Warring States early Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.481 SPRING and AUTUMN PERIOD ends.  (aka ANNALS Period) in China from 722. 481 B76 4-304, CHAC 15, 545, LEWH 57, bk, frie, wikHC, wikT
476 tcgEZ, wikHC     464 ICMH 20
c.481 WARRING STATES PERIOD begins until 221. 481 B76 4-305, 14-1, LEWH 57, MCAW 108, frie, wikChu     480 CHAC 16
476 hoc, tcgEZ, wikHC, wikW     475 wikWS 463 ICMH 55     453 GHCC, bk     403 wikZ
c.480 Another revolt in LU.  Gungsun Su leads Cheng family against Meng family. 480
c.480 ZILU (aka Zhong Yu), disciple of Confucius, killed. 480 icZ, yutZ
c.480 Confucius writes first part of  Analects  on thin strips of bamboo.  Most will be written after his death, eventually totaling 20 books on @500 strips.  Book 4 is among the oldest and least changed from the original.  Proposes 5 ethical concepts:  jen "benevolence", chun tzu "superior man", tien "heaven", chung yung "the mean", li "proper conduct". 480 bk
c.480 WU invades Chu, and is defeated by Mi Sheng, lord of Po. 480 ICMH 55
c.479 CONFUCIUS dies in Lu.  The difference between his ideas and later Confucianism is great. 479 B76 4-306, 1109, CDCC 187, CHAC 16, 746, CHC 29, GHCC, bk, EoΦ 2-189, ICMH 55, LEWH 57, MCAW 89, TAWH 17, 73, TToH, ckZ, icZ, wikCnf     478 CMoG3 221, KPHP 56
by 471 MCAW 115
c.479 Duke MIN of Chen from 501 ends. 479 MRDK     469 ckChn
c.479 CHEN, a satellite state of Chu, annexed by Chu. 479 wikChu, wikSA
478 ICMH 55     469 ckChn
c.479 Chu prime minister MI ZOXI is murdered by Mi Sheng, lord of Po, who imprisons King HUI of Chu 488-32.  Hui escapes, and the lord of She arrives to crush the revolt.  Mi Sheng flees to the mountains and hangs himself. 479 ICMH 55
c.478 Duke of Wey from 480, ZHUANG is killed.
QI becomes Lord of Wey 477-76.
478 CHAC 27, ckW, friC, weiSA
c.477 Duke of Qin from 490 DAO ends.
Son Ci succeeds as Duke LI (aka Cigong or Ligong) of Qin 476-43.
477 CHAC 27, 28, MRDK, ckQn, friC, wikQn
c.476 Lord of Wey from 477 QI ends.
Former Duke of Wey 492-81 CHU reinstated 475-56.
476 ckW, weiSA
c.476 King of Zhou from 519 JING-II ends.
Son Ji Ren succeeds as YUAN until 468.
477 icZ     476 CHAC 27, 28, ckZR, tcgEZ, wikCM, wikZ, yut, yutZ
475 MRDK, friC, frie, rcC, wikT, wikZ
c.476 Wall of QiWALL of Qi, begun 685 to protect Qi from anything south of it, finished.  It is the oldest wall in China still standing. 476 iic
CHAC 1021
c.476 ITOKU TENO, 2nd son of Annei, legendary 4th emperor of Japan from 510, ends.  Son KOSHO succeeds 475-393. 476 wikLEJ
475 JBE 2178
c.475 Duke of Jin from 511 DING dies.
Son Zao becomes Duke CHU of Jin 474-57.
475 CHAC 27, 28, MRDK, ckJ, friC, icZ, wikJ, wikQi
c.475 XIANGZI becomes 1st ruler of Zhao until 425.
ZHAO becomes a state until 222.
475 CHAC 28
c.475 GOUJIAN viscount of Yue kingdom surrounds WU kingdom. 475 icZ, yutZ
c.475 Legendary 4th Emperor of Japan from 510, ITOKU TENNO ends.  KOSHO succeeds until 392. trad date 476 wikEI, wikEJ 475 MRDK
probable date 80CE MRDK
c.473 Counsellor Fan Li joins Yue, advises king Goujian. 473 yutz
c.473 FUCHA king of WU 495-73 sends expedition north against Lu and Qi 473 CHAC 564, ICMH 62
c.473 Yue launches full scale invasion of Wu. 473 CHAC 564
c.473 Wu / Yue wars from 510 end.
King of WU from 495, FUCHA dies.  Defeated by Yue at Li River, flees to Gusu Mountain, offers to negotiate, which is declined, hangs himself.
477 CHAC 27     473 GHCC 61, ICMH 62, MRDK, ckWY, ckZ, hcc, wikT, yutZ
c.473 Kingdom of WU destroyed and divided between Yue and Chu.  The area is divided into commanderies until 195, and still called Wu. 473 B76 4-69, CHAC 526, 601, HFHD 220, ICMH 62, bk, ckWY, scr
c.473 TENG, a vassal state of Lu, just south of Lu, conquered by Goujian viscount of Yue.  Under Yue until 416. 496-65 wikTeng
c.472 Marquis CHENG of Cai from 490 ends.
Shuo becomes Marquis SHENG of Cai 471-57.
472 MRDK, wikCai, wikCai     Duke: friC
c.471 King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 491 UMCHA ends.  ULEUJI succeeds until 461. 471 rcK
c.470 Disciples of Confucius collect and write down his teachings.  They focus on ethics, not religion. 470
MCAW 117
c.468 King of Zhou from 475 YUAN dies.
Son Ji Jie succeeds as king CHEN TING
until 440.
469 ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ
468 MRDK, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
c.468 Capital of Yue is moved north to Lang Ye (in what is now western Shandong province). 468 spYue
467 Λ HALLEY'S COMET V and associated meteor shower recorded in China and Greece. 467 GHCC, wikHC
c.467 Duke of Lu from 494 AI ends.  Ning succeeds as duke TAO of Lu 466-28. 477 CHAC 27     468 HFHD6 27     467 MRDK ckLu, friC     466 rcC
c.465 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 486 HON ends.  PYUK succeeds until 432. 465 rcK
c.465 Duke of Yen from 492 XIEN ends.  Son XIAO succeeds 464-50. 465 CHAC 27, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC
c.465 Viscount of Yue from 496, GOUJIAN dies.  Son Shiyu succeeds as LU YING until 459.  Yue fades into obscurity. 465 CHAC 601, GHCC, ckWY, ckZ, EnoSA, spYue, friC, wikSA
SHIH YU succeeds and ends.  PU-SHOU succeeds until 448. 464 MRDK, rcC
c.463 Duke of Zheng from 500 SHENG ends.  Son Ji Yi succeeds as AI 462-24. 477 CHAC 27     477/63 friC
463 MRDK, ckZg
c.463 Qin kingdom walls the banks of the Yellow River.  Extended 417. 461 CHAC 630
c.461 King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 471, ULEUJI ends.  MULLI succeeds until 425. 461 rcK
c.461 Duke LI (aka Cigong) of Qin 477-43 with 20,000 men attacks Xirong and Dali area, takes their capital. 461 icHu, icZ, yutZ
c.461 City of WANGCHENG in Dali area siezed by Qin troops. 462 ICMH 63
c.459 Viscount of Yue from 465, LU YING dies.
Yu Gu succeeds as BU SHOU until 449.
459 MRDK, ckWY, spYue
c.458 Zhi clan is most powerful clan in Jin.  Zhi ruler tries to dominate Jin. by 458 EnoSA
c.458 Zhi Bo colludes with Zhao, Hann, and Wei families, divide lands of Fan and Zhongxing. by 458 icZ
c.458 JIN Civil War, that ended 490, resumes with PARTITION of former fiefs of Fan and Zhonghang among Zhao, Wei, Hann, and Zhi lineages, who fight until 453. 458
CHAC 600, LEWH 57
c.457 Jin general Zhao Xiang crosses Mt. Juzhu, defeats barbarians, gains control of Dai region. 457
c.457 Marquis of Cai from 471 SHENG ends.
Marquis YUAN succeeds 456-51.
457 MRDK, ckCai, friC, wikCai
c.456 Duke of Qi from 480 PING (Jiang clan) ends.
Son Ji succeeds as XUAN Duke of Qi 455-05.
456 CHAC 27, MRDK, ckQi, friC, wikQi     455 rcC
c.456 Duke of Wey 492-81 and from 476 CHU ends.
Ji Qian succeeds as Duke DAO of Wey 455-51.
456 ckW
c.456 City of Wucheng taken by Jin. 456 icZ
c.456 Duke of Jin from 474 CHU ends.
Jiao succeeds as Duke AI of Jin 456-38.
