 207
c.432 AMBRACIA north of Bay of Actium, allied to Corinth from ?, destroyed by Athens, allied to Athens until ?. 432 rcSB2
c.432 Athenian Phormio sent with reinforcements to help Callias blockade Potidaea Chalcidice. 432 B76 VII-961, DGRBM 3-345
c.432 PHIDIAS, friend of Pericles, accused of embezzling gold intended for the statue of Athena, also accused of impiously portraying himself and Pericles on the shield of the statue.  The first charge is disproved, but for the second Phidias is imprisoned until death 432. 432 DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, SHWC 79
no date: wikPer, wikΦd
c.432 ASPASIA, mistress of Pericles, accused of corrupting women of Athens in order to satisfy Pericles' perversions.  Prosecuted by comic poet Hermippos, acquitted thanks to a rare emotional outburst of Pericles. 432 DGRBM, Dur 2-254, GHH
no date: wikPer
c.432 Prosecution of Anaxagoras, Aspasia, and Phidias at Athens;  Anaxagosas retires to Lampsacus, Aspasia is acquitted, and Phidias dies in prison. 432 rcSB2
c.432 DACHOS becomes king of Thessaly until 405. 432 rcSB2
c.432 Corinthians and other members of Peloponnesian League send reps to Sparta to get action against Athenians.  They say Athens' actions violates the 30 Years Peace of 445.  King Archidamos urges caution.  Majority wants war.  Corinth, Megara, and Aegina force Sparta to take action against Athens. 433 B76 I-489, 14-20
432 B76 8-357, CAH 5,
LEWH 72
c.432 Athenian envoys to Sparta defend their empire:  "It has always been the law that the weaker should be subject to the stronger. ... no one has ever allowed the cry for justice to hinder his ambition when he had a chance of gaining anything by might." 432
Dur 2-295
432 fall Over objection of king Archidamos-II, the Spartan assembly declares the 30 Years Peace of 445 violated by Athens.  Peloponnesian League assembles.  Influenced mainly by speech of ephor Sthenelaidas, it votes for war with Athens. 432 B76 8-357, CDCC 67, DGRBM 3-910, LEWH 72, MCAW 128
432 fall PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE sends 3 envoys (including Melesippos, Rhamphias) with ultimatim to restore independence of all Greek states to Pericles.  Fruitless negotiations follow. 432 B76 8-357, DGRBM 2-1017, 3-647, OCD 795, bk     431 OCD 796
c.432 Peloponnesian volunteers sail to Potidaea Chalcidice, attack Athenian blockade. Chalcidice 432 B76 14-20
c.432 fall ALCIBIADES, fighting for Athens at Potidaea Chalcidice, wounded, rescued by Socrates. 432 B76 1-436, DGRBM 3-848, MCAW 129, bk
c.431 Mar. PLATAEA Boeotia, independent from 479, (ally of Athens) claimed by Thebes as a member of Boeotian League, and besieged. 431 CAH 5, RAH 233, bk
c.431 A band of Thebans enters PLATAEA (the only ally of Athens in Boeotia) by treachery.  Plataean leader Naucleides opens the gates.  The band is persuaded to surrender, then killed.  Civilians are then evacuated by Athenians. 431 B76 14-21, DGRBM 2-1143, 3-199, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 839, wikPlat
c.431 spring ARCHIDAMOS marching to Attica, sends envoy Melesippos to Athens to negotiate.  Athenians don't even listen to him. by 431 DGRBM 2-1017
c.431 PYTHODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 432, ends.  EUTHYDEMOS succeeds until 430. 431 wikEA
431 spring 2nd PELOPONNESIAN WAR begins until 404.  Called ARCHIDAMIAN WAR until 421.
PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE under ARCHIDAMOS and BOEOTIANS invade Attica, ravage deserted land for a month and leave.  Pericles with 13,000 troops watches from the walls of Athens.  His strategy is to control the sea and raid the Peloponnesian coast in spring and fall while Spartans are sowing and reaping.
431 B76 8-357, 14-20, 21, 68, CAH 5, CDCC 100, 144, 658, Dur 2-244, GHH, GRG 282, IDB 1-770, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 140, 290, 795, OHG, RAH 237, 239, RAI3, Sdl 5-188, SHWC 67, TAWH 17, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvA, lvG
431 BCE
c.431 Athenian CAVALRY numbers 1,000.   Men provide their own horses. by 431 OCD 517
c.431 Aeginetans are expelled from their island by Athenians.  Spartans allow them to settle in the Thyreatis, which contain 2 towns, Thyrea and Anthene or Athene, both of which are made over to the fugitives. by 431 DGRG 1-726
c.431 Doric inhabitants of Argolis and Aegina expelled. 431 CGS 682
c.431 EVARCHOS tyrant of Astacos Acarnania, expelled by Athenians, until restored that winter by Corinthians. 431 DGRBM 2-60
c.431 Perdiccas-II king of Macedon 452-13 fighting Athens from 433, makes peace, but immediately quarrels with Methone, an Athenian ally on coast of Thessaly. 431 lvG
c.431 OdryssiansSPORADOKOS, main Odrysian power in thrace from 445, ends.  SITALCES, (not Sitacles) son of Teres-I, becomes king of Odrysians of Thrace until 424. 440 CAH 6-488 431 wikLRTD, wikStl
430 rcSB2
c.431 NYMPHODOROS of Abdera, whose sister married Sitalces, king of Odrysians 431-24, is reconciled with Athens, which wants alliance with Odrysians. 431 wikNA
c.431 SITALCES, king of Odrysians, is persuaded by Nymphodoros ruler of Abdera Thrace, whose sister Sitalces had married, to ally with Athens.  Nymphodoros negotiates agreement between Athens and Perdiccas, where Perdiccas regains Therme. 431 DGRBM 2-1217, 3-188, 843, GHH, OCD 1, wikPrd2
c.431 Athenian PHORMIO still blockading Potidaea Chalcidice, joined by Perdiccas in some operations against Chalcidians. 431 DGRBM 3-345
c.431 THERME on northwest corner of Chalcidice ceded by Athens to Peridiccas. 431
OCD 799
c.431 CRANNON, and other Thessalian towns, send troops to help Athens. 431 DGRG 1-699
c.431 AEGINA island, autonomous tributary of Sparta from 445:  Doric inhabitants of are expelled by Athenians and replaced with Athenians who set up a cleruchy until 405. 431 B76 I-108, 4-21, CDCC 30, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 252
c.431 Argolis30 Athenian triremes raid coast of Opuntian LOCRIS, in Peloponnesian League, Garrisons ATLANTE Island in Euboean Channel. 431
B76 14-20, 21
c.431 150 Athenian triremes under 3 commanders sail from Piraeus, raid Peloponnesian coast. 431 B76 14-21, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-847
c.431 Athenians PROTEAS and 2 others sent in command of 100 ships around the Peloponnese. 431 DGRBM 3-553
c.431 CEPHALLENIA Island outside mouth of Corinthian Gulf won over by Athenian fleet, becomes ally of Athens until ?.  Athenian base established. 431 B76 4-21, DGRG 1-699, OCD 799
c.431 CLEON the Tanner, Athenian politician, attacks Pericles until 430. 431 B76 8-357, OCD 251
c.431 PERICLES lists Athenian temple funds as Athenian resources, but specifies that the Athenians should only touch these in an emergency and should replace eventually anything used up. 431 CAH 6-555
c.431 Λ ECONOMY V:  45% V of the Athenian electorate are property owners. 431
Dur 2-465
c.431 ECONOMY:  Number of Athenian citizens with comfortable income has doubled since the end of the Persian war in 480.  Citizen class in Attica is 43,000. 431
Dur 2-286, 468
c.431  Constitution of Athens :  oligarchic pamphlet written by an unknown critic of the Athenian democracy. 431
OCD 1143
c.431 EUPHORION, son of Aeschylus, wins 1st prize at Dionysia over Sophocles and Euripides. 431 B76 1-149, 6-1032, OCD 419, TTPC
c.431 EURIPIDES' play  Medea  wins 3rd prize at Dionysia.  Portrays a wife discarded for a younger rival.  She kills her rival and her children by faithless husband.  Message:  Divorce is not honorable to women.  Challenges conventional morals and religion. 431 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-107, MCAW 131, OCD 419, OHG, TToH, TTPC, bk
c.431 Athenian sculptor/painter,architect PHIDIAS dies. 435 TToH     431 LEWH 76 430 wikΦd
c.431 Thucydides'  History  begins. 431 OHG
c.431 Sparta, pressed by Corinth, agrees to liberate Greece from Athenian oppression. 431 OHG 154
431
Aug 3
Partial SOLAR ECLIPSE during Peloponnesian War.
"The same summer, at the beginning of a new lunar month, the only time by the way at which it appears possible, the sun was eclipsed after noon.  After it had assumed the form of a crescent and some of the stars had come out, it returned to its natural shape."
