|c.481||SPRING and AUTUMN PERIOD ends. (aka ANNALS Period) in China from 722.||481 B76 4-304, CHAC 15, 545, LEWH 57, bk, frie, wikHC, wikT
476 tcgEZ, wikHC 464 ICMH 20
|c.481||WARRING STATES PERIOD begins until 221.||481 B76 4-305, 14-1, LEWH 57, MCAW 108, frie, wikChu 480 CHAC 16
476 hoc, tcgEZ, wikHC, wikW 475 wikWS 463 ICMH 55 453 GHCC, bk 403 wikZ
|c.480||Another revolt in LU. Gungsun Su leads Cheng family against Meng family.||480
|c.480||ZILU (aka Zhong Yu), disciple of Confucius, killed.||480 icZ, yutZ|
|c.480||Confucius writes first part of Analects on thin strips of bamboo. Most will be written after his death, eventually totaling 20 books on @500 strips. Book 4 is among the oldest and least changed from the original. Proposes 5 ethical concepts: jen "benevolence", chun tzu "superior man", tien "heaven", chung yung "the mean", li "proper conduct".||480 bk|
|c.480||WU invades Chu, and is defeated by Mi Sheng, lord of Po.||480 ICMH 55|
|c.479||CONFUCIUS dies in Lu. The difference between his ideas and later Confucianism is great.||479 B76 4-306, 1109, CDCC 187, CHAC 16, 746, CHC 29, GHCC, bk, EoΦ 2-189, ICMH 55, LEWH 57, MCAW 89, TAWH 17, 73, TToH, ckZ, icZ, wikCnf 478 CMoG3 221, KPHP 56
by 471 MCAW 115
|c.479||Duke MIN of Chen from 501 ends.||479 MRDK 469 ckChn|
|c.479||CHEN, a satellite state of Chu, annexed by Chu.||479 wikChu, wikSA
478 ICMH 55 469 ckChn
|c.479||Chu prime minister MI ZOXI is murdered by Mi Sheng, lord of Po, who imprisons King HUI of Chu 488-32. Hui escapes, and the lord of She arrives to crush the revolt. Mi Sheng flees to the mountains and hangs himself.||479 ICMH 55|
|c.478||Duke of Wey from 480, ZHUANG is killed.
QI becomes Lord of Wey 477-76.
|478 CHAC 27, ckW, friC, weiSA|
|c.477||Duke of Qin from 490 DAO ends.
Son Ci succeeds as Duke LI (aka Cigong or Ligong) of Qin 476-43.
|477 CHAC 27, 28, MRDK, ckQn, friC, wikQn|
|c.476||Lord of Wey from 477 QI ends.
Former Duke of Wey 492-81 CHU reinstated 475-56.
|476 ckW, weiSA|
|c.476||King of Zhou from 519 JING-II ends.
Son Ji Ren succeeds as YUAN until 468.
|477 icZ 476 CHAC 27, 28, ckZR, tcgEZ, wikCM, wikZ, yut, yutZ
475 MRDK, friC, frie, rcC, wikT, wikZ
|c.476||WALL of Qi, begun 685 to protect Qi from anything south of it, finished. It is the oldest wall in China still standing.||476 iic
|c.476||ITOKU TENO, 2nd son of Annei, legendary 4th emperor of Japan from 510, ends. Son KOSHO succeeds 475-393.||476 wikLEJ
475 JBE 2178
|c.475||Duke of Jin from 511 DING dies.
Son Zao becomes Duke CHU of Jin 474-57.
|475 CHAC 27, 28, MRDK, ckJ, friC, icZ, wikJ, wikQi|
|c.475||XIANGZI becomes 1st ruler of Zhao until 425.
ZHAO becomes a state until 222.
|475 CHAC 28|
|c.475||GOUJIAN viscount of Yue kingdom surrounds WU kingdom.||475 icZ, yutZ|
|c.475||Legendary 4th Emperor of Japan from 510, ITOKU TENNO ends. KOSHO succeeds until 392.||trad date 476 wikEI, wikEJ 475 MRDK
probable date 80CE MRDK
|c.473||Counsellor Fan Li joins Yue, advises king Goujian.||473 yutz|
|c.473||FUCHA king of WU 495-73 sends expedition north against Lu and Qi||473 CHAC 564, ICMH 62|
|c.473||Yue launches full scale invasion of Wu.||473 CHAC 564|
|c.473||Wu / Yue wars from 510 end.
King of WU from 495, FUCHA dies. Defeated by Yue at Li River, flees to Gusu Mountain, offers to negotiate, which is declined, hangs himself.
|477 CHAC 27 473 GHCC 61, ICMH 62, MRDK, ckWY, ckZ, hcc, wikT, yutZ|
|c.473||Kingdom of WU destroyed and divided between Yue and Chu. The area is divided into commanderies until 195, and still called Wu.||473 B76 4-69, CHAC 526, 601, HFHD 220, ICMH 62, bk, ckWY, scr|
|c.473||TENG, a vassal state of Lu, just south of Lu, conquered by Goujian viscount of Yue. Under Yue until 416.||496-65 wikTeng|
|c.472||Marquis CHENG of Cai from 490 ends.
Shuo becomes Marquis SHENG of Cai 471-57.
|472 MRDK, wikCai, wikCai Duke: friC|
|c.471||King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 491 UMCHA ends. ULEUJI succeeds until 461.||471 rcK|
|c.470||Disciples of Confucius collect and write down his teachings. They focus on ethics, not religion.||470
|c.468||King of Zhou from 475 YUAN dies.
Son Ji Jie succeeds as king CHEN TING until 440.
|469 ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ
468 MRDK, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
|c.468||Capital of Yue is moved north to Lang Ye (in what is now western Shandong province).||468 spYue|
|467||Λ HALLEY'S COMET V and associated meteor shower recorded in China and Greece.||467 GHCC, wikHC|
|c.467||Duke of Lu from 494 AI ends. Ning succeeds as duke TAO of Lu 466-28.||477 CHAC 27 468 HFHD6 27 467 MRDK ckLu, friC 466 rcC|
|c.465||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 486 HON ends. PYUK succeeds until 432.||465 rcK|
|c.465||Duke of Yen from 492 XIEN ends. Son XIAO succeeds 464-50.||465 CHAC 27, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC|
|c.465||Viscount of Yue from 496, GOUJIAN dies. Son Shiyu succeeds as LU YING until 459. Yue fades into obscurity.||465 CHAC 601, GHCC, ckWY, ckZ, EnoSA, spYue, friC, wikSA|
|SHIH YU succeeds and ends. PU-SHOU succeeds until 448.||464 MRDK, rcC|
|c.463||Duke of Zheng from 500 SHENG ends. Son Ji Yi succeeds as AI 462-24.||477 CHAC 27 477/63 friC
463 MRDK, ckZg
|c.463||Qin kingdom walls the banks of the Yellow River. Extended 417.||461 CHAC 630|
|c.461||King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 471, ULEUJI ends. MULLI succeeds until 425.||461 rcK|
|c.461||Duke LI (aka Cigong) of Qin 477-43 with 20,000 men attacks Xirong and Dali area, takes their capital.||461 icHu, icZ, yutZ|
|c.461||City of WANGCHENG in Dali area siezed by Qin troops.||462 ICMH 63|
|c.459||Viscount of Yue from 465, LU YING dies.
Yu Gu succeeds as BU SHOU until 449.
|459 MRDK, ckWY, spYue|
|c.458||Zhi clan is most powerful clan in Jin. Zhi ruler tries to dominate Jin.||by 458 EnoSA|
|c.458||Zhi Bo colludes with Zhao, Hann, and Wei families, divide lands of Fan and Zhongxing.||by 458 icZ|
|c.458||JIN Civil War, that ended 490, resumes with PARTITION of former fiefs of Fan and Zhonghang among Zhao, Wei, Hann, and Zhi lineages, who fight until 453.||458
CHAC 600, LEWH 57
|c.457||Jin general Zhao Xiang crosses Mt. Juzhu, defeats barbarians, gains control of Dai region.||457
|c.457||Marquis of Cai from 471 SHENG ends.
Marquis YUAN succeeds 456-51.
|457 MRDK, ckCai, friC, wikCai|
|c.456||Duke of Qi from 480 PING (Jiang clan) ends.
Son Ji succeeds as XUAN Duke of Qi 455-05.
|456 CHAC 27, MRDK, ckQi, friC, wikQi 455 rcC|
|c.456||Duke of Wey 492-81 and from 476 CHU ends.
Ji Qian succeeds as Duke DAO of Wey 455-51.
|c.456||City of Wucheng taken by Jin.||456 icZ|
|c.456||Duke of Jin from 474 CHU ends.