457 ckJ, icZ     456 MRDK
452 wikJ, wikQi     450 CHAC 28
c.454 Jin clan Zhi forces Hann, and Wei into alliance.  They invade Zhao land and attack the city of Zhao. 455 EnoSA 454 ICMH 63
c.454 Earl of Zhi besieges Zhao capital JINYANG until 453. 454 ICMH 63
c.453 Jin ravaged by Qin.  The 6 families which command Jin's 3 armies, fighting from 458, stop fighting. 453
c.453 Jin clans Hann and Wei defect from Zhi to Zhao and they annihilate Zhi (1 of the 4 clans of JIN from 490) and divide Zhi lands among themselves.  JIN Civil War from 458 among Zhao, Wei, Hann, and Zhi lineages ends.  Hann, Wei, and Zhao (called the Sanjin "Three Jin") divide territory of Jin between them. 453 CHAC 600, ICMH 63, bk, EnoSA, icZ, wikJ, wikWS     452 ckJ
c.453 YIQU barbarians on upper Jing River begin to fortify villages and unite. 453 ICMH 64
c.451 Duke of Song from 516 JING ends.
De succeeds as Duke ZHAO-II of Song 450-04.
477 CHAC 27
451 MRDK, ckS, friC, wikS
c.451 Marquis of Cai from 456 YUAN ends.
Qi succeeds as Marquis QI of Cai 450-47.
451 ckCai, friC, wikCai     447 MRDK
c.451 Duke of Wey from 455 DAO ends.
Ji Fu succeeds as Duke JING of Wey 450-32.
451 ckW
c.450 Duke of Yen from 464 XIAO ends.  Son CHENG succeeds until 434. 455 CHAC 28, friC
450 MRDK, ckY, rcC
c.450 BELLOWS:  Double acting piston bellows invented by Chinese.   (See Egypt 1450) 5th cen.: wikBel
310-01 TTS, TTT
c.450 Crossbow trigger Crossbow triggers evidenced in China.  This one is made of bronze and inlaid with silver. photo:
Gary Lee Todd

450 bk 475-21 wikCrsb
c.450 COLLARED HORSE V HARNESS invented in China.  It has changed little since then.  Not used in west until 8th cen. CE. 5th cen.: ehow 300 TTS
c.449 Viscount of Yue from 459 BU SHOU dies.
Zhu Gou succeeds as WENG
until 413.
449 ckWY, spYue 448 MRDK, rcC
c.447 CAI Kingdom from 1046 conquered by HUI, king of Chu.
Marquis of Cai from 450 QI ends.
Cai territory made part of Chu's northern frontier.
447 ckCai, friC, wikChu, yutZ
c.447 ZI-ZHANG, pupil of Confucius, dies. 447 bk
c.445 Prince WEN becomes marquis of Wei until 395. 446 ICMH 64     445 GHCC 65, wikW     424 ckZ     403 wikT
c.445 CHU expands eastward into former WU territory now under Yue. 489 GHCC
c.445 Area of modern Henan Province annexed by CHU. 445 wikChu
c.445 State of JI terminated by Yen. by Chu 445 yutZ
c.444 CALENDAR:  SOLAR YEAR calculated at 365.25 days.
(See Babylonian 747, Roman 713, Cleostratos 520, Zoroastrian 441, Metonic 432, Mayan 400, Babylonian 380, Eudoxos 370)
444 GHCC
c.444 Duke LI (aka Cigong) of Qin 477-43 attacks Yiqu-rong barbarians on upper Jing River in the areas of later Qingzhou and Ningzhou and captures the Yiqu-rong king. 445 ICMH 64 444 icHu, icZ
c.444 Oct 24 SOLAR ECLIPSE in year Duke LI (aka Cigong) of Qin dies.  "Duke Li (of the Chinese dynasty), 34th year.  The Sun was eclipsed.  It became dark in the daytime and stars were seen."
444 Oct 24 mrec
443 icZ
c.443 NANZHENG (later Hanzhong, upper Han River valley) rebels against Duke LI of Qin, independent until 388. 443 ICMH 64
c.443 Duke of Qin from 477 LI (aka Cigong) dies.
Son succeeds as Duke ZAO
of Qin 442-29.
443 MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
c.443 ZI-YU, pupil of Confucius, dies. 443 bk
c.441 King of Zhou from 468 CHEN TING ends.
Eldest son Ji Quji succeeds as AI for 3 months, and is killed by younger bro Ji Shu, who succeeds as SI for 5 months until 440.
442 wikCM, wikZ
441 CHAC 28, ckZR, frie, icZ, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yutZ
440 MRDK
c.440 King of Zhou for 5 months, SI is killed by younger bro Ji Wei, who succeeds as king KAO until 425. 441 ckZR, icZ, tcgEZ, wikT
440 MRDK, rcC, yutZ
c.439 KAO king of Zhou from 440 gives land south of Yellow River to his bro Ji Jie for sake of continuing Archduke Zhougong's officialdom.  Ji Jie would be Duke HUAN of Xizhou (resurrecting the old name of Western Zhou), who would reside at the old capital Loyang V. 439 icZ
c.436 TSENG-TZU, pupil of Confucius, dies. 436 B76 X-158, EoΦ 2-88
c.434 Duke of Jin from 451 AI dies.
Son Liu becomes Duke YU of Jin 437-20.
Jin holds only cities of Quwo and Jiang.
439 icZ     438 MRDK, ckJ
434 CHAC 28, wikJ, wikQi
c.434 Duke of Yen from 450 CHENG ends.  Son MIN succeeds 433-03. 439 CHAC 28, friC
434 MRDK, ckY, rcC
c.433 BianzhongMarquis of Zheng from ? YI dies.  His tomb contains a Bianzhong, a musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells hung in a wooden frame and struck with a mallet. photo Zzjgbc

433 CHAC 511, icXS, wikBnz
c.432 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 465 PYUK ends.  JEUNG succeeds until 413. 432 rcK
c.432 King of Chu from 488 HUI ends.
Son Xiong Zhong succeeds as CHIEN king of Chu 431-08.
432 CHAC 27, 28, MRDK, bk, ckChu, wikChu     431 rcC
c.432 Duke of Wey from 451 JING ends.
Ji Jiu succeeds as Duke ZHAO
of Wey 431-29.
432 ckW
c.431 TZU-SSU, grandson of Confucius, dies.  Wrote the Doctrine of the Mean, confirming Confucius interpretation of the mean as the state of equilibrium (chung yung) of the exemplary man. 431 EoΦ 2-88 402 B76 X-227
c.431 LU kingdom becomes duchy under CHU. 431 icZ, yutZ     390 ICMH 65
c.430 Yiqu-rong barbarians counter-attack Qin and reach south of Wei-shui River.  This is the last recorded attack on Qin by the Yiqu-rong. 432 ICMH 64     431 icZ 430 CHC 31, icHu
c.429 Duke of Wey from 431 ZHAO ends.  Ji Wei succeeds as Duke HUAI of Wey 428-15. 429 ckW
c.429 Duke of Qin from 443 ZAO ends.  Bro succeeds as Duke HUAI of Qin 428-25. 429 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
c.428 Duke of Lu from 466, under Chu from 431, TAO ends.
Son YUAN succeeds
until 408.
429 friC
428 MRDK, chLu, rcC
c.425 King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 461 MULLI ends.  GUMUL succeeds until 396. 425 rcK
c.425 Duke of Qin from 429, HUAI dies.  Forced to suicide by his own officials.
Grandson Su succeeds as Duke LING of Qin 424-15.  Qin ruled by children until 385.
427 ICMH 64
425 CHAC 28, 602, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
c.425 King of Zhou from 440, KAO ends.   Son Ji Wu succeeds as king WEI LIE until 401. 426 CHAC 28, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ     425 MRDK, frie, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
c.425 ZI-XIA, pupil of Confucius, dies. 425 bk
c.425 Zhao capital at JINYANG from 497, moved to ZHONGMOU until 386. 425 CHAC 654
c.425 1st ruler of Zhao from 475 XIANGZI ends.  HUANZI succeeds until 424. 425 CHAC 28
c.424 Ruler of Zhao from 425 HUANZI ends.  Huan succeeds as XIAN Marquis of Zhao until 409.
ZHAO, a state from 475, becomes a marquisate until 222.