(Thucidides:  History of the Peloponnesian War 2-28)
431 hbar, nasaS
c.431 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid of Sparta 469-27 leads Peloponnesian army invading Attica. 431 CAH 5, OCD 98
431/30 Perdiccas-II king of Macedon 452-13, collaborates with Athenian Phormio. winter 431/0 lvG
c.431/0 EVARCHOS tyrant of Astacos Acarnania, expelled that year, restored that winter by Corinthians under Eumachos and Timoxenos. 431 DGRBM 3-1151 winter 431/0 DGRBM 2-60, 87
c.430 OPTICAL TELEGRAPH used by Greeks.  Combination of 5 torches on hilltops indicates each letter of alphabet. 430-21 TTS, TTT
c.430 HELLANICOS, poet, flourishes. 431 GHH
c.430 AMPHILOCHIAN ARGOS, ally of Athens, attacked by Spartans. 430 B76 14-21
c.430 ZAKYNTHOS island, ally of Athens, attacked by 1,000 Spartan hoplites under admiral Cnemos, ravaged, but remains unconquered. 430 B76 14-21, DGRBM 1-808
c.430 EUTHYDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 431, ends.  APOLLODOROS succeeds until 429. 430 wikEA
c.430 PLAGUE hits Attica until 425, kills more than ¼ of Athens. 430 B76 8-357, Dur 2-441, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 26, 796, 801, OHG, SHWC 67, TToH, TTPC     429 CDCC 104
c.430 Plague at Athens.  Physician ACRON of Acragas has people make large fires in the streets to purify the air, which appears to help somewhat. 430 DGRBM 1-15
c.430 Athenian expedition under Melesander to Caria and Lycia.  Unsuccessful. 430 DGRBM 2-921
c.430 Athenian expedition under Hagnon and Cleopompos to Epidauros in Argolis fails, and goes to Potidaea Chalcidice.  Plague infested Athenian soldiers infect Potidaean troops with Plague, then, after losing 1,500 of 4,000 men, return to Athens. 430 B76 8-357, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-325, LEWH 72, TTPC, lvG
c.430 Corinth sends envoys under Aristeas to ask aid of Persian king against Athens.  Aristeas and the rest are intercepted at Bisanthe by Nymphodoros of Abdera. 430 DGRBM 2-1217, 3-693, 843, 1132, wikNA 430/29 CAH 6-451
c.430 Spartans ANERISTOS and NICOLAOS sent as envoys to Persia to get aid for Sparta.  They are siezed in Thrace by Sitalces, king of Odrysians, taken to Athens, and executed. 430 DGRBM 1-117, 2-1192, 3-693, 843
430/29 CAH 6-451
c.430 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid of Sparta 469-27 leads Peloponnesian army invading Attica 2nd time. 430 B76 I-489, 4-21, CAH 5, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 132, OCD 98, lvG
c.430 Spartans don't get plague, because they kill everybody they catch. 430 TTPC
c.430 HIPPOCRATES of Cos Island, physician, invited to Athens to try to stop the plague. 430
Dur 2-343
c.430 CLEON, Athenian politician, attacks Pericles again.  PERICLES, undisputed ruler of Athens from 445, is convicted of embezzlement, fined, and deposed. 430 CAH 5, Dur 2-244, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 251, 801, lvG
c.430 Athenian embassy goes to Delos to ask Oracle of Apollo how to stop the plague.  Oracle says the cubical altar of Apollo must be doubled.  Athenians double the measurements, but plague continues.  They figure it's because they doubled the dimensions instead of the volume. 430 BHM 71
430-21 TTS
c.430 Athenian PHORMIO blockading Potidaea Chalcidice from 432, leaves, but the blockade continues. 430 DGRBM 3-345
c.430 PLAGUE in Athens causes deterioration of mind and morality as well as body, according to Thucydides. 430
MCAW 133
c.430 MANTINEA Arcadia allies with Sparta until 421. 430 rcPl
c.430 SOCRATES begins teaching in Athens. age 40: KPHP 61
c.430 THUCYDIDES, the historian, gets the plague. 430 Dur 2-432
c.430 EURIPIDES' play  Heracleidae :  Iolaos, Heracles' old comrade, and his children hide from Eurystheos in Athens, ruled by King Demophon, who is descended from Heracles.  As Eurystheos prepares to attack, an oracle tells Demophon that he would win only if a noble woman is sacrificed to Persephone.  Macaria, dau of Iolaus, volunteers, and a spring is named in her honor. 430 OCD 419
c.430 AMBRACIOTS, wanting to recover Ambracia (destroyed 432), march against Amphilochian Argos, unable to take it, devastate its territory and retire. 430 DGRG 1-119, 207
c.430 HERODOTUS publishes final part of his 449  History . 430 MCAW 133
c.430 FLUTES are made unpopular in Athens by criticism of Alcibiades, who says one looks ridiculous playing it, and it is popular in crude Boeotia. 430 MCAW 133
c.430 Oldest extant piece of Attic prose is an anti-democratic essay on the constitution of Athens falsely attributed to Xenophon. 430 B76 10-1090
c.430 late Athenian PHORMIO, with 30 ships, sent to help Acarnanians against Ambracians, who had siezed Amphilochian Argos. 430 DGRBM 3-345
c.430 late ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, besieged by Athenians from 432, starved to surrender.  Athenian cleruchy of 1,000 colonists established until 404. 430 CAH 5, DGRG 1-560, Dur 2-441, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 870, 987, RAH 243, rcSB2
430/29 lvG   429 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 796
430/29 Cult of BENDIS, a Thracian goddess carrying 2 spears, is officially accepted at the Piraeus for benefit of resident Thracians. 430/29 OCD 165
430/29 Athenian admiral PHORMIO sent with 20 ships to prevent Corinthian ships from using the Corinthian Gulf.  He sails to Naupactos in Aetolia, and does so from there. 432 B76 VII-961
430 CAH 5, OCD 827     winter 430/29 DGRBM 3-345, lvG
429 GHH, LEWH 72
429 AMYNTAS, aided by Sitalces, king of Odrysians of Thrace, challenges Perdiccas-II king of Macedonia 452-13 for throne.  But Perdiccas-II gets Thracian Seuthes to mediate a peace, by promising him his sister Stratonice in marriage. 429 DGRBM 1-154, 3-809
c.429 APOLLODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 430, ends.  EPAMEINON succeeds until 428. 429 wikEA
c.429 EUPOLIS, Old Comedy poet, first exhibits. 430/29 wikEp     429 GHH
c.429 PHRYNICOS, Old Comedy poet, first exhibits. 430/29 wikEp     429 GHH, wikEp
c.429 PLAGUE continues, takes a third of Athens. 429 SHWC 67, lvG
c.429 Pericles loses a sister and 2 legitimate sons to the plague. 429 Dur 2-442
429 spring PERICLES, despite scandal of 430, is again elected strategos of Athens. spring 429 LEWH 72, OCD 801, lvG     no date: B76 8-357
c.429





c.429
OdryssiansSITALCES, king of Odrysians 431-25, and SEUTHES, king of another Thracian tribe, with 100,000 inf and 50,000 cav from independent Thracian tribes invade Macedonia under king Perdiccas-II 452-13 to put Amyntas son of Philip on Macedonian throne.  Sitalces crosses the passes of Mount Cercine, and descends to Doberus in Paeonia.  Perdiccas is unable to oppose him in the field, and allows him to ravage the open country, with little opposition, as far as river Axius.  From there Sitalces advances thru Mygdonia (north Chalcidice) into Chalcidice, laying waste every thing in his way.  But Sitalces is disappointed of the expected co-operation of an Athenian fleetSitalces' army needs provisions, and winter approaches, so he listens to his nephew Seuthes (who had secretly gone over to Perdiccas), and withdraws to his own dominions, after being only 30 days in Macedonia. 429
B76 2-615, 14-21,
CAH 6-447, DGRBM 3-188, 809, 843, OCD 799, 1065, lvG, wikStl, wikθW
c.429 Coalition of Peloponnesians, Epirans, and Ambracians, all under Spartan admiral CNEMOS with 1,000 hoplites, invade Acarnania.  Allies fight each other, and are defeated at STRATOS Acarnania by Athenians.  Acarnanians and Athenians fight Ambracians and Peloponnesians until 426.  Cnemos and his hoplites go home. 429 B76 14-21, DGRBM 1-808, 3-346, DGRG 1-120, OCD 2, lvG
c.429 PLATAEA Boeotia, independent from 479, attacked and besieged by ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid of Sparta 469-27 until 427. 429 B76 I-489, 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-267, 2-101, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 98, 839, OHG, lvG
c.429 Xenophon and 2 other Athenian generals lead an expedition against the Chalcideans and Bottiaeans, but are compelled to retreat to Potidaea. 429 DGRBM 3-1297
c.429 CLEIPPEDES is strategos of Athens until 428. 429 OCD 252
c.429 PERICLES dies of plague.  Democratic strategos of Athens from 443.  Leaving 2 legitimate sons, Xanthippos and Paralos.  Mistress ASPASIA goes to Lysicles until 428.  Opponent and popular demagogue CLEON the tanner succeeds until 422. 429 B76 II-989, 8-357, 14-68, BCoC 368, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-200, Dur 2-421, GHH, LEWH 69, 72, MCAW 132, OCD 131, 796, 801, OHG, RAH 225, 243, SHWC 58, TToH, TTPC, lvG, rcSB3
c.429 MEGARA allied with Corinth from 446, allies with Sparta until 395. 429 rcSB3
c.429 47 Peloponnesian ships + 30 smaller troop carriers under Cnemos sail Corinthian gulf to join Peloponnesian attack on Acarnania.  Intercepted and defeated twice by 20 fast-sailing ships under Athenian admiral PHORMIO off NAUPACTOS in Aetolia. 429 B76 VII-961, 14-21, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-1137, LEWH 72, OCD 796, 827, TTPC, lvG, wikNp
c.429 Timocrates, Brasidas and Lycophron sent to help Cnemos after his defeat by Phormio.  In a 2nd battle, Timocrates, on a Leucadian galley, one of the fast-sailing ships, pursues the Athenians, gets ahead of his squadron.  The hindmost Athenian galley wheels suddenly around a merchant ship lying at anchor, strikes its pursuer in the center, and sinks it.  Timocrates suicides.  His body is washed into Naupactos harbor. 429 DGRBM 3-1137
c.429 PLAGUE at Athens 430-25, inspires drunkenness, gluttony, and debauchery as citizens lose fear of gods and law. 429 TTPC
c.429 Pericles'  CITIZENSHIP RESTRICTION LAW  of 451 repealed.  Citizenship, restricted to those with 2 Athenian parents from 451, re-opened to get more taxes until 403. 429 LEWH 70
c.429 Playwright PHILOCLES wins 1st place over Sophocles. 429 DGRBM 3-301
c.429 SOPHOCLES produces  Oedipus Rex . soon after 430 B76 17-17, OCD 1001, bk     429 Dur 2-244, MCAW 133     429-25 CDCC 834
429/8 Athenian admiral PHORMIO brings help to the Acarnanians, expells several people regarded as unreliable, then returns to Naupactos Aetolia. 429/8 lvG
c.428 SEUTHES, king of a Thracian tribe, marries Stratonice sis of Perdiccas-II, . no date: DGRBM 3-809
c.428 CLEON becomes leader of Athenian radical party favoring war.  NICIAS becomes leader of conservative party opposing war. 428
LEWH 72
c.428 EPAMEINON, eponymous archon of Athens from 429, ends.  DIOTIMOS succeeds until 427. 428 wikEA
c.428 CLEON, leader of Athenian radicals, levies a tax on the rich to finance war on Mytilene Lesbos.  1st direct property tax since 510.  It raises 200 talents. 428 CAH 5, CDCC 489, Dur 2-265, bk
c.428 Victorious Athenian admiral PHORMIO sails back to Athens, and retires. 428 lvG
c.428 EISPHORA TAX: an emergency levy on capital wealth for military purposes, first attested 434/3, is now levied for 200 talents, and continues until 377. 428 CAH 6-546, CDGRA 266
c.428 Athenian admiral PHORMIO dies. 428 B76 VII-961
c.428 Athens, with new finances, sends a large fleet under PACHES against Lesbos.  Peloponnesian fleet does nothing.  Lesbos is crushed. 428 LEWH 72, OCD 320, 796
c.428 Spartan fleet under Alcidas goes to Lesbos to relieve Mytilene, but Mytilene had surrendered to Athenians 7 days previous. 428 DGRBM 1-101
c.428 LYSICLES, popular leader in Athens, killed. 428 OCD 131
c.428 100 Athenian ships ravage eastern Peloponnese. 428 B76 14-22
c.428 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid king of Sparta 469-27 leads Peloponnesian army invading Attica 3rd time. 428 B76 I-489, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-267, OCD 98, lvG
c.428 EURIPIDES' play  Hippolytos Coronifer  wins at the City Dionysia.  About irreconcilable conflict between sexual passion and asceticism. 428 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-104, Dur 2-244, MCAW 135, OCD 418, 549, OHG 191, TTPC, bk
