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Italy
316 CONSULS:  Sp. Nautius Rutilus and M. Popillius Laenas 316 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-708, 3-682, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.316 2nd SAMNITE WAR 327-04, suspended from 321, resumed until 304.  Samnites push towards Rome. 316 B76 VIII-832, CAH 7.2DGRBM, OCD 948, umucNap
c.316 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas is made dictator to fight Samnites. 316 DGRBM 2-911, wikLRD
c.316 L, Fulvius Curvus is magister equitum. 316 DGRBM
c.316 Dictator L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas defeats Samnites near Saticula west of Malventum. 316
CAH 7.2, atl4
c.316 SATICULA Samnium, 20km west of Malventum, besieged by Romans until 315. 316
CAH 7.2-372
c.316 Λ CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, under oligarchy from ?, no longer under oligarchy.  In unknown condition until 300. 316 rcSI
315 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (4th) and Q. Publilius Philo (4th)
Both stay home, while the dictator does the fighting.
315 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 3-298, OCD 778, 899, atl4, csm, wikCon
Cursor 314 DGRBM 1-904
c.315 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus is dictator 1st time. 315 B76 IV-20, DGRBM 2-992, wikLRD
c.315 Q. Aulius Cerretanus is magister equitum. 315 DGRBM 1-674
c.315 Q. Junius is pleb tribune.  He tries to incite the people against murderers of Sp. Maelius. 315 DGRBM 2-658
c.315 Dictator Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus is sent to sieze Lucera Apulia.  He is defeated by SAMNITES at Lautulae near Terracina Latium.  Samnites raid south Latium to within 20 miles of Rome, and devastate the coastal region as far as Ardea. 316 MCAW 174, wikLRB
315 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-372, DGRBM 2-992, GHH, OCD 427, atl4
c.315 ARDEA Latium, under Rutullian Latins, raided by Samnites. 315 OCD 102
c.315 NOLA Campania taken by Samnites until 313. 315 SORH
c.315 Magister equitum Q. AULIUS fights Samnites near Saticula, kills their general, but is himeslf killed.  C. Fabius Ambustus succeeds. 315 DGRBM 1-141, 674, atl4
c.315 Roman battle tactics revised.  Phalanx (6 lines of 500 men) is discarded for maniple - 120 men with javelin and short sword.  This works better in mountainous areas. 366 Dur 3-33 315 MCAW 175
c.315 Romans capture 7,000 Samnite troops at Lucera Apulia. 315 bk
c.315 PLESTICE, under a Roman garrison from ?, besieged by Samnites from ?, taken by Samnites, who then advance across the Liris in Latium. 315 CAH 7.2-372, atl4
c.315 Samnites attack Roman army besieging Saticula Samnium.  Romans win.   SATICULA taken by Romans. 316 SORH     315 CAH 7.2-372, atl4
c.315 SORA Latium, Roman garrison expelled, colonists are massacred.  Sora defects to Samnites until 314. 315 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4
c.315 NUCERIA Campania, ally of Rome from ? defects to Samnites until 307. 316 atl4 309 wikNI
taken by Samnites. 315 SORH
c.315 Dictator Q. Fabius defeats Samnites near Sora Latium, punishes Roman soldiers who were defeated by Samnites. 315 atl4
c.315 The land around ARDEA Latium is devastated by Samnites. 315 atl4
314 CONSULS:  M. Poetilius Libo and C. Sulpicius Servius Longus (3rd) 314 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-779, 806, csm, wikCon
c.314 Q. Publilius Philo accused of complicity in a plot to subvert the Republic.  Philo is acquitted, but disappears from the record. 314
CAH 7.2-394
c.314 Romans crush Samnites at Terracina Latium on west coast.  Samnites lose 10,000. 314 CAH 7.2-372, GHH, MCAW 174, atl4
c.314 LUCERA  Apulia recaptured by Romans. 315 CAH 7.2-372
314 B76 VI-371, CAH 7.2
c.314 LUCERA  Apulia becomes Roman colony (7902km).  2,500 adult male settlers move to Lucera, which becomes a steadfast supporter of Rome.. 314 CAH 6-402, 7.2-372, 405, CDCC 219, SORH, atl4
c.314 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, besieged by consuls M. Poetilius and C. Sulpicius until 313. 314 DGRG 1-425, hwSB 313 CAH 7.2
c.314 SORA, 10km north of Arpinum, allied with Samnites from 315, taken by Romans, under Rome until 306. 314 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4
c.314 AUSONES (aka Aurunci) of Latium, allies of Samnites, subdued by consuls.  Main Ausonian cities:  Ausona, Minturnae, Vescia (location unknown), and Sinuessa, are destroyed. 314 CAH 7.2, OCD 199, SORH, atl4
c.314 Spartan ACROTATOS-I sails a small squadron from Greece to Taras, to help against Agathocles of Syracuse.  Taras votes him 20 ships, but before they are ready, he sails to Acragas. 314 CAH 6-399 no date: Agθ 62
c.314 CAPUA, under a Roman prefect from 318, rebels under Campanians Novius and Ovius Calavius. 314 DGRBM 1-560, OCD 899
c.314 C. MAENIUS is appointed dictator (2nd time) to deal with the Capua rebellion. 314 DGRBM 1-560, 2-897, OCD 637, atl4, wikLRD
c.314 M. Fosilius Flaccinator is magister equitum. 314 DGRBM 2-153, 897
c.314 Campanians Novius and Ovius Calavius escape from Capua, and the rebellion disintegrates.  CAPUA back under Rome until 216. 314 DGRBM 1-560, GHH
c.314 Dictator C. Maenius investigates anti-Roman plots at Capua. 314 atl4
c.314 C. Maenius resigns dictatorship to face allegations of treason. 314 atl4
c.314 Investigation of malpractice at Rome and alleged abuses in Campania. 314 CAH 7.2
c.314 A Roman law outlaws societies of illegal canvassers. 314 OCD 51
c.314  Lex de Λ ambitu V    A Senatus Consultum passed by dictator C. Maenius to address secret compacts made by aristocrats helping preferred office seekers get elected.  Patricians stonewall it. 314 mcsp
313 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (5th) and C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus (2nd)
Who commanded the armies this year is uncertain.