424 CHAC 28, wikZa
c.424 JIN clans Wei, Han (often written "Hann" to distinguish it from the Han Dynasty) and Zhao mutually recognize their independence.  The king of Zhou does not recognize this Jin partition until 403. 424 CHAC 600, LEWH 57, ckZ
c.424 Qizhang becomes WU, 1st Marquis of Han until 409. 424 CHAC 28, wikH
c.424 Marquis WEN of Wei ascends to power, sponsoring Confucianism in Wei state, and employing able advisors such as Legalist Li Kui, militant officer Wu Qi and hydraulic engineer Ximen Bao. 445 CHAC 28, GHCC 65, wikW     424 ICMH 64, ckZ, rcC     403 wikT
c.424 Duke of Zheng from 462, AI ends.   Ji Yi succeeds as Duke KUNG (aka YU) of Zheng 423. 455 MRDK
424 ckZg, friC
c.423 Duke of Zheng from 423, KUNG (aka YU) ends.   Bro Ji Tai succeeds as Duke XU of Zheng 422-396. 423 MRDK, ckZg, friC
c.422 SHAOLING city walled by Marquis WEN of Wei, which provokes Qin to attack. 422
c.420 Duke of Jin from 437, YU ends.   Son Zhi succeeds as Duke LIE of Jin 419-393. 420 MRDK, ckJ
416 CHAC 28, wikJ, wikQi
c.417 The Qin walls on the banks of the Yellow River from 461 are extended. 417 CHAC 630
c.416 Teng, vassal of Yue from 475, terminated by Yue. 416 spYue     414 wikTeng
c.415 Duke of Wey from 428 HUAI ends.   Ji Tui succeeds as Duke SHEN of Wey 414-373. 415 ckW
c.415 Duke of Qin from 424 LING dies.
Son of Huai, Daozi succeeds as Duke JIAN of Qin 414-400.
415 CHAC 28, ICMH 65, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
c.415 JIGU city walled by Qin. 415 ICMH 65
c.415 Zhu Gou, viscount of Yue, attacks Tan and carries off its ruler viscount Gu. 415 spYue
c.414 ZHONGSHAN (literally Central-mountain State) founded by the Xianyu, descendants of the Bai Di, as an independent state until 408. 414 wikZngsn
c.413 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 432, JEUNG ends.  JIL succeeds until 385. 413 rcK
c.412 Viscount of Yue from 449 WENG dies.  Son YI succeeds until 376. 413 spYue     412 ckWY
411 MRDK, rcC
c.412 Institution of ever-normal granary by Marquis Wen of Wei. 412 LEWH 57
c.411 During the reign of Duke Jian of Qin, the Wei army led by Wu Qi, supported by Zhao and Han, attacks Qin and conquers Qin territories west of the Yellow River. 413-09 wikQn
c.410 DAOZI becomes ruler of Tian Qi (a substate of Qi) until 405. 410 CHAC 28, friC
c.409 1st Marquis of Zhao from 423 XIAN ends.  Son Ji succeeds as Marquis LIE 408-387. 409 CHAC 28, wikZa
c.409 1st Marquis of Hann from 424, WU ends.  Qian succeeds as Marquis JING of Hann 408-00. 409 CHAC 28, wikH
c.408 Marquis Wen of WEI pushes QIN back toward west, pushes west across the Yellow River to the Luo River taking the area of Xihe, and spreads to northern LO, where it builds a line of forts. 408 GHCC, wikWS
c.408 Qin introduces land tax paid in grain. 408 CHAC 602, CHC 33
c.408 ZHAO (in what is now Hubei and northern Shanxi provinces), under Marquis LIE 408-387, until now a part of Jin, splits off until 228, but still comprizes most of Jin land. 408 rcC
c.408 ZHONGSHAN, independent state under the Bai Di 414-406, attacked by Marquis Wen of Wei. 408 CHAC 949, ckZ, wikWS, wikZngsn
c.408 Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 428 YUAN ends.  Son MU succeeds 407-377. 408 MRDK, chLu 407 rcC
c.408 King of Chu from 431 CHIEN ends.
Son Xiong Dang succeeds as SHENG
King of Chu 407-02.
408 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu     407 rcC
c.406 ZHONGSHAN, independent under the Bai Di from 414, conquered by Marquis Wen of Wei.  Under Wei until 377. 408 ckZ, wikWS
406 CHAC 949, wikZngsn
c.405 From before 405 until 383 the 3 Jins are united under Wei and expand in all directions. 406 wikWS
c.405 Duke of Qi from 455 XUAN (Jiang clan) ends.  Son Dai succeeds as Duke KANG of Qi 404-379.  But the King of Zhou recognizes He (Tien clan) as Duke TAI of Qi 404-384. 405 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQi, friC, wikQi     404 rcC
c.405 Ruler of Tian Qi from 410 DAOZI ends.  HE succeeds as Marquis of Tian Qi until 384. 405 CHAC 28, friC
c.405 MO-TZU Chinese philosopher, convert from Confucianism, imprisoned in Song. 405 bk
c.404 Duke of Song from 450 ZHAO-II ends.
Gouyao succeeds as Duke DAO
of Song 403-396.
404 MRDK, ckS, wikS
c.403 Duke of Yen from 433 MIN ends.  Son XI succeeds 402-373. 415 CHAC 28, friC
403 MRDK, ckY, rcC
c.403 Official recognition of the 453 or 424 partition of JIN by king WEI LIE of Zhou.  The 3 clans of JIN from 453 are recognized by Weilie as independent marquisates.  Weilie recognizes Marquis Jing of Hann in south, Marquis Wen of Wei in center, and Marquis Lie of Zhao in north.
Some sources call this the beginning of the Warring States period.
GHCC 53, ICMH 65,
LEWH 57,
PW 16, ckJ, wikJ, wikT, wikWS
c.403 Jin's judges, Wei Si, Zhao Ji, and Hann Qian are made dukes by Zhou King Weilie. 403 icZ, yutZ
c.403 Zhou empire begins to split in several states (Qin in west, Qi in east, Chu in south, and smaller ones). 403 scr
c.402 King of Chu from 407 SHENG is killed by a robber.  Son Xiong Yi succeeds as TAO King of Chu 401-381. 402 CHAC 28, MRDK, icZ, ckChu, friC, wikChu     401 rcC
c.401 King of Zhou from 425 WEI LIE dies.
Son Ji Jiao succeeds as king AN
until 375.
402 CHAC 28, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ     401 MRDK, frie, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
c.400 KOREA: IRON AGE begins. 400 PW 16
c.400 Capital of Joseon, in Liaoning from ?, moved to Pyongyang. 400 wikJsn
c.400 Duke of Qin from 415 JIAN dies.
Son succeeds as Duke HUI-II
of Qin 399-87.
400 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn     398 ICMH 65
c.400 Zhou Rituals written. 400 bk
c.400 Marquis of Hann from 409, JING ends.  Qu succeeds as Marquis LIE (or WU) of Hann 399-87. 400 wikH
c.400 Λ GOLDEN RULE attested by Mo-tzu.  "If people regarded other people's families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another?  For one would do for others as one would do for oneself." 400 wikGR
c.400 SwordsBronze double-edged (jian) SWORDS of the Warring States Period.  Earliest laminated bronze jians appear with higher tin content for the cutting edges and lower tin content for the spine.  It produces harder cutting edges and a more flexible spine to absorb shock.  Copper sulphides are used as anti-corrosion coatings.  Earliest iron and steel jians appear, made by earliest forging and folding techniques. pic:
pub dom

500-350 wikCS     475-221 wikFCS
c.396 King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 425 GUMUL ends.  YEORU succeeds until 341. 396 rcK
c.396 Duke of Zheng from 422 XU ends.
Bro Ji Yi succeeds as Duke KANG
of Zheng 395-75.
396 MRDK, ckZg, friC
c.396 Duke of Song from 403 DAO ends.
Son Tian succeeds as Duke XIU
of Song 395-73.
396 MRDK, ckS, wikS
c.395 LI KUEI, legalist minister of Wei, dies. 395 GHCC
c.395 Marquis of Wei from 445 WEN ends.  Son Ji succeeds as Marquis WU of Wei until 370. 397 ICMH 64     396 CHAC 28, wikW     395 GHCC 65, wikS
387 ICMH 65, ckZ     386 rcC
c.393 Duke of Jin from 419 LIE ends.
Son Qi succeeds as Duke XIAO
of Jin 392-78.
393 MRDK, ckJ
389 CHAC 28, wikJ, wikQi
c.393 MO-TZU Chinese philosopher, advises Prince Wen of Lu Yang. 393 bk
c.393 Son of Itoku, legendary 5th emperor of Japan from 475, KOSHO TENO ends.  2nd son KOAN succeeds 392-291. trad date 393 wikEJ, wikLEJ
392 JBE 2178, MRDK
probable date 110CE MRDK
c.392 YIQU barbarians attacked by duke HUI-II of Qin, who siezes 25 villages. 392 ICMH 65
c.390 SUN-TZU Chinese war strategist, writes  Ping-Fa  "Art of War".
"All warfare is based on deception."
early 4th cen: B76 IX-678
c.390 MO-TZU (Mozi) dies.  Chinese philosopher, convert from Confucianism.  Said everyone is equal in the eyes of heaven.  Power should be based on merit.  Advocates universal love over personal love.  Founded school of Mohism that argued against Confucianism and Taoism.  Invokes heaven and calls on the Sage Kings to support his precedents.  Writings collected 250. 391 B76 VII-59, EoΦ 5-409, wikMz
390 CHAC 16, TToH, bk     381 GHCC
376 EoΦ 2-89
c.389 LIE becomes Marquis of Hann until 387. 389 CHAC 28
c.389 WEI defeated by duke HUI-II of Qin, cedes Hoxi and Shang provinces, both in the Yellow River loop. 389 ICMH 65
c.389 WU QI appointed chancellor of Chu by, king Dao of Chu, begins reforms to transform Chu into an efficient and powerful state. 389 wikChu, wikWS
c.388 NANZHENG (later Hanzhong, upper Han River valley), independent from 443, recovered by Qin. 388
c.387 Duke of Qin from 400, HUI-II dies.
