c.475 MINYAE tribe around Lepreon on west Coast of Peloponnese is destroyed by people of Ellis. 475 OCD 693
c.475 EION on coast of Thrace, under king Boges from ?, Persian vassal from 480, besieged by Athenian admiral CIMON from 476, falls, comes under Athens until 425.  Boges kills his family, then burns his home, and himself to death. 476 DGRBM 1-498 475 CAH 5, lvG
c.475 BYZANTIUM, under Spartan PAUSANIAS from 478, taken by Athenian CIMON.  Joins Delian League until 440. 477 B76 VII-809     475 OCD 475, 792
c.475 PHAEDON, eponymous archon of Athens from 476, ends.  DROMOCLIDES succeeds until 474. 475 wikEA
c.475 Spartan PAUSANIAS expelled by CIMON, goes to Colonae in the Troad until 470. 476 MCAW 112 475 OCD 792
lekythos with Heracles and Atlas
Marie-Lan Nguyen
lekythos with warrior holding spear under arrow attack.
{{PD-US}}   lekythos with 3 warriors, 2 of them hoploi
Marsyas   lekythos with Circe & Odysseus
The ATHENA Painter flourishes, specializing in black figure on white ground lekythoi.
490-60 wikAthP
c.474 DROMOCLIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 475, ends.  ACESTORIDES succeeds until 473. 474 wikEA
c.474/3 PINDAR writes  Pythian Ode 3 . 474/3 CAH 5
c.473 ACESTORIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 474, ends.  MENON succeeds until 472. 473 wikEA
c.472 77th OLYMPIAD is the last one in which all games are on 1 day.  Henceforth they are spread over 4 days. 472
B76 2-274
c.473 Athenian operations against Carystos in Euboea until 472. 473 OCD 240
c.472 CARYSTOS Euboea suppressed by Athenian navy, probably under Cimon. 472 OCD 240 470 lvG
c.472 CARYSTOS Euboea is 1st city forced to join Delian League. 472 B76 III-447, 8-352, OCD 319
c.472 MENON, eponymous archon of Athens from 473, ends.  CHARES succeeds until 471. 472 wikEA
c.472 AESCHYLUS play  Persians  about the victory at Salamis wins 1st place at City Dionysia.  Supports Themistocles.
"When a man takes the road to destruction, the gods help him along."
472 B76 1-148, 8-352, CAH 4, 5, CDCC 16, 631, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, MCAW 115, MNDQ 283, OCD 17, OHG 184, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG
c.472/1 CIMON gets THEMISTOCLES ostracised.  Themistocles goes to Argos, where he continues an anti-Spartan policy, until the Spartans tell Athens that Themistocles was negotiating with Xerxes-I. 472 CDCC 878     472/1 lvG
471 BCoC 331, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-1029, GHH, LEWH 69, MCAW 112, OCD 1053, OHG, TToH, bk 470 OCD 762
c.471 ELIS in Peloponnese, ally of Sparta from 479, spurns Sparta, forms a democratic government. 471 B76 III-853, LEWH 68
c.471 DRAMA:  Just a protagonist and chorus on Athenian stage from 534, gets a 2ND ACTOR, introduced by Aeschylus.  No directors yet!  Either Aeschylus directs or actors wing it. 471 TToH
no date:
B76 10-1091
c.471 3RD ACTOR introduced to Athenian stage by Sophocles. 471 TToH
c.471 CHARES, eponymous archon of Athens from 472, ends.  PRAXIERGOS succeeds until 470. 471 wikEA
c.471 TEGEA Arcadia, under Sparta from 550, defects to ARGOS. 471 LEWH 68, OCD 1040
c.471 Spartans, believing Themistocles privy to the designs of Pausanias (dies 470), send agents to Athens to accuse Themistocles, now at Argos, of negotiating with Xerxes-I.  Athenians convert the ostracism into a death sentence, and the Argives extradite Themistocles, who escapes and flees to Corcyra. 471 LEWH 69
466 CAH 5, DGRBM 3-1029
no date: lvG
c.470? CORCYRA, independent from 585, comes back under Corinth until 434. guess
c.470 PINDAR writes  Pythian Ode 1,  Olympian 12,  Isthmian 2.
Ode 1 
celebrates Hieron-I's victory in Pythian games, plus moral advice to rule wisely.
470 OHG, wikBc 470/69 CAH 5
c.470 Delphi and Corinth establish 4 year contests in painting as part of the Pythian and Isthmian games. 470 Dur 2-317
c.470 TholosTHOLOS "circle" a round temple 18m diameter built at the southwest agora in Athens by Cimon, as a dining hall for the boule (senators).  Functions as an all purpose venue, with a dining hall and sleeping quarters for some officials.  The depository for standard weights and measures, where merchants are required to test their measuring devices. photo: Michael Nicht

500 wikAGUM
470 GHH, wikθls
c.470 PRAXIERGOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 471, ends.  DEMOTION succeeds until 469. 470 wikEA
c.470 Spartan PAUSANIAS, in the Troad from 475, recalled to Sparta, again tried for collaborating with Persians, again acquitted. returns to Sparta 471 lvG    470 OCD 792, lvG
convicted: MCAW 117
c.470 Spartan PAUSANIAS is suspected of instigating a helot rebellion.  To escape arrest, he flees to temple of Athena of the Brazen House, where he is besieged and starved to death.  DORCIS succeeds him. 471 DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 68 470 OCD 792
dies 467 DGRBM 3-412
466 CAH 5
c.470 ELEA region in south-central Elis, under aristocracy from 7th cen., comes under democracy until 323. 470 rcPl
c.470 AESCHYLUS goes to Sicily 2nd time at invitation of Hieron-I. 470 Dur 2-383
c.470 Spartans try and fail to subdue TEGEA Arcadia. 470 LEWH 68
c.470 After draw battle at TEGEA, all ARCADIA except MANTINEA joins anti-Spartan alliance. 470 LEWH 68
c.470 TIRYNS destroyed by ARGOS. 470 OCD 1079
470/69 Bacchylides  Ode 4  celebrates Hieron-I's triumph in chariot race at Pythian Games. 470 wikBc 470/69 CAH 5
c.469 ARGOS crushes anti-Spartan allies at Dipea and recovers hegemony. 469 LEWH 68-9
c.469 DEMOTION, eponymous archon of Athens from 470, ends.  APSEPHION succeeds until 468. 469 wikEA
c.469 PERICLES makes 1st public appearance in Athens. 469 GHH
c.469 LEOTYCHIDAS-II dies.  Eurypontid king of Sparta from 491 (with Pleistarchos from 480), banished to Tegea Arcadia from 476, dies.  His house at Sparta is leveled.  Grandson (acting king from 476) ARCHIDAMOS-II succeeds to 427. 477/6 lvG     469 B76 I-489, DGRBM 1-266, 2-761, MRDK, OCD 98, 596, 1007, rcPl, wikKS
c.469 TEGEA Arcadia allies with Sparta until 369. 469 rcPl
c.469 2nd Temple of Zeus at Olympia begun by architect Libon of Elis until 457.  Made of coarse local shell conglomerate coated with white stucco.  Has 6 columns across front and 13 on sides. 472 wikTZ     470 CDCC 866 469 CDCC 69, CDGRA 60
460 MCAW 121
c.469 ADMITOS becomes king of Epirus until 450. 469 rcSB2