c.427 Envoys from Leontini Sicily including sophist GORGIAS, age 60, sail to Athens for aid, which is granted.  Gorgias stays and introduces rhetoric as an art form. 427 CAH 5, CDCC 400, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 71, 76, MCAW 133, OCD 471, 596, OHG, wikGrg     no date: LEWH 71
c.427 20 Athenian ships under Laches and Charoeades sail for Sicily. 427 B76 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 819, DGRBM 2-700, IDB 4-75, OCD 985, 1030, OHG
c.427 Oligarchs in Λ CORCYRA V murder 60 democrat leaders, begin civil war with democrats. 427 Dur 2-284, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, bk, wikCrf
c.427 Athenian Nicostratos with 12 ships and 500 Messenians, sails from Naupactos to Corcyra.  He mediates between oligarchs and democrats, quells the rebellion, imprison 400 aristocrats, try and execute 50 of them.    Many oligarchs flee to the mainlandNicostratos achieves an agreement, and defensive alliance with Athenians. 427
DGRBM 2-1200, Dur 2-284, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, bk, wikCrf
c.427 33 Spartan ships under Alcidas intervenes near Corcyra, drives Athenian & Corcyran fleets back to Corcyra.  Alcidas learns of 60 Athenian ships under Eurymedon approaching, sails back home. 428 DGRBM 2-111
427 DGRBM 1-101, lvG
c.427 Corinthian fleet sent to help oligarchs of Corcyra, but are defeated by Athenian fleet. 427
OCD 289
c.427 Corcyran democrats massacre oligarchs, While Athenian Eurymedon is supposedly in charge. 427 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 289, MCAW 132
c.427 DIOTIMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 428, ends.  EUKLES succeeds until 426. 427 wikEA
c.427 Athenian Assembly, under influence of CLEON, proposes to execute all of Mytilene Lesbos after its rebellion is suppressedA ship is sent with this order.  The decision is reversed the next day.  Another ship is sent in time to prevent execution of women & children, but not the men. 427 B76 II-989, DGRBM 2-75, OCD 251, MCAW 133
c.427 THUCYDIDES to Cleon in the Assembly:  "Your empire is a despotism exercised over unwilling subjects who are always conspiring against you.  They do not obey for any kindness which you do them to your own injury, but only in so far as you are their master." 427 Dur 2-440
c.427 Spartans, this time under Cleomenes and Pausanias, invade Attica again. 427 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-267, 3-159, GHH, MCAW 132
c.427 Athenian NICIAS takes Minoa island near Megara. 427 DGRBM 2-1185
c.427 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid dies.  King of Sparta from 469, with Pleistoanax from 459.  Son AGIS-II succeeds to 399. 427 B76 I-489, CDCC 23, DGRBM 1-72, MRDK, OCD 27, 1007, TTPC, lvG, rcPl, wikKS     427/6 OCD 27, 98, bk     426 lvG
c.427 PLATAEA Boeotia, besieged by Spartans from 429, starved to surrender.  Half of its garrison had previously escaped.  The rest are executed.  Plataea destroyed until 386. 427 B76 14-22, CAH 5, 6-563, CDCC 821, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132,3, OCD 839, OHG, lvG, wikPlat
c.427 PLATAEA Boeotia destroyed by Thebes!!!!!!!!!!!, under control of Sparta until 386. 427 CAH 6-563 426 rcSB3
c.427 ARISTOPHANES begins dramatic career with play  Banqueters , produced by Callistratos.  A profligate son argues with his father and with a virtuous young man.  Satire on his contemporaries educational and moral theories.  Wins 2nd prize. 427 B76 1-1154, DGRBM 1-312, GHH, OCD 113
c.427 ARISTOPHANES produces  Daitals . 427 CAH 5
c.427 Temple to ATHENA NIKE, comissioned 449, construction begins by architect Callicrates on the bastion of the southwest corner of the Acropolis.  Made of pentelic marble in Ionic style.  Finished 424. 430 CDCC 104 427 B76 II-462
c.426 Coast of MEGARA ravaged by Athenian NICIAS. 426 DGRBM 2-1185, lvG
c.426 LOCRIS ravaged by Athenian fleet under NICIAS, who then goes home. 426 DGRBM 2-1185, lvG
c.426 DEMOSTHENES and Procles command 30 Athenian ships sent on annual cruise around Peloponnese. 426 DGRBM 1-979
c.426 EUKLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 427, ends.  EUTHYNOS succeeds until 425. 426 wikEA
c.426 TANAGRA, 25km east Thebes, ravaged by Athenians Hipponicos and Eurymedon. 426 DGRBM 1-567, 2-111, GHH, lvG
c.426 AMPHILOCHIAN ARGOS, ally of Athens, attacked by Ambracians and Peloponnesians, who are defeated by Athenian DEMOSTHENES at Olpae and Idomene north of Argos on the Gulf coast. 426 B76 14-22, DGRBM 3-702, DGRG 1-10, 120, 207, OCD 329, TTPC
c.426 Peloponnesians, after the battle of Olpae abandon Ambracian allies and secure their own safety by a secret agreement with Demosthenes.  They are given hospitality by Salynthius, a king of the Agraeans east of Amphilochia. 426 DGRBM 3-702
c.426 DEMOSTHENES deposits loot at Eupalion in Ozolian Locris, where it is soon taken by Spartan Eurylochos. 426 DGRG 1-875
c.426 Earthquake in Attica. 426 GHH
c.426 AGIS-II's begins first campaign to Attica, gets as far as isthmus, but stops because of earthquakes - evil omens.  Spartans appoint a guardian for Agis. 426 DGRBM 1-72, 267, lvG
c.426 Agiad prince Cleomenes leads the annual invasion of Attica. 426 lvG
c.426 Sparta offers peace.  Athens refuses. 426 LEWH 72
c.426 3,000 hoplites from Ambracia invade Amphilochian Argos in Acarnania and occupy fort of Olpae.  Acarnanians ask for help from Athenian Demosthenes, and 20 Athenian ships nearby under command of Aristotle and Hierophon. 426 wikBO
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES, with a few troops, goes to Acarnania, raises an army, hoping to invade Boeotia via Phocis. 426 TTPC
c.426 Ambracians ask for help from Eurylochus of Sparta, who marches past the Acarnanians without being observed. 426 wikBO
c.426 Aetolians ask Sparta for help against Messenians of Naupactos Aetolia. 426 DGRBM 2-110
c.426 LACHES, Athenian commander in Sicily, charged with corruption by Cleon, recalled. 426 DGRBM 2-700
c.426 Spartan EURYLOCHOS with 3,000 heavy-armed allies sent to help Aetolians against Messenians of Naupactos, where Demosthenes remains, but without an army.
Spartan MENEDAIOS also sent to help Aetolians.
426 DGRBM 2-110, 1036
c.426 Spartan EURYLOCHOS assembles troops at Delphi, receives submission of Ozolian Locrians, marches thru their land to Naupactos Aetolia, which is rescued by Acarnanians sent by Demosthenes.  Eurylochos withdraws, and remains among allies. 426 DGRBM 2-110
c.426 Demosthenes with his ships, 200 hoplites, and 60 archers, arrives in Ambracian Gulf below Olpae.  He joins the Acarnanian army and camps in a ravine opposite Eurylochos, where both sides make preparations for 5 days.  As the Ambracian and Peloponnesian army is larger, Demosthenes sets up an ambush with 400 hoplites from Acarnania, to be used when the battle begins. 426 wikBO
c.426 Ambracians defeat left wing of Acarnanians and Amphilochians, at OLPAE, chasing them back to Amphilochian Argos, but are themselves defeated by the rest of the Acarnanians when they return.  Demosthenes loses 300 men, but wins that night. 426
DGRG 1-74, OCD 51, wikBO
c.426 A 2nd Ambracian army marches towards Olpae.  They camp on the road to the fort at Idomene, having no knowledge of the previous defeat.  Demosthenes pretends his troops are the other Ambracian army, surprises them there at night, and kills most of them.  The rest flee to the hills or the sea where they are captured by the 20 Athenian ships.  Overall, the Ambracians lose about 1,000 men over the 2 days. 426 wikBO
c.426 Spartans EURYLOCHOS and Macarios are killed at Olpae.  MENEDAIOS takes over. 426 DGRBM 2-1036, wikBO
c.426 Spartan MENEDAIOS campaigns at Amphilochian Argos. 426 DGRBM 2-1036
c.426 MENEDAIOS, leader of Ambracians, tries to make a truce with Demosthenes, who would only allow the leaders of the army to escape, just to discredit the Spartans in the eyes of all Greeks. 426 DGRBM 2-1036, wikBO
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES defeats Spartan Menedaios at Amphilochia. 426
OCD 796
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES marches against Salynthius a king of the Agraeans, and compels them to join the Athenian alliance. 426 DGRG 1-74 424 DGRBM 3-702
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES invades AETOLIA and is defeated by light Aetolian infantry. 426 CAH 6-681, OCD 21, 329, lvG    no date B76 14-22
c.426 HERACLEA TRACHIS founded 5 miles west of Thermopylae by Spartans including Alcidas.  It has continuous troubles with neighbors and with Thessalians until 400. 426 CAH 6-31, DGRBM 1-101, 2-734, OCD 498
c.426 Pythian priestess of Delphi repeatedly advises Sparta to "bring back the seed of the demi-god, the son of Zeus; else you will plough with a silver plough" no date: DGRBM 3-412
c.426 Interim Agiad king of Sparta from 445, PAUSANIAS steps down.  Father Pleistoanax, exiled in Arcadia from 445, is recalled (on advice of Apollo).  PLEISTOANAX resumes until 409.  But he is accused of colluding with the Pythian priestess, and blamed for any future misfortune of Sparta and not trusted with an army until 421. 427/6 CDCC 690
426 CDCC 653, DGRBM 3-412, OCD 793
444 MRDK
c.426 SOPHOCLES produces  Trachiniae  (Women of Trachis). maybe after 430 B76 17-17 423? TTPC
c.426 EURIPIDES publishes  Andromache .  Attacks Spartan cruelty and duplicity, probably because of Plataea 427. 427 MCAW 135     426 OCD 419 425 bk     419 TTPC
pre-423 B76 6-1032
c.426 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Babylonians , produced by Callistratos in the City Dionysia.  Dionysos is a character.  Portrays Athenian allies as slaves.  Ridicules Cleon, and the system of appointing officers by lot.  Its criticism of Athenian magistrates gets Aristophanes prosecuted by Cleon, apparently unsuccessfully. 426 B76 1-1154, CAH 5, CDCC 76, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-421, OCD 113, 251
426/5 Aetolians invite Spartans to join them. winter 426/5 lvG
c.426 POLYGNOTOS of Thasos, painter of large wall murals, in Athens from 462, dies. 440 B76 VIII-97
426 DGRBM 3-463
c.425 ANACTORIUM, under Corinth from 433, taken by Athenian general DEMOSTHENES, in cooperation with Acarnanians.  Corinthians expelled.  Anactorium absorbed into Acarnania. 425 DGRG 1-128, LEWH 72, OCD 57
c.425 PERDICCAS-II king of Macedon 452-13 allies with Spartan BRASIDAS to oust Athenians and Arrabaeos prince of Lyncos. 425 OCD 799 424 DGRBM 1-349
c.425 ODESSOS Thrace joins Athenian League until ?. 425 wikOd
c.425 EION Thrace under Athenians from ?, retaken by Chalcidians and Bottiaeans. 425 DGRG 1-809
425 May Athenian fleet under generals Eurymedon and Sophocles, enroute to protect Corcyra, driven by storm into Pylos harbor on west coast of Peloponnese.  When storm ends, Demosthenes is left at Pylos with 5 triremes.  Demosthenes fortifies Pylos, which is under Athens until 409.  Eurymedon and Sophocles sail on to Corcyra, where 60 Spartan ships under Brasidas are operating.  Demosthenes tries to stir up Messenians against Sparta. 425 B76 14-22, CAH 5, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 251, 289, 329, 796, 902, OHG, RAH 245-6, lvG, wikBPy
c.425 Λ CORCYRA V:  Democrats massacre oligarchs again. 425 OCD 289, wikCrf
c.425 Courtesan LAIS of Corinth flourishes.  Among her clients are philosopher Aristippos (2 of his alleged writings are about Lais) and Olympic champion Eubotas of Cyrene. 425 wikLoC
c.425 Earthquake in Euboea, which only now converts it from a peninsula to an island. 425 GHH
c.425 EUTHYNOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 426, ends.  STRATOCLES succeeds until 424. 425 wikEA
c.425 BRYSON of Heraclea, mathematician, sophist, flourishes.

Λ GEOMETRY V:  Contributes to squaring the circle and calculating pi.