Son succeeds as Duke CHU-TZU
of Qin 386-85.
388 ICMH 65     387 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
c.387 Marquis of Zhao from 408 LIE ends.  Son Zhang succeeds as Marquis JING of Zhao 386-75. 399 rcC    387 CHAC 28, MRDK, wikZa
c.387 Marquis of Hann from 399 LIE (or WU) ends.  Yuo succeeds as Marquis WEN of Hann 386-77. 387 CHAC 28, wikH
c.386 JIANG clan, ruling QI from 1046, has all prerogatives of princely line usurped by TIEN clan until Qi ends in 221.  But jiang clan continues until 379. 386 CHAC 598,
GHCC 61, rcC, wikQi
c.386 City of HANDAN founded.  Zhao capital at ZHONGMOU from 425, moved to HANDAN until 353. 386 B76 IV-895, CHAC 654, wikT
c.385 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 413, JIL ends.  SEUP succeeds until 369. 385 rcK
c.385 Son of Ling, SHITI, who had spent his life in Wei, supported by Rong and Di tribes, returns to Qin.
Infant duke of Qin from 387 CHU-TZU is murdered along with his mom by a court faction.  SHITI succeeds as Duke XIAN of Qin 384-62.
385 CHAC 28, 602, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
c.385 Wei takes all territory west of the Yellow River which Qin had lost. 385
CHC 33
c.384 HUMAN SACRIFICE (see 621, 210) accompanies the funeral of a Qin noble.  New duke XIAN abolishes this practice. 384 CHAC 602, CHC 32
c.384 TAI ends.  (He of Tien clan) rival Duke of Qi from 404.  HUAN-II succeeds until 378.
Shan becomes rival Duke FEI (Yan) of Qi 383-75.
384 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQi, friC, rcC, wikQi
c.384 From 384 the house of Tian replaces the Jiang family in Qi. 384 ckQi
c.384 WU QI made prime minister of Chu until 381 by king TAO 401-381.  Wu Qi tries to curb power of aristocracy. 384 icZ, yutZ 382 ICMH 66
c.383 From before 405 until 383 the three Jins unite under Wei and expand in all directions. 383 wikWS
c.383 Zhao vs. WeiZhao attacks the small state of Wey, which appeals to Wei which attacks Zhao on west side.  Being in danger, Zhao calls in Chu.  Chu uses this as a pretext to annex territory to its north, but the diversion allows Zhao to occupy part of Wei. 383
CHAC 617, wikWS
c.383 Capital of Qin:  YONG from 677, moved to YUYANG in lower Wei valley until 350. 383
CHAC 459
c.381 King of Chu from 401, TAO dies.  At the funeral, Chu officials get archers to assassinate minister WU QI by a hail of arrows, one of which accidentally hits the body of king Tao.
Son Xiong Zang succeeds as King SU of Chu 380-70.  He uses the arrow that hit his father's body as a reason to execute all of Wu Qi's assailants.
384 yutZ
381 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu, wikT
380 rcC
361 ICMH 67
Wu Qi's book,  Wuzi , is considered one of the 7 Military Classics.
c.380 CHU takes advantage of Wei's military incursion into Zhao to reoccupy its lands up to the Yellow RiverZhao uses the diversion provided by Chu to counterattack and occupy much Wei territory. 380 CHAC 617
c.379 Duke of Jiang Qi from 404 KANG overthrown by Tien clan.  JIANG clan of Qi, crippled from 386 ends.  TIEN clan takes over until 221.  Rival Duke of Qi from 383 FEI takes over until 375. 379 CHAC 22, 28, MRDK, ckQi, wikQi     378 ICMH 66, rcC
Wei succeeds: MRDK, ckQi, rcC
c.378 Duke of Qi from 384 HUAN-II ends.  Tien clan member WEI succeeds as king until 342. 379 ckQi     378 rcC
Wei succeeds: MRDK, ckQi, rcC
c.378 Yue moves capital to Wu city. 379 spYue     378 spYue
c.378 Duke of Jin from 392 XIAO ends.
Son Ji Jujiu succeeds as Duke JING
of Jin 377-76.
378 MRDK, ckJ 357 wikJ, wikQi
c.377 Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 407 MU ends.  Son KUNG succeeds 376-53. 377 MRDK, chLu 376 rcC
c.377 The BAI Di state of ZHONGSHAN, under Wei from 406, independent until 300. 377 CHAC 949, wikZngsn
c.377 Marquis of Hann from 386, WEN ends.  Tunmeng succeeds as Marquis AI of Hann 376-75. 377 CHAC 28, wikH
c.376 Duke of Jin from 377 JING killed by Zhao and Wei. 376 MRDK, ckJ 349 wikJ, wikQi
c.376 JIN destroyed and divided by 3 Feudal Clans Hann, Wei, and Zhao (Sanjin "Three Jin"). 376 ICMH 66, MRDK, bk, ckJ, yutZ     349 wikJ, wikQi
c.376 XINTIAN capital of Jin from 589 or 585, abandoned. 376 CHAC 457
c.376 YI, viscount of Yue from 413, killed by son ZHU JIU (Yue Gu), who is killed 10 months later 375. 376 ckWY, spYue 375 rcC
c.375 AN dies.  King of Zhou from 401.  Son Ji Xi succeeds as king LIE until 368. 376 ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ
375 MRDK, frie, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
c.375 ZHU JIU (Yue Gu) viscount of Yue from 376 killed by men of Yue.  Si Qu, officer of Yue, settles disorders in Yue and raises to the throne Mang An who succeeds as CHU WU YU until 365. 375 ckWY, friC, spYue
c.375 Duke of Zheng from 396 KANG ends.
ZHENG, a duchy from 806, annexed by Hann.
390 ICMH 65     375 CHAC 1026, ICMH 66, MRDK, ckZg, friC, frie, rcC, wikT, wikZ, yut
c.375 Duke of Qi from 383, sole duke from 379, FEI ends.  Wu succeeds as Duke HUAN of Qi 374-57. 375 wikQi
c.375 Marquis of Tian Qi from 383, YAN ends.  Tian Qi is incorporated into Qi.  HUAN succeeds as duke 374-57. 375 CHAC 28, friC
c.375 Marquis of Hann from 376, AI ends.  Ruoshan succeeds as Marquis YI (or Gong or Zhuang) of Hann 374-63. 375 CHAC 28 374 wikH
c.375 Hann capital, at YANGDI from ?, moved to XINZHENG until 230. 375 CHAC 654, wikH, wikZng
c.374 Marquis of Zhao from 386, JING ends.  Son Zhong succeeds as Marquis CHENG of Zhao until 349. 375 CHAC 28, MRDK, wikZa     374 rcC
c.374 Qin worship of the White Di (Bai Di) of the west from 770, reaffirmed. 374 CHAC 980
c.373 Duke of Wey from 414 SHEN ends.
Ji Xun succeeds as Duke SHENG
of Wey 372-62.
373 ckW
c.373 Duke of Yen from 402 XI ends.  Son HUAN-II succeeds 372-62. 373 MRDK, ckY, rcC
Chin ends 370 CHAC 28, friC
c.373 Duke of Song from 396 XIU ends.
Bibing succeeds
as Duke BI of Song 372-70.
373 ckS, wikS
c.370 Duke of Song from 372 BI ends.
Son TI CHENG succeeds
as Lord of Song, 369-29.
370 MRDK, ckS, wikS
c.370 Marquis of Wei from 395 WU dies without naming a successor, which leads to 3 years of civil war.  Son Jing or Ying succeeds as Marquis HUI of Wei until 344 when he declares himself king. 371 ckZ     370 CHAC 28, ICMH 65, rcC wikW, wikWS
c.370 Last nominal ruler of Jin disappears from history. 370 CHAC 748
c.370 King of Chu from 380 SU ends.  Son Xiong Liangfu succeeds as King XUAN of Chu 369-40. 370 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, wikChu     369 rcC
c.369 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 385, SEUP ends.  HA succeeds until 361. 369 rcK
c.369 Wei WallZhongshan kingdom, independent 377-295, builds defensive wall. 369 CHAC 1021, ctm
c.368 The BI YEU tribe south of Chu is pacified by Chu. 368 ICMH 66
c.368 King of Zhou from 375 LIE dies.
Bro Ji Bian succeeds as XIEN
king of Zhou until 321.