c.469 Supposed bones of THESEUS brought from Scyros to Athens by Cimon.  A tomb/temple of Theseus is begun northwest of Athens.  Built of Penthelic marble on an artificial foundation of quadrangular limestone blocks.  Finished 450. 469 CDGRA 629, DGRBM 3-1100, DGRG 1-28
468 DGRBM 3-245
c.469 THESEIA festival instituted in honor of Theseus. 469 DGRA 1126
c.468 MYCENAE destroyed by Argives. Argolis 468 DGRA 81, DGRBM,
DGRG 1-203-4, GHH
c.468 TIRYNS, HYSIAE, and MIDEA just east of Argos destroyed by Argives. 468 DGRG 1-203-4
strangely similar to 462
c.468 CERYNIA Achaea abandoned to Argives. 468 DGRG 1-593
c.468 APSEPHION, eponymous archon of Athens from 469, ends.  THEAGENIDES succeeds until 467. 468 GHH, wikEA
c.468 SOPHOCLES of Colonos (age 28) wins City Dionysia play contest over Aeschylus 1st time.  Cimon is judge. 468 B76 1-148, 17-15, CAH 5, CDGRA 638, DGRBM 1-41, 3-866, Dur 2-383, 391, MCAW 117, OCD 18, OHG, TTPC     466 GHH
c.468 Athenian statesman ARISTIDES dies. 468 DGRBM, Dur 2-713, GHH, MCAW 119
c.468 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, rebelling against Delian League from 475, subdued, forced by Athens to destroy its walls, surrender its fleet, and pay tribute, causing resentment in all Greece. 470 CDCC 610
469 MCAW 116
468RAH 215
467 LEWH 69, OCD 319
c.468 HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse 478-67 wins another chariot race, and this time comissions only Bacchylides to flatter him, apparently tired of Pindar's moralizing. 468 wikBc
c.468/7 Bacchylides  Ode 3  on Hieron-I's current race victory. 468/7 CAH 5
c.468/7 PINDAR writes  Olympian Ode 4 . 468/7 CAH 5
c.468/7  METEORITE  falls on the Aegospotami River in the Chersonese. 468/7 OCD 61
467 HALLEY'S COMET and associated meteor shower recorded in China and Greece. 467 GHCC, wikHC
c.467 CHERSONESE, torn between Greeks and Persians from 479/8, Persians expelled by CIMON.  Joins Delian League, under Athens until 411. 467 GHH
no date: OCD 229, 240
c.467 THEAGENIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 468, ends.  LYSISTRATOS succeeds until 466. 467 wikEA
c.467 AESCHYLUS produces his  Oedipus trilogy , of which only  Seven Against Thebes  survives.
"The worst enemy is one that fears the gods."
467 B76 1-148, CAH 5, CDCC 16, Dur 2-383, MCAW 117, MNDQ 341, OCD 17, 109, OHG, TTPC, bk
c.466 LYSISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 467, ends.  LYSANIAS succeeds until 465. 466 wikEA
c.465 Ennea Hodoi (later Amphipolis), on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice defies another Athenian attempt to colonize it by a force of 10,000 under Leagros and Sophanes.  All are killed in battle by Thracians at Drabescus. 465 CAH 5, 6-452, DGRBM 2-726, 3-865, DGRG 1-126, OCD 54, lvG     464 bk
c.465 LYSANIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 466, ends.  LYSITHEOS succeeds until 464. 465 wikEA
c.465 Athens begins policies aimed at converting the voluntary Delian League into an empire dominated by Athens. 465 SHWC 66
c.465 Λ COMEDY V gains enough respect to be granted a chorus at Athenian festivals.  OLD COMEDY Period begins until 400.  Political satire and groin-centered inuendo represented mostly by Aristophanes. 465 Dur 2-231 458 DGRA 344
c.465/4 Egypt rebels against Persia until 464.  Athens sends troops to help Egypt, but rebellion is crushed. 465 LEWH 53 464 MCAW 116
c.465/4 SPARTA promises to help Thasos island against Athenians, but is hit by EARTHQUAKE.  5 houses left standing; more than 20,000 people killed, huge masses of rock roll down from the highest peaks of Taygetos. 469/8 or 465/4 OCD 98
465 B76 8-352, OCD 1007
464 B76 I-489, DGRBM, DGRG 1-1015, GHH, LEWH 69, OCD 676, RAH 216
c.465/4 MESSENIA, under Sparta from ?, uses earthquake as opportunity to rebel.  3rd MESSENIAN WAR begins until 461. 465 OCD 1007     465/4 B76 VI-822, CAH 5     464 B76 VI-581, DGRA 887, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 69, lvG, bk
c.464 LYSITHEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 465, ends.  ARCHIDEMIDES succeeds until 463. 464 wikEA
c.464 MANTINEA sides with Sparta against helots. 464 B76 VI-581
c.464 MESSENIAN HELOTS, defeated by Archidamos of Sparta, retreat to the fortress on Mt. Ithome.  Spartans besiege them until 461.  464 Dur 2-244, LEWH 69, lvG
c.464 ANAXAGORAS, philosopher of Clazomenae Ionia, in Greece from 480, settles in Athens.  1st philosopher to live in Athens. 480 GHH     464 KPHP 15, OHG     462 Dur 2-244
456 CAH 5
c.463 CIMON, besieging THASOS Island from 465, returns to Athens.  He is charged by EPHIALTES with accepting a bribe from ALEX-I of Macedon, prosecuted by Pericles, and acquitted. 463 B76 14-67, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240, 800
c.463 ARCHIDEMIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 464, ends.  TLEPOLEMOS succeeds until 462. 463 wikEA
c.463 Athenians determine to overcome Persian influence in Cyprus, build 200 ships. 463
Sdl 5-187
c.463 POLYGNOTOS of Thasos, painter, moves to Athens (probably brought by Cimon).  Remains in the area of Athens until 426.  Painting is fully developed in the art of immitation. 463 DGRA 908, DGRBM 3-466
462 DGRBM 3-463
c.463 AESCHYLUS play  Suppliant Women . 463 B76 1-149, CAH 5
466-59 CDCC 16
463 Apr 30 SOLAR ECLIPSE inspires an ejaculation from Pindar to fellow Thebans.
"Beam of the Sun!  O thou that seest from afar, what wilt thou be devising?  O mother of mine eyes!  O star supreme, reft from us in the daytime!  Why has thou perplexed the power of man and the way of wisdom, by rushing forth on a darksome track?  Art thou bringing on us some new and strange disaster?  Yet by Zeus, I implore thee, thou swift driver of steeds!  So thou, O queen!  Change this world-wide portent into some painless blessing for Thebes ... But art thou bringing a sign of some war, or wasting of produce, or an unspeakably violent snow-storm, or fatal faction, or again, some overflowing of the sea on the plain, or frost to bind the earth, or heat of the south wind streaming with raging rain?  Or wilt thou, by deluging the land, cause the race of men to begin anew?  I in no wise lament whatever I shall suffer with the rest! ... God can cause unsullied light to spring out of black night.  He can also shroud in a dark cloud of gloom the pure light of day."