(See Hippocrates 450, Hippasus 445, Hippias 420)
late 5th-cen: wikBH
c.425 Corinthian XENOCLEIDES sent with 300 heavy-armed soldiers to Ambracia. 425 DGRBM 3-1289
c.425 Plague in Attica from 430 ends. 423 TToH
c.425 ARISTOPHANES publishes anti-war play  Acharnians , produced by Callistratos, winning 1st prize at Lenaea.  Farmer hero Dicaeopolis makes a private peace treaty with Sparta despite opposition of chorus, and enjoys its benefits. 425 B76 I-57, 1-1154, CAH 5, CDCC 222, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-422, OCD 113, OHG 202, TTPC, bk
c.425 ARISTOPHANES parodies the recently completed 430 "History" of Herodotus. 425
OCD 508
c.425 HERODOTUS dies in Athens, Macedonia, or Thuri. after 430 wikHrd     425 Dur 2-729, LEWH 76, RAH 289, SHT 1-783, SHWC 77
424 IDB 2-596, MCAW 135, TToH
c.425 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, invades Attica and ravages for 15 days, learns of the Athenian fortification of Pylos, returns to Peloponnese.  He sends troops toward Pylos and sends word for Admiral Brasidas to return from Corcyra to Pylos. 425 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-72, GHH, MCAW 132, lvG, wikBPy
c.425 Spartan Admiral Brasidas with 60 ships escapes Athenian fleet, sails from Corcyra to Pylos.  Demosthenes at Pylos sends 2 ships to recall the Athenian fleet from Corcyra to counter Brasidas. 425
B76 14-22, wikBPy
c.425 Spartans under Brasidas land 420 hoplites with helot auxiliaries at SPHACTERIA Island in Pylos harbor, and attack the Athenian/Messenian garrison in Pylos from land and sea.  Attack fails, so Spartans besiege Demosthenes in Pylos. 425 B76 8-357, 14-22, GHH, LEWH 72, RAH 246, wikBPy
c.425 Athenian fleet under Eurymedon and Sophocles arrives at Pylos harbor, routs Spartan fleet, and traps the 420 Spartans on Sphacteria Island.  Spartans negotiate a truce: Spartans surrender ships, and are allowed to bring food and supplies to the men on Sphacteria. 425 B76 14-22, DGRBM 2-1186, Dur 2-442, OCD 251, lvG, wikBPy
c.425 Spartans send an embassy to Athens to negotiate a more permanent settlement at Sphacteria.  Athenian statesman CLEON thwarts Spartan peace efforts at Athens.  Spartan envoys return home.  Armistice at Pylos ends. 426 LEWH 72
425 B76 14-22, CAH 5, OCD 251, wikBPy
c.425 Athenian admiral NICIAS attacks coast of Corinth, kills Corinthian general LYCOPHRON in battle. 425 DGRBM 2-847, 1186
c.425 DEMOSTHENES and Athenian fleet besiege the Spartans on Sphacteria. 425 B76 8-357, LEWH 72, wikBSp
c.425 In Athens CLEON accuses DEMOSTHENES of wasting time and resources at Sphacteria.  NICIAS challenges Cleon to do better.  Cleon is sent with a fleet to do so.  Theogenes accompanies. 425 DGRBM 3-1074, LEWH 72
no date: OCD 251
c.425 Athenians CLEON and DEMOSTHENES capture 292 troops on Sphacteria, 120 of which are Spartan elite.  They are taken in chains to Athens to prevent another Spartan invasion of Attica. 425 B76 II-989, 8-357, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 489, Dur 3-442, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 676, RAH 246, TTPC, lvG, wikBSp
c.425 ATHENIAN LEAGUE doubles its dues to 1,200 talents. 425 CDGRA 478
c.425 Alcamenes hermALCAMENES, sculptor of Lemnos and Athens flourishes.  Noted for delicacy and finish of his works, of which only Roman copies survive.  This head of a herm (see 550) is an example. 450-00 wikAlc



Photo QuartierLatin1968
c.425 CRATINOS, Old Comedy dramatist, produces  Cheimazoumenoi , wins 2nd prize. 425 DGRBM 1-887
Callimachos Maenads
Callimachos Maenads from frieze of Temple of Athena Nike   Creative Commons
c.425 CALLIMACHOS, architect and sculptor of Athens and Corinth flourishes.  Pausanias says "though not of the first rank of artists, [he] was yet of unparalleled cleverness, so that he was the first to drill holes thru stones"—that is, in order to enhance surface effects of light and shade in locks of hair, foliage and other details.  Known for elaborately detailed sculptures or drapery.  Few securely attributed works by him survive, such as sculptures of Nikes on frieze of the Temple of Athena Nike.          . 450-00 wikClm
c.424 spring CLEON is elected stategos of Athens. spring 424 RAH 247
c.424 OdryssiansSITALCES king of Odrysians of Thrace from 431, campaigns against the Triballi and is killed.  Neph SEUTHES-I succeeds until 410. 424 CAH 6-449, 454, DGRBM 3-809, GHH, frH, rcSB2, wikLRTD, wikSths, wikStl
c.424 Artaphernes, a Persian envoy from Atraxerxes-I bound for Sparta is intercepted at Eion Thrace by Aristides son of Archippos, and brought to AthensHe has a letter containing a complaint by Atraxerxes about confusion caused by many conflicting messages.  Atraxerxes asks for a personal embassy to be sent back with the envoyThe Athenians send their own embassy with the envoy to EphesusMeanwhile, Atraxerxes dies, so nothing comes of any of it. 425 DGRBM 1-369
c.424 STRATOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 425, ends.  ISARCHOS succeeds until 423. 424 wikEA
c.424 THUCYDIDES (the historian) is elected stategos and sent with 7 ships to Thasos Island in north Aegean. 424 DGRBM 3-1112, EoΦ 8-123, θuc
c.424 KYTHERA island south of Peloponnese, under Sparta from 550, is taken by Athenians NICIAS and Nicostratos.  Under Athens until 421.  Garrisoned as a base for attacking Laconia. 424 B76 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-1186, 1200, DGRBM 3-332, GHH, LEWH 72, OCD 308, lvG taken by Cleon: MCAW 132
c.424 Athenian NICIAS ravages coast of Laconia. 424 GHH
c.424 Exiles from Aegina, given land by Spartans, are hunted down by Athenians.  Most exiles are killed at Threatis.  Survivors will be restored in 404. 424
B76 I-108
c.424 MegarisDemocratic party at MEGARA offers to betray Megara to Athens.  Demosthenes and Hippocrates immediately march to exploit this opportunity, and occupy the 2 long walls built and garrisoned by Athenians 459 which connect Megara to its port, Nisaea, but Athenians cannot enter Megara itself. 424 DGRBM 2-481
c.424 NISAEA, the main port of Megara, under a Spartan garrison from ?, is taken by Demosthenes and Hippocrates, under Athens until ?. 424 B76 8-358, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-980, 2-481, LEWH 72, OCD 329
c.424 Megarans destroy the 2 long walls. 424 wikNis
c.424 Demosthenes and Hippocrates try to take Megara, but are prevented by Spartan admiral BRASIDAS with 700 hoplites and 1,000 Argive mercenaries on their way to ThraceBrasidas secures dominance of pro-Spartan oligarchs at Megara, but doesn't have time to recover Nisaea.  He withdraws to Corinth. 424 DGRBM 1-980, LEWH 72, OCD 179, 329, 796, TTPC, lvG
c.424 BRASIDAS with 700 hoplites and 1,000 Argive mercenaries moves quickly thru Boeotia and Thessaly. 424 LEWH 72-3, OCD 179, 796, TTPC, lvG
c.424 Spartan admiral BRASIDAS with 700 hoplites and 1,000 Argive mercenaries arrive at Heraclea Thrace, persuades several cities to rebel against Athens. 424 B76 14-22, DGRBM 1-502, GHH, LEWH 72-3
c.424 EUCLES, Athenian commander of Amphipolis, asks Thucidides (the historian), now at Thasos, for help against Brasidas. 424 DGRBM 3-1112
c.424 ARGILOS, resenting Amphipolis occupying what was once their land, readily joins Brasidas. 424 DGRG 1-199
c.424 ACANTHOS Chalcidice joins Brasidas. 424 DGRBM
c.424 ARRHABAEUS king of Lyncestis west of Macedon rebels against overlord, Perdiccas-II of Macedon until 423. 424 wikArb
c.424 Perdiccas-II king of Macedon 452-13 supports Spartan general Brasidas, who in return helps him strengthen his grip on Lyncestis. 424 lvG
Macedonia Thrace
c.424 ACANTHOS Chalcidice, allied with Athens from 479, either joins Brasidas voluntarily, or is taken by him, allies with Sparta until 421. 424 CAH 5, DGRBM, DGRG 1- 8, rcSB2
c.424 TORONE, in central peninsula of Chalcidice, allied with Athens from ?, taken by Brasidas, under Sparta until 422. 424 CAH 5
c.424 AMPHIPOLIS, on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice, under Athens from 437/6, surrenders to Spartan BRASIDAS without resistance.  Under Sparta until 421.  Athenian admiral Thucydides does nothing to prevent it. 424 B76 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 144, DGRBM 3-1112, DGRG 1-126, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 132, OCD 54, 1067, bk, rcSB2     424/3 θuc
c.424 THUCYDIDES (the historian), with 7 ships at Thasos, sails to Eion, at the mouth of the Strymon, on the evening of the same day Amphipolis surrenders.  He at least prevents Eion from failing to Brasidas 424 B76 14-22, DGRBM 3-1112
c.424 Brasidas makes agreement with Perdiccas-II of Macedon, goes from Macedonia to Thessaly. 424 DGRBM 1-502
424
Mar 21
SOLAR ECLIPSE begins 8th year of Pelop. War.
"In first days of the next summer there was an eclipse of the sun at the time of new moon, and in the early part of the same month an earthquake [Etna in Sicily]."
(Thucidides: History of the Peloponessian war 4-52)
424 Mar 21 GHH, hbar, nasaS
c.424 Athenians Demosthenes and Hippocrates plan a 3 prong invasion of Boeotia from west and east.  Demosthenes sails 40 ships to Naupactos, raises their forces in Acarnania, and sails for Siphae Boeotia.  Thebans are forewarned of attack, send general Pagondas with Boeotians who prevent Demosthenes from landing at Siphae.  Hippocrates occupies Delium without opposition, fortifies it, garrisons it, and returns to Athens. 424 B76 14-22, CAH 5, 6-527, CDCC 89, 129, 859, DGRBM 1-99, 980, 2-481, DGRG 1-415, Dur 2-365, 444, LEWH 73, MCAW 132, OCD 329, 796, OHG 164, TTPC
c.424 BoeotiaBoeotian general Pagondas arrives at Delium.  Hippocrates returns and meets Boeotians between DELIUM and Oropos 7 miles west of it.  Pagondas (using blowtorches) defeats and annihilates Hippocrates and 1,000 hoplites.  HIPPOCRATES is killed.  Athenian offensive ends.
Legend says Socrates saved the lives of Alcibiades and Xenophon.
424 B76 14-22, CAH 5, 6-527, CDCC 89, 129, 859, DGRBM 1-99, 980, 2-481, 3-848, DGRG 1-415,
Dur 2-365, 444, LEWH 73, MCAW 132, OCD 329, 796, OHG 164, TTPC
c.424 Athenian general HIPPONICUS-III son of Callias-II killed at Delium.  Son Callias-III inherits fortune. 424 DGRBM 1-567
c.424 DEMOSTHENES is further disgraced for a failed attempt on Sicyon. 424 DGRBM 1-980
c.424 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES is discredited for failure of the Boeotian campaign - plus Sicyon, given no major command until 413. 424
OCD 329
c.424 PANACTUM, an Athenian fort on Boeotian border between Plataea and Phyle, taken by Boeotia after battle of Delium. no date
B76 8-358
c.424 A plot to betray CHAERONEA Boeotia to Athens is thwarted.  Chaeronea is occupied by a strong Boeotian force. 424 DGRG 1-595
c.424 THUCYDIDES, Athenian admiral, commands a fleet in the Aegean.  He is exiled until 404 at insistance of CLEON for doing nothing to stop Brasidas from taking Amphipolis.  He spends the next 20 years traveling. 424 CAH 5, Dur 2-432, LEWH 73, MCAW 135, OCD 1067, OHG, RAH 293, TTPC, bk
423 DGRBM 3-1113
no date: B76 18-359
Thucydides is the historian who gave us all this info.
c.424 Athenian fleet at Sicily from 427 returns to Athens. 424 B76 14-22, CDCC 819, LEWH 73, OCD 985, 1030
c.424 CLEON easily passes a bill allowing Athenians to pay no taxes to support the war, but to finance it by nearly trippling the tax paid by tributary states. 425 CAH 5
424 Dur 2-442, LEWH 72
no date OCD 251
c.424 Painter ZEUXIS, pupil of Apollodoros, moves from Heracleia to Athens. 424
Dur 2-317
c.424 ARISTOMENES the "door maker", Athenian Old Comedy dramatist, wins 1st prize at the City Dionysia. 424
OCD 112
c.424 CRATINOS, Old Comedy dramatist, produces,  Saturoi , winning 2nd prize at Lenaea. 424 DGRBM 1-887
c.424 ARISTOPHANES produces  Knights , winning 1st prize at Lenaea.  Cleon is satyrized, and beaten at his own game by an illiterate cynic sausage-seller.  Comic poet Cratinos is portrayed as a drivelling old man with a withered crown.