Jiao succeeds as Duke AI of Jin 456-38.
|457 ckJ, icZ 456 MRDK
452 wikJ, wikQi 450 CHAC 28
|c.454||Jin clan Zhi forces Hann, and Wei into alliance. They invade Zhao land and attack the city of Zhao.||455 EnoSA 454 ICMH 63|
|c.454||Earl of Zhi besieges Zhao capital JINYANG until 453.||454 ICMH 63|
|c.453||Jin ravaged by Qin. The 6 families which command Jin's 3 armies, fighting from 458, stop fighting.||453
|c.453||Jin clans Hann and Wei defect from Zhi to Zhao and they annihilate Zhi (1 of the 4 clans of JIN from 490) and divide Zhi lands among themselves. JIN Civil War from 458 among Zhao, Wei, Hann, and Zhi lineages ends. Hann, Wei, and Zhao (called the Sanjin "Three Jin") divide territory of Jin between them.||453 CHAC 600, ICMH 63, bk, EnoSA, icZ, wikJ, wikWS 452 ckJ|
|c.453||YIQU barbarians on upper Jing River begin to fortify villages and unite.||453 ICMH 64|
|c.451||Duke of Song from 516 JING ends.
De succeeds as Duke ZHAO-II of Song 450-04.
|477 CHAC 27
451 MRDK, ckS, friC, wikS
|c.451||Marquis of Cai from 456 YUAN ends.
Qi succeeds as Marquis QI of Cai 450-47.
|451 ckCai, friC, wikCai 447 MRDK|
|c.451||Duke of Wey from 455 DAO ends.
Ji Fu succeeds as Duke JING of Wey 450-32.
|c.450||Duke of Yen from 464 XIAO ends. Son CHENG succeeds until 434.||455 CHAC 28, friC
450 MRDK, ckY, rcC
|c.450||BELLOWS: Double acting piston bellows invented by Chinese. (See Egypt 1450)||5th cen.: wikBel
310-01 TTS, TTT
|c.450||Crossbow triggers evidenced in China. This one is made of bronze and inlaid with silver.||photo:
Gary Lee Todd
450 bk 475-21 wikCrsb
|c.450||COLLARED HORSE V HARNESS invented in China. It has changed little since then. Not used in west until 8th cen. CE.||5th cen.: ehow 300 TTS|
|c.449||Viscount of Yue from 459 BU SHOU dies.
Zhu Gou succeeds as WENG until 413.
|449 ckWY, spYue 448 MRDK, rcC|
|c.447||CAI Kingdom from 1046 conquered by HUI, king of Chu.
Marquis of Cai from 450 QI ends.
Cai territory made part of Chu's northern frontier.
|447 ckCai, friC, wikChu, yutZ|
|c.447||ZI-ZHANG, pupil of Confucius, dies.||447 bk|
|c.445||Prince WEN becomes marquis of Wei until 395.||446 ICMH 64 445 GHCC 65, wikW 424 ckZ 403 wikT|
|c.445||CHU expands eastward into former WU territory now under Yue.||489 GHCC|
|c.445||Area of modern Henan Province annexed by CHU.||445 wikChu|
|c.445||State of JI terminated by Yen.||by Chu 445 yutZ|
|c.444||CALENDAR: SOLAR YEAR calculated at 365.25 days.
(See Babylonian 747, Roman 713, Cleostratos 520, Zoroastrian 441, Metonic 432, Mayan 400, Babylonian 380, Eudoxos 370)
|c.444||Duke LI (aka Cigong) of Qin 477-43 attacks Yiqu-rong barbarians on upper Jing River in the areas of later Qingzhou and Ningzhou and captures the Yiqu-rong king.||445 ICMH 64 444 icHu, icZ|
|c.444 Oct 24||SOLAR ECLIPSE in year Duke LI (aka Cigong) of Qin dies. "Duke Li (of the Chinese dynasty), 34th year. The Sun was eclipsed. It became dark in the daytime and stars were seen."
|444 Oct 24 mrec
|c.443||NANZHENG (later Hanzhong, upper Han River valley) rebels against Duke LI of Qin, independent until 388.||443 ICMH 64|
|c.443||Duke of Qin from 477 LI (aka Cigong) dies.
Son succeeds as Duke ZAO of Qin 442-29.
|443 MRDK, ckQn, wikQn|
|c.443||ZI-YU, pupil of Confucius, dies.||443 bk|
|c.441||King of Zhou from 468 CHEN TING ends.
Eldest son Ji Quji succeeds as AI for 3 months, and is killed by younger bro Ji Shu, who succeeds as SI for 5 months until 440.
|442 wikCM, wikZ
441 CHAC 28, ckZR, frie, icZ, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yutZ
|c.440||King of Zhou for 5 months, SI is killed by younger bro Ji Wei, who succeeds as king KAO until 425.||441 ckZR, icZ, tcgEZ, wikT
440 MRDK, rcC, yutZ
|c.439||KAO king of Zhou from 440 gives land south of Yellow River to his bro Ji Jie for sake of continuing Archduke Zhougong's officialdom. Ji Jie would be Duke HUAN of Xizhou (resurrecting the old name of Western Zhou), who would reside at the old capital Loyang V.||439 icZ|
|c.436||TSENG-TZU, pupil of Confucius, dies.||436 B76 X-158, EoΦ 2-88|
|c.434||Duke of Jin from 451 AI dies.
Son Liu becomes Duke YU of Jin 437-20.
Jin holds only cities of Quwo and Jiang.
|439 icZ 438 MRDK, ckJ
434 CHAC 28, wikJ, wikQi
|c.434||Duke of Yen from 450 CHENG ends. Son MIN succeeds 433-03.||439 CHAC 28, friC
434 MRDK, ckY, rcC
|c.433||Marquis of Zheng from ? YI dies. His tomb contains a Bianzhong, a musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells hung in a wooden frame and struck with a mallet.||photo Zzjgbc
433 CHAC 511, icXS, wikBnz
|c.432||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 465 PYUK ends. JEUNG succeeds until 413.||432 rcK|
|c.432||King of Chu from 488 HUI ends.
Son Xiong Zhong succeeds as CHIEN king of Chu 431-08.
|432 CHAC 27, 28, MRDK, bk, ckChu, wikChu 431 rcC|
|c.432||Duke of Wey from 451 JING ends.
Ji Jiu succeeds as Duke ZHAO of Wey 431-29.
|c.431||TZU-SSU, grandson of Confucius, dies. Wrote the Doctrine of the Mean, confirming Confucius interpretation of the mean as the state of equilibrium (chung yung) of the exemplary man.||431 EoΦ 2-88 402 B76 X-227|
|c.431||LU kingdom becomes duchy under CHU.||431 icZ, yutZ 390 ICMH 65|
|c.430||Yiqu-rong barbarians counter-attack Qin and reach south of Wei-shui River. This is the last recorded attack on Qin by the Yiqu-rong.||432 ICMH 64 431 icZ 430 CHC 31, icHu|
|c.429||Duke of Wey from 431 ZHAO ends. Ji Wei succeeds as Duke HUAI of Wey 428-15.||429 ckW|
|c.429||Duke of Qin from 443 ZAO ends. Bro succeeds as Duke HUAI of Qin 428-25.||429 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn|
|c.428||Duke of Lu from 466, under Chu from 431, TAO ends.
Son YUAN succeeds until 408.
428 MRDK, chLu, rcC
|c.425||King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 461 MULLI ends. GUMUL succeeds until 396.||425 rcK|
|c.425||Duke of Qin from 429, HUAI dies. Forced to suicide by his own officials.
Grandson Su succeeds as Duke LING of Qin 424-15. Qin ruled by children until 385.
|427 ICMH 64
425 CHAC 28, 602, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn
|c.425||King of Zhou from 440, KAO ends. Son Ji Wu succeeds as king WEI LIE until 401.||426 CHAC 28, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ 425 MRDK, frie, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ|
|c.425||ZI-XIA, pupil of Confucius, dies.||425 bk|
|c.425||Zhao capital at JINYANG from 497, moved to ZHONGMOU until 386.||425 CHAC 654|
|c.425||1st ruler of Zhao from 475 XIANGZI ends. HUANZI succeeds until 424.||425 CHAC 28|
|c.424||Ruler of Zhao from 425 HUANZI ends. Huan succeeds as XIAN Marquis of Zhao until 409.
ZHAO, a state from 475, becomes a marquisate until 222.
|424 CHAC 28, wikZa|
|c.424||JIN clans Wei, Han (often written "Hann" to distinguish it from the Han Dynasty) and Zhao mutually recognize their independence. The king of Zhou does not recognize this Jin partition until 403.||424 CHAC 600, LEWH 57, ckZ|
|c.424||Qizhang becomes WU, 1st Marquis of Han until 409.||424 CHAC 28, wikH|
|c.424||Marquis WEN of Wei ascends to power, sponsoring Confucianism in Wei state, and employing able advisors such as Legalist Li Kui, militant officer Wu Qi and hydraulic engineer Ximen Bao.||445 CHAC 28, GHCC 65, wikW 424 ICMH 64, ckZ, rcC 403 wikT|
|c.424||Duke of Zheng from 462, AI ends. Ji Yi succeeds as Duke KUNG (aka YU) of Zheng 423.||455 MRDK
424 ckZg, friC
|c.423||Duke of Zheng from 423, KUNG (aka YU) ends. Bro Ji Tai succeeds as Duke XU of Zheng 422-396.||423 MRDK, ckZg, friC|
|c.422||SHAOLING city walled by Marquis WEN of Wei, which provokes Qin to attack.||422
|c.420||Duke of Jin from 437, YU ends. Son Zhi succeeds as Duke LIE of Jin 419-393.||420 MRDK, ckJ
416 CHAC 28, wikJ, wikQi
|c.417||The Qin walls on the banks of the Yellow River from 461 are extended.||417 CHAC 630|
|c.416||Teng, vassal of Yue from 475, terminated by Yue.||416 spYue 414 wikTeng|
|c.415||Duke of Wey from 428 HUAI ends. Ji Tui succeeds as Duke SHEN of Wey 414-373.||415 ckW|
|c.415||Duke of Qin from 424 LING dies.