463 Apr 30 hbar
c.463/2 Spartans call on allies, including Athens, for help in siege of Messenians on Mt. Ithome. 462 B76 4-617, CAH 5
no date: B76 8-352, LEWH 69
c.462 TLEPOLEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 463, ends.  CONON succeeds until 461. 462 wikEA
c.462 EPHIALTES, Athenian statesman, refuses to help Spartans during helot rebellion. 462
OCD 387
c.462 Athenian general CIMON persuades Athenians, over Ephialtes objection, to help Sparta against helots. 462 B76 III-918, 4-617
no date: OCD 240
c.462 Athenian CIMON leads an army of hoplites to help Sparta attack Messenians on Mt. Ithome.  Spartans suspect his motives and send him home in disgrace.  Athens transfers friendship from Sparta to Argos. 464 DGRBM, GHH     463 bk 462 CAH 5, CDCC 485, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240
c.462 Athens / Sparta alliance from ?, ends. 462 LEWH 69
c.462 ARGOS subdues TIRYNS and MYCENAE. Argolis 469 LEWH 68-9
464 DGRG 1-1057
c.462 MYCENAE, independent of Argos from ?, reconquered by Argos.  Town is destroyed, but citadel remains. 464 DGRG 1-1057 464/3 CAH 5
462 MCAW 116
strangely similar to 468
c.462 MEGARA, having border war with Corinth, appeals to Sparta unsuccessfully, then to Athens, which allies with Megara 460. 462 CAH 5, LEWH 69
c.462 CIMON, archon from 476, ends.  EPHIALTES succeeds until 461. 462 rcSB3
c.462 ARCHESILAUS-IV employs PINDAR of Thebes to celebrate his victory in the chariot race at Delphi. 462 OCD 95
c.462 EPHIALTES, leader of Athenian democrats, now dominant in Athens, assisted by Pericles, limits the oligarchic Council of the Areopagos, in favor of the Ecclesia (popular assembly), the Boule (council), and the law courts. 462 B76 1-148, Dur 2-390, wikArpg
463/1 MCAW 117     462/1 B76 III-918, CAH 5, 6-565, CDCC 630, CDGRA 70, OCD 103, 387, 800
461 GHH, LWEH 69
c.462 AREOPAGOS, the high Court of Appeal for Athenian criminal and civil cases, located at the Areopagos (Ares rock) north-west of the Acropolis, is deprived of all powers except jurisdiction over homicide cases.  Its other powers are divided between the COUNCIL of 500, ASSEMBLY, and popular law courts.  Judges are paid, but selected by lot from a group accessible to all adult males. 462 B76 1-148, Dur 2-390, wikArpg     463/1 MCAW 117
462/1 CAH 6-572, CDCC 630, OCD 103, 387, 800
461 LEWH 69   458 DGRA 128
462/1 Democracy in Athens, compromized from at least 487, reestablished until 411 under Ephialtes and Pericles.  It is aggressive against Sparta and Persia, and exploits its allies. 462 CDCC 652, bk
462/1 OCD 480
c.461 Athens / Sparta relations, break down. 461 B76 III-447
c.461 CONON, eponymous archon of Athens from 462, ends.  EUTHIPPOS succeeds until 460. 461 wikEA
c.461 Oligarch CIMON, son of Miltiades, charged with benevolence to Sparta, ostracized from Athens until 451. 462 CDCC 652     462/1 lvG
461 B76 4-617, 8-352, BCoC 332, CAH 4-153, 5, CDCC 485, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240, 319, 762, OHG, RAH 217, TToH, bk
c.461 Athens / Sparta war begins until 446. 461 lvG
c.461 ARGOS sides with Athens against Sparta. 461 B76 I-506,
OCD 106     460 bk
c.461 Construction of LONG WALLS from the PIRAEUS to Athens begins.  Finished 457. 461 OCD 619, TTOH 457 GHH
c.461 3rd MESSENIAN WAR with Sparta from 464 ends.  Messenians besieged on Mt. Ithome from 464 surrender to Spartans.  They are given safe conduct by Tolmides to Naupactos in Aetolia. 461 LEWH 69
460 OCD 1007, lvG 456 CAH 5
c.461 EPHIALTES dies.  Archon from 476, leader of democratic party and dominant man in Athens, murdered by an oligarch.  PERICLES succeeds (age 33) to 429. 461 B76 14-67, CAH 5, Dur 2-248, MCAW 116, OCD 387, SHWC 58, bk, rcSB3     456 DGRBM 2-25
no date: LEWH 69
c.460 ECHECRADIDAS-II ends.  King of Thessaly from 476.  ORESTES succeeds until 453. 460 rcSB2
c.460 EUTHIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 461, ends.  PHRASICLES succeeds until 459. 460 wikEA
c.460 MEGARA, in Peloponnesian League from 510, but having border war with Corinth, defects to Athenian League until 447. 460 bk, rcSB3 459 CAH 6-488
c.460 Ennea Hodoi, on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice defies an attempt by 10,000 Athenians to colonize it. 460 IDB 1-121
c.460 OdryssiansODRYSIAN kingdom of Thrace begins in Maritsa Valley.  This is 1st known state in Thrace.  TERES-I is 1st king until 445.  Dynasty lasts until 46CE. 480 frH, rcSB2, vrb 470s wikOK
469 GHH
460 wikLRTD, wikTrs1
450 B76 2-615
c.460 Athens sends 200 ships to CyprusINAROS of Libya intercepts them and offers a better deal helping him against the Persian satrap. 460 B76 8-354, DGRBM, LEWH 69, MCAW 120, OCD 319, WPOT 327     459 CAH 5
c.460 THUCYDIDES son of Melesias becomes leader of Athenian conservatives (rich people) until 443. no date: OCD 1067
c.460 Some Helots of Messenia, sick of Spartan oppression, leave the Peloponnese and settle as exiles north of Corinthian Gulf until 371. 460
B76 VI-822
c.460 At request of Megara, Athens decides to help Megara against Corinth.
1st PELOPONNESIAN WAR, Athens, Megara, Argos, Thessaly vs. Corinth, Epidauros begins until 446Sparta does not enter until 457.
461 B76 III-447, CDCC 938, OHG     460 B76 8-354, CDCC 100, LEWH 69, OCD 1007, OHG 142, RAH 228, rcSB3
c.460 HIPPOCRATES of Chios Island, mathematician, flourishes in Athens.  Writes  ELEMENTS of GEOMETRY  V, the 1st known book on geometry.  Says a cube can be doubled if curves can be found with properties expressed in continuous proportion: a/x = x/y = y/2a.
