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c.329 GANDAHAR, city and district in GANDARA (Peshawar), under Persia from 535, conquered by Alex-III, under Macedonia until 312. 329 lvLx, rcCAS     327 B76 9-350, wikG     326 lvG
c.329 MAHAPADAMA Nanda, raja of Magadha from 345, ends.  7 rajas succeed and end in same year.  PANDHUKA succeeds until 321.  Capital at Pataliputra. 329 wikNE
c.329/8 KABUL VALLEY occupied by Macedonians until spring. 329/8 CHI 348
c.327 ARIGAEUM, city of the Paropamisus, in north India, abandoned and burnt at approach of Alex-III. 327 DGRG 1-212
c.327 AMBHI raja of Taxila Gandara, at war with PORUS raja of Auravas at Lahore, invites ALEX-III to help him.
Ambhi is called Taxiles by the Macedonians because he was raja of Taxila.
327
LEWH 79, wikTax
c.327 PHILIP son of Machatas appointed satrap of India, including areas west of Hydaspes until 325. 327 DGRBM 3-270
c.326 Hephaestion and Perdiccas arrive at Indus R., build a bridge north of Attock, city in Gandara and negotiate with Ambhi. 326 lvG, lvLx
c.326 ALEX-III begins Indian campaign until 325, crosses INDUS River near Ohind. 327 CAH 6, CDCC 457, DGRBM 1-121, Dur 2-546, KIH 63, MCAW 170, OHG, TToH, hmLx, hwD     327/6 lvG     326 B76 1-471, CAH 6-829, CDCC 34, GHH, LEWH 55, RAH 340-1, WNHI 55, bk, lvLx
c.326 TAXILA Gandara (between the Indus and Hydaspes) welcomes ALEX-III. 326 B76 17-1083, WNHI 56, lvLx, lxtl
c.326 Local prince ABISARES submists to Alex-III, but PORUS, ruler of the rich country between the Hydaspes and Acesines rivers, prepares for defense. 326
CAH 6-829
c.326 ALEX-III and Ambhi arrive at the Hydaspes River, opposed by PORUS (with 34,000 men and 200 elephants) on east bank, outflanks Porus, shoots fire arrows into his elephant cavalry.  Elephants turn and trample their own infantry.  Porus is defeated and becomes ally of Alex-III. 326 B76 V-234, 1-471, 8-375, CAH 6-831, CDCC 307, DGRG 1-454, GHH, HCIP 2-48, LEWH 79, MCAW 170, OHG, RAH 344, hmLx, lvG, lvLx, lxtl
c.326 Ambhi is sent by Alex-III to pursue Porus.  Ambhi and Porus are reconciled by mediation of Alex-III. 326 B76 1-471, 8-375, CDCC 307, LEWH 79, RAH 344
c.326 BUCEPHALAS, Alex-III's horse, wounded at Battle of Hydaspes, dies. 327 MCAW 170
326 CAH 6, DGRG 1-454, hmLx, lxtl, wikLx
c.326 Cities of NICAEA (meaning victory) and BUCEPHALA (for his dead horse) founded by ALEX-III at the Hydaspes River. 326 GHH, wikNica
c.326 ALEX-III spends 30 days at the Hydaspes River, has some of his troops stay behind and build 800 ships. 326 B76 8-375, DGRBM 1-121, RAH 344, TTPC
c.326 Ambhi is allowed to rule Taxila under Macedonian satrap PHILIP until 325. 326 B76 17-1083, lvG
c.326 Ambhi, after helping to equip the fleet on the Hydaspes, is entrusted with the territory between the Hydaspes and the Indus. 326 wikTax
c.326 PORUS, who had lost his army and owed his life to Alex, is appointed satrap of his own kingdom. 326 lvLx
c.326 PHRATRAPHERNES, satrap of Parthia, rejoins Alex-III in India, but soon returns to his satrapy. after defeat of Porus: DGRBM 3-358
c.326 ALEX-III plans to conquer Magadha, ferries army across Acesines River. Jun 326 lvLx
c.326 Hephaestion is ordered to build a garrison town on the banks of the Acesines, where veteran mercenaries are left behind. 326 lvG
326 ALEX-III, crosses Hydraotes River. 326 lvLx
326 SANGALA, capital of the Cathaei, between rivers Hydraotes and Hyphasis taken by Alex-III and Porus with elephants and 5,000 local troops.  Destroyed. 326 DGRG 1-569, GHH