Son of Huai, Daozi succeeds as Duke JIAN of Qin 414-400.
|415 CHAC 28, ICMH 65, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn|
|c.415||JIGU city walled by Qin.||415 ICMH 65|
|c.415||Zhu Gou, viscount of Yue, attacks Tan and carries off its ruler viscount Gu.||415 spYue|
|c.414||ZHONGSHAN (literally Central-mountain State) founded by the Xianyu, descendants of the Bai Di, as an independent state until 408.||414 wikZngsn|
|c.413||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 432, JEUNG ends. JIL succeeds until 385.||413 rcK|
|c.412||Viscount of Yue from 449 WENG dies. Son YI succeeds until 376.||413 spYue 412 ckWY
411 MRDK, rcC
|c.412||Institution of ever-normal granary by Marquis Wen of Wei.||412 LEWH 57|
|c.411||During the reign of Duke Jian of Qin, the Wei army led by Wu Qi, supported by Zhao and Han, attacks Qin and conquers Qin territories west of the Yellow River.||413-09 wikQn|
|c.410||DAOZI becomes ruler of Tian Qi (a substate of Qi) until 405.||410 CHAC 28, friC|
|c.409||1st Marquis of Zhao from 423 XIAN ends. Son Ji succeeds as Marquis LIE 408-387.||409 CHAC 28, wikZa|
|c.409||1st Marquis of Hann from 424, WU ends. Qian succeeds as Marquis JING of Hann 408-00.||409 CHAC 28, wikH|
|c.408||Marquis Wen of WEI pushes QIN back toward west, pushes west across the Yellow River to the Luo River taking the area of Xihe, and spreads to northern LO, where it builds a line of forts.||408 GHCC, wikWS|
|c.408||Qin introduces land tax paid in grain.||408 CHAC 602, CHC 33|
|c.408||ZHAO (in what is now Hubei and northern Shanxi provinces), under Marquis LIE 408-387, until now a part of Jin, splits off until 228, but still comprizes most of Jin land.||408 rcC|
|c.408||ZHONGSHAN, independent state under the Bai Di 414-406, attacked by Marquis Wen of Wei.||408 CHAC 949, ckZ, wikWS, wikZngsn|
|c.408||Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 428 YUAN ends. Son MU succeeds 407-377.||408 MRDK, chLu 407 rcC|
|c.408||King of Chu from 431 CHIEN ends.
Son Xiong Dang succeeds as SHENG King of Chu 407-02.
|408 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu 407 rcC|
|c.406||ZHONGSHAN, independent under the Bai Di from 414, conquered by Marquis Wen of Wei. Under Wei until 377.||408 ckZ, wikWS
406 CHAC 949, wikZngsn
|c.405||From before 405 until 383 the 3 Jins are united under Wei and expand in all directions.||406 wikWS|
|c.405||Duke of Qi from 455 XUAN (Jiang clan) ends. Son Dai succeeds as Duke KANG of Qi 404-379. But the King of Zhou recognizes He (Tien clan) as Duke TAI of Qi 404-384.||405 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQi, friC, wikQi 404 rcC|
|c.405||Ruler of Tian Qi from 410 DAOZI ends. HE succeeds as Marquis of Tian Qi until 384.||405 CHAC 28, friC|
|c.405||MO-TZU Chinese philosopher, convert from Confucianism, imprisoned in Song.||405 bk|
|c.404||Duke of Song from 450 ZHAO-II ends.
Gouyao succeeds as Duke DAO of Song 403-396.
|404 MRDK, ckS, wikS|
|c.403||Duke of Yen from 433 MIN ends. Son XI succeeds 402-373.||415 CHAC 28, friC
403 MRDK, ckY, rcC
|c.403||Official recognition of the 453 or 424 partition of JIN by king WEI LIE of Zhou. The 3 clans of JIN from 453 are recognized by Weilie as independent marquisates. Weilie recognizes Marquis Jing of Hann in south, Marquis Wen of Wei in center, and Marquis Lie of Zhao in north.
Some sources call this the beginning of the Warring States period.
GHCC 53, ICMH 65,
PW 16, ckJ, wikJ, wikT, wikWS
|c.403||Jin's judges, Wei Si, Zhao Ji, and Hann Qian are made dukes by Zhou King Weilie.||403 icZ, yutZ|
|c.403||Zhou empire begins to split in several states (Qin in west, Qi in east, Chu in south, and smaller ones).||403 scr|
|c.402||King of Chu from 407 SHENG is killed by a robber. Son Xiong Yi succeeds as TAO King of Chu 401-381.||402 CHAC 28, MRDK, icZ, ckChu, friC, wikChu 401 rcC|
|c.401||King of Zhou from 425 WEI LIE dies.
Son Ji Jiao succeeds as king AN until 375.
|402 CHAC 28, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ 401 MRDK, frie, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ|
|c.400||KOREA: IRON AGE begins.||400 PW 16|
|c.400||Capital of Joseon, in Liaoning from ?, moved to Pyongyang.||400 wikJsn|
|c.400||Duke of Qin from 415 JIAN dies.
Son succeeds as Duke HUI-II of Qin 399-87.
|400 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn 398 ICMH 65|
|c.400||Zhou Rituals written.||400 bk|
|c.400||Marquis of Hann from 409, JING ends. Qu succeeds as Marquis LIE (or WU) of Hann 399-87.||400 wikH|
|c.400||Λ GOLDEN RULE attested by Mo-tzu. "If people regarded other people's families in the same way that they regard their own, who then would incite their own family to attack that of another? For one would do for others as one would do for oneself."||400 wikGR|
|c.400||Bronze double-edged (jian) SWORDS of the Warring States Period. Earliest laminated bronze jians appear with higher tin content for the cutting edges and lower tin content for the spine. It produces harder cutting edges and a more flexible spine to absorb shock. Copper sulphides are used as anti-corrosion coatings. Earliest iron and steel jians appear, made by earliest forging and folding techniques.||pic:
500-350 wikCS 475-221 wikFCS
|c.396||King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 425 GUMUL ends. YEORU succeeds until 341.||396 rcK|
|c.396||Duke of Zheng from 422 XU ends.
Bro Ji Yi succeeds as Duke KANG of Zheng 395-75.
|396 MRDK, ckZg, friC|
|c.396||Duke of Song from 403 DAO ends.
Son Tian succeeds as Duke XIU of Song 395-73.
|396 MRDK, ckS, wikS|
|c.395||LI KUEI, legalist minister of Wei, dies.||395 GHCC|
|c.395||Marquis of Wei from 445 WEN ends. Son Ji succeeds as Marquis WU of Wei until 370.||397 ICMH 64 396 CHAC 28, wikW 395 GHCC 65, wikS
387 ICMH 65, ckZ 386 rcC
|c.393||Duke of Jin from 419 LIE ends.
Son Qi succeeds as Duke XIAO of Jin 392-78.
|393 MRDK, ckJ
389 CHAC 28, wikJ, wikQi
|c.393||MO-TZU Chinese philosopher, advises Prince Wen of Lu Yang.||393 bk|
|c.393||Son of Itoku, legendary 5th emperor of Japan from 475, KOSHO TENO ends. 2nd son KOAN succeeds 392-291.||trad date 393 wikEJ, wikLEJ
392 JBE 2178, MRDK
probable date 110CE MRDK
|c.392||YIQU barbarians attacked by duke HUI-II of Qin, who siezes 25 villages.||392 ICMH 65|
|c.390||SUN-TZU Chinese war strategist, writes Ping-Fa "Art of War".
"All warfare is based on deception."
|early 4th cen: B76 IX-678|
|c.390||MO-TZU (Mozi) dies. Chinese philosopher, convert from Confucianism. Said everyone is equal in the eyes of heaven. Power should be based on merit. Advocates universal love over personal love. Founded school of Mohism that argued against Confucianism and Taoism. Invokes heaven and calls on the Sage Kings to support his precedents. Writings collected 250.||391 B76 VII-59, EoΦ 5-409, wikMz
390 CHAC 16, TToH, bk 381 GHCC
376 EoΦ 2-89
|c.389||LIE becomes Marquis of Hann until 387.||389 CHAC 28|
|c.389||WEI defeated by duke HUI-II of Qin, cedes Hoxi and Shang provinces, both in the Yellow River loop.||389 ICMH 65|
|c.389||WU QI appointed chancellor of Chu by, king Dao of Chu, begins reforms to transform Chu into an efficient and powerful state.||389 wikChu, wikWS|
|c.388||NANZHENG (later Hanzhong, upper Han River valley), independent from 443, recovered by Qin.||388
|c.387||Duke of Qin from 400, HUI-II dies.