(See Thales 600, Mahavira 468, Hippocrates 450, Hippasus 445)
460 B76 V-56
440 Dur 2-338 430 BHM 63 470-00 OCD 519
no date: OCD 654-5
c.460 NEMEAN GAMES, athletic and musical competitions in honor of Zeus at his Nemean sanctuary at Argolis, open to all Greeks, sponsored by Cleonae from 573, now sponsored by Argos until ?. 460
B76 VII-249
c.460 AESCHYLUS produces  Prometheus Bound . 460 Dur 2-244, 386, TToH
c.460 DAMON of Athens flourishes, and speaks on music.  His teaching is mainly oral, but he incorporates his doctrines in a speech to the Areopagus. 460 sctx
c.460 PAINT:  Yellow ochre pigment is 1st used in painting by Polygnotos and Micon at Athens. 460 DGRA 321
c.459 Pericles sends 200 Athenian ships to Egypt to help Libyan prince INAROS against the Persians. 460 OCD 319     459 Dur 2-437, MCAW 120, OCD 805
c.459 PHRASICLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 460, ends.  PHILOCLES succeeds until 458. 459 wikEA
c.459 Son of Leonidas, PLEISTARCHOS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 480, with Archidamos-II from 469, dies.  Minor son (or son of Pausanias) PLEISTOANAX succeeds to 445.  Uncle Nicomedes, son of Cleombrotos, commands army. 459 CDCC 690, OCD 1007, lvG
458 DGRBM 3-412, MRDK, rcPl
c.459 Corinth fights Athens until ?. 459 OCD 290     458 TToH
c.459 Athenians defeated by Corinthians and Epidaurians at Halieis on southeast coast of Argolis. 459 CAH 5, LEWH 69
c.459 Athens / Aegina Island war begins.  Aegina is aided by Peloponnesians. 459 MCAW 120, OCD 12-13
458 LEWH 69
c.459 Athenian fleet defeats Corinthian/Epidauran fleet at Cecryphaleia Island between Aegina and Greece. 459 CAH 5, LEWH 69
c.459 MEGARA, in Athenian League:  Athenians build 2 long walls from Megara to its main port NISAEA, which stand until 424.  Athenians garrison these walls until 441. 461 ltlb
459 CAH 5, wikNis
c.459 AEGINA Island, at war with Athens from 459, defeated at sea by Athenians, who besiege their main city until 458. 460 DGRG 1-33     459 OCD 12-13 458 LEWH 69     457 CDCC 30
c.458 ARCHONS, impotent from 487, now granted pay by Pericles.  Lower classes are now made elligible. 458 MCAW 121 457 Dur 2-250
c.458 AESCHYLUS produces the  Orestia , supposedly including  "Agamemnon",  "Choephoroe",  Eumenides",  "Proteos" . 458 B76 8-352, CAH 5, CDCC 16, 630, DGRBM, Dur 2-383, MCAW 123, OCD 17, OHG, TToH, bk
c.458 PHILOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 459, ends.  HABRON succeeds until 457. 458 wikEA
c.458 AEGINA Island occupied by Athenian troops under LEOSTHENES, forced to surrender its fleet and join Delian League until ?.  Pays it 30 talents per year. 458 B76 I-109, CAH 5, OCD 12-13     457 Dur 2-439, LEWH 69, MCAW 121     456 bk
c.458 Corinthians raid Megaris to divert Athenian troops away from Aegina, but Corinthians are defeated by Athenian old men and boys under Myronides. 458 LEWH 70
457 DGRBM 2-1131
c.458/7 AESCHYLUS sails to Sicily 3rd time until death 456. 458 wikAe
457 DGRBM 1-42
c.457 Corinthian troops are reproached at home for letting Athenian old men and boys defeat them.  Corinthians return, and are defeated by regular Athenian troops, chased into a ditch, and annihilated. 457 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 HABRON, eponymous archon of Athens from 458, ends.  MNESITHEIDES succeeds until 456. 457 wikEA
c.457 CIMON, Athenian statesman, ostracised 461-51, Asks Athens for a military command to prove his loyalty.  Refused by influence of Pericles. 457 DGRBM 1-750, 3-193, MCAW 121, OCD 240
c.457 OdryssiansPHOCIS tries to extend its influence to the headwaters of the Cephissos in the territory of Doris. 457 wikΦcs
c.457 SPARTA enters Peloponnesian War, sends army under Nicomedes across Corinthian Gulf to help Dorians against Phocis.  BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, defunct from 479, restored by Sparta, but not under Thebes until 446. 458 CAH 5
457 DGRBM 3-412, LEWH 70
c.457 Spartan troops under Nicomedes occupy Tanagra, 25km east Thebes. 458 DGRBM 1-751
c.457 Athenian fleet under LEOCRATES defeats Spartan fleet off Aegina island, take 70 Spartan shipsLeocrates lands and besieges Aegina city. 457 DGRBM 2-750
c.457 PHOCIS, allied with Athens, siezes Delphi.  457 OCD 826
c.457 BoeotiaSpartans under Nicomedes returning from Doris, fight Athens at the isthmus.  Peloponnesians under Nicomedes defeat Athenians, Argives, and allies at TANAGRA 30km east Thebes, and go home. 458 CAH 5, OHG 457 B76 4-618, 8-354, CDCC 129, DGRBM 3-193, Dur 2-250, GHH, LEWH 70, OCD 140, 1036, bk
c.457 CIMON, ostracized Athenian statesman, proves his value at Tanagra, restored to favor.  But he can't be legally recalled until 447, and remains exiled until 451. 457 MCAW 121
c.457 2 months after Tanagra, MYRONIDES leads Athenian army into Boeotia. 456 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 Peloponnesians under Nicomedes withdraw from Boeotia leaving the Athenians under MYRONIDES to defeat Thebans and Boeotians at OENOPHYTA 40km east of Thebes.  All Boeotian cities except except Thebes are forced into the Delian League until 447.  PHOCIS and LOCRIS are also forced to join. 458 B76 14-67, CAH 5, OHG 457 B76 8-354, CDCC 129, 491, 621, LEWH 70, OCD 320, 800, bk     456 DGRBM 2-1131, GHH
c.457 Athenian commander MYRONIDES marches against Opuntian Locrians, takes 100 hostages. 456 DGRBM 2-1131
c.457 Athenian commander MYRONIDES invades Thessaly, fails to take Pharsalos, returns to Athens. 456 DGRBM 2-1132
c.457 Archonship opened to Zeugitai: men who could produce 200 bushels of wet or dry goods (or equivalent), per year. 457 CAH 5 457/6 wikZg
c.457 Long WallsLONG WALLS (begun 461) connecting ports PHALAERUM and PIRAEUS to Athens are completed.  They are increased in 445 and last until 404.  Western wall 6km long connects southwest Athens with Piraeus; Eastern wall continues from south of Athens to Phaleron, 5½km away.  Between walls, a triangle of land can be used for agriculture. 458 Dur 2-244, MCAW 121, OHG     458/7 CDCC 684     457 LEWH 70, bk, lvG     456 DGRBM 3-1029, GHH, OCD 619, 800, TTOH
c.457 Temple of Zeus 2nd Temple of Zeus at Olympia by architect Libon of Elis, begun 469, completed with sculptures.  Made of coarse local shell conglomerate coated with white stucco.  Has 6 columns across front and 13 on sides. photo {{PD-US}}

460 CDGRA 592
457 CDCC 69, 624, 866, CDGRA 60, MCAW 121
456 B76 8-351, CAH 5, Dur 2-244, OHG 344, wikTZ
c.457 Athenian commander MYRONIDES dies. 457 DGRG 1-676
no date: DGRBM 2-1132
c.456 NAUPACTOS in Aetolia, under Locrians of Opus from ?, siezed by Athenians and populated with exiled Messenians until 404. 456 CAH 6-42, OCD 723
455 DGRBM 1-67, wikNp
c.456 CORONEA Boeotia, comes under Athens until 446. 456 rcSB3
c.456 MNESITHEIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 457, ends.  CALLIAS succeeds until 455. 456 wikEA
c.456 CEPHALONIA Island joins Delian League until 372. 456 rcSB3
c.456 Athena PromachosPHIDIAS, Athenian sculptor, completes bronze statue "Athena Promachos", about 9m tall (tallest statue in Athens).  In the same year it is put between the Propylaea and the Parthenon on the Acropolis.  The helmet crest and spear are visible from the sea at Sunion.  Dedicated 438.  Remains there until 465CE, when it is transported to Constantinople.  Part of the marble base survives. left Elliott Brown