"Aggitators are like those who fish for eels.  When the water is still, they catch nothing, but if they stir up the mud, they make a haul."
424 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-886, Dur 2-244, 421, DGRBM 1-313, MCAW 135, MNDQ 26, OCD 113, OHG 202, bk, lvG
c.424 EURIPIDES publishes  Hecuba .
"The bad will be bad forever, and the good will be good."
425 TTPC, bk
424 DGRBM 2-107, MNDQ 475, OCD 419 pre-423 B76 6-1032
424
Oct 9
SOLAR ECLIPSE interpreted as an evil omen against Cleon.
"When you chose that enemy of heaven, the Paphlagonian tanner, for a general, we knitted our brow, we caused our wrath to break out;  the lightning shot forth, the thunder pealed, the moon deserted her course and the sun at once veiled his beam threatening, no longer to give you light, if Cleon became general."   [as he did in spring]   (Aristophanes: "Clouds")
424 Oct 9 hbar
c.424 Spartan CAVALRY numbers 400. by 424 OCD 517
c.424 Temple to ATHENA NIKE, begun 427 by architect Callicrates on the bastion of the southwest corner of the Acropolis, finished.  Made of pentelic marble in Ionic style. 425 CDCC 70, 104
424 B76 II-462
c.423 GRABUS, king of Dardanians of Illyria from 437, ends.  SIRRAS, king of Lyncestis from 437, succeeds until 393.  ARRHABAEUS becomes king of Lyncestis. 423 wikGr, wikSrs
c.423 ARRHABAEUS king of Lyncestis, under Macedon from ?, rebelling against Perdiccas II from 424, breaks free, allies with Sirras of Dardanians. 423 wikArb, wikSrs
c.423 ISARCHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 424, ends.  AMYNIAS succeeds until 422. 423 wikEA
c.423 ALCIBIADES begins public career. 423 GHH
c.423 THESPIA destroyed by Thebans. 423 GHH
c.423 Blowtorches used by Spartans at Lekythos. 423 CDCC 89
c.423 PERSIA / ATHENS peace treaty of 446 renewed. 423 CAH 5
c.423 Spartan reinforcements under Ischagoras join Brasidas in Chalcidice. 423 DGRBM 2-625
423 Apr 24  TRUCE of LACHES :  Athenian envoys NICIAS, Autocles, and Nicostratos and Sparta make a 1 year truce, but within a few days Spartan admiral Brasidas inspires Thracian cities Scione and Mende in Chalcidice to rebel against Athens. Apr 423 B76 8-358, CAH 5, DGRBM, GHH, lvG
423 B76 24-22, DGRBM 1-446, 502, 3-188, LEWH 73, MCAW 132, OCD 179, 733, 796, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.423 ChalcidiceSCIONE in Chalcidice rebels against Athens after April 22 when truce of Laches begins, which means Spartan Brasidas cannot support Scione.  But the Athenians would punish a city that had just asked Brasidas for protection.  So Brasidas lies, and says the rebellion began before Apr. 22.  This encourages nearby Mende, which asked and received protection against the Athenians too. 423 lvG
c.423 MENDE Chalcidice, rebelling against Athens, quickly suppressed by Athenian generals Nicias and Nicostratos, who then blockade SCIONE, which holds out until 421. 423 B76 8-358, DGRBM 2-1186, TTPC
c.423 Spartan Brasidas persuaded by Perdiccas to join in a campaign against Arrhabaeus king of Lyncestis.  Perdiccas withdraws from battle, forcing Brasidas to retreat. 424 DGRBM 1-349 423 DGRBM 3-188
c.423 Temple of HERA 8km northeast of Argos burnt by negligence of the priestess.  Eupolemos is employed to erect a new temple, 423 B76 I-506, DGRBM 3-454, DGRG 1-206, GHH
c.423 CRATINOS, Old Comedy dramatist, produces his last play,  Pytine  "Flagon", winning 1st prize at the City Dionysia.  He satyrizes his own notorious drunkenness, which Aristophanes had caricaturized in 424. 423 DGRBM 1-887, wikCr
c.423 AMEIPSIAS, comic poet, performs  Konnos , wins 2nd prize at the City Dionysia. 423 wikAm
c.423 ARISTOPHANES performs  Clouds , produced by Philonides, winning 3rd (last) prize at the City Dionysia.  Attacks contemporary education and morals as taught by sophists.  Socrates is ridiculed as a sophist and corrupt rhetoric teacher. 423 B76 1-1154, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-313, 3-316, 848, Dur 2-244, MCAW 135, OCD 113, 348, OHG, TToH, TTPC, bk
c.423 SOCRATES is ridiculed in comedies by Aristophanes and Ameipsias. 423 B76 16-1001
c.423 CLEON, Athenian politician, proposes to destroy SCIONE in Chalcidice and execute all of its citizens.  Passed. 423
OCD 251
c.423 late Perdiccas-II abandons alliance with Spartans, makes peace with Athens. 423 DGRBM 3-188, GHH
c.422 Spartan envoy Lichas goes to Argos to renew the expiring truce of Laches.  Argos declines. 422 DGRBM 2-781
422 Apr 24 1 Year TRUCE of LACHES expires. 422 lvG
422 CLEON, strategos of Athens, leads expedition in Thrace and Chalcidice to bring rebel allies back into Athenian League. 422 B76 8-358, 14-22, DGRG 1-126, LEWH 73, OCD 251
fall 422 OCD 796
422/1 CDCC 489
c.422 Pisander refuses to accompany Cleon to Thrace and Chalcidice. 422 DGRBM 3-167
c.422 TORONE, in central peninsula of Chalcidice, under Sparta from 424, recovered by CLEON, strategos of Athens. 422 B76 8-358, CAH 5, OCD 251
c.422 GALEPSOS, in central peninsula of Chalcidice, recovered by CLEON, strategos of Athens. 422
OCD 251
c.422 STAGIRA Chalcidice resists attempt to recover it by Athenian Cleon. 422
OCD 251
Macedonia Thrace
c.422 Cleon, fearing Brasidas, waits for reinforcements from Macedonia and Thrace, meanwhile organizing a base at Eion and moving his army to Amphipolis.  Brasidas cannot attack Cleon's superior numbers and retreats to Amphipolis. 422 lvG
c.422 AMPHIPOLIS, under Spartan Brasidas from 424, resists attempt to recover it by Athenian Cleon.
Socrates is among Athenian soldiers.
422 B76 8-358, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 129, DGRBM 1-502, Dur 2-365, GHH, MCAW 132, OCD 54, 251, bk
422 Spartans Rhamphias and 2 colleagues, command 900 men, intended to strengthen Brasidas in Thrace; but their passage through Thessaly is opposed by Thessalians.  Hearing of the battle of Amphipolis and death of Brasidas, they return to Sparta. 422 DGRBM 3-167
c.422 Spartan BRASIDAS and Athenian CLEON both killed at Amphipolis.  Brasidas is succeeded by CLEARIDAS, who holds Amphipolis.  Cleon is succeeded at Athens by NICIAS until 420 and HYPERBOLOS until 418. 422 B76 II-989, 8-358, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 144, DGRBM 1-502, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 132, OCD 54, 251, 796, OHG, SHWC 67, TTPC, bk, lvG, rcSB3
c.422 PERDICCAS-II king of Macedon 452-13 allies with Athens. 422 OCD 799
c.422 AMYNIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 423, ends.  ALCAEOS succeeds until 421. 422 wikEA
c.422 Athenian envoy Pheaeax sent to Italy and Sicily to induce allies to help Leontini against Syracuse. 422 CAH 5, DGRBM 3-229, OCD 808, lvG
c.422 Now that the main war proponents are dead, peace negotiations reopen between Athens and Sparta. 422 CAH 5, LEWH 73
c.422 Athens decrees that first-fruits of harvests are to be offered to goddess Demeter at Eleusis according to ancestral custom. 422 CAH 6-661
c.422 ALCIBIADES becomes leader of war party at Athens. 422 MCAW 132
c.422 Population of Athens is 20,000 citizens (males above age 20). 422 DGRBM,
DGRG 1-262, GHH
c.422 EURIPIDES' play  Suppliant Women . pre-423 B76 6-1032     422 OCD 419 421 DGRBM 2-107, MNDQ 21, 687 420 TTPC, bk
c.422 CRATINOS, Old Comedy dramatist, age 97, dies.  Fragments of his 27 plays survive. 423 Dur 2-721     422 DGRBM, GHH, wikCr     421 TToH
420 B76 III-223
c.422 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Proagon , produced by Philonides, winning 1st prize at Lenaea. 422 DGRBM 3-316
c.422 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Wasps , produced by Philonides, winning 2nd prize at Lenaea.  Satirizes democracy and litigousness of Athenians.  Ridicules old men serving on juries.  Cleon is the poster boy for all judicial abuses. 422 B76 1-1154, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-313, 798, 3-316, Dur 2-422, MCAW 135, OCD 113, OHG, TTPC, bk, lvG
c.421 early ARISTOPHANES produces  Peace , winning 2nd prize at the City Dionysia.  Celebrates the Peace of Nicias before it is ratified. 421 B76 1-1154, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-234, OCD 113, OHG 204, RAH 248, TToH, bk
c.421 ALCAEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 422, ends.  ARISTION succeeds until 420. 421 wikEA
c.421  50 YEARS TRUCE  concluded by Athens and Sparta.  It does not prevent frequent hostilities, and will be declared formally ended in 414. 421 DGRBM 2-700, GHH, SHWC 67
421







421







421
ARCHIDAMIAN WAR from 431 ends.  2nd PELOPONNESIAN WAR from 431 is suspended until 414, both with  PEACE of NICIAS :
Amphipolis, under Spartans from 424 to Athens, but remains virtually independent until 357.
Other Chalcidian cities to be autonomous
, but tributary to Athens.
DELPHI, under Phocis from 448, independent until 356.
PYLOS to be returned to Sparta.
Athenians keep Sollium and Anactorium, both in Acarnania.
Athenians keep NISAEA, main port of Megara, until until Boeotians restore PLATAEA Boeotia.
Boeotia must return PANACTUM to Athens.

Actual results:
Spartan CLEARIDAS refuses to surrender Amphipolis.  It remains virtually independent until 357.
Corinth, Megara, Elis, and Boeotia refuse to sign the treaty, but are out-voted by smaller states.
Athens and Sparta make alliance anyway (supposedly to last 50 years).
Spartans return Athenian prisoners.
Athenians continue to hold Pylos to 409.
Elis, Mantinea, Corinth, and Chalcidian cities can no longer rely on Sparta, and so ally with Argos (whose treaty with Sparta had expired).
CYTHERA Island, under Athens from 424, is returned to Sparta until 393.