369 CHAC 28, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ
368 MRDK, frie, rcC, wikT, yut
367 tcgEZ
c.367 ZHOU royal house divided into western (Xizhou, capital at Λ Loyang) and eastern (Dongzhou, capital at Chengzhou).
Xizhou Duke Hui makes his son, Ji Ban, so-called Lord Dongzhou HUI, supposedly for sake of supporting the official Zhou court at the old capital of Loyang.
367 GHCC, icZ
c.366 QIN defeats coalition of Hann and Wei. 366 CHAC 618
c.365 Mang An, who is king of YUE from 375, CHU WU is murdered by Si, younger bro of Si Qu.  WU ZHUAN succeeds until 357. 365 ckWY, friC, spYue
c.364 WEI is defeated by Duke XIAN of Qin 384-62 at Battle of Shimen.  60,000 heads taken.  Wei is saved only by intervention of Zhao. 364 CHAC 618, ICMH 66, wikWS
c.363 Marquis of Hann from 374, YI (or Gong or Zhuang) ends.  Wu succeeds as Marquis ZHAO (or Xi) 362-33. 363 CHAC 28, ICMH 67, wikH
c.362 Duke of Wey from 373 SHENG ends.
Ji Su succeeds as Marquis CHENG
of Wey 361-33.
362 ckW
c.362 WEI is defeated by Duke XIAN of Qin at Shaoling.  Wei prime minister Gongsun Cuo is captured. 362 CHAC 618, ICMH 66, wikWS
c.362 CHEN, under Chu from ?, rebels, and is subdued. 362 ICMH 66
c.362 CAI, under Chu from 447, rebels, and is subdued. 362 ICMH 66
c.362 Duke of Qin from 384 XIAN dies.
Son Ying Quliang succeeds as Duke XIAO
of Qin 361-38.  At this time the  Shiji  says that Qin is still regarded as an inferior outsider.
362 CHAC 28, CHC 34, GHCC 65, MRDK, ckZ, wikQn, wikT     361 B76 V-166, 4-307, IMH 67
c.362 Duke of Yen from 372 HUAN-II ends.  Son WEN-II succeeds 361-33. 362 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC
c.362 Duke of Wey from 373 SHENG ends.  Ji Su succeeds as Marquis CHENG of Wey 361-33. 362 ckW
c.361 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 369 HA ends.  WHA succeeds until 342. 361 rcK
c.361 Marquis Hui of Wei 370-44 moves capital from ANYI east to DALIANG (Dailiang) to be out of the reach of Qin. 361 CHAC 618, HFHD6 94, wikWS
c.361 XIAO becomes duke of Qin until 338.  His minister is Kung-sun Yang, Lord of Shang.  Xiao reforms Qin laws and government, laying the foundation for the future greatness of Qin. 361 HFHD 87
c.361 Qin campaigns against Rong barbarians to its west. 361 ICMH 67
c.361 Legalist reformer KUNG-SUN YANG (SHANG YANG), adviser to king Hui of Wei at Daliang, arrives in Qin, begins serving King Xiao. 361 CHC 31, GHCC, icZ
c.360 King Xien of Zhou sends civil and military officials as well as "royal bestowal meat" to King Xiao of Qin. 360 icZ
c.360 YANG CHU (Yang Zhu), pessimistic philosopher and apostle of egoism, dies.  "Every man for himself."  Surviving ideas, known as Yangism, appear in the Huainanzi, Lushi Chunqiu, Mengzi, and possibly the Liezi and Zhuangzi. 360 B76 X-797, 4-417, wikYZ
335 GHCC
c.359 SHANG YANG promulgates his 1st laws in Qin. 359 GHCC 79, bk
c.357 Duke of Qi from 374 HUAN ends.  Yinqi succeeds as marquis WEI of Qi 356-35.  For his 1st 9 years he lets his ministers run Qi. 357 CHAC 28, ICMH 69, wikQi
c.357 Hui of Wei visits marquis Wei of Qi and meets Xiao of Qin. 357 CHAC 619
c.357 Viscount of Yu Yue from 365, WU ZHUAN (aka Tan Zhu Mao) dies.  WU JIANG succeeds 356-34. 357 ckWY, friC, spYue 356 MRDK
c.356 Marquis of Yue from 375, CHI ends.  WU-CHIANG succeeds until 334. 356 rcC
c.356 Legalist reformer KUNG-SUN YANG (SHANG YANG) becomes minister to XIAO KUNG, king of Qin until 338.  Makes first big reforms in Qin.  Organizes strong centralized government.  Creates official hierarchy, which is outlined in  Book of Lord Shang .  Reforms V will continue until 648CE.  Helps agriculture by severe legal code. 359 CHAC 1018, LEWH 57
356 CHAC 611, GHCC, wikQn, wikT
c.355 SHEN BUHAI becomes prime minister of Hann until 337. 355 CHAC 606
352 bk     351 CHAC 1018
c.355 WEI extends defenses to the Ordos bend. 358-52 GHCC
c.354 Marquis Hui of Wei 370-44 starts large-scale attack on Zhao. 358-52 wikWS
c.354 HANDAN, capital of Zhao in southwest Hopei, besieged by Pang Quan general of Wei/Liang.  Zhao asks Qi for help against Wei. 354 ICMH 69 354-1 GHCC
353 ckZ, wikWS
c.354 On advice of Sun Bin, marquis WEI of Qi 356-35 decides not to help Zhao, but to let Zhao and Wei exhaust themselves.  A token Qi army goes toward Xiangling, but achieves nothing. 354 ICMH 69
c.354 XIAO KUNG, king of Qin defeats Wei army at Yuanli. 354 ICMH 69
c.354 On advice of Sun Bin, Shang Yang minister of Qi attacks and besieges Anyi the Wei capital while the Wei army is besieging Handan of Zhao.  The strategy works. 358-52 GHCC, ICMH 69
c.354 Battle of GUILING:  Wei army moves south to protect Anyi its capital, is caught on the road and decisively defeated by Shang Yang minister of Qi.  Anyi falls to Qi. 354 CHAC 628, GHCC, ICMH 69, wikT, wikWS     353 CHAC 634     352 ICMH 70
c.354 Wei court at Anyi from 562, moves east to Daliang.  Dynasty name is changed to Liang. 354 ICMH 69 339 CHAC 1027
c.353 Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 376 KUNG ends.  Son KANG succeeds 352-44. 353 MRDK, chLu 352 rcC
c.353 Wei WallWEI / LIANG kingdom, now at Daliang begins a WALL partly along Luo River to defend against Qin.   Extended 300. 358 CHAC 630
353 ctm
351 CHAC 1021
c.352 SUPERNOVA lights the night sky in China for 10 days.  The 1st definite sighting.  Strangely, nobody else reports it. 352 TTS, fcts, mesr
c.350 Upper Xiajiadian culture of Inner Mongolia from 1100 ends.  Farmers & nomads producing inferior ceramics, superior bronze, bone and stone artifacts:  daggers, axes, chisels, arrowheads, knives, & helmets.  Bronzes decorated with animal and natural motifs. 600 wikUXC
4th cen: CHAC 914
c.350 IRON introduced into Korea via trade. 4th cen. wikIA
c.350 Marquis of Zhao from 374 CHENG ends.  Son Yu succeeds as Marquis SU of Zhao until 326. 350 CHAC 28, MRDK, wikZa
c.350 Capital of Qin:  YUYANG in lower Wei valley from 383, moved to XIANYANG on north bank of Wei River until 206. 350 CHAC 654, CHC 31, 34, GHCC 80, ICMH 71, icZ, yutZ
c.350 SHANG YANG, legalist advisor to XIAO KUNG, king of Qin makes Λ 2nd set of reforms in Qin. Instates agriculture tax, imposes a grid of pathways across fields, thus dividing farmland into uniform blocks. 350 CHAC 611, 613, CHC 35, icZ, wikQn, yutZ
c.350 Λ MAGNETISM 1st noted in  Book of the Devil Valley Master .  "The lodestone makes iron come, or it attracts it." 400-300 wik4GI
c. 350 Λ ASTRONOMY:  Oldest catalog of stars made.  Chinese begin detailed records of astronomical observations, instructs eclipse prediction by relative positions of moon and sun.  SHI SHEN positions 121 stars, observes sunspots, thinking them to be eclipses.  GAN DE records detailed observations of Jupiter and a small reddish star next to it (Ganymede).  Between them, they observe the 5 main planets.
(See Meton 432, Eudoxos 360,  Heraclides 338, astro diary 331)
mid 4th cen: GHCC, wikCA, wikGD, wikShSh
c. 350 COSMOLOGY:  Chinese have 3 cosmological models:
Gai Tan model:  Sky is a hemispherical dome over Earth.
Hun Tian school:  Sky is a sphere like Greek spherical models.
Xuan Ye school:  Sky is infinite.  Celestial bodies float about at intervals.  "The speed of the luminaries depends on their individual natures, which shows they are not attached to anything."