right {{PD-US}}

456 B76 VII-935, OCD 812, wikAP
c.455 Athenian TOLMIDES is assigned 1,000 men to sail around the Peloponnese raiding the coast.  He recruits another 4,000 volunteers, and proceeds, burns shipyard at Gytheon on south coast of Laconia, takes Chalcis (a Corinthian city, unknown location), and disembarks on Sicyonian territory.  He defeats troops sent against him. 456 CAH 5
455 DGRBM 3-1162, DGRG 1-1022, 3-1162, GHH, LEWH 70, bk
c.455 AEGINA Island, independent from ?, comes under Athens until 338. 455 rcAg
c.455 CALLIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 456, ends.  SOSISTRATOS succeeds until 454. 455 wikEA
c.455 PYTHAGOREAN SOCIETY at Croton Italy from 530, almost totally destroyed by democratic revolution.  Survivors return to Greece and settle in Thebes and Phileius. 460-400 OCD 904
455 B76 VIII-326 450 B76 15-325
c.455 EURIPIDES 1st play  Daughters of Pelias . 455 CAH 5, DGRBM 2-104, Dur 2-401, GHH, MCAW 123, OHG
c.455 ION of Chios, Athenian tragic poet, philosopher, critic of Pericles, flourishes. 455 MCAW 123 451 GHH
c.454 ALEXANDER-I ends.  7th Argead king of Macedon from 498.  Son PERDICCAS-II succeeds until 413. 455 Dur 2-710     454 CAH 6-723, GHH, lvG, rcSB2, wikAlx1, wikArg, wikLKM, wikPrd2     452 MRDK
450 IDB 3-216, OCD 39
c.454 PERDICCAS-II, king of Macedon 454-13, favors Sparta against Athens. 454 GHH
c.454 Philolaus, Pythagorean astronomer of Croton Italy, moves to Greece, flourishes at Thebes until 400. 454 wikPhl
c.454 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, joins Athenian League until 432. 454 rcSB2
Macedonia Thrace
c.454 NEAPOLIS Thrace becomes tributary to Athens until ?. 454 wikNT
c.454 SOSISTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 455, ends.  ARISTON succeeds until 453. 454 wikEA
c.454 Athenian PERICLES crosses the isthmus and campaigns in the Corinthian Gulf unsuccessfully. 455/4 CAH 5 454 LEWH 70
c.454 Athenian PERICLES invades territory of Sicyon, routing his opposition. 454 DGRBM 3-193, GHH
c.454 Athenian PERICLES, recruits some Achaean troops, goes from Sicyon to Acarnania, besieges Oeniadae unsuccessfully. 454 DGRBM 3-193, GHH
c.454 Legend:  Rome sends envoys (3 patricians) to Athens to get a copy of the  laws of Solon  and others for study. 454 Dur 3-23, LEWH 84, MCAW 121     451 TToH
c.454 Treasury of Delian League, on Delos from 477, is moved to Athens by Pericles because of Persian victory in EgyptDelian League is now called what it always has been:  the ATHENIAN LEAGUE until 404DELOS comes under more direct Athenian control until 314, but still does not pay tribute. 462 DGRA 1064
461 GHH     455 bk
454 B76 III-447, 14-67, CDCC 100, Dur 2-244, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OCD 321, 495, 230, OHG
c.453 Athens makes alliance with SEGESTA and HALICYAE in Sicily. 453 LEWH 70
c.453 ORESTES ends.  King of Thessaly from 460.  ARISTOMIDES and ANGELOS succeed until ?. 453 rcSB2
c.453 ARISTON, eponymous archon of Athens from 454, ends.  LYSICRATES succeeds until 452. 453 wikEA
c.453 Because of Tolmides expedition 455, ACHAEA joins Athenian League until 446. 454 TToH
453 MCAW 120
c.452 Tragedian Ion of Chios produces first tragedy.  Wins 3rd prize after Euripides and Iophon. 452 wik
c.452  OSTRACISM law  of 487 repealed. 452 DGRA 504
c.452 LYSICRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 453, ends.  CHAEROPHANES succeeds until 451. 452 wikEA
c.452 Athens, having no cavalry in 490, now has 300 cavalry. 452 CDGRA 278
c.451 PAY for JURORS (2 obols a day) introduced in Athenian popular courts by Pericles.  Enables poor citizens to serve. 462 Dur 2-244     457 CAH 5 451 Dur 2-249, LEWH 70     451/0 RAH 227
c.451 Pericles, leader of democratic party 461-43, carries a bill to RESTRICT Athenian CITIZENSHIP to those with two Athenian parents.  Marriage of a citizen to a non-citizen is illegal.  Repealed 429. 451 BCoC 333, CAH 5, Dur 2-250, LEWH 70, MCAW 121, OHG 154, bk 451/0 B76 14-67, OCD 800
c.451 CHAEROPHANES, eponymous archon of Athens from 452, ends.  ANTIDOTOS succeeds until 450. 451 wikEA
c.451 Pericles proposes recall of Cimon. no date: DGRBM 3-193
c.451 Oligarch CIMON, exiled from Athens from 461, recalled to Athens to mediate a truce with Sparta 5 Year Truce  between Athens and Sparta negotiated by Cimon. 456 DGRBM, GHH     454 TToH
454/3 DGRBM 1-751     451 B76 III-447, 8-354, 14-67, CAH 5, CDCC 485, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OHG, RAH 230, bk     451/0 OCD 800
450 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 240, OHG
c.451 ARGOS, defended by Athens from ?, is no longer defended because of the truce.  Argos makes a  30 year peace  (not to be confused with 446) with Sparta. 451 CAH 5, LEWH 70, OHG, bk
c.450 CHERSONESE peninsula comes under ATHENIAN LEAGUE. 450 OCD 229
c.450 GREEK EARLY CLASSICAL Period ends.  Began 480.
HIGH CLASSICAL begins until 400.
Athens resumes leadership in art and architecture.
B76 19-291, 293
c.450 ANTIDOTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 451, ends.  EUTHYDEMOS succeeds until 449. 450 wikEA
c.450 ARCHILAOS, pupil of Anaxagoras, philosopher of Ionian School, teaches at Athens. 450 GHH
c.450 OENOPIDES of Chios, mathematician, geometer, astronomer, flourishes in Athens.

Λ ASTRONOMY V:  determined the angle between the plane of the celestial equator, and the yearly path of the sun in the sky to be 24.  It is now calculated at 23½.  He calculated how many solar years it takes for the moon to get back in the same position.  He said 59 years, corresponding to 730 months.  It was a big improvement over the previous estimation of 8 years, corresponding to 99 months, but was still about 7 days off.  The actual figure cannot be calculated because of variations in the lunar orbit.
(See Mahavira 468, Naburimannu 450, Meton 432)
480-71 TTS
450 wikOen
450-25 OCD 748
c.450 ASPASIA, an educated blond courtesan from Megara, moves to Athens, opens a school of rhetoric and philosophy.  Advocates higher education of women. 450 Dur 2-253
c.450 Supported by Pericles, CIMON is made commander of 200 ships and sails for Cyprus.  Dies there same year, after which Thucydides becomes leader of the aristocratic party, which he organizes in opposition to Pericles. 451/0 B76 8-354     450 CAH 5, CDCC 249, LEWH 70, OCD 805, cpnt     450/49 CAH 6-308
449 DGRBM 1-751, 3-1111, TToH, bk     440 Dur 2-719
c.450 Λ PHYSICS V:  ATOMIC THEORY V proposed by Pythagorean Society, in Greece from 455. 450 Dur 2-342
Mycenae citadel
Mycenae citadel
Sculptor MYRON of Eleutherae flourishes.
470-30 OHG
450 LEWH 76
460-40 CAH 5 442 Dur 2-244 431 DGRBM 2-1130
c.450 ArgolisNEMEA on north edge of Argolis, under Argos from 1000, comes under Corinth until 379. 450 rcPl
c.450 Aesculapios (Asclepius), son of Apollo, 1st worshipped as a god at Epidauros Argolis.  Temple 390. 500-400 wikAs
c.450 PIE invented in Greece.  Filled with meat or fish, has no top crust. 500-400 EOET 410
c.450 SOPHOCLES play  Ajax .