Son succeeds as Duke CHU-TZU of Qin 386-85.
|388 ICMH 65 387 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn|
|c.387||Marquis of Zhao from 408 LIE ends. Son Zhang succeeds as Marquis JING of Zhao 386-75.||399 rcC 387 CHAC 28, MRDK, wikZa|
|c.387||Marquis of Hann from 399 LIE (or WU) ends. Yuo succeeds as Marquis WEN of Hann 386-77.||387 CHAC 28, wikH|
|c.386||JIANG clan, ruling QI from 1046, has all prerogatives of princely line usurped by TIEN clan until Qi ends in 221. But jiang clan continues until 379.||386 CHAC 598,
GHCC 61, rcC, wikQi
|c.386||City of HANDAN founded. Zhao capital at ZHONGMOU from 425, moved to HANDAN until 353.||386 B76 IV-895, CHAC 654, wikT|
|c.385||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 413, JIL ends. SEUP succeeds until 369.||385 rcK|
|c.385||Son of Ling, SHITI, who had spent his life in Wei, supported by Rong and Di tribes, returns to Qin.
Infant duke of Qin from 387 CHU-TZU is murdered along with his mom by a court faction. SHITI succeeds as Duke XIAN of Qin 384-62.
|385 CHAC 28, 602, MRDK, ckQn, wikQn|
|c.385||Wei takes all territory west of the Yellow River which Qin had lost.||385
|c.384||HUMAN SACRIFICE (see 621, 210) accompanies the funeral of a Qin noble. New duke XIAN abolishes this practice.||384 CHAC 602, CHC 32|
|c.384||TAI ends. (He of Tien clan) rival Duke of Qi from 404. HUAN-II succeeds until 378.
Shan becomes rival Duke FEI (Yan) of Qi 383-75.
|384 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckQi, friC, rcC, wikQi|
|c.384||From 384 the house of Tian replaces the Jiang family in Qi.||384 ckQi|
|c.384||WU QI made prime minister of Chu until 381 by king TAO 401-381. Wu Qi tries to curb power of aristocracy.||384 icZ, yutZ 382 ICMH 66|
|c.383||From before 405 until 383 the three Jins unite under Wei and expand in all directions.||383 wikWS|
|c.383||Zhao vs. Wei: Zhao attacks the small state of Wey, which appeals to Wei which attacks Zhao on west side. Being in danger, Zhao calls in Chu. Chu uses this as a pretext to annex territory to its north, but the diversion allows Zhao to occupy part of Wei.||383
CHAC 617, wikWS
|c.383||Capital of Qin: YONG from 677, moved to YUYANG in lower Wei valley until 350.||383
|c.381||King of Chu from 401, TAO dies. At the funeral, Chu officials get archers to assassinate minister WU QI by a hail of arrows, one of which accidentally hits the body of king Tao.
Son Xiong Zang succeeds as King SU of Chu 380-70. He uses the arrow that hit his father's body as a reason to execute all of Wu Qi's assailants.
381 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu, wikT
361 ICMH 67
|Wu Qi's book, Wuzi , is considered one of the 7 Military Classics.|
|c.380||CHU takes advantage of Wei's military incursion into Zhao to reoccupy its lands up to the Yellow River. Zhao uses the diversion provided by Chu to counterattack and occupy much Wei territory.||380 CHAC 617|
|c.379||Duke of Jiang Qi from 404 KANG overthrown by Tien clan. JIANG clan of Qi, crippled from 386 ends. TIEN clan takes over until 221. Rival Duke of Qi from 383 FEI takes over until 375.||379 CHAC 22, 28, MRDK, ckQi, wikQi 378 ICMH 66, rcC
Wei succeeds: MRDK, ckQi, rcC
|c.378||Duke of Qi from 384 HUAN-II ends. Tien clan member WEI succeeds as king until 342.||379 ckQi 378 rcC
Wei succeeds: MRDK, ckQi, rcC
|c.378||Yue moves capital to Wu city.||379 spYue 378 spYue|
|c.378||Duke of Jin from 392 XIAO ends.
Son Ji Jujiu succeeds as Duke JING of Jin 377-76.
|378 MRDK, ckJ 357 wikJ, wikQi|
|c.377||Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 407 MU ends. Son KUNG succeeds 376-53.||377 MRDK, chLu 376 rcC|
|c.377||The BAI Di state of ZHONGSHAN, under Wei from 406, independent until 300.||377 CHAC 949, wikZngsn|
|c.377||Marquis of Hann from 386, WEN ends. Tunmeng succeeds as Marquis AI of Hann 376-75.||377 CHAC 28, wikH|
|c.376||Duke of Jin from 377 JING killed by Zhao and Wei.||376 MRDK, ckJ 349 wikJ, wikQi|
|c.376||JIN destroyed and divided by 3 Feudal Clans Hann, Wei, and Zhao (Sanjin "Three Jin").||376 ICMH 66, MRDK, bk, ckJ, yutZ 349 wikJ, wikQi|
|c.376||XINTIAN capital of Jin from 589 or 585, abandoned.||376 CHAC 457|
|c.376||YI, viscount of Yue from 413, killed by son ZHU JIU (Yue Gu), who is killed 10 months later 375.||376 ckWY, spYue 375 rcC|
|c.375||AN dies. King of Zhou from 401. Son Ji Xi succeeds as king LIE until 368.||376 ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ
375 MRDK, frie, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ
|c.375||ZHU JIU (Yue Gu) viscount of Yue from 376 killed by men of Yue. Si Qu, officer of Yue, settles disorders in Yue and raises to the throne Mang An who succeeds as CHU WU YU until 365.||375 ckWY, friC, spYue|
|c.375||Duke of Zheng from 396 KANG ends.
ZHENG, a duchy from 806, annexed by Hann.
|390 ICMH 65 375 CHAC 1026, ICMH 66, MRDK, ckZg, friC, frie, rcC, wikT, wikZ, yut|
|c.375||Duke of Qi from 383, sole duke from 379, FEI ends. Wu succeeds as Duke HUAN of Qi 374-57.||375 wikQi|
|c.375||Marquis of Tian Qi from 383, YAN ends. Tian Qi is incorporated into Qi. HUAN succeeds as duke 374-57.||375 CHAC 28, friC|
|c.375||Marquis of Hann from 376, AI ends. Ruoshan succeeds as Marquis YI (or Gong or Zhuang) of Hann 374-63.||375 CHAC 28 374 wikH|
|c.375||Hann capital, at YANGDI from ?, moved to XINZHENG until 230.||375 CHAC 654, wikH, wikZng|
|c.374||Marquis of Zhao from 386, JING ends. Son Zhong succeeds as Marquis CHENG of Zhao until 349.||375 CHAC 28, MRDK, wikZa 374 rcC|
|c.374||Qin worship of the White Di (Bai Di) of the west from 770, reaffirmed.||374 CHAC 980|
|c.373||Duke of Wey from 414 SHEN ends.
Ji Xun succeeds as Duke SHENG of Wey 372-62.
|c.373||Duke of Yen from 402 XI ends. Son HUAN-II succeeds 372-62.||373 MRDK, ckY, rcC
Chin ends 370 CHAC 28, friC
|c.373||Duke of Song from 396 XIU ends.
Bibing succeeds as Duke BI of Song 372-70.
|373 ckS, wikS|
|c.370||Duke of Song from 372 BI ends.
Son TI CHENG succeeds as Lord of Song, 369-29.
|370 MRDK, ckS, wikS|
|c.370||Marquis of Wei from 395 WU dies without naming a successor, which leads to 3 years of civil war. Son Jing or Ying succeeds as Marquis HUI of Wei until 344 when he declares himself king.||371 ckZ 370 CHAC 28, ICMH 65, rcC wikW, wikWS|
|c.370||Last nominal ruler of Jin disappears from history.||370 CHAC 748|
|c.370||King of Chu from 380 SU ends. Son Xiong Liangfu succeeds as King XUAN of Chu 369-40.||370 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, wikChu 369 rcC|
|c.369||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 385, SEUP ends. HA succeeds until 361.||369 rcK|
|c.369||Zhongshan kingdom, independent 377-295, builds defensive wall.||369 CHAC 1021, ctm|
|c.368||The BI YEU tribe south of Chu is pacified by Chu.||368 ICMH 66|
|c.368||King of Zhou from 375 LIE dies.
Bro Ji Bian succeeds as XIEN king of Zhou until 321.
|369 CHAC 28, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ
368 MRDK, frie, rcC, wikT, yut
|c.367||ZHOU royal house divided into western (Xizhou, capital at Λ Loyang) and eastern (Dongzhou, capital at Chengzhou).