(See Eudoxos 360,  Callipos 330,  Aristotle Meteorolgy 328,  Aristotle Heavens 328)
no date: GHCC, wikCA
c.350 Λ HORSES in China, until now used for pulling chariots, are now used for mounted cavalry. 350
MCAW 163
c.350 WALLS are built in sections by small kingdoms in north China as defense against the Xiongnu.  This is the beginning of the GREAT WALL.  See 220. 400-300 B76 IV-704
356 TToH     350 MCAW 163 260-41 TTS
c.350 Repeating crossbowRepeating crossbow excavated from a tomb in Chu.  The separate actions of stringing the bow, placing the bolt and shooting it are accomplished with a one-handed movement while keeping the crossbow stationary.  See 250. photo Liang

4th cen wikRC
c.350 Warring States Period 1 from c.476 ends.  Period 2 begins until 250.  Main period of conflict.  States ruin each other in increasingly violent conflicts, leaving only Qin. 350 wikWS
c.349 Marquis of Zhao from 374, CHENG ends.  Son SU succeeds until 325. 349 MRDK, rcC
c.349 Duke WEI of Qi 378-43, finally decides to take charge of Qi. 349 ICMH 71
c.348 SHANG YANG, legalist advisor to XIAO KUNG, king of Qin institutes a head tax.  i.e.  If you exist and you're male, you pay. 348
CHAC 615
c.346 Duke of Wey degrades himself to marquis of Wey. 346 WeiSA
c.344 Marquis HUI of Wei 370-44 organizes a state conference at Fengze and forces feudal lords to assemble at Mengjin Ford to pay respects to the king of Zhou. 344 ckZ
c.344 Marquis HUI of Wei from 370 declares himself king until 334, being first among feudal states to adopt royal title. 344 CHAC 602, ckZ, wikWS
c.344 Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 352 KANG ends.  Son CHING succeeds 343-15. 344 MRDK, chLu 343 rcC
c.344 STANDARDIZATION:  A bronze sheng "pint" is inscribed with Shang Yang's name and a date corresponding to 344.  Its capacity is 0.2006 liters. 344
CHC 38
c.343 XIAO KUNG, king of Qin 361-38, is finally proclaimed hegemon by Zhou emperor, which means little, because Zhou prestige is gone. 343 ICMH 71
c.343 Duke of Qi from 378, WEI ends in Qi, but continues as marquis of Tian Qi until 335.  XUAN is king of Qi 342-24. 343 MRDK, ckQi 342 rcC
c.342 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 361, WHA ends.  HO succeeds until 315. 342 rcK
c.341 King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 396 YEORU ends.  BOEUL succeeds until 295. 341 rcK
c.341 King HUI of Wei sends general Pang Quan to attack Hann, which appeals to Qi. 342 ICMH 71 341 wikWS
c.341 Qi allows Hann to be defeated by Wei 5 times, then sends Tian Ji and Sun Bin to attack Daliang, capital of Wei/Liang. 341 ICMH 71, wikWS
c.341 Battle of MALING:  Qi (led by Tian Ji and Sun Bin) destroys army of Wei (led by Prince Shen and Pang Yuan).  Crossbow used. 343 CHAC 769     342 CHAC 603, wikT     341 CHAC 634, ICMH 71, ckZ, wikW, wikWS
c.341 Wei general PANG YUAN cuts his own throat to avoid capture. 341 CHAC 631, ICMH 72
c.341 Hann submits to Qin in order to survive. 342 ICMH 71
c.340 General Tian Ji returns to Qi, is somehow accused of treason, and exiled.  He flees to Chu. 340 ICMH 73
c.340 QIN general Shang Yang attacks land west of Yellow River still controled by WEI.  Wei is devastated and cedes much territory in return for truce. 340 GHCC 80, ICMH 72, bk, ckZ, wikWS
c.340 WEI forced to move capital east. 340 ckZ
c.340 With Wei weakened, Qi and Qin become dominant states in China. 340 GHCC 80,
ICMH 72, ckZ, wikWS
c.340 King of Chu from 369 XUAN ends.
Son Xiong Shang succeeds as WEI
King of Chu 339-29.
340 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu     339 rcC
c.340 Wei defeated at Yanmen by Qin.  Wei general Wei Chu is captured. 340 GHCC 80,
ICMH 72, ckZ, wikWS
c.338 Duke of Qin from 361, XIAO dies age 44.
Son YING SI had committed a crime and had been declared ineligible for crown, and technically doesn't succeed until 325.
338 B76 V-166, 4-307, CHAC 29, 1009, CHC 34, 48, GHCC 65, HFHD 87, ICMH 73, MRDK, ckQn, ckZ, icHu, wikQn, wikT     337 friC
c.338 Kung-sun Yang, Lord of Shang, commonly called SHANG YANG, legalist reformer, the statesman who established the principles on which the Qin state and dynasty founded its power, now without protection, flees to Wei, but Wei people deliver him back to Qin.  On a convenient charge of treason, prince Ying Si has his body torn apart by carriages. 338 B76 IX-110, CDΦ 116, CHAC 589, 806, CHC 34, GHCC, HFHD 112,
ICMH 73, LEWH 57, bk, wikT
c.338 Freelance political strategist SU QIN, having just arrived in Qin, sees that he will be unwelcome by Ying Si, leaves to offer advice to other rulers. no date: wikSuQin
c.337 SHEN BUHAI, prime minister of Hann from 355, dies. 337 CHC 74, bk
c.336 WU JIANG, viscount of Yue, attacks Chu. 336 spYue
c.335 State of Song suffers some disaster.  Ancestral altars at Pencheng are destroyed. 335 ICMH 73
c.335 WEI marquis of Qi from 356, becomes king 334-20. 335 CHAC 28, 29, friC
c.334 Freelance political strategist Su Qin persuades six kingdoms to fight Qin.  This is called the Vertical Alliance. 334 icZ, yutZ
c.334 King of Wei/Liang from 344, HUI ends.  XIANG succeeds to 318. 335 ckZ 334 rcC
c.334 Chu besieges Qi at Xuzhou. 334 spYue
c.334 After besieging Xuzhou, Chu expands eastward, attacks Yue. 334 spYue
c.334 Treaty between Wei and Qi. 334 CHAC 770
c.334 Victorious Duke WEI of QI is persuaded to take title of king by HUI king of Wei. 334 CHAC 603, wikWS
c.334 Viscount of Yue from 357, WU JIANG killed by Chu. 334 MRDK, rcC, scr
333 ckWY, spYue
c.334 YUE state, existing from Spring & Autumn Period, conquered by Chu. 334 bk, wikWS
c.334 MINYUE founded by members of the dynasty of Yue, forced to flee when Yue falls. 334 rcC
c.334 CHU power peaks after conquering Yue. 334 wikWS
c.334 VIETS, south of Yangzi River, driven further south by Chinese, possibly enter Red River delta. 334 B76 19-120
334/3 Coastal state of YUE (lower Yangtze and north Chekiang) partitioned and annexed by CHU and QI.  Much reduced, Yue continues as an independent political entity at Shejiang. 334 B76 4-69, CHAC 597, GHCC, LEWH 57, rcC, ckWY, wikChu
333 ICMH 73, ckWY, friC, spYue, wikChu
c.333 VERTICAL ALLIANCE of 6 states arranged 334 by Su Qin, fails to restrain Qin. 333
c.333 Zhou court sends civil and military officials to Qin court to show respect 333 icZ
c.333 Marquis of Hann from 362, ZHAO (or Xi) ends.  Son Kang succeeds as Marquis Wei of Hann until 323 when he becomes king XUAN HUI 323-12. 334 ICMH 67, MRDK
333 CHAC 29, wikH
c.333 Zhao WallMarquisate of Zhao begins defensive WALL against northern nomads until 300. 333 CHAC 1021
c.333 Marquis of Wey from 361 CHENG ends.  PING succeeds 332-25. 333 ckW
c.333 WEI defeated by Qin army.  Wei general Long Jia is captured, 80,000 heads taken. 333 icZ, yutZ 331 ICMH 73
c.333 Duke of Yen from 361 WEN-II ends.  Son YI succeeds as king 332-21.
YEN, a duchy from 690, becomes a kingdom until 222.
337 CHAC 28     333 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC
c.332 Chinese philosopher MENG KO (Meng Tsu, Mencius) begins travels from court to court teaching ethics. 332 LEWH 57
c.330 WEI abandons all land west of Yellow River to Qin.  QUWO is taken by Qin general Shuli Ji. 330
c.329 King of Chu from 339 WEI ends.  Son Xiong Huai succeeds as HUAI King of Chu 328-299. 329 CHAC 29, MRDK, bk, ckChu, ckZ, friC, wikChu     328 rcC
c.329 Lord of Song from 369 TI CHENG ends.