326
Jun 27/8
LUNAR ECLIPSE is interpreted By Macedonian army as an evil omen. 326 lvLx
c.326 ASHTAKARAJA raja of Astakas at Pushkalavati, defies Alex-III, besieged 30 days, dies fighting. 326 LEWH 79
c.326 ALEX-III advances as far as Gurdaspur on River Beas (Greek Hyphasis), wants to continue east.  Army refuses.  Alex makes speeches, then sulks in his tent 3 days, makes sacrifices, says omens are unfavorable.  He returns to the Hydaspes and orders his troops there to finish building the fleet. 326 CAH 6-832, HCIP 2-50, LEWH 79, MCAW 170, OCD 40, RAH 344, TToH, lvLx, lxtl     325 GHH
c.326 AMBHI reconciled to PORUS and sent back to Taxila to rule between Indus and Hydaspes Rivers.  He is under Macedonian satrap Philip until 325. 326
RAH 344
c.326 PORUS is left to rule between Hydaspes and Hydrates Rivers with Macedonian garrison commander Eudemos until 317. 326 guess
c.326 Macedonian general COENUS dies within days of the decision to return.  No rumors of poisoning or murder. 326 CAH 6-833, lvG, lvLx
c.326 SUGAR CANE, in India from ?, discovered by Macedonians.  Admiral Nearchus writes of reeds "that produce honey though there are no bees". 325 TTPC
c.326 ALEX-III and 8,000 troops board ships on the Hyphasis, flanked by troops on both banks under Craterus and Hephaestion.  Alex actually believed the Indus River flowed into the NileSatrap Philip follows 3 days behind to guard the rear. 327 DGRBM 1-121
326 B76 1-471, 8-375, HCIP 2-50, KIH 75, OHG, RAH 345, lvG     325 GHH
c.326 Peak of political unification under Maurya rule. 326 WMHI 37
c.325 MUSICANOS, ruler of a kingdom on the Indus, hurries to bow to Alex-III and offer gifts.  He is allowed to retain his kingdom, but when Alex-III moves west to attack Porticanos, Musicanos is induced by the bramins to rebel. 325 DGRBM 2-1127
c.325 MUSICANOS, ruler of a kingdom on the Indus, defeated and captured, along with his main brahmins by general Python.  All are crucified on order of Alex-III. 325
DGRBM 2-1127
c.325 Macedonians have to fight thru countries of the Oxydracae and Mallians between the Hydaspes and Hyphasis Rivers. 326 CAH 6-833
325 GHH, Jan lvLx
c.325 Soothsayer Demophon warns Alex-III that his life will be in danger if he attacks Malli. 326 DGRBM 1-979
c.325 Alex-III besieges capital of the Malli.  Alex-III is the 1st man over the wall!  An arrow penetrates his lung.  He is rescued by Abreas, who is killed, Peucestas, and a bodyguard named LeonnatusGreek surgeon Critobulos extracts the arrow. 326
DGRBM 1-893, WMHI 37
325 GHH, lvLx
c.325 Mallians surrender to Macedonians, followed by the Oxydracae. 325 lvLx
c.325 Mushika, raja of Sindhu, fails to pay homage to Alex, and is conquered.  Alex immediately attacks Mushika's neighbor, raja Oxicanus, who reigned near modern Sukkur. 325 lvLx
c.325 Alex attacks Sindimana, capital of raja Sambhu, between the Kirthar range and the IndusAlex continues south. 325 lvLx
c.325 States north of Alex rebel, inspired by brahmans in town of Harmatelia.  Craterus is sent to suppress them.  Macedonians kill many rebels.  Brahmans are hanged.  Mushika, who had supported the revolt, is crucified.  Raja Sambus escapes.  Brahman rebellion spreads north; NICANOR, satrap of Gandara from 326 is killed, but eventually, the Macedonian garrison pacifies the area. 325 lvLx
c.325 PITHON, son of Agenor, made satrap of the Indus intil 316. 325 wikPsA