Megara and Boeotia delay action.  Thebans refused to sign.
spring 421 B76 VII-329, CAH 5, CDCC 613, TTPC, lvG
421
B76 VII-329, 1-1154, 8-358, 14-22, BCoC 369, Dur 2-443, GRG 282, LEWH 73, MCAW 132, OCD 54, 290, 308, 733, 796, OHG, RAH 247, TToH, bk, lvA, lvG, rcSB3
c.421 AMPHIPOLIS is supposed to be restored to Athens, but inhabitants refuse to surrender to them, and the Spartans are unable to compel them to. 421 DGRG 1-126
c.421 Spartan Ischagoras is sent to urge Clearidas to surrender Amphipolis to the Athenians. 421 DGRBM 2-625
c.421 SCIONE in Chalcidice, rebelling against Athens from 423, suppressed, destroyed until 404. Chalcidice 421
B76 8-358, CAH 5
c.421 ACANTHOS Chalcidice, allied with Sparta from 424, again allies with Athens until 392. 421 rcSB2
c.421 Messenians from Pylos, who become refugees when Pylos is returned to Sparta, are settled by Athenians at Cranii on Cephallenia island. 421 DGRG 1-699
c.421 LEPREON on coast of Triphylia and other cities of Triphylia, with help of Spartans, rebel against Elis. 421 wikLp
c.421 Spartans under PLEISTOANAX march into Arcadia, release the Parrhasians from dependence on Mantineia, and destroy the fortress which the Mantineans had built, to command Laconia, at Cypsela on the borders. 421 DGRBM 3-413
c.421 MANTINEA Arcadia allied with Sparta from 430, allies with Athens, Elis, and Argos against Sparta until 418. 421 DGRG 1-191, 204, rcPl     420 B76 III-853, OCD 644, bk no date: LEWH 73
c.421 ERECHTHEUM (temple of hero Erechtheos) construction begun with pentelic marble on Acropolis until 407. 435 OHG     421 B76 III-939, CDCC 104, 866, OCD 405, SHT 2-402     420 Dur 2-244, LEWH 76, TToH
c.421 EURIPIDES' play  Heracleidae . 421 DGRBM 2-107
c.420 BoeotiaSparta violates Peace of Nicias by making a separate treaty with Boeotia, whereby Boeotia is to return Panactum, a fort in Attica near Boeotia, to Athens.  Boeotians destroy PANACTUM, then return it to Athens. 420 CAH 5, DGRG 1-329, LEWH 73, lvG
c.420 XENARES, harmost of Heraclea Trachis from ?, attacked by several neighboring tribes including Aenianes and Dolopes, killed in battle. 420 DGRBM 3-1288
c.420 Old Comedy poet PHERECRATES play  Misanthropoi  (Wild Men) satyrizes Athenians who claim to hate civilization and want to return to nature. 420 DGRBM 3-258,
Dur 2-420
c.420 Temple of Apollo Epikurios at Bassae Messenia begun until 400. 420 OHG
c.420 Sanctuary of ASCLEPIOS built on south slope of Athenian Acropolis. 420 B76 2-266
c.420 ARISTION, eponymous archon of Athens from 421, ends.  ASTYPHILOS succeeds until 419. 420 wikEA
c.420 Corinth rescinds 421 treaty with Argos, resumes alliance with Sparta. 420
LEWH 73
c.420 Argos sends envoys to Athens to make alliance. 420 DGRBM 2-1186
c.420 CORINTHIAN COLUMN TOP invented by sculptor Callimacos, introduced to Greek architecture, which is almost all Doric.  Earliest example will be found at Bassae Messenia. 540 GHH     427 wikCo
420 MCAW 137
350 TToH
no date: DGRBM 1-572
c.420 Sparta sends 3 envoys to disuade Athenians from allying with Argos.  They are trapped by Alcibiades into the appearance of corruption.  Athenians want to ally with Argos, but are disuaded by Nicias, who persuades them to send him to Sparta to demand satisfaction for grievances. 420 DGRBM 2-734, 1186
c.420 Nicias goes to Sparta, but can only extract a ratification of existing treaties. 420 DGRBM 2-1186
c.420 LEPREON on coast of Triphylia siezed by Spartans. no date: DGRBM 2-781
c.420 Athens, led by Alcibiades, forms QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE with Argos, Mantinea, and Elis (supposedly for 100 years), but fails to get Corinth to join. 421 DGRG 1-191     420 B76 I-506, 8-358, 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-100, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 37, 106, TTPC
c.420 NICIAS, top dog in Athens from 422, loses popularity and influence in Athens.  Son of Cleinias, ALCIBIADES, elected strategos, becomes leader of radical democrats.  Alcibiades is promoted to general and opposes Nicias. 420 B76 1-436, 8-358, MCAW 136, OCD 37, RAH 248, rcSB3
c.420 Elean officials, under pretext that the Spartans had sent troops to Lepreon after the Truce, fine the Spartans 2000 minae.  Spartans refuse to pay.  The Eleans deny Spartans admittance to the Olympic games. 420
CDCC 309, DGRG 1-819, bk
c.420 PHRYNICOS-2, Old Comedy dramatist of Athens, flourishes.  Wins 2 victories. 435 GHH
420 B76 VII-973
c.420 Theater admission costs 2 obols from 500.  After 420, poor Athenians are allowed free admission, because theater has a partly religious function. 454 CDGRA 625 420 Dur 2-381
c.420 Λ GEOMETRY V:  HIPPIAS of Elis discovers the quadratrix (aka trisectrix V) of a curve, the 1st known curve that cannot be made with straightedge & compass.  It can be used to trisect an angle, but Hippias probably didn't know this.
(See Hippocrates 450, Hippasus 445, Bryson 425, Theodoros 400, Archytas 390)
420
Dur 2-338
420-11 TTS
c.420 Nike of OlympiaPAEONIOS of Mende, sculptor flourishes.  Paeonius wins the commission to decorate the acroteria of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, as described in the pedestal inscription on his Nike statue.  This is the only work that can be positively attributed to him. late 5th wikPn


Photo Roccuz
c.420 Sculptor/architect POLYCLEITOS of Sicyon sculpts Hera at Argos.          420 CAH 5
c.420 Sculptor PERICLYTOS flourishes. 420 wikPrc
c.419 ASTYPHILOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 420, ends.  ARCHIAS succeeds until 418. 419 wikEA
c.419 HERACLEA TRACHIS, a Spartan colony 5 miles from Thermopylae, causes friction between Boeotia and Sparta. 419
CAH 6-32
c.419 Alcibiades, strategos of Athens, marches into Peloponnese to help Argives against Spartans, operates there until ?. 419 CAH 5,
DGRBM 1-100, GHH
c.419 ARGOS, at instigation of Alcibiades, attacks Epidauros. 419 DGRBM 1-72
c.419 Tragic poet MELANTHIOS is satyrized in all 3 comedies which win prizes this year.   Kolakes  of Eupolis,  Eirene  of Aristophanes,  Phratores  of Leucon, specifically for his profligacy, gluttony, social offensiveness, and lousy poetry. 419 DGRBM 2-1015
c.419/8 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, for reasons unknown to historians (therefore probably "divine" guidance), marches with his whole force to Leuktra, percieves an evil omen, turns back, notifies allies to meet him for attack on Argos. 419/8 DGRBM 1-72
c.418 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, with 6,000 hoplites including Boeotians, Megarans, Corinthians, Tegeans, aided by Thebes, invades Argolis from the north, attacks Mantinea and Argos.  Boeotians soon back out. 419 DGRBM 1-72, TTPC
418 B76 I-138, 14-22, CDCC 315, 547, DGRBM 3-1109, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 27, 37, 120, 290, 644, 796, lvG
417 CDCC 129
c.418 Argive generals Thrassylos and Alciphron ask Agis-II of Sparta for a 4 month truce.  Agis not only grants it, but withdraws his army. 418 B76 I-138, DGRBM 1-72
c.418 Orchomenos Arcadia taken by Argos during the 4 month truce. 418 DGRBM 1-72
c.418 Argive allies delay response.  Athens and Mantinea finally send 1,000 heavy armed hoplites and 300 cav under Athenians LACHES son of Melanopos, and NICOSTRATOS to help Argos against Sparta.  Alcibiades accompanies as ambassador. 418 DGRBM 2-1200, LEWH 73, OCD 290
c.418 ARCHIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 419, ends.  ANTIPHON succeeds until 417. 418 wikEA
c.418 Allies of Sparta figure Agis-II has no idea what he's doing.  They go home. guess
c.418 Spartans are so disgusted with Agis-II that they propose to tear down his house and fine him 100,000 drachmas.  They relent and appoint a council of 10 without whom Agis-II cannot march an army out of Sparta. 418 DGRBM 1-72
c.418 Athenian and Argive allies go from Orchomenos Arcadia to attack Tegea Arcadia.  Spartans cannot allow Tegea to fall into enemy hands, because that would isolate them in south Peloponnese.  Agis-II marches north with large army, secures Tegea. 418 DGRBM 2-1200,
Aug lvAg2
c.418 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, now helped only by Tegeans, decisively defeats 6,000 Athenians, Argives, and Mantineans at MANTINEA (biggest land battle of Peloponnesian War).  Sparta now controls the Peloponnese. 419 TTPC     418 B76 VI-581, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 315, 547, DGRBM 1-72, DGRG 1-205, Dur 2-443, GHH, LEWH 73, OCD 27, 37, 120, 290, 644, 796, OHG 166, bk, lvG     417 CDCC 129
c.418 Athenians LACHES son of Melanopos, and NICOSTRATOS both killed at Mantinea. 418 DGRBM 2-700
c.418 Spartan PLEISTOANAX leads an army of old men and boys to help Agis-II, arrives at Tegea Arcadia and learns that Agis-II has won at Mantinea.  Pleistoanax returns to Sparta Aug 418 DGRBM 3-413
c.418 After Mantinea, Spartan Lichas induces Argos to make peace with Sparta. 418 DGRBM 2-781
c.418 MANTINEA Arcadia, allied with Athens and Argos from 421, forced to renew alliance with Sparta. 418 rcPl
417 DGRG 1-191
c.418 ARGOS, at command of Sparta, drops alliance with Athens, makes a 50 year alliance with Sparta, evicts its democracy, installs a pro-Spartan oligarchy until 417. 419 TTPC     418 GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 136     418/7 CAH 5
c.418 PERDICCAS-II king of Macedon 452-13 secretly joins alliance between Sparta and Argos.  He changes allies a lot. 418 DGRBM 3-188, lvG     417 OCD 799
c.418 PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE, dissolved by Peace of Nicias 421, reestablished until 336.  Spartan supremacy restored in Peloponnese. 419 TTPC
418 LEWH 73
c.418 ALCIBIADES, radical democrat leader of Athens, disgraced by outcome of Mantinea until 416, escapes ostracism by joining Nicias against other democrat leader Hyperbolos. 418
B76 1-436, MCAW 137
c.418 HYPERBOLOS, democrat leader from 422, overthrown.  ANDROCLES succeeds to 413. 418
B76 1-436
c.418/7 Demosthenes conducts a minor operation in Epidauros in Argolis. 418/7 lvG
c.417 Another HYPERBOLOS, a lampmaker with oratory skills, leads a 3rd party of radicals in Athens, who want to conquer Sicily and attack Carthage. 417 CDCC 613
no date: RAH 248
c.417 ChalcidiceCHALCIDICE, autonomous tributary of Athens from Peace of Nicias 421, throws back Athenian Nicias, remains hostile. 417 TTPC no date: B76 14-22
c.417 ANTIPHON, eponymous archon of Athens from 418, ends.  EUPHEMOS succeeds until 416. 417 wikEA
c.417 Oligarchy at ARGOS from 418, lasted 4 months, ousted by democrats, who renew alliance with Athens. 418/7 CAH 5
417 DGRBM 1-72, DGRG 1-204, LEWH 73
c.417 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, marches back to Argos, cant defeat the democrats, Destroys long walls which Argives had begun building to the sea. Argolis 417 DGRBM 1-72
c.417 HYSIAE on the road from Argos to Tegea Arcadia, at the foot of Mt. Parthenium, taken and destroyed by AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399. 417 DGRBM 1-72, DGRG 1-1108
c.417 HYPERBOLOS the lampmaker, son of Antiphanes, a leader of the democratic party, intrigues to get Alcibiades or Nicias ostracised.  They ally against him, and Hyperbolos is himself ostracized from Athens.  Goes to Samos until death 411.