Bro Yan succeeds as KANGWANG
Lord of Song, 328-286.
329 MRDK, ckS, friC, wikS
c.329 Qin armies cross Yellow River into WEI, capture city of Jiao until 327. 329 ICMH 73
c.328 WEI surrenders all Sangjun region to Qin. 328 ICMH 73
c.328 A COMMANDERY (union of cities under a military commander) is formed in Wei by Qin for defense against non-assimilated people. 328 CHAC 1020
c.328 Office of chancellor begins in Qin. 328 GHCC
c.328 ZHANG YI becomes chancellor of Qin until 322. 328 CHAC 1018, HFHD 12, ICMH 73, bk
c.327 City of Jiao, under Qin from 328, returned to Wei until 314. 327 ICMH 74
c.326 CUO becomes duke of Zhongshan until 323, then king until 309. 326 CHAC 839
c.326 Qin adopts the winter sacrifice and festival known as La, which is more important than the summer counterpart of 676. 326
CHC 32
c.325 Marquis of Zhao from 350, SU ends.  Probable son WU LING succeeds as king until 299.
ZHAO, a marquisate from 424, becomes a kingdom until 222.
326 CHAC 29, wikZa 325 MRDK, ckZ, rcC 322 ICMH 74
c.325 CHEN, capital of Chu, taken by Qin troops under chancellor Zhang Yi, inhabitants expelled, delivered to Wei. 326
c.325 YING SI, prince of Qin from 337, takes title of king (wang) rules as king HUIWEN until 311. 338 wikQn     325 B76 4-308, CHAC 603, CHC 38, GHCC, bk, ckZ, icZ, wikWS     324 ICMH 74
c.325 Marquis of Wey from 332 PING ends.  SIJUN succeeds as ruler of Wey 324-283. 325 ckW, friC
c.324 YING SI, king of Qin 325-11, begins numbering the years of his rule again.  This becomes the first year of the new numbering. 324 spks
c.324 King of Qi from 342 XUAN ends.  Son MIN succeeds 323-284. 324 HFHD 153, MRDK, ckQi     323 rcC
c.324 Chinese philosopher MENG KO (aka Meng Tsu, aka Mencius) welcomed at court of Wei at Daliang by king Hui. 324-14 CHAC 770
c.323 Dukes of Zhao, Yen, and Zhongshan take title of king. 323 CHAC 603, rcC, wikWS, wikZngsn
c.323 ZHANG YI, chancellor of Qin, meets chief officials of Qi and Chu at Neisang. 323 spks
c.323 Marquis WEI of Hann from 333 takes title king XUAN HUI of Hann until 312. 326 CHAC 603
325 wikWS     323 wikH
c.322 WEI is dominated by Qin, which appoints Qin general Zhang Yi prime minister of Wei until 317. 323 bk
322 ICMH 74
c.322 Wu Ling king of Zhao defeats Forrest Barbarians and the Luofan in the Ordos Loop.  Creates provinces of Dai, Yanmen, and Yunzhong. 322
c.322 STIRRUP:  Earliest proper triangular stirrup, of full length and on both sides of the horse appears in tomb near Nanjing. 322? slkrd
c.321 King of Yen from 332 YI ends.  Son KUAI succeeds 320-12. 321 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC
c.321 King of Zhou from 368 XIEN ends.
Son Ji Ding succeeds as king SHEN CHING
until 314.
321 CHAC 29, ckZR, icZ, tcgEZ, wikCM, wikZ
320 MRDK, frie, rcC, wikT, yut, yutZ
c.320 YING SI, king of Qin 325-11, travels to the north bend of the Yellow River. 320 spks
c.320 King of Qi from 356 WEI (Tien clan) dies.  Pijiang succeeds as King XUAN of Qi 319-300.  Qi begins decline. 320 CHAC 981, ICMH 74, wikQi
c.320 Marquis of Wey, who only rules the county of Puyang, degrades himself to Lord of Wey. 320 WeiSA
c.319 King of Wei from 370 HUI ends.  Son Si or He succeeds as King XIANG of Wei until 296. 319 CHAC 29, bk, wikW wikHui
c.319 King of Wei from 334 XIANG ends.  AI succeeds as King of Wei until 295. 319 rcC     296 wikW
Majority of scholars think King Ai, whose personal name is not recorded, never existed. wikW
c.319 King XUAN of Qi 319-300 establishes Jixia Academy of scholars in Qi capital. 318 TTS 302 bk
c.319 Chinese philosopher MENG KO (Meng Tsu, Mencius) becomes an official and scholar at the Jixia Academy in Qi until 312. 324-14 LEWH 57
320 bk     319 wikT, wikMncs
c.319 King HUAI of Chu 328-299 sends general Zhuang Qiao with army to occupy Ba and Shu (Sichuan). King Wei 319? ICMH 74
c.318 ZHANG YI, chancellor of Qin from 328, ends.  YUE CHI succeeds until ?. 318 spks
312 HFHD 12
c.318 A joint force of Hann, Zhao, Wei, Yen, Qi, and Xiongnu attack Qin.  They do not advance beyond Hangu Pass, and are defeated by a Qin counter attack by general Shuli Ji at Xiuyu.  Coalition general Shen Ca is captured, and 82,000 beheaded.
This is the 1st non-legendary reference to the Xiongnu, made by Sima Qian.
CHAC 960, ICMH 74, spks, wikQn
Earliest direct contact between China and XIONGNU evidenced in text.
c.318 QIN advances into Shu (Sichuan). 318-16 GHCC
c.318 KANGWANG Lord of Song 328-286, takes title of king. 318 wikWS
c.317 SU QIN, prime minister of Qi from ?, executed by Duke of Qi, who recalls Zhang Yi, prime minister of Wei from 322, to become prime minister of Qi. 317 HFHD 180, ICMH 75, bk, icZ, yutZ
c.316 Non-Chinese state of SHU (in Sichuan Basin), weakened by internal quarrels, conquered by Qin army under Sima Cuo.  Shu continues to have its own marquis, but is forced to ally with Qin. 316 CHAC 635, CHC 40, ICMH 75, LEWH 57, ckZ, icZ, wikChu, wikQn, wikT, wikWS, yutZ
c.316 BA (state) conquered by Qin army under Sima Cuo.  Incorporated into Qin empire with Chiangchou as capital 316 B76 4-568, CHAC 635, CHC 40, ICMH 75, wikChu, wikQn, wikT, wikWS
c.316 Zhao cities Zhongdu and Xiyang attacked by Qin troops. 316 ICMH 75
c.316 Chu general Zhuang Qiao, returning from Yunan with army, finds Qin army occupying Ba, and blocking his way to Chu.  He retreats to Lake Dian, and becomes chief of local tribes. 319? ICMH 75
c.315 King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 342 HO ends.  UK succeeds until 290. 315 rcK
c.315 Sun Bin, alleged descendant of Sun Tzu, military strategist working for Qi from ?, dies. 316 wikSnBn 315 wikT
c.315 Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 343 CHING ends.  Son PING succeeds 314-296. 315 MRDK, ckLu, friC 314 rcC
c.315 Hann region of Shizhang attacked by Qin army which drives out Zhao troops under general Ni. 315 ICMH 75
c.315 Yen general QIN GAI defeats eastern barbarians of southwest Manchuria. 315 ICMH 75
c.315 Hann heir apparent becomes hostage to Qin. 315 ICMH 75
c.314 QIN victory over northern nomads, takes 25 villages of the Yiqu.  Last hostile Rong tribe is conquered. 315 CHC 31, ICMH 75
314 CHAC 635, GHCC 103
c.314 Qin provinces set up in west loop of Yellow River: LONGXI (see 287), BEIDI, and SHANG (see 304). 315
c.314 Zi Zhi, chancellor of Yen, rebels against king Kuai and brings Yen into months of inner fighting. 315 bk
314 wikTD
c.314 JI, capital of Yen, attacked by King Xuan of Qi unsuccessfully. 314 wikTD
c.314 King KUAI of Yen abdicates to prime minister Zi Zhi.  Heir apparent objects. 316 ICMH 75 315 bk
c.314 Yen heir apparent and his coalition of nobles are defeated by king KUAI of Yen and prime minister Zi Zhi. 314
CHAC 602
c.314 After 2 months of war, King Xuan of Qi destroys army of Yen, but withdraws because of further resistance. 314
B76 4-308, ckZ, yutZ
c.314 YEN kingdom conquered by Qi troops under Xuan Gong. 314 B76 4-308, ICMH 75, icZ, yut, yutZ
c.314 Wei city of Jiao, under Wei from 327, again taken by Qin army, this time under Shuli Ji. 314 ICMH 75, bk
c.314 King of Zhou from 320 SHEN CHING dies.
Son Ji Yan succeeds as king NAN
until 256.