c.325 mid ALEX-III and troops reach deserted city of Patala where the Indus divides into 2 branches, finds inhabitants, persuades most to return, builds harbor and dockyards, explores both branches of Indus River. 325 B76 1-471,
July CAH 6-834, CHI 379, HCIP 2-51, LEWH 79, RAH 345, lxtl
c.325 ALEXANDRIA on the Indus founded. 325 B76 I-227
c.325 mid ALEX-III and 3/4 of the army (50-60,000 men) leave admiral Nearchus in Patala and start for Carmania. 325 lvG, lvLx
c.325 ALEX-III arrives at mouth of Indus River, divides army into 3 parts to return to PersiaCraterus with ⅓ of Alex-IIIs army, with elephants, siege train, sick and wounded, is sent north to Quetta.  Alex marches westNearchus with ⅓ to sail Indian Ocean toward Persian Gulf. 326 DGRBM 1-121
325 B76 1-471, 8-375, CAH 6-835, CDCC 34, Dur 2-458, 502, GHH, KIH 76, LEWH 55, 79, MCAW 170, OHG, RAH 345, hmLx, lxtl
c.325 Admiral Nearchus is forced by rebels to leave his base in Patala and set sail.  Ships encounter adverse winds and take almost a week to reach Ocean. 325 GHH, Sep lvG, lvLx
c.325 Admiral Nearchus reaches Persian Gulf. 325 Oct CAH 6
c.325 Macedonian satrap Peithon, goes to the Punjab, reappointed as satrap.  Southern India is given up. Sep 325 lvLx
c.325 PHILIP son of Machatas, Macedonian satrap of India from 327, over AMBHI at Taxila, murdered.  Taxila reverts to Indians. 326 DGRBM 3-270, HCIP 2-57
323 CHI 471
c.325 Exiled general CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA established as a rival to the Nanda dynasty of India, becomes raja of Magadha until 301. soon after 326 KIH 80     325 B76 II-507 325-21 B76 9-350     324 HCIP 2-37, WNHI 55, bk     322 wikME
320 HCAI 36     313 CHI 156
c.323 Nanda EmpireNANDA Empire at greatest extent under Dhana Nanda. 323 wikME
c.323/2 CHANDRAGUPTA, helped by bramin Chanakya, writes a comprehsive book on Hindu polity. 323/2 OCD 949
c.322 PUNJAB, under Macedonians from 326, taken by CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA raja of Magadha 325-1, under Mauryas until 185.  Some Macedonians remain until c.317. 322
B76 II-507
c.322 CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA, raja of Magadha 325-1, controls all north India. by 322 B76 1-172
c.321 SIND is not mentioned in the partition of Triparadisus.  Therefore it is probably no longer under Macedonians. 321 HCIP 2-58
c.321 DHANA, Nanda raja of Magadha from 329, overthrown by CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA raja of Magadha 325-1, who succeeds until 297.  NANDA dynasty from 345 ends.  Maurya Empire begins until 185. 324-22 WNHI 58     322 TAWH 17, 82, wikI     321 B76 II-507, VI-709, VII-179, 3-406, CHI 313, MCAW 172, crHI , wikME, wikNE, wikSI, wikTI     320 KIH 80, MRDK
Buddhists of Ceylon say 321.   Jains say 313/2. CHI 473
c.320 AGAMS, Jain scriptures, first recension in Pataliputra under leadership of Sthulibhadra. 320 jaindhar 313/2 CHI 482
by 320 MAURYA EMPIRE fully occupies northwest India, conquering the satraps left by Alex-III. by 320 wikME
c.317 PORUS, satrap of the Hydaspes area from 326, Macedonian vassal, murdered by Macedonian garrison commander Eudemos, who flees west with his army. 318 atl4     317 HCIP 2-59, bk, wikPor
c.316 OXYARTES, satrap of Paropamisadae, former supporter of Eumenes, submits to Antigonus-I, and is allowed to keep his province. 316 BHS 1-274, wikOx
c.316 PITHON, son of Agenor, satrap of the Indus from 325, deposed by Chandragupta, flees to Babylonia. 316 wikPsA