"The pleasantest laughter is at the expense of our enemies."
"The ox, though bulky, is kept on the road with a small whip."
450 MNDQ 651, 702
pre-441B76 17-17
c.450 Λ BEER:  Sophocles advocates beer with meals, but moderation in consumption.   (See China 650Britain 325) 450 wikHB
c.450 Temple of TheseusTemple of Theseus at Athens, begun 469, completed.  Runaway slaves are allowed to take refuge in it and not be extradited by their masters.  A festival to Theseus is celebrated on the 8th of each month, especially Pyanepsion.  Connected with this festival are the Connideia, in memory of Connidas, guardian of Theseus, and the Cybernesia, having reference to his voyage.
Possibly same as Temple of Hephaestos 415.
photo Guillaume Piolle

465 DGRG 1-287 450 TToH, TTPC
no date: DGRBM 3-1100
Athenian Agora
ATHENIAN AGORA 5th cen.BCE     Drawing by Madmedea
c.450 TRAPETUM (fruit juice press) used at Olynthos Chalcidice. 450 SHT 2-112
c.450 ADMITOS, king of Epirus from 469, ends.  Ruler unknown until 423. 450 rcSB2
c.450 ZENO of Elea visits Athens, brings copies of his writings. 450 Dur 2-351, 367
c.450 Parmenides of Elea, age 65, visits Athens, meets Zeno. 450 EoΦ 6-47, wikPrm
c.450 PROTAGORAS of Abdera comes to Athens, begins career teaching sophistry for large fees until 415. 450 MCAW 125     433 CAH 5 422 DGRBM
c.450 CRATES, Athenian Old Comic poet, flourishes.  Wins 3 times at the City Dionysia. 450 wikCr 449 GHH
c.450 PHERECYDES of Athens, historian, mythographer, logographer from Leros Island, flourishes.  He modifies legends, not to rationalize them, but to adjust them to popular beliefs. 480 GHH 450 wikPL
c.450 MANTINEA southeast of Arcadia becomes a moderate democracy. 471 rcPl
450 OCD 644
c.450 Handheld CROSSBOW (gastraphetes) invented? in Greece.   (See China 700) 5-400 wikCrs
475-430 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.450 ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomenae, in Athens from 464, charged with impiety for saying the sun is a hot stone slightly larger than the Peloponnese, and for sympathy with Medo-Persians.  Tried and convicted, but saved from punishment by Pericles.  He is fined and either banished or escapes to Lampsacos until death 428. 450 B76 I-345, CDΦ 24, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 61
436 CAH 5     434 KPHP 15, MCAW 129     432 Dur 2-244 no date: wikPer


ANAXAGORAS, of Clazomenae flourishes.

(See Heraclitos 500, Xenophanes 480, Parmenides 460, Hippasus 445)

Λ PHYSICS V:  Matter is composed of an infinite number of different ingredients (flesh, bone, wood, water).  All matter contains a portion of every ingredient.  Every substance can be infinitely divided.  Things are recognized by their most obvious characteristic.  Mind is homogeneous motionless matter considered as conscious.
(See Xenophanes 480, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

COSMOGONY V:  In the beginning was mind, which spun around and caused seeds to separate out.  Air (moist, cold, dark) gravitated toward the center.  Aether (opposite of air) went to the circumference.  Heavenly bodies are stones torn from Earth and ignited by fast rotation.
(See Anaximander 550, Anaximenes 545, Hippo 450, Empedocles 444)

COSMOLOGY:  Universe is infinite.  Earth is flat.
(See Pythagoreans 520, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)
Earthquakes are caused by underground clouds that burst forth.
Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Correctly interprets Λ ECLIPSES.
(See eclipse 776, Naburimannu 450)
Magill 22, OCD 61
no date:
B76 I-345, BHM 63, KPHP 16
435 GHH
c.450  PROTOGONOS THEOGONY :  Protogonos "Firstborn" is the deity of procreation and generation of new life, who is introduced by Orphic tradition.  Later names for this concept include Phanes "manifest", Ericapaeus "power", and Metis "thought".  In these myths Phanes is often equated with Eros and Mithras, and emerges from a cosmic egg, entwined with a serpent.  He is androgynous and has animalistic elements, sometimes a helmet and broad golden wings.  The Orphic cosmogony is bizarre, and unlike the creation sagas of Homer and Hesiod.  Protogonos Theogony is known thru commentary in the Derveni papyrus 340 and references in Empedocles and Pindar. 500 orti, wikOrΦ
450-400 wikDP, wikOrΦ
c.450  EUDEMIAN THEOGONY :  An Orphic product of a syncretic Bacchic-Kouretic cult.  Ouranos and Ge beget Ocean and Tethys, who beget 12 Titans. 5th cen wikOrΦ
c.450 THEATRICAL MASKS (personae) are attested no earlier than the 5th cen.  No examples or representations of them exist until 4th cen.  Some, but not all, function as megaphones. 5th cen wikTAG
c.450 Omphalos ApolloCALAMIS, Greek sculptor flourishes.  Works in marble, bronze, gold, and ivory.  Famed for statues of horses.  According to Pausanias, Calamis made a statue of Zeus Ammon for Pindar, and a Hermes Criophorus for Tanagra, which is later depicted on Roman coins of Tanagra.  His statue of Apollo Alexikakos stood in the Ceramicus of Athens.  He produced his most ambitious work, a 30-cubit statue of Apollo for Apollonia Pontica.  This is a Roman copy. Statue Albani Collection

5th cen. wikAlc
c.449  PEACE of CALLIAS , negotiated (possibly on Cyprus, but signed at Susa) by Callias son of Hipponicos, ends hostilities between Athens and Persia, defining their spheres of influence and regulating relations between them.  Persian warships stay out of Aegean.  Athenians leave AnatoliaIonian cities are independentCyprus is under Persia.  MEGABYZOS is recognized as independent king of Syria by Artaxerxes-I.
This results in decreased tribute to Athenian League.
449 B76 1-824, CAH 5, 6-48, CDCC 455, GHH,
IDB 1-241, MCAW 124, OCD 126, 194, OHG,
RAH 230, WPOT 327, bk, vrb     449/8 B76 III-447, OCD 805     448 B76 8-309, 9-835, Dur 2-244, Sdl 5-188     no date: LEWH 70
c.449 Athenian League reduces tribute requirement and allows cities to issue their own coins. 449
MCAW 125
c.449 Architect CALLICRATES comissioned by Athenian senate to build a temple to Athena Nike on the bastion of the southwest corner of the Acropolis.  Construction doesn't begin until 427. 449
B76 II-462
c.449 EUTHYDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 450, ends.  PEDIEOS succeeds until 448. 449 wikEA
c.449 CIMON dies of a wound while becieging Citium Cyprus. 449 DGRBM 1-751, GHH
c.449 Pericles, leader of democratic party 461-43, Holds a conference of 30 Greek states, advocates rebuilding of temples destroyed by PersiansSparta refuses to cooperate, but Pericles decides to use Athenian League funds.  Thucydides objects. 449 RAH 230
448 MCAW 124
no date:
B76 14-67
c.449 2nd SACRED WAR begins until 448.  Sparta helps Delphi.  Athens helps Phocis. 449 CDCC 775, LEWH 70, rcSB3 448 CDCC 260, DGRBM, GHH
c.449 DELPHI, under Phocis from ?, taken by Sparta until 448.  Phocians are expelled. 449 CDCC 775, LEWH 70, rcSB3 449/8 B76 VII-957   448 CDCC 260
c.449 Temple of Hephaestos in Athens, begun until 415.  Doric peripteral temple, located at north-west side of the Agora, on top of the Agoraios Kolonos hill. 450 CAH 5
449 CDCC 866, wikTHΦ
c.449 Indian COTTON reported by Herodotus:   "a wool exceeding in beauty and goodness that of sheep"  He is apparently not taken seriously.  (See Megasthenes 300) no date: wikHC
c.449 HERODOTUS publishes 1st part of his  History . It ends in year 474.