315 CHAC 29, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ     314 MRDK, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
c.313 Wei forced to ally with Qin. 313 ICMH 76
c.313 Hann forced to ally with Qin. 313 ICMH 76
c.313 Qin general Shuli Ji invades Zhao, defeats Zhao general Zhuang Bao, captures region of Lin. 313 ICMH 76
c.313 Qin king Hui-wen sends Zhang Yi to Chu with gifts. 313 bk
c.313 CHU, tricked by Qin, breaks alliance with Qi. 313 ICMH 76
c.312 King of Yen from 320 KUAI ends.  His son Chao is rescued by Wuling King of Zhao 325-299 and CHAO succeeds as king of Yen 311-279. 312 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckY, ckZ, friC, icZ, rcC, yutZ
c.312 King of Yue sends Gong Shi Yu to Wei to present 300 boats, 5,000,000 arrows, plus rhinoceros horns and ivory. 312 spYue
c.312 King HUAI of Chu 328-299 sees that he has been tricked by Qin, musters troops in Han River area, defeated by Qin general Wei Zhang between Dan and Xi.  Chu general Qu Gai is captured.  80,000 Chu heads taken. 312 ICMH 76
c.312 QIN defeats a CHU attack at Danyang.  HANZHONG (formerly Nanzheng, upper Han River valley) occupied by Qin general Wei Zhang.  This conquest links Qin heartland to Ba and Shu (Sichuan) as a single block of land. 312 CHAC 635, GHCC 103, ICMH 76, wikWS
c.312 YONGZHI in Hann besieged by Chu army. 312 CHAC 76, wikH
c.312 King of Hann from 323, XUAN HUI ends.  Son Cang succeeds as king XIANG (or Daoxiang) of Hann 311-296. 312 CHAC 29, MRDK, wikH
c.312 Chinese philosopher MENG KO (aka Meng Tsu, aka Mencius) official and scholar at Jixia Academy in Qi from 319, ends. 314 LEWH 57
312 wikMncs     310 bk
c.312 General war between coalition of Qin, Wei, Hann against Chu and Qi involves simultaneous offensives on 4 fronts across loess highlands and Yellow River flood plain. 312
CHAC 628
c.312 King HUI-WEN of Qin sends general Shuli Ji to help Hann, and general Dao Man to join Wei forces against Yen, while Hui Wen himself invades Qi.  Outcome not recorded. 312
c.311 SHAOLING, under Chu from ?, taken by Qin. 311 ICMH 76
c.311 King HUAI of Chu marches north thru Wu pass, fights Qin at Lantian. 311 ICMH 76
c.311 Wei army invades Chu land as far as Deng, forcing king Huai to return south to defend. 311 ICMH 76
c.311 Shu (Sichuan) conquered by King Hui-Wen of Qin, and made a commandery. 311 HFHD 177
c.311 King of Qin from 325, HUI-WEN dies.
Son Dang succeeds as King WU
of Qin 310-07.
311 CHAC 29, CHC 48, ckQn, ckZ, wikQn, wikT     310 ICMH 76
c.311 Qin armies occupy plain of CHENGTU in Sichuan, and advance into mountains inhabited by non-Chinese tribes of east Sichuan. 311
GHCC 103
c.310 Qin minister Zhang Yi begins new capital for Shu (Sichuan) commandery at Chengtu. 310 CHAC 635
c.309 Qin minister Zhang Yi dies, probably in Shu. 309 CHAC 631
c.309 Office of chancellor (chengxiang) in Qin from 328, split into chancellor of Left (highest office below king) and Right.  Ministers Zhang Yi and Wei Zhang are replaced by Shuli Ji and Gan Mou as chancellors of Left & Right. 310 ICMH 76 309 CHAC 1018, CHC 38
c.309 King of Zhongshan from 323, CUO dies. 313 CHAC 839
309 CHAC 1029, wikZngsn
c.308 Hann invaded by Qin generals Gan Mou and Feng, who besiege Yiyang until 307. 308 ICMH 77 307 icZ
c.307 Yiyang, besieged by Qin from 308, falls.  King of Hann asks for peace. 307 ICMH 77
c.307 Qin general Gan Mou crosses Yellow River, takes Wusui fortifies and holds it until 306. 307 ICMH 77
c.307 King of Qin from 311, WU dies.  He goes to Zhou and dies from an injury sustained competing in a bronze tripod lifting contest.  Half bro Ze, currently a hostage at Yen, is escorted back to Qin, succeeds as ZHAO XIANG king of Qin 306-251.  Local opposition is overcome by minister Wei Ran, whom Zhao Xiang entrusts with governing Qin. 307 CHAC 29, CHC 47, ICMH 77, MRDK, ckQn, ckZ, wikQn
306 HFHD 231, wikT
c.307 Qin, is weakened by a succession struggle, and therefore makes Tian Wen prime minister, but he is soon removed. 307 CHAC 637, wikWS
c.307 Queen Dowager and prime minister Wei Ran get control of Qin until 266. 307 CHAC 639
c.307 Debate held at court of King Wuling of Zhao, who supports adoption of mounted cavalry and archery. 307
CHAC 960
c.307 1st official native Chinese CAVALRY introduced by king Wuling of Zhao. 307 CHAC 892, wikWS
c.307 Imitating northern nomadic armies, WULING prince of Zhao adopts Tartar dress for his army (trousers, belt, boots) which begins to replace traditional loose Chinese dress, replaces chariots with mounted cavalry, enlists horse archers.  This immitation of barbarians is opposed by court conservatives. 307 CHEIA 119, GHCC, LEWH 57, MCAW 179, wikT, wikWS
c.307 WULING king of Zhao 325-299, using barbarian tactics, attacks the barbarian country of Zhongshan and takes several cities, annexes some parts. 307 wikWulng, wikZngsn
305 wikWS, wikWulng
c.306 Zhao army, using barbarian tactics, invades the barbarian north and wins.  Kings of Liufan and Linhu surrender.  Their lands come under a governor of Dai. 306 wikWS, wikWulng
c.306 Wey is invaded by Qin general Shuli Je, who besieges Pu, but withdraws to prevent Wey from allying with Wei. 306 ICMH 77
c.306 Qin general Shuli Je attacks Wey city of Pishi, but fails to take it. 306 ICMH 77
c.306 Hann invaded by king of Chu, who besieges Yongshi 5 months.  Hann asks Qin for aid.  Qin sends army.  Chu abandons siege and withdraws. 306
c.306 Qin general Gan Mou invades Wei, besieges city of Puban, then urges King Zhao Xiang of Qin 306-251 to return Wusui to Hann in order to get alliance with HannOpposition to this at court causes Gan Mou to abandon siege and flee to Qi. 306 ICMH 77
c.305 Qin palace revolt led by the Wei Zhang against King ZHAO XIANG is crushed, rebels killed.  Qin dominance of north China collapses temporarily. 305
c.305 HUI SHIH Chinese sophist, logician, dies.  Primarily concerned with ethics and proper government.  Wrote  Ten Paradoxes  305 B76 4-417, CDΦ 117, EoΦ 2-89, 4-69, EoΦ     300 GHCC
305 ±30 Tsinghua Slips  Tsinghua Bamboo Slips  are buried.  A collection of texts of the Warring States period written in ink on bamboo strips.  There are 2,388 slips, including fragments.  21 slips when assembled in the correct order, represent a decimal multiplication table for numbers up to 99.5.  14 slips recount a gathering of Zhou elite in the 8th year of King Wu of Zhou, prior to their conquest of the Shang dynasty.  The gathering was in the ancestral temple of King Wen of Zhou, King Wu's father, and consisted of beer drinking and recitation of hymns in the style of the received Shi Jing. photo:

305 ± 30 wikTBS
c.304 Barbarian region of upper Yellow River invaded and conquered by WULING of Zhao. 304 wikWS, wikWulng
c.304 SHANG COMMANDERY, in an area under Qin from 314, established in north Shensi and south Suiyuan.  It is not completed until 270. 304
HFHD 169
c.304 SHANGYONG area, under Qin from ?, returned to Chu 304 ICMH 78
c.303 City of PUBAN in Wei taken by Qin troops until 302. 303 ICMH 78
c.302 City of PUBAN in Wei, under Qin from 303, returned to Wei. 302 ICMH 78
c.302 Upper Yellow River area becomes 2 Zhao prefectures: Yunzhong and Jiuyuan. 302 wikWulng
c.301 Qi unites Hann, Wei, and Qin to attack Chu in the south.  Chu is defeated. 301 ckZ
c.301 Marquis of Shu (Sichuan), under Qin from 311, tries to assert independence, defeated by Qin general Sima Cuo. 301 ICMH 78
c.301 City of XINCHANG in Chu taken by Qin. 301 ICMH 78
c.301 King of Qi from 319 XUAN ends.  Di succeeds as King MIN of Qi, "Emperor of the East" 300-283. 301 CHAC 22, 29 300 wikQi
c.301 Λ QI period begins until 284. 301 wikWS

East Asia 300-251