Xizhou Duke Hui makes his son, Ji Ban, so-called Lord Dongzhou HUI, supposedly for sake of supporting the official Zhou court at the old capital of Loyang.
|367 GHCC, icZ|
|c.366||QIN defeats coalition of Hann and Wei.||366 CHAC 618|
|c.365||Mang An, who is king of YUE from 375, CHU WU is murdered by Si, younger bro of Si Qu. WU ZHUAN succeeds until 357.||365 ckWY, friC, spYue|
|c.364||WEI is defeated by Duke XIAN of Qin 384-62 at Battle of Shimen. 60,000 heads taken. Wei is saved only by intervention of Zhao.||364 CHAC 618, ICMH 66, wikWS|
|c.363||Marquis of Hann from 374, YI (or Gong or Zhuang) ends. Wu succeeds as Marquis ZHAO (or Xi) 362-33.||363 CHAC 28, ICMH 67, wikH|
|c.362||Duke of Wey from 373 SHENG ends.
Ji Su succeeds as Marquis CHENG of Wey 361-33.
|c.362||WEI is defeated by Duke XIAN of Qin at Shaoling. Wei prime minister Gongsun Cuo is captured.||362 CHAC 618, ICMH 66, wikWS|
|c.362||CHEN, under Chu from ?, rebels, and is subdued.||362 ICMH 66|
|c.362||CAI, under Chu from 447, rebels, and is subdued.||362 ICMH 66|
|c.362||Duke of Qin from 384 XIAN dies.
Son Ying Quliang succeeds as Duke XIAO of Qin 361-38. At this time the Shiji says that Qin is still regarded as an inferior outsider.
|362 CHAC 28, CHC 34, GHCC 65, MRDK, ckZ, wikQn, wikT 361 B76 V-166, 4-307, IMH 67|
|c.362||Duke of Yen from 372 HUAN-II ends. Son WEN-II succeeds 361-33.||362 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC|
|c.362||Duke of Wey from 373 SHENG ends. Ji Su succeeds as Marquis CHENG of Wey 361-33.||362 ckW|
|c.361||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 369 HA ends. WHA succeeds until 342.||361 rcK|
|c.361||Marquis Hui of Wei 370-44 moves capital from ANYI east to DALIANG (Dailiang) to be out of the reach of Qin.||361 CHAC 618, HFHD6 94, wikWS|
|c.361||XIAO becomes duke of Qin until 338. His minister is Kung-sun Yang, Lord of Shang. Xiao reforms Qin laws and government, laying the foundation for the future greatness of Qin.||361 HFHD 87|
|c.361||Qin campaigns against Rong barbarians to its west.||361 ICMH 67|
|c.361||Legalist reformer KUNG-SUN YANG (SHANG YANG), adviser to king Hui of Wei at Daliang, arrives in Qin, begins serving King Xiao.||361 CHC 31, GHCC, icZ|
|c.360||King Xien of Zhou sends civil and military officials as well as "royal bestowal meat" to King Xiao of Qin.||360 icZ|
|c.360||YANG CHU (Yang Zhu), pessimistic philosopher and apostle of egoism, dies. "Every man for himself." Surviving ideas, known as Yangism, appear in the Huainanzi, Lushi Chunqiu, Mengzi, and possibly the Liezi and Zhuangzi.||360 B76 X-797, 4-417, wikYZ
|c.359||SHANG YANG promulgates his 1st laws in Qin.||359 GHCC 79, bk|
|c.357||Duke of Qi from 374 HUAN ends. Yinqi succeeds as marquis WEI of Qi 356-35. For his 1st 9 years he lets his ministers run Qi.||357 CHAC 28, ICMH 69, wikQi|
|c.357||Hui of Wei visits marquis Wei of Qi and meets Xiao of Qin.||357 CHAC 619|
|c.357||Viscount of Yu Yue from 365, WU ZHUAN (aka Tan Zhu Mao) dies. WU JIANG succeeds 356-34.||357 ckWY, friC, spYue 356 MRDK|
|c.356||Marquis of Yue from 375, CHI ends. WU-CHIANG succeeds until 334.||356 rcC|
|c.356||Legalist reformer KUNG-SUN YANG (SHANG YANG) becomes minister to XIAO KUNG, king of Qin until 338. Makes first big reforms in Qin. Organizes strong centralized government. Creates official hierarchy, which is outlined in Book of Lord Shang . Reforms V will continue until 648CE. Helps agriculture by severe legal code.||359 CHAC 1018, LEWH 57
356 CHAC 611, GHCC, wikQn, wikT
|c.355||SHEN BUHAI becomes prime minister of Hann until 337.||355 CHAC 606
352 bk 351 CHAC 1018
|c.355||WEI extends defenses to the Ordos bend.||358-52 GHCC|
|c.354||Marquis Hui of Wei 370-44 starts large-scale attack on Zhao.||358-52 wikWS|
|c.354||HANDAN, capital of Zhao in southwest Hopei, besieged by Pang Quan general of Wei/Liang. Zhao asks Qi for help against Wei.||354 ICMH 69 354-1 GHCC
353 ckZ, wikWS
|c.354||On advice of Sun Bin, marquis WEI of Qi 356-35 decides not to help Zhao, but to let Zhao and Wei exhaust themselves. A token Qi army goes toward Xiangling, but achieves nothing.||354 ICMH 69|
|c.354||XIAO KUNG, king of Qin defeats Wei army at Yuanli.||354 ICMH 69|
|c.354||On advice of Sun Bin, Shang Yang minister of Qi attacks and besieges Anyi the Wei capital while the Wei army is besieging Handan of Zhao. The strategy works.||358-52 GHCC, ICMH 69|
|c.354||Battle of GUILING: Wei army moves south to protect Anyi its capital, is caught on the road and decisively defeated by Shang Yang minister of Qi. Anyi falls to Qi.||354 CHAC 628, GHCC, ICMH 69, wikT, wikWS 353 CHAC 634 352 ICMH 70|
|c.354||Wei court at Anyi from 562, moves east to Daliang. Dynasty name is changed to Liang.||354 ICMH 69 339 CHAC 1027|
|c.353||Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 376 KUNG ends. Son KANG succeeds 352-44.||353 MRDK, chLu 352 rcC|
|c.353||WEI / LIANG kingdom, now at Daliang begins a WALL partly along Luo River to defend against Qin. Extended 300.||358 CHAC 630
351 CHAC 1021
|c.352||SUPERNOVA lights the night sky in China for 10 days. The 1st definite sighting. Strangely, nobody else reports it.||352 TTS, fcts, mesr|
|c.350||Upper Xiajiadian culture of Inner Mongolia from 1100 ends. Farmers & nomads producing inferior ceramics, superior bronze, bone and stone artifacts: daggers, axes, chisels, arrowheads, knives, & helmets. Bronzes decorated with animal and natural motifs.||600 wikUXC
4th cen: CHAC 914
|c.350||IRON introduced into Korea via trade.||4th cen. wikIA|
|c.350||Marquis of Zhao from 374 CHENG ends. Son Yu succeeds as Marquis SU of Zhao until 326.||350 CHAC 28, MRDK, wikZa|
|c.350||Capital of Qin: YUYANG in lower Wei valley from 383, moved to XIANYANG on north bank of Wei River until 206.||350 CHAC 654, CHC 31, 34, GHCC 80, ICMH 71, icZ, yutZ|
|c.350||SHANG YANG, legalist advisor to XIAO KUNG, king of Qin makes Λ 2nd set of reforms in Qin. Instates agriculture tax, imposes a grid of pathways across fields, thus dividing farmland into uniform blocks.||350 CHAC 611, 613, CHC 35, icZ, wikQn, yutZ|
|c.350||Λ MAGNETISM 1st noted in Book of the Devil Valley Master . "The lodestone makes iron come, or it attracts it."||400-300 wik4GI|
|c. 350||Λ ASTRONOMY: Oldest catalog of stars made. Chinese begin detailed records of astronomical observations, instructs eclipse prediction by relative positions of moon and sun. SHI SHEN positions 121 stars, observes sunspots, thinking them to be eclipses. GAN DE records detailed observations of Jupiter and a small reddish star next to it (Ganymede). Between them, they observe the 5 main planets.
(See Meton 432, Eudoxos 360, Heraclides 338, astro diary 331)
|mid 4th cen: GHCC, wikCA, wikGD, wikShSh|
|c. 350||COSMOLOGY: Chinese have 3 cosmological models:
Gai Tan model: Sky is a hemispherical dome over Earth.
Hun Tian school: Sky is a sphere like Greek spherical models.