"India is the farthest known region of the inhabited world to the east."
449 TTPC
World of Herodotus
The world according to Herodotus     Pub Dom
c.449 WONDERS of the WORLD meme started by Herodotus.  He lists Pyramids of Egyptwalls of Babylon, Hanging Gardens of Babylon  temple of Artemis at Ephesus.   (See Philo 225, Antipater 104) no date: anhi
c.449 Λ COSMOGONY V:  OLD EARTH proposed by Herodotus, who reasons that it would have taken millenia for the annual Nile flood to have produced the Nile delta. 450 higrd
c.448 PEDIEOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 449, ends.  PHILISCOS succeeds until 447. 448 wikEA
c.448 PHOCIS reinstated by Athenians. 448 OCD 943
c.448 Spartans invade Attica. 448 CAH 5
c.448 DELPHI, under Sparta from 449, taken by Athenian PERICLES, restored to Phocis until 421, ending 2nd SACRED WAR from 449. 448 LEWH 70, OCD 800, 826, rcSB3
c.448 DELPHI temple and treasury administration taken over by Phocis with consent of Athens. 448 DGRBM 3-194
c.448 CRATINOS, comic writer, produces 1st known play  Archilochoi . 448 DGRBM 1-887
c.448 Spartans march to Delphi, displace the Phocians, and restore temple and treasury to the Delphians, who grant Spartans preference in oracle consultation.  But as soon as they leave, an Athenian army under Pericles comes back, and reverses the situation with Athenians getting oracle preference. 448 DGRBM 3-194
c.447 "CLERUCHY", a new form of colonization, adopted by Athenian League.  Poor people set up in foreign cities under military governors. 447 MCAW 124
no date: OCD 252
c.447 PERICLES leads 1,000 colonists to CHERSONESE imposes an Athenian cleruchy on it. 448 CAH 5
447 CDCC 209, OCD 320
c.447 PHILISCOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 448, ends.  TIMARCHIDES succeeds until 446. 447 wikEA
c.447 BOEOTIA, in Athenian League from 457, siezed by oligarchs, secedes, recovers independence. 447 CDCC 181, 491, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 140, bk
447/6 OCD 320
c.447 BoeotiaAthens sends a small force under Tolmides to recover Boeotia and Phocis for the democrats.  Tolmides recovers Chaeronea, but when returning is defeated at CORONEA by the Boeotians and killed.  Athenian domination of Boeotia from 457 ends. 447 B76 8-355,
CDCC 181, 491, DGRBM 3-1162, DGRG 1-688, Dur 2-440, GHH, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 320, 800, 826, OHG, TToH, rcSB3
446 B76 8-358, CAH 5, CDCC 129
c.447 BOEOTIA sets up moderate oligarchies in all cities.  BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, restored from 457, is re-established as a federation until 386, with a treasury, coinage, and troop levy. 447 B76 8-345, LEWH 70, OCD 433
c.447 LOCRIS and PHOCIS, in Athenian League from 457, follow Boeotia in seceding.  They recover independence. 447 LEWH 70, OCD 140
c.447 MEGARA, in Athenian League from 460, follows Boeotia in seceding.  Independent until late 446. 448 CAH 6-488     447 B76 14-67-8, LEWH 70, OCD 140     446 bk, rcSB3
c.447 With funds confiscated from Athenian League, PARTHENON construction on Acropolis is begun until 432.  Pericles is building commissioner, Pheidias general supervisor, Ictinos and Callicrates architects. 448 TTPC     447 B76 II-462, VII-774, 2-266, 14-67, CAH 5, Dur 2-332, CDCC 100, 104, 646, LEWH 76, OCD 141, 785, 800, OHG, RAH 272, TTT, lvG
c.447 Pericles, commission several sculptures for Athens from Phidias to celebrate Greek victory at Marathon, uses some money from the Delian League to rebuild and decorate Athens to celebrate this victory. 447 wikΦd
c.447 Phidias begins marble statue of Athena Parthenos, finished 438. 447 wikAθP
c.447 ACHAEUS of Eretria, Athenian tragic poet & playwright, produces 1st play, wins a victory. 447 OCD 4
c.447 HERODOTUS moves from Halicarnassus to Athens until 443. 484 LEWH 75
447 Dur 2-430, wikHrd
c.446  5 Year Truce  from 451 between Athens and Sparta expires, leaving Athens vulnerable to general opposition. 445 DGRBM 3-194
c.446 EUBOEA, in Athenian league 477-11, led by city of CHALCIS (under a cleruchy from 506), rebels against Athens until later 446. 447 B76 14-67-8     446 B76 III-985, CAH 5, CDCC 332, DGRG 1-872, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 226, 412, 320, OHG     445 DGRBM 3-194, DGRG 1-599, GHH
c.446 TIMARCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 447, ends.  CALLIMACHOS succeeds until 445. 446 wikEA
c.446 PERICLES invades Euboea. 446 LEWH 70, OCD 320 445 DGRBM 3-194
c.446 MEGARA, under Athens from ?, rebels, massacres most of the Athenian garrison, the rest flee southeast to its port city Nisaea.  Megara allies with Corinth until 4??. 445 DGRBM 3-194, GHH, rcSB3
c.446 MegarisPLEISTOANAX Agiad king of Sparta 459-45, accompanied by counsellor Cleandridas, invades Megaris to help Megara, encamps on border of Attica to defend Megara from Athens, begins ravaging Attica. 446 B76 14-68, CAH 5, LEWH 70, OCD 800, OHG 147
DGRBM 1-779, 3-194, 412
c.446 PERICLES returns from Euboea because of Spartan invasion, doesn't risk battle with Pleistoanax, retires to Athens. 446 B76 14-68, LEWH 70 445 DGRBM 3-194
no date: OCD 320
c.446 CORONEA Boeotia, under Athens from 456, autonomous in Boeotian Alliance until 352. 446 rcSB3
c.446 DIAPSEPHISIS first mentioned.  An Athenian political institution to prevent aliens or children of illegal marriages from getting citizen rights. 446 DGRA 400
c.446 Hippodamnos of Miletos redesigns the Piraeus, replacing the unplanned streets and winding alleys with broad straight streets crossing at right angles. 446
Dur 2-330
c.446 PERICLES bribes Pleistoanax to leave Attica.  Pleistoanax withdraws south.  Pericles with 50 galleys and 5,000 troops, returns to Euboea. 446 B76 14-68, CAH 5, LEWH 70, OCD 800, OHG 147
445 DGRBM 1-779, 3-194
c.446 PERSIA / ATHENS peace treaty. 446 LEWH 53
c.446 EUBOEA, in Athenian League 477-11, rebelling 446, suppressed by Pericles, comes under Athenian control until 411. 446 B76 14-68, CDCC 209, Dur 2-439, LEWH 70, OCD 412, bk     445 DGRBM 3-194
c.446 CHALCIS Euboea, under the Hippobotae family from ?, Hippobotae are expelled by Pericles, receives Athenian cleruchy until 411. 446 OCD 232
445 DGRBM 3-194, DGRG 1-599
c.446 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE 457-386, comes back under Thebes until 386. 446 OCD 1052
c.446 CALLIAS, Athenian comic poet, wins 1st place at City Dionysia. 446 OCD 194
c.446 PINDAR produces last extant ode,  Pythian Ode 8 . 446 CAH 5, OHG
c.446 1st PELOPONNESIAN WAR, Athens vs. Sparta, from 460 ends in favor of Athens. 451 CDCC 938     446 LEWH 70, OCD 1007, OHG 142, lvG     446/5 CDCC 100, OCD 194     445 B76 III-447, 8-354, lvG
c.446 late  30 Years Peace  negotiated by 10 Athenian envoys under Pericles and Peloponnesians.