313 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-516, OCD 778, 905, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.313 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus is dictator, followed by Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus 2nd time. 313 DGRBM 2-779, wikLRD
c.313 M. Poetelius Libo Visolus is magister equitum, to bro Caius. 313 DGRBM 2-779
c.313 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, besieged by M. Poetilius from 314 siege abandoned by Poetilius in order to retake Fregellae. 313 CAH 7.2-372, hwSB
c.313 FREGELLAE Latium, under Samnites from 320, recovered by dictator C. Poetelius Libo, under Rome until 125. 313 CAH 7.2-372, atl4
c.313 NOLA Campania, under Samnites from 315, taken, either by dictator C. Poetilius or consul C. Junius, comes under Rome until ?. 313 CAH 7.2-372,
DGRG 1-493, OCD 736, atl4
c.313 APULIA and CAMPANIA secured by new Roman fortresses: Saticula, Pontia Island, Suessa Aurunca. 313 SORH
c.313 The AURUNCI of Ausonia, 10km north of Terracina, conquered and absorbed by Rome. 313
OCD 153
c.313 PONTIA island off Latium becomes Latin colony (102km, 300 adult male settlers). 313 CAH 7.2-372, 405, DGRBM, GHH, atl4
c.313 CALATIA Campania 10km southeast of Capua taken by Rome until 307, receives a garrison. 313 CAH 7.2-372, SORH
c.313 Volscian city ATINA, 20km east of Arpinium taken by consul C. Junius Bubulcus. 313 CAH 7.2-372, DGRG 1-310
c.313 SUESSA AURUNCA, east of Formiae in Latium, becomes a Latin colony (1802km, 2,500 adult male settlers). 313 CAH 7.2-391, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, DGRG 1-343, GHH, atl4
c.313 SATICULA Samnium, 20km west of Malventum, under Rome from 315, becomes a Latin colony (1952km, 2,500 adult male settlers). 313 CAH 7.2-391, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM 1-516, GHH, atl4
312 CONSULS:  M.(3) Valerius Maximus (Corvinus) and P. Decius Mus (son of Λ)(2nd) 312 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-1001, 1123, OCD 316, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.312 Λ CENSORS V patrician Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) and pleb C. Plautius Venox 312 B76 II-976, DGRBM 1-761, 3-514, 1237, LdHR 1-249, SORH, wikLC
C. Plautius DECIANUS: DGRBM 1-947
c.312 Censor Ap.(6) Claudius pays the Potiti clan 50,000 pounds copper, to instruct public slaves in performance of sacred rites of Hercules.  Legend says Hercules gets so angry, that the whole clan, 12 families and 30 men, die within a year. 312 DGRBM 3-514
c.312 LIBERTINI (aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves), in the 4 urban tribes from 570, distributed by censor Ap.(6) Claudius among all the tribes until 304.  This is a move to gain popularity. 312 DGRBM GHH
311 DGRA 731
c.312 C. Sulpicius Servius Longus is dictator, followed by his magister equitum C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus, in anticipation of an Etruscan attack. 312 DGRBM 1-516, 2-806, wikLRD, atl4
c.312 L. Papirius Maso is aedile. 312 DGRBM 2-970
c.312 Cult of HERCULES at Ara Maxima transferred to public supervision. 312 CAH 7.2
c.312 Consul M.(3) Valerius Maximus is sent to Samnium. 312 DGRBM 2-1001
c.312 INTERAMNA LIRENAS in Latium near the confluence of the Liris and Rapido, becomes a Latin colony (2652km, 4,000 adult male settlers), helps contain the Samnites.
(Interamna means "between rivers".)
312 CAH 7.2-372, 405, CDCC 219, DGRG 1-557, 2-55, OCD 548, SORH, atl4, wikIL
c.312 CASINUM, 10km southeast of Fregellae in Latium, becomes a Latin colony. 312 DGRG 1-557, 2-55, SORH
c.312 Patrician AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus) becomes censor (an 18 month office from 435) until 308.  He increases power of lower classes: makes some of them senators, gets freed slaves the right to hold office, distributes landless citizens among existing tribes. 312 CAH 7.2-395, Dur 3-29, MCAW 175, OCD 246, 1092, atl4
c.312 Contentious revision of senatorial roll by censor Ap.(6) Claudius.  Sons of freedmen are included.  Consuls and tribunes refuse to accept his list.  Even plebean nobility are offended. 312 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-311
c.312 TRIBAL REGISTRATION REORGANIZED by censor Ap(6) Claudius (his most important measure).  Increases voting power of city proletariat in tribal assemblies.  