Xuan Ye school: Sky is infinite. Celestial bodies float about at intervals. "The speed of the luminaries depends on their individual natures, which shows they are not attached to anything."(See Eudoxos 360, Callipos 330, Aristotle Meteorolgy 328, Aristotle Heavens 328)
|no date: GHCC, wikCA|
|c.350||Λ HORSES in China, until now used for pulling chariots, are now used for mounted cavalry.||350
|c.350||WALLS are built in sections by small kingdoms in north China as defense against the Xiongnu. This is the beginning of the GREAT WALL. See 220.||400-300 B76 IV-704
356 TToH 350 MCAW 163 260-41 TTS
|c.350||Repeating crossbow excavated from a tomb in Chu. The separate actions of stringing the bow, placing the bolt and shooting it are accomplished with a one-handed movement while keeping the crossbow stationary. See 250.||photo Liang
4th cen wikRC
|c.350||Warring States Period 1 from c.476 ends. Period 2 begins until 250. Main period of conflict. States ruin each other in increasingly violent conflicts, leaving only Qin.||350 wikWS|
|c.349||Marquis of Zhao from 374, CHENG ends. Son SU succeeds until 325.||349 MRDK, rcC|
|c.349||Duke WEI of Qi 378-43, finally decides to take charge of Qi.||349 ICMH 71|
|c.348||SHANG YANG, legalist advisor to XIAO KUNG, king of Qin institutes a head tax. i.e. If you exist and you're male, you pay.||348
|c.346||Duke of Wey degrades himself to marquis of Wey.||346 WeiSA|
|c.344||Marquis HUI of Wei 370-44 organizes a state conference at Fengze and forces feudal lords to assemble at Mengjin Ford to pay respects to the king of Zhou.||344 ckZ|
|c.344||Marquis HUI of Wei from 370 declares himself king until 334, being first among feudal states to adopt royal title.||344 CHAC 602, ckZ, wikWS|
|c.344||Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 352 KANG ends. Son CHING succeeds 343-15.||344 MRDK, chLu 343 rcC|
|c.344||STANDARDIZATION: A bronze sheng "pint" is inscribed with Shang Yang's name and a date corresponding to 344. Its capacity is 0.2006 liters.||344
|c.343||XIAO KUNG, king of Qin 361-38, is finally proclaimed hegemon by Zhou emperor, which means little, because Zhou prestige is gone.||343 ICMH 71|
|c.343||Duke of Qi from 378, WEI ends in Qi, but continues as marquis of Tian Qi until 335. XUAN is king of Qi 342-24.||343 MRDK, ckQi 342 rcC|
|c.342||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 361, WHA ends. HO succeeds until 315.||342 rcK|
|c.341||King of Dangun dyn of Korea from 396 YEORU ends. BOEUL succeeds until 295.||341 rcK|
|c.341||King HUI of Wei sends general Pang Quan to attack Hann, which appeals to Qi.||342 ICMH 71 341 wikWS|
|c.341||Qi allows Hann to be defeated by Wei 5 times, then sends Tian Ji and Sun Bin to attack Daliang, capital of Wei/Liang.||341 ICMH 71, wikWS|
|c.341||Battle of MALING: Qi (led by Tian Ji and Sun Bin) destroys army of Wei (led by Prince Shen and Pang Yuan). Crossbow used.||343 CHAC 769 342 CHAC 603, wikT 341 CHAC 634, ICMH 71, ckZ, wikW, wikWS|
|c.341||Wei general PANG YUAN cuts his own throat to avoid capture.||341 CHAC 631, ICMH 72|
|c.341||Hann submits to Qin in order to survive.||342 ICMH 71|
|c.340||General Tian Ji returns to Qi, is somehow accused of treason, and exiled. He flees to Chu.||340 ICMH 73|
|c.340||QIN general Shang Yang attacks land west of Yellow River still controled by WEI. Wei is devastated and cedes much territory in return for truce.||340 GHCC 80, ICMH 72, bk, ckZ, wikWS|
|c.340||WEI forced to move capital east.||340 ckZ|
|c.340||With Wei weakened, Qi and Qin become dominant states in China.||340 GHCC 80,
ICMH 72, ckZ, wikWS
|c.340||King of Chu from 369 XUAN ends.
Son Xiong Shang succeeds as WEI King of Chu 339-29.
|340 CHAC 28, MRDK, ckChu, friC, wikChu 339 rcC|
|c.340||Wei defeated at Yanmen by Qin. Wei general Wei Chu is captured.||340 GHCC 80,
ICMH 72, ckZ, wikWS
|c.338||Duke of Qin from 361, XIAO dies age 44.
Son YING SI had committed a crime and had been declared ineligible for crown, and technically doesn't succeed until 325.
|338 B76 V-166, 4-307, CHAC 29, 1009, CHC 34, 48, GHCC 65, HFHD 87, ICMH 73, MRDK, ckQn, ckZ, icHu, wikQn, wikT 337 friC|
|c.338||Kung-sun Yang, Lord of Shang, commonly called SHANG YANG, legalist reformer, the statesman who established the principles on which the Qin state and dynasty founded its power, now without protection, flees to Wei, but Wei people deliver him back to Qin. On a convenient charge of treason, prince Ying Si has his body torn apart by carriages.||338 B76 IX-110, CDΦ 116, CHAC 589, 806, CHC 34, GHCC, HFHD 112,
ICMH 73, LEWH 57, bk, wikT
|c.338||Freelance political strategist SU QIN, having just arrived in Qin, sees that he will be unwelcome by Ying Si, leaves to offer advice to other rulers.||no date: wikSuQin|
|c.337||SHEN BUHAI, prime minister of Hann from 355, dies.||337 CHC 74, bk|
|c.336||WU JIANG, viscount of Yue, attacks Chu.||336 spYue|
|c.335||State of Song suffers some disaster. Ancestral altars at Pencheng are destroyed.||335 ICMH 73|
|c.335||WEI marquis of Qi from 356, becomes king 334-20.||335 CHAC 28, 29, friC|
|c.334||Freelance political strategist Su Qin persuades six kingdoms to fight Qin. This is called the Vertical Alliance.||334 icZ, yutZ|
|c.334||King of Wei/Liang from 344, HUI ends. XIANG succeeds to 318.||335 ckZ 334 rcC|
|c.334||Chu besieges Qi at Xuzhou.||334 spYue|
|c.334||After besieging Xuzhou, Chu expands eastward, attacks Yue.||334 spYue|
|c.334||Treaty between Wei and Qi.||334 CHAC 770|
|c.334||Victorious Duke WEI of QI is persuaded to take title of king by HUI king of Wei.||334 CHAC 603, wikWS|
|c.334||Viscount of Yue from 357, WU JIANG killed by Chu.||334 MRDK, rcC, scr
333 ckWY, spYue
|c.334||YUE state, existing from Spring & Autumn Period, conquered by Chu.||334 bk, wikWS|
|c.334||MINYUE founded by members of the dynasty of Yue, forced to flee when Yue falls.||334 rcC|
|c.334||CHU power peaks after conquering Yue.||334 wikWS|
|c.334||VIETS, south of Yangzi River, driven further south by Chinese, possibly enter Red River delta.||334 B76 19-120|
|334/3||Coastal state of YUE (lower Yangtze and north Chekiang) partitioned and annexed by CHU and QI. Much reduced, Yue continues as an independent political entity at Shejiang.||334 B76 4-69, CHAC 597, GHCC, LEWH 57, rcC, ckWY, wikChu
333 ICMH 73, ckWY, friC, spYue, wikChu
|c.333||VERTICAL ALLIANCE of 6 states arranged 334 by Su Qin, fails to restrain Qin.||333
|c.333||Zhou court sends civil and military officials to Qin court to show respect||333 icZ|
|c.333||Marquis of Hann from 362, ZHAO (or Xi) ends. Son Kang succeeds as Marquis Wei of Hann until 323 when he becomes king XUAN HUI 323-12.||334 ICMH 67, MRDK
333 CHAC 29, wikH
|c.333||Marquisate of Zhao begins defensive WALL against northern nomads until 300.||333 CHAC 1021|
|c.333||Marquis of Wey from 361 CHENG ends. PING succeeds 332-25.||333 ckW|
|c.333||WEI defeated by Qin army. Wei general Long Jia is captured, 80,000 heads taken.||333 icZ, yutZ 331 ICMH 73|
|c.333||Duke of Yen from 361 WEN-II ends. Son YI succeeds as king 332-21.
YEN, a duchy from 690, becomes a kingdom until 222.
|337 CHAC 28 333 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC|
|c.332||Chinese philosopher MENG KO (Meng Tsu, Mencius) begins travels from court to court teaching ethics.||332 LEWH 57|
|c.330||WEI abandons all land west of Yellow River to Qin. QUWO is taken by Qin general Shuli Ji.||330
|c.329||King of Chu from 339 WEI ends. Son Xiong Huai succeeds as HUAI King of Chu 328-299.||329 CHAC 29, MRDK, bk, ckChu, ckZ, friC, wikChu 328 rcC|
|c.329||Lord of Song from 369 TI CHENG ends.