Divides Greece into 2 armed camps, but suspends hostilities until 431.
Athens renounces claims on mainland, including Nisea (harbor of Megara), Pegae, Trozen, Achaea, but retains Plataea, Aegina, Naupactos in Aetolia, Ionian possessions.  Athens is free to consolidate island empire.
MEGARA returns to Peloponnesian League.
TROZEN becomes independent.
AEGINA becomes an autonomous tributary to Athenian League.
446 B76 14-20, 68, MCAW 124, OCD 62
446/5 CAH 5, LEWH 70,
OCD 320
445 BCoC 338, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 140, 480, OHG, SHWC 66, TToH, bk
c.446 ACHAEA in Athenian League from 453, made independent by 30 Years Peace until ?. 446 MCAW 124
446 late City of HESTIAE (Histaea) on west Euboea evacuated by Pericles.  A new town, OREOS, replaces it.  2,000 Athenians establish a cleruchy until 404. 446 late Dur 2-439, OCD 252, 412, bk
445 DGRBM 3-194
446/5 Athenian conservatives, angered at 30 Years Peace, try unsuccessfully to ostracise Pericles. 446/5 LEWH 70
c.445 Athens receives gift of FREE GRAIN from Egypt, kicks 5,000 people off citizen roll. 446/5 LEWH 70     445/4 CAH 5 444 DGRBM 3-197
c.445 CALLIMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 446, ends.  LYSIMACHIDES succeeds until 444. 445 wikEA
c.445 OdryssiansTERES-I dies.  1st king of Odrysians of Thrace from 460, dies during military campaign.  Son Sporadokos rules, but not as king until 431. 460 rcSB2 445 wikLRTD, wikTrs1
c.445 ERETRIA Euboea receives an Athenian colony.  Under Athens until 338. 445 OCD 406
c.445 HERODOTUS recites his  History , written 449, in Athenian assembly. 485 GHH, bk
c.445 Temple of Poseidon Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sunion (Sunium) southeast of Athens completed.  34 Doric columns around the outside made of white marble quarried locally at Laureotic Olympus. plan: Napoleon Vier
photo: Nikthestoned

445 TToH, TTPC
444 lxgt
440 OHG, wikTPS
c.445 Long WallsLONG WALLS connecting ports PHALAERUM and PIRAEUS to Athens 457-404:  Pericles begins doubling the western wall until 443. 446
CDCC 684 445 lvG
c.445 Athens has 1,200 cavalry, including 200 Scythian mercenaries, who are their only mounted archers. 445 CDGRA 278
c.445 PERICLES divorces wife, cohabits with mistress Aspasia until death 429.  Aspasia dominates Athenian society. 445 CDCC 95, OCD 131
c.445 CLEANDRIDAS, counsellor of Pleistoanax, knows he will be blamed for the botched campaign of 446, flees from Sparta, and is condemned to death in absentia. 445 DGRBM 3-412
c.445 PLEISTOANAX suspended.  Agiad king of Sparta from 459, prosecuted for aborting the invasion of Attica, fined more than he can pay, therefore temporarily deposed and exiled until 426.  Resides near the temple of Zeus on Mt. Lycaeus in Arcadia.  Minor son PAUSANIAS succeeds in interim, under regent uncle Cleomenes. 458 MRDK     445 CDCC 653, 690, DGRBM 3-412, OCD 793, lvG
444 DGRBM 3-159, 412, MRDK, rcPl
c.445 CLEANDRIDAS, counsellor of Pleistoanax, prosecuted for taking bribes from Pericles, condemned to death, flees to Thurii. 445 DGRBM 1-779
c.444 LYSIMACHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 445, ends.  PRAXITELES succeeds until 443. 444 wikEA
c.444 ODEUM, a theater for musical performances southeast of the Acropolis in Athens, is completed by Pericles.  Square instead of the usual circular shape for an odeon, and "adorned with stone pillars", covered with wood from captured Persian ships, culminating in a square pyramid-like roof, resembling a tent.  Stands until 87/6. 444 CDGRA 627
435 wikOA
437 GHH
c.444 Population of Athens is 19,000 citizens (males above age 20), but reduced by a law of Pericles to 14,240 citizens.  Re-enacted 403. 444 DGRG 1-262, GHH
c.443 ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, in Athenian League 478-32, rebels unsuccessfully. 443 rcSB2
c.443 THUCYDIDES, son of Melesias, leader of Athenian aristocrats, opposes Pericles' building program on grounds of extravagance and using allied funds, ostracised.  PERICLES is now undisputed ruler of Athens, and is elected strategos every year until his death 429. 445 LEWH 70     444 DGRBM 3-1111, GHH     444/3 lvG     443 B76 IX-938, 8-355, 14-67, CAH 5, OCD 762, 800, 1067, OHG, RAH 231, TToH, bk
c.443 Poet SOPHOCLES is made chief treasurer of Athenian Empire by Pericles.  Responsible for receiving and managing tribute from about 300 subject states. 443 B76 17-14,
Dur 2-392, RAH 232
442 MCAW 124
c.443 PRAXITELES, eponymous archon of Athens from 444, ends.  LYSANIAS succeeds until 442. 443 wikEA
c.443 Pay for serving as witnesses in trials is introduced. 443 GHH
c.443 HERODOTUS in Athens from 447, moves to Thuri Italy until ?. 443 wikHrd
c.442 LYSANIAS, eponymous archon of Athens from 443, ends.  DIPHILOS succeeds until 441. 442 wikEA
c.442 Poet SOPHOCLES wins 1st prize for  Antigone .  Explores problem of divided loyalty to state and conscience. 443 TToH     442 Dur 2-244, RAH 232     442/1 B76 17-17, CDCC 834
441 MCAW 124, OCD 1001, OHG 190, bk     440 DGRBM 3-867
c.442 PINDAR, lyric poet of Cyonscephalae, age 80, dies in Argos. 448 Dur 2-743, MCAW 127     447 TToH
446 CDCC 684     442 Dur 2-377, LEWH 75-6     441 SHWC 76     438 OCD 833, TAWH 17
c.441 DIPHILOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 442, ends.  TIMOCLES succeeds until 440. 441 wikEA
c.441 ORCHOMENOS Boeotia, in Boeotian League from ?, comes under oligarchy until 146. 441 rcSB3
c.441 EURIPIDES age 44 wins his first 1st prize for a play at the City Dionysia. 441 DGRBM 2-104, GHH, MCAW 127, OCD 418, OHG 190
c.441 MEGARA, in Athenian League: expels Athenian garrisons from 2 long walls from Megara to its main port NISAEA, which Athenians had built in 459. 441 ltlb

Balkan Peninsula 440-411