OSTRACISM then falls out of use.
417 MCAW 137, OCD 201, 534, 762, RAH 248, bk 416 CAH 5, CDGRA 299
416/5 lvG
c.416 ALCIBIADES, disgraced in Athens from 418, enters 7 chariots in a race at Olympia.  Wins 1st, 2nd, & 4th places.  Recovers popularity. 416
B76 1-436, bk
c.417 SOPHOCLES play  Heracles . 417 OCD 419     408 B76 6-1032
c.416 MELOS beseiged by Athenians. 416 DGRBM 3-302
c.416 ALCIBIADES, leader of radicals in Athens, gets an expedition to Sicily approved over opposition by NICIAS.  It is to be commanded by Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachos. 416 LEWH 73, MCAW 136, RAH 251, TTPC, lvG     415 B76 8-358
no date: OCD 796
c.416 EUPHEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 417, ends.  ARIMNESTOS succeeds until 415. 416 wikEA
c.416 AGATHON, Athenian tragic poet, wins at the Lenaea. 416 B76 I-133, DGRBM 1-65, GHH, MCAW 139, OCD 25
c.415 NICIAS, ALCIBIADES, and LAMACHOS receive extraordinary powers to command the Sicilian expedition. 415
OCD 37
c.415 Apparently at instigation of Alcibiades, the 440 law censoring comedy is re-enacted. 415 DGRA 344
c.415 ARIMNESTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 416, ends.  CHARIAS succeeds until 414. 415 wikEA
415 Statues of Hermes around Athens are mutilated (erect phalluses broken off) by vandals.  Oligarch posing as a radical democrat PISANDER leads the investigation.  ALCIBIADES is suspected because of totally unrelated parodies of the Eleusinian Mysteries which he performed at private meetings.  Alcibiades demands an immediate trial, but prosecutors delay because of his popularity with the military.  Democrat leader ANDROCLES insures that Alcibiades leaves with his troops before he is charged. 415 B76 1-437, CAH 5, CDCC 108, Dur 2-244 GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 137, OCD 63, 505, 794, OHG, RAH 252, TTPC
415 mid NICIAS, ALCIBIADES, and LAMACHOS sail with 140 triremes carrying 4,000 hoplites for Sicily. 415 B76 8-358, CAH 5, GHH, OHG 166, RAH 251, bk
134 triremes, 130 supply boats, 5,000+ hoplites, 1,300 light armed troops, 30 cavalry.  Total: 27,000 men. 415 LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 37     mid RAH 252
c.415 Now that ALCIBIADES and his troops are gone, the prosecutors decide to recall him (without his troops) and charge him with mutilating the statues of Hermes and profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries.  They send a ship to get him.  ALCIBIADES returns from Sicily on the ship, but escapes to the Peloponnese.  Prosecutors condemn him in absentia.  Alcibiades learns of it, flees to Sparta and works for Agis-II until 411. 415 B76 14-23, CAH 5, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 37, 63, 376, OHG, RAH 253, TToH, TTPC
c.415 ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta 415-11, advises Spartans to aid Syracuse, fortify Decelea in central Attica. 415 TTPC
no date: B76 1-437
c.415 Sparta, with Persian money, builds a fleet. 415 GHH, 413 lvDW
c.415 DIOCLEIDES tells Athenian rulers he saw 300 men enter the orchestra on the night of the mutilation, and he recognized some of them by moonlight, and that they promised him 2 talents to forget it, but hadn't paid up.  He is believed. 415 DGRBM 1-1009
c.415 Oligarchs Andocides and others arrested for the mutilation incident earlier 415.  Andocides tells a story inconsistent with that of Diocleides.  It is remembered that there was no moon that night.  Diocleides is forced to admit he lied, and is executed.    Andocides turns informant on promise of immunity.  4 men are named, accused, and executed. 415 DGRBM 1-168, 1009, OCD 62-3, wikAnd
c.415 EICOSTE, a 5% tax on all sea imports and exports on states subject to Athens first imposed.  Continues until Peloponnesian War. 415 DGRA 446, 1098     413 CDGRA 616
c.415 ANDOCIDES, unable to clear himself of charges, condemned to partial loss of civil rights and forced to leave Athens until 411.  He goes to Cyprus 415 DGRBM, wikAn
no date: DGRBM 1-169
c.415 SOPHOCLES produces  Electra .  In Argos a few years after the Trojan war, Electra, and her brother Orestes take vengeance on their mother Clytemnestra and step father Aegisthus for the murder of their father, Agamemnon. 420-10 CDCC 834 419 TTPC
418-10 B76 17-17
no date: wikES     415 B76 III-831
c.415 EURIPIDES produces  Electra .  Same story with more background info. 417 OCD 419     416 Dur 2-244
415 B76 6-1032
415-13 DGRBM 2-107, wikEE
413 MCAW 139, OCD 1001, TTPC, bk
c.415 EURIPIDES' play  Troades  (Trojan Women) wins 2nd prize. 415 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-107, Dur 2-406, MCAW 139, OCD 419, OHG, TToH, bk
c.415 EURIPIDES writes  Encomium on Alcibiades 
"The first requisite to happiness is that a man be born in a famous city."
415 MNDQ 182
c.415 PROTAGORAS of Abdera, first to declare himself a sophist, after teaching sophistry in Athens for 40 years, charged with impiety, primarily for agnosticism, flees for Sicily, drowned in the sea.
Questioned whether or not virtue can be taught.  "Of all things the measure is Man."  "There are two sides to every question."  Reality is subjective.  Aristotle accused him of making the weaker argument appear stronger.  Taught Theodoros.
soon after 421 EoΦ 6-505
420 wikPrtg
415 MCAW 139, TToH, ahe     410 B76 VIII-247, RAH 286, SHWC 81
lost at sea: MCAW 137
c.415 PERDICCAS-II king of Macedon 452-13 allies with Athens. 415 OCD 799
c.415 SPEUSIPPOS prosecuted by LEOGORAS. 415 OCD 476
c.415 HIPPIAS of Elis, sophist, antiquarian, polymath, dies. 415 OCD 517 400 OHG
c.415 DIAGORAS of Melos, atheist philosopher, convicted of impiety and condemned to death in Athens. 416/5 CDCC 570 414 OCD 138
c.415 Temple of Hephaestos Temple of Hephaestos at Athens, begun 449, completed.  Doric peripteral temple, located at north-west side of the Agora, on top of the Agoraios Kolonos hill.
Possibly same as Temple of Theseus 450.
photo pub dom


448 CDCC 866 415 wikTHΦ
430-400 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.414 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Amphiaraos , produced by Philonides, at Lenaea.  Now lost. 414 DGRBM 3-316
c.414 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Birds , produced by Callistratos, wins 2nd prize at the City Dionysia.  Birds were created before gods.  An Athenian gets birds to build a city in the clouds, which occupies the whole horizon, and cuts the gods off from contact with men.  The gods are compelled to accept humiliating terms. 414 B76 1-1154, 8-358, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-428, MCAW 139, OCD 113, OHG 204, TToH, TTPC, bk
c.414 Λ ECONOMY V in Attica:  A house and estate costs 1,200 drachmas. 414 Dur 2-280-81
c.414 CHARIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 415, ends.  TISANDROS succeeds until 413. 414 wikEA
c.414 PHRYNICOS-2, Old Comedy dramatist, produces  Monotropos  "Solitary".  Wins 3rd prize at the City Dionysia. 414
B76 VII-974
414 fall Athenian Assembly, having received the report from NICIAS, votes to send reinforcements to Sicily.  They send a small force under Eurymedon. 414 DGRBM 2-111, fall RAH 253
c.414 The optimistic 50 YEARS TRUCE of 421 between Athens and Sparta is declared formally ended. 415 SHWC 67 414 DGRBM
c.414 Athenians send 3 fleets to raid the Peloponnesian coast.  Sparta declares the peace of 421 broken.  2nd PELOPONNESIAN WAR 431-04 resumes. 415 TToH
414 B76 14-23, CDCC 658, LEWH 73
413 lvA, lvG
c.414 Athenian LAESPODIAS with 30 ships, raids Peloponnesian coast. 414 DGRBM 2-709
c.414 THYREA Peloponnese invaded by Argos. 414 CAH 5
c.414 Spartans ravage Argive territory. 414 CAH 5
c.414 Comic poet, Araeipsias wins 1st prize for  Komastai . 414 DGRBM
413 PERDICCAS-II dies.  Argead king of Macedon from 452, dies.  Bastard son Archelaos (lover of Greek culture) murders uncle Alcetas, a cousin, and a half bro.  ARCHELAOS-I succeeds until 399. 413 B76 I-488, 8-366, CAH 6-723, DGRBM 1-261, Dur 2-741, GHH, IDB 3-216, MRDK, OCD 97, 799, OHG 167, RAH 309, lvG, rcSB2, wikArg, wikArcl, wikLKM, wikPrd2
c.413 ARCHELAOS-I, 9th Argead king of Macedon 413-399, marries father's widow Cleopatra. no date: DGRBM 1-261
413 spring AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, advised by Alcibiades, aided by Boeotians, invades Attica, siezes and fortifies DECELEA as a permanent base for plundering Attica until 404.  This forces Athens to import all food by sea at great expense. spring 413 GHH, OCD 27, 796
413 B76 I-138, CAH 5, 6-25, DGRBM 1-72, LEWH 74, OCD 27, 315, 796, OHG, RAH 253, lvG
c.413 Sparta accuses Athens of repeatedly violating the "FIFTY" Years Truce (which was actually for 30 years in 421), renews war on Athens.  It is called Decelean War or Ionian War. 414 GHH
413 Dur 2-448, lvDW
c.413 TISANDROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 414, ends.  CLEOCRITOS succeeds until 412. 413 wikEA
413 spring Athenians DEMOSTHENES and CHARICLES sent with a squadron around the Peloponnese.  They fortify a small peninsula in Laconia just to irritate the Spartans. 413 DGRBM 1-684
413 spring ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta, seduces queen while Agis-II is in Attica. 413
B76 1-437
413 spring Athenian general DEMOSTHENES sent with 65 ships carrying 15,000 troops to reinforce NICIAS at Syracuse.  They are delayed at Aegina and Corcyra, but arrive at Syracuse same year. 413 LEWH 73, OCD 329, 733
spring 413 DGRBM 1-980, RAH 253
413 Athenian general CONON commands a fleet off Naupactos to prevent Corinthians from sending ships to help Syracuse.  There is a battle, which neither side wins. 413 DGRBM 1-825
413 Corinthian general POLYANTHES commands Peloponnesian fleet, fights Athenian fleet under Diphilos in Gulf of Corinth. 413 DGRBM 3-442
c.413 DEMOSTHENES, son of Alcisthenes, killed in Sicily.  He is apparently unrelated to other Athenians named Demosthenes. 413 DGRBM 1-981
c.413 Athenian defeat in Sicily causes the radical party under PISANDER and ANDROCLES to fall to the conservatives. 413
LEWH 74
c.413 Athenian defeat in Sicily provokes appointment of 10 elders as a sort of committee of public salvation.  Sophocles is among them. 413 DGRBM 3-867
c.413 Athenian League creates a financial advisory commission (including Sophocles) to fix economy, replaces the required tribute with a 5% import/export tax on all harbors in it.  This raises 1,200 talents.  Tribute is revived in 410. 413 B76 17-14, CAH 5, CDGRA 478, Dur 2-276, LEWH 74, RAH 260
413 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, learns of Athenian disaster at Sicily, marches north, extracts money from allies to build a fleet, remains at Decelea Attica (to stay away from his interfering government) until ?.