Bro Yan succeeds as KANGWANG Lord of Song, 328-286.
|329 MRDK, ckS, friC, wikS|
|c.329||Qin armies cross Yellow River into WEI, capture city of Jiao until 327.||329 ICMH 73|
|c.328||WEI surrenders all Sangjun region to Qin.||328 ICMH 73|
|c.328||A COMMANDERY (union of cities under a military commander) is formed in Wei by Qin for defense against non-assimilated people.||328 CHAC 1020|
|c.328||Office of chancellor begins in Qin.||328 GHCC|
|c.328||ZHANG YI becomes chancellor of Qin until 322.||328 CHAC 1018, HFHD 12, ICMH 73, bk|
|c.327||City of Jiao, under Qin from 328, returned to Wei until 314.||327 ICMH 74|
|c.326||CUO becomes duke of Zhongshan until 323, then king until 309.||326 CHAC 839|
|c.326||Qin adopts the winter sacrifice and festival known as La, which is more important than the summer counterpart of 676.||326
|c.325||Marquis of Zhao from 350, SU ends. Probable son WU LING succeeds as king until 299.
ZHAO, a marquisate from 424, becomes a kingdom until 222.
|326 CHAC 29, wikZa 325 MRDK, ckZ, rcC 322 ICMH 74|
|c.325||CHEN, capital of Chu, taken by Qin troops under chancellor Zhang Yi, inhabitants expelled, delivered to Wei.||326
|c.325||YING SI, prince of Qin from 337, takes title of king (wang) rules as king HUIWEN until 311.||338 wikQn 325 B76 4-308, CHAC 603, CHC 38, GHCC, bk, ckZ, icZ, wikWS 324 ICMH 74|
|c.325||Marquis of Wey from 332 PING ends. SIJUN succeeds as ruler of Wey 324-283.||325 ckW, friC|
|c.324||YING SI, king of Qin 325-11, begins numbering the years of his rule again. This becomes the first year of the new numbering.||324 spks|
|c.324||King of Qi from 342 XUAN ends. Son MIN succeeds 323-284.||324 HFHD 153, MRDK, ckQi 323 rcC|
|c.324||Chinese philosopher MENG KO (aka Meng Tsu, aka Mencius) welcomed at court of Wei at Daliang by king Hui.||324-14 CHAC 770|
|c.323||Dukes of Zhao, Yen, and Zhongshan take title of king.||323 CHAC 603, rcC, wikWS, wikZngsn|
|c.323||ZHANG YI, chancellor of Qin, meets chief officials of Qi and Chu at Neisang.||323 spks|
|c.323||Marquis WEI of Hann from 333 takes title king XUAN HUI of Hann until 312.||326 CHAC 603
325 wikWS 323 wikH
|c.322||WEI is dominated by Qin, which appoints Qin general Zhang Yi prime minister of Wei until 317.||323 bk
322 ICMH 74
|c.322||Wu Ling king of Zhao defeats Forrest Barbarians and the Luofan in the Ordos Loop. Creates provinces of Dai, Yanmen, and Yunzhong.||322
|c.322||STIRRUP: Earliest proper triangular stirrup, of full length and on both sides of the horse appears in tomb near Nanjing.||322? slkrd|
|c.321||King of Yen from 332 YI ends. Son KUAI succeeds 320-12.||321 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckY, friC, rcC|
|c.321||King of Zhou from 368 XIEN ends.
Son Ji Ding succeeds as king SHEN CHING until 314.
|321 CHAC 29, ckZR, icZ, tcgEZ, wikCM, wikZ
320 MRDK, frie, rcC, wikT, yut, yutZ
|c.320||YING SI, king of Qin 325-11, travels to the north bend of the Yellow River.||320 spks|
|c.320||King of Qi from 356 WEI (Tien clan) dies. Pijiang succeeds as King XUAN of Qi 319-300. Qi begins decline.||320 CHAC 981, ICMH 74, wikQi|
|c.320||Marquis of Wey, who only rules the county of Puyang, degrades himself to Lord of Wey.||320 WeiSA|
|c.319||King of Wei from 370 HUI ends. Son Si or He succeeds as King XIANG of Wei until 296.||319 CHAC 29, bk, wikW wikHui|
|c.319||King of Wei from 334 XIANG ends. AI succeeds as King of Wei until 295.||319 rcC 296 wikW|
|Majority of scholars think King Ai, whose personal name is not recorded, never existed.||wikW|
|c.319||King XUAN of Qi 319-300 establishes Jixia Academy of scholars in Qi capital.||318 TTS 302 bk|
|c.319||Chinese philosopher MENG KO (Meng Tsu, Mencius) becomes an official and scholar at the Jixia Academy in Qi until 312.||324-14 LEWH 57
320 bk 319 wikT, wikMncs
|c.319||King HUAI of Chu 328-299 sends general Zhuang Qiao with army to occupy Ba and Shu (Sichuan).||King Wei 319? ICMH 74|
|c.318||ZHANG YI, chancellor of Qin from 328, ends. YUE CHI succeeds until ?.||318 spks
312 HFHD 12
|c.318||A joint force of Hann, Zhao, Wei, Yen, Qi, and Xiongnu attack Qin. They do not advance beyond Hangu Pass, and are defeated by a Qin counter attack by general Shuli Ji at Xiuyu. Coalition general Shen Ca is captured, and 82,000 beheaded.
This is the 1st non-legendary reference to the Xiongnu, made by Sima Qian.
CHAC 960, ICMH 74, spks, wikQn
|Earliest direct contact between China and XIONGNU evidenced in text.|
|c.318||QIN advances into Shu (Sichuan).||318-16 GHCC|
|c.318||KANGWANG Lord of Song 328-286, takes title of king.||318 wikWS|
|c.317||SU QIN, prime minister of Qi from ?, executed by Duke of Qi, who recalls Zhang Yi, prime minister of Wei from 322, to become prime minister of Qi.||317 HFHD 180, ICMH 75, bk, icZ, yutZ|
|c.316||Non-Chinese state of SHU (in Sichuan Basin), weakened by internal quarrels, conquered by Qin army under Sima Cuo. Shu continues to have its own marquis, but is forced to ally with Qin.||316 CHAC 635, CHC 40, ICMH 75, LEWH 57, ckZ, icZ, wikChu, wikQn, wikT, wikWS, yutZ|
|c.316||BA (state) conquered by Qin army under Sima Cuo. Incorporated into Qin empire with Chiangchou as capital||316 B76 4-568, CHAC 635, CHC 40, ICMH 75, wikChu, wikQn, wikT, wikWS|
|c.316||Zhao cities Zhongdu and Xiyang attacked by Qin troops.||316 ICMH 75|
|c.316||Chu general Zhuang Qiao, returning from Yunan with army, finds Qin army occupying Ba, and blocking his way to Chu. He retreats to Lake Dian, and becomes chief of local tribes.||319? ICMH 75|
|c.315||King of Gi dyn of Joseon Korea from 342 HO ends. UK succeeds until 290.||315 rcK|
|c.315||Sun Bin, alleged descendant of Sun Tzu, military strategist working for Qi from ?, dies.||316 wikSnBn 315 wikT|
|c.315||Duke of Lu, under Chu, from 343 CHING ends. Son PING succeeds 314-296.||315 MRDK, ckLu, friC 314 rcC|
|c.315||Hann region of Shizhang attacked by Qin army which drives out Zhao troops under general Ni.||315 ICMH 75|
|c.315||Yen general QIN GAI defeats eastern barbarians of southwest Manchuria.||315 ICMH 75|
|c.315||Hann heir apparent becomes hostage to Qin.||315 ICMH 75|
|c.314||QIN victory over northern nomads, takes 25 villages of the Yiqu. Last hostile Rong tribe is conquered.||315 CHC 31, ICMH 75
314 CHAC 635, GHCC 103
|c.314||Qin provinces set up in west loop of Yellow River: LONGXI (see 287), BEIDI, and SHANG (see 304).||315
|c.314||Zi Zhi, chancellor of Yen, rebels against king Kuai and brings Yen into months of inner fighting.||315 bk
|c.314||JI, capital of Yen, attacked by King Xuan of Qi unsuccessfully.||314 wikTD|
|c.314||King KUAI of Yen abdicates to prime minister Zi Zhi. Heir apparent objects.||316 ICMH 75 315 bk|
|c.314||Yen heir apparent and his coalition of nobles are defeated by king KUAI of Yen and prime minister Zi Zhi.||314
|c.314||After 2 months of war, King Xuan of Qi destroys army of Yen, but withdraws because of further resistance.||314
B76 4-308, ckZ, yutZ
|c.314||YEN kingdom conquered by Qi troops under Xuan Gong.||314 B76 4-308, ICMH 75, icZ, yut, yutZ|
|c.314||Wei city of Jiao, under Wei from 327, again taken by Qin army, this time under Shuli Ji.||314 ICMH 75, bk|
|c.314||King of Zhou from 320 SHEN CHING dies.
Son Ji Yan succeeds as king NAN until 256.
|315 CHAC 29, ckZR, icZ, wikCM, wikZ 314 MRDK, rcC, tcgEZ, wikT, yut, yutZ|
|c.313||Wei forced to ally with Qin.||313 ICMH 76|
|c.313||Hann forced to ally with Qin.||313 ICMH 76|
|c.313||Qin general Shuli Ji invades Zhao, defeats Zhao general Zhuang Bao, captures region of Lin.||313 ICMH 76|
|c.313||Qin king Hui-wen sends Zhang Yi to Chu with gifts.||313 bk|
|c.313||CHU, tricked by Qin, breaks alliance with Qi.||313 ICMH 76|
|c.312||King of Yen from 320 KUAI ends. His son Chao is rescued by Wuling King of Zhao 325-299 and CHAO succeeds as king of Yen 311-279.||312 CHAC 29, MRDK, ckY, ckZ, friC, icZ, rcC, yutZ|
|c.312||King of Yue sends Gong Shi Yu to Wei to present 300 boats, 5,000,000 arrows, plus rhinoceros horns and ivory.||312 spYue|
|c.312||King HUAI of Chu 328-299 sees that he has been tricked by Qin, musters troops in Han River area, defeated by Qin general Wei Zhang between Dan and Xi. Chu general Qu Gai is captured. 80,000 Chu heads taken.||312 ICMH 76|
|c.312||QIN defeats a CHU attack at Danyang. HANZHONG (formerly Nanzheng, upper Han River valley) occupied by Qin general Wei Zhang. This conquest links Qin heartland to Ba and Shu (Sichuan) as a single block of land.||312 CHAC 635, GHCC 103, ICMH 76, wikWS|
|c.312||YONGZHI in Hann besieged by Chu army.||312 CHAC 76, wikH|
|c.312||King of Hann from 323, XUAN HUI ends. Son Cang succeeds as king XIANG (or Daoxiang) of Hann 311-296.||312 CHAC 29, MRDK, wikH|
|c.312||Chinese philosopher MENG KO (aka Meng Tsu, aka Mencius) official and scholar at Jixia Academy in Qi from 319, ends.||314 LEWH 57
312 wikMncs 310 bk
|c.312||General war between coalition of Qin, Wei, Hann against Chu and Qi involves simultaneous offensives on 4 fronts across loess highlands and Yellow River flood plain.||312
|c.312||King HUI-WEN of Qin sends general Shuli Ji to help Hann, and general Dao Man to join Wei forces against Yen, while Hui Wen himself invades Qi. Outcome not recorded.||312
|c.311||SHAOLING, under Chu from ?, taken by Qin.||311 ICMH 76|
|c.311||King HUAI of Chu marches north thru Wu pass, fights Qin at Lantian.||311 ICMH 76|
|c.311||Wei army invades Chu land as far as Deng, forcing king Huai to return south to defend.||311 ICMH 76|
|c.311||Shu (Sichuan) conquered by King Hui-Wen of Qin, and made a commandery.||311 HFHD 177|
|c.311||King of Qin from 325, HUI-WEN dies.
Son Dang succeeds as King WU of Qin 310-07.
|311 CHAC 29, CHC 48, ckQn, ckZ, wikQn, wikT 310 ICMH 76|
|c.311||Qin armies occupy plain of CHENGTU in Sichuan, and advance into mountains inhabited by non-Chinese tribes of east Sichuan.||311
|c.310||Qin minister Zhang Yi begins new capital for Shu (Sichuan) commandery at Chengtu.||310 CHAC 635|
|c.309||Qin minister Zhang Yi dies, probably in Shu.||309 CHAC 631|
|c.309||Office of chancellor (chengxiang) in Qin from 328, split into chancellor of Left (highest office below king) and Right. Ministers Zhang Yi and Wei Zhang are replaced by Shuli Ji and Gan Mou as chancellors of Left & Right.||310 ICMH 76 309 CHAC 1018, CHC 38|
|c.309||King of Zhongshan from 323, CUO dies.||313 CHAC 839
309 CHAC 1029, wikZngsn
|c.308||Hann invaded by Qin generals Gan Mou and Feng, who besiege Yiyang until 307.||308 ICMH 77 307 icZ|
|c.307||Yiyang, besieged by Qin from 308, falls. King of Hann asks for peace.||307 ICMH 77|
|c.307||Qin general Gan Mou crosses Yellow River, takes Wusui fortifies and holds it until 306.||307 ICMH 77|
|c.307||King of Qin from 311, WU dies. He goes to Zhou and dies from an injury sustained competing in a bronze tripod lifting contest. Half bro Ze, currently a hostage at Yen, is escorted back to Qin, succeeds as ZHAO XIANG king of Qin 306-251. Local opposition is overcome by minister Wei Ran, whom Zhao Xiang entrusts with governing Qin.||307 CHAC 29, CHC 47, ICMH 77, MRDK, ckQn, ckZ, wikQn
306 HFHD 231, wikT
|c.307||Qin, is weakened by a succession struggle, and therefore makes Tian Wen prime minister, but he is soon removed.||307 CHAC 637, wikWS|
|c.307||Queen Dowager and prime minister Wei Ran get control of Qin until 266.||307 CHAC 639|
|c.307||Debate held at court of King Wuling of Zhao, who supports adoption of mounted cavalry and archery.||307
|c.307||1st official native Chinese CAVALRY introduced by king Wuling of Zhao.||307 CHAC 892, wikWS|
|c.307||Imitating northern nomadic armies, WULING prince of Zhao adopts Tartar dress for his army (trousers, belt, boots) which begins to replace traditional loose Chinese dress, replaces chariots with mounted cavalry, enlists horse archers. This immitation of barbarians is opposed by court conservatives.||307 CHEIA 119, GHCC, LEWH 57, MCAW 179, wikT, wikWS|
|c.307||WULING king of Zhao 325-299, using barbarian tactics, attacks the barbarian country of Zhongshan and takes several cities, annexes some parts.||307 wikWulng, wikZngsn
305 wikWS, wikWulng
|c.306||Zhao army, using barbarian tactics, invades the barbarian north and wins. Kings of Liufan and Linhu surrender. Their lands come under a governor of Dai.||306 wikWS, wikWulng|
|c.306||Wey is invaded by Qin general Shuli Je, who besieges Pu, but withdraws to prevent Wey from allying with Wei.||306 ICMH 77|
|c.306||Qin general Shuli Je attacks Wey city of Pishi, but fails to take it.||306 ICMH 77|
|c.306||Hann invaded by king of Chu, who besieges Yongshi 5 months. Hann asks Qin for aid. Qin sends army. Chu abandons siege and withdraws.||306
|c.306||Qin general Gan Mou invades Wei, besieges city of Puban, then urges King Zhao Xiang of Qin 306-251 to return Wusui to Hann in order to get alliance with Hann. Opposition to this at court causes Gan Mou to abandon siege and flee to Qi.||306 ICMH 77|
|c.305||Qin palace revolt led by the Wei Zhang against King ZHAO XIANG is crushed, rebels killed. Qin dominance of north China collapses temporarily.||305
|c.305||HUI SHIH Chinese sophist, logician, dies. Primarily concerned with ethics and proper government. Wrote Ten Paradoxes||305 B76 4-417, CDΦ 117, EoΦ 2-89, 4-69, EoΦ 300 GHCC|
|305 ±30||Tsinghua Bamboo Slips are buried.  A collection of texts of the Warring States period written in ink on bamboo strips.  There are 2,388 slips, including fragments.  21 slips when assembled in the correct order, represent a decimal multiplication table for numbers up to 99.5.  14 slips recount a gathering of Zhou elite in the 8th year of King Wu of Zhou, prior to their conquest of the Shang dynasty.  The gathering was in the ancestral temple of King Wen of Zhou, King Wu's father, and consisted of beer drinking and recitation of hymns in the style of the received Shi Jing.||photo:
305 ± 30 wikTBS
|c.304||Barbarian region of upper Yellow River invaded and conquered by WULING of Zhao.||304 wikWS, wikWulng|
|c.304||SHANG COMMANDERY, in an area under Qin from 314, established in north Shensi and south Suiyuan. It is not completed until 270.||304
|c.304||SHANGYONG area, under Qin from ?, returned to Chu||304 ICMH 78|
|c.303||City of PUBAN in Wei taken by Qin troops until 302.||303 ICMH 78|
|c.302||City of PUBAN in Wei, under Qin from 303, returned to Wei.||302 ICMH 78|
|c.302||Upper Yellow River area becomes 2 Zhao prefectures: Yunzhong and Jiuyuan.||302 wikWulng|
|c.301||Qi unites Hann, Wei, and Qin to attack Chu in the south. Chu is defeated.||301 ckZ|
|c.301||Marquis of Shu (Sichuan), under Qin from 311, tries to assert independence, defeated by Qin general Sima Cuo.||301 ICMH 78|
|c.301||City of XINCHANG in Chu taken by Qin.||301 ICMH 78|
|c.301||King of Qi from 319 XUAN ends. Di succeeds as King MIN of Qi, "Emperor of the East" 300-283.||301 CHAC 22, 29 300 wikQi|
|c.301||Λ QI period begins until 284.||301 wikWS|
East Asia 300-251