c.316 CHANDRAGUPTA Maurya (helped by advisor Chanakya) defeats Macedonians, establishes seat of power in Magadha. 316 wikME
Buddhists say 321/20.  Jains say 313/12. CHI 164
c.314 Seleucus Nicator leads an expedition as far as the Ganges.   [not likely] 314 DGRG 1-236
c.312 KASHMIR (mountain region at the angle between Afghanistan, Tibet, and Greater India) under Mauryan Empire until 200. 312 rcCAE
c.312 SELEUCUS contests with CHANDRAGUPTA until 304. 312
BHS 1-296
c.312 GANDARA (Peswawar), under Macedonia from 329, under Mauryan Empire until 171. 312 rcCAS
c.310 Schism in JAINISM:  Jains returning from Karnata to Magadha find unacceptable laxness. 310 path 300 CHI 147
c.307 MUTASIVA, raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 367, ends.  2nd son DEVANAMPIYA TISSA succeeds until 267. 307 wikDTA, wikLSLM, wikMA     250 wikAK     247 HCIP 2-237
Pandukabhaya ruled 377-07, and was succeeded by Mutasiva, who ruled 307-247. CHI 607-8
c.305 TAXILA becomes a center of learning and law. 305 MCAW 179
c.305 SELEUCUS-I Nicator, king of Babylonia 305-281, reaches the Indus and crosses. 305 CHI 430, 472, GHH
c.304 SELEUCUS-I Nicator, king of Babylonia 305-281, reaches Sindhu, in effort to recover India. 305 CAH 7.1-210, HCIP 2-60, 102, KIH 84, MCAW 178
c.304 SELEUCUS-I Nicator defeated by CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA raja of Magadha (called Sandracottus by Macedonians) east of the Indus. 305 B76 II-507, 1-173, 9-350, HCIP 2-102, wikTI
303 TAWH 82
c.304  TREATY  between SELEUCUS-I and CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA raja of Magadha negotiated by Megasthenes.
Seleucus cedes land east of the Indus (Paropamisadae, Arachosia, Gedrosia) and leaves India alone in exchange for 500 war elephants.  This leaves Chandraguta in a strong position.
305 B76 9-350, GHH, WNHI 59, bk
304 B76 9-840, IDB 3-744, lvD, lvGan, wikTI     305-3 CAH 7.1-59
304/3 LEWH 93     303 B76 16-503, CAH 7.1-210, MCAW 178, OHG, TAWH 82, hwD     302 DGRBM 2-1008, OCD 665, OHG 377
c.303 SELEUCUS-I Nicator marches from Punjab west. 302 BHS 1-59
c.302 MEGASTHENES becomes ambassador of SELEUCUS-I to CHANDRAGUPTA at Patalputra until 291. 303 MCAW 179
302 B76 4-574, OCD 665, OHG
c.302  ARTHASHASTRA  "Manual of Politics", a compendium of laws, administrative procedures and political advice for running a kingdom, written by CHANAKYA (Kautilya, Vishnu Gupta), minister to Chandragupta Maurya.  a book of political realism, telling a raja what calculating and sometimes brutal acts he must do to preserve the state and the common good. 302 ht     300 CHI 151, bk     no date: B76 9-323, wikArθ
c.302 Duties of a PARIVRAJAKA described in Arthashastra:  "(the duties) of an ascetic (consist in) subduing his senses, withdrawal from worldly things and from communication with people, begging for alms, living in the forests, but not in the same place, cleanliness external and internal, abstinence from injury to living beings, and in sincerity, purity, freedom from envy, in kindness and in patience."  These general rules could with slight alteration, be found in any Jain work. 300 CHI 151
c.301 CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA ends.  Raja of Magadha from 325, abdicates, becomes a Jain monk in south India.  Son BINDUSARA succeeds until 273. 301 WNHI 61
300 HCIP 2-69, bk 298 wikME

India 300-201
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