413 late DGRBM 1-72
c.413 Comic poet Hegemon of Thasos produces parody  Gigantomachia  when news arrives of the defeat in Sicily.
413 DGRBM, GHH
c.413 Comic poet Archippos wins 1st prize. 415 GHH     413 DGRBM
c.412 To get the Spartans to send a fleet to the Hellespont to induce local cities to rebel against Athens, rival satraps PHARNABAZOS and TISSAPHERNES both send envoys to Sparta because the man who concluded the treaty would be the king's favorite.  Tissaphernes sends Greek exiles Calligeitos and Timagoras.  Tissaphernes wins by offering the support of the Persian/Phoenician navy to Sparta.  He never does so. 413/12 lvA
412 DGRBM 1-570, 3-239
c.412 SPARTANS hold conference at Corinth, decide to take Chios and Lesbos from Athens first, then send Clearchos as admiral to the Hellespont. 412 DGRBM 1-780
c.412 ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta 415-11, commands a small squadron to the Ionian coast, causes many allies of Athens to rebel. 412 B76 1-437, CAH 5, GHH, LEWH 74, OCD 37, TTPC
c.412 CLEOCRITOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 413, ends.  CALLIAS SCAMBONIDES succeeds until 411. 412 wikEA
c.412 Orator LYSIAS with bros Polemarchos and Euthydemos, in Thurii Italy from 443, return to Athens, manufacture shields in the Piraeus. 412 B76 VI-420, OCD 631
411 DGRBM, gtp
c.412 ATHENS uses its last 1,000 talents to rebuild a fleet. 412 DGRBM, LEWH 74
c.412 Spartan admiral Clearchos with 27 ships is sent to help Pharnabazos, if it appears beneficial to Sparta. 412 DGRBM 3-239
c.412 Athenian fleet recovers LESBOS and CLAZOMENAE until 404. 412
LEWH 74
c.412 Athenian fleet blockades Miletos Caria, but is forced to withdraw by Peloponnesian fleet. 412
LEWH 74
c.412 MELANCRIDAS, commander of Spartan fleet, succeeded by ASTYOCHOS until ?. 412 DGRBM 1-390
c.412 TIMAGORAS of Cyzicus sent by Pharnabazos to Sparta to urge that a fleet be sent to support the Greek cities in his satrapy in their intended rebellion from Athens. 412 DGRBM 3-1132
c.412 Sparta makes 1st treaty with Darius-III, who offers to finance the Spartan navy against Athens.  (treaty is later revised.) 412 CAH 5, GHH, lvG     411 GHH
c.412 11 Spartan agents sent to investigate conduct of admiral Astyochos. 412 DGRBM 2-781
c.412 EURIPIDES' play  Hellena  wins 2nd prize. 412 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-107, Dur 2-244, OCD 419, OHG
c.412 EURIPIDES' play  Andromeda , now lost. 412 CAH 5, DGRBM 2-107, Dur 2-244
c.412 POLYKLEITOS (Latinized Polyclitus), Athenian bronze sculptor, dies. 412
SHWC 79
c.411 ALCIBIADES, now a free agent on Samos, promises to get Persian help for Athens if Athens will establish an oligarchy. mid 412 OCD 447 411 LEWH 74
c.411 Chersonese SESTOS in Chersonese, under Athens from 479/8, becomes main Athenian base in Dardanelles for operations against Sparta until 404. 411
OCD 981
c.411 CHERSONESE, under Athens from 480, comes under Sparta until 408. 411 rcT
c.411 Spartan PHILIPPOS with 2 galleys sent to Aspendos on south coast of Anatolia to take charge of a Phoenician fleet which had been promised by Tissaphernes, but doesn't show up.  Philippos sends message to Mindaros not to trust Tissaphernes. 411 DGRBM 3-270
c.411 Treasurers of the Athenian League receive wider powers. 411 OCD 495
c.411 spring Oligarchic clubs in Athens murder prominent democrats, intimidate council and assembly. spring 411 OCD 447, OHG
c.411 May PISANDER, now an oligarch, returns to Athens, supports the oligarchies. May 411 OCD 447, 794
c.411 CALLIAS SCAMBONIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 412, ends.  MNASILOCHOS succeeds and dies.  THEOPOMPOS succeeds until 410. 411 wikEA
c.411 Athenian Theramenes becomes prominent as an oligarchical revolutionist, and leading member of the new Council of 400. 411 B76 IX-943, DGRBM 3-1095
411 DEMOCRACY at ATHENS from 462/1 is abolished until 410 by oligarchs under Antiphon, Pisander, and Phrynichos, who open secret negotiations with Sparta.
Oligarchs pass a bill (by terrorism) restricting citizenship to 5,000 rich people, the rest having no rights.  Pay for public office is abolished, thereby making it economically possible only to the wealthy.  A provisional COMMITTEE of 400 is to rule until the 5,000 can be chosen.  This committee rules 4 months, never getting around to choosing the 5,000.
411 CAH 5, CDCC 104, 211, DGRBM, Dur 2-449, GHH, LEWH 74, MCAW 136, OCD 447, OHG, RAH 261, TTPC, bk, lvG
c.411 COMMITTEE of 400 builds a fort commanding the left promontory of the harbor to block the entry of the Athenian fleet. 411 DGRG 1-308
c.411 COMMITTEE of 400 divides into extremist and moderate parties.  Phrynichos leads extremists.  Theramenes leads moderates. 411 wik400
c.411 Athenians Antiphon, Phrynichos, Laespodios, Melesias, and 6 other extreme oligarchs are sent by the COMMITTEE of 400 to Sparta to negotiate peace. 412 DGRBM 1-316
411 OCD 74
c.411 Phrynichos, leader of Athenian extremists, is assassinated. 411 OCD 74, wik411
c.411 Athenian troops at the Piraeus, incited by Aristocrates, mutiny.  Council of 400 sends moderate leader Theramenes to quell it.  Instead, he puts himself at the head of the mutineers. 411 DGRBM 2-423, wik411
c.411 AGIS-II king of Sparta 427-399, makes unsuccessful attempt on Athens. 411 DGRBM 1-72
c.411 COMMITTEE of 400, pressured by Thrasybulos, pardons ALCIBIADES, a free agent from 412 on Samos who has been working for Sparta from 415.  ALCIBIADES is recalled to Athens and made commander in chief of all military.  He then demands the abolition of the 400, but approves of the choosing of the promised 5,000. 411 B76 1-437, LEWH 74, MCAW 136, OCD 299, 447, TToH, TTPC
c.411 COMMITTEE of 400 ends, and is replaced by the 5,000 until ?. 411 GHH, wikAC
c.411 BYZANTIUM, under Athens from 439, rebels until 408 with Spartan aid, under Spartan military governor Clearchos until 409. 411 OCD 186, rcT
c.411 Spartans in Euboea, Thrace, Hellespont, and north Aegean continue to provoke anti-Athenian rebellions. 411 B76 III-985, LEWH 74, OCD 63, 252
c.411 Chersonese Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS and ALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-?, defeat a superior Spartan fleet under Mindaros in the straits off CYNOSSEMA promontory in ChersoneseMindaros' fleet is pursued to its base at ABYDOS in the Hellespont. 411 CAH 5,
DGRBM 2-481, DGRG 1-741, LEWH 74, bk, wikAby, wikCyn 411/10 CAH 6-601
c.411 After Cynossema, Spartan HIPPOCRATES and EPICLES are sent to Euboea to take Hegesandridas and his fleet to Hellespont. 411 DGRBM 2-481
c.411 EUBOEA, under Athens from 446, rebels, goes independent until 395. 411 CDCC 332, DGRG 1-599, 872, MCAW 137, OCD 406, 320, 412, 796 410 wikEubo
c.411 Spartan fleet defeats Athenian fleet off harbor of Eretria.  Those Athenians who escape to Eretria, as a city in alliance with them, are killed by the Eretrians, who therefore join the rest of the Euboeans in rebellion from Athens. 411 DGRG 1-847
c.411 OENOE on frontier of Attica, under Athens from ?, taken by Boeotians. 411 DGRG 1-329
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 OENOEs:  in Attica, in Corinthia, and in Argolis.
c.411 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS is sent to get Abydos and Lampsacos, both on the Troad side of the Hellespont, to rebel against Athens.  He succeeds, but Lampsacos is quickly recovered by Athens. 411 OCD 332
c.411 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Lysistrata , produced by Callistratos.  Women of all Greek states compel their men to make peace by means of a sex strike.
"We do nothing but sit around with our paint and lipstick and transparent gowns."
From this play onward female roles become more prominent, and reveal a gradual liberation of women.
411 B76 VI-421, 1-1155, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-307, MCAW 139, OCD 113, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.411 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Thesmophoriazusae , produced by Callistratos.   Attacks Euripides and caricaturizes AGATHON, Athenian tragic poet.  Euripides discovers that Athenian women are angry at him because of his attacks on them, and are plotting to kill him. 411 B76 1-1155, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-426, OCD 25, 113, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.411 Extreme oligarchs at Athens favor surrendering to Sparta.  Moderates led by THERAMENES get them deposed.  9,000 citizens are given power, and absurdly called the Government of 5,000 until 510.  Pay for civic offices is not restored. 411 Dur 2-449, LEWH 74, OCD 447, TToH, TTPC
411 or 407 OCD 299
c.411 PISANDER, extreme oligarch at Athens, flees to Spartans.  Government of 5,000 condemns him for treason in absentia. 411
OCD 794
c.411 PAY for political offices in Athens is abolished, again excluding poorer people from holding them. 411
CAH 6-544
c.411 SAMOS:  Athenian THRASYLLOS is a hoplite in the army at Samos, and is one of those who persuaded the soldiers and sailors to aid the Samians against the expected attempt of the oligarchs to put down democracy in the island.  The consequence is the defeat of the rebels. 411 DGRBM 3-1110
c.411 ANDOCIDES, exiled from Athens from 415, seeking redemption, sells oars at cost to Athenian fleet at Samos, invited by Committee of 400, returns to Athens until ?.  He is then siezed by Pisander, leader of Committee of 400, on charges of opposing the oligarch party at Samos.  Andocides is tried and imprisoned until 410?. 411 DGRBM 1-169, OCD 63
c.411 HOPLITES assemble at the theater of Dionysus on northwest slope of the Piraeus. 411
OCD 703
c.411 ANTIPHON the Sophist (possibly identical to Antiphon of Rhamnus), flourishes.  Writes  On Truth .  Says nature requires freedom, in contrast to the restrictions imposed by institutions.  Says liberty requires social equality.  Fragments survive. 500-400 wikAnt     412 GHH
c.411 ANTIPHON of Rhamnus, Attic ghost writer, brain behind the oligarchic conspiracy, and leader of the extremists, and also ARCHEPTOLEMOS, are tried.  Antiphon's speech in his own defense is heard and applauded by Athenian tragic poet Agathon.  But they are all condemned and executed by moderates led by Theramenes.  Bodies denied burial in Attica, property confiscated, houses leveled, families disenfranchised. 411 CDCC 734, DGRBM, Dur 2-712, GHH, MCAW 139, OCD 25, 74
c.411 History of Thucydides suddenly ends in the middle of 411.  Xenophons  Hellenica  continues to 362, and the Oxyrhynchos historian begins from here to 396. 411 B76 10-1092, DGRBM     410 CDCC 636, GHH
Balkan Peninsula 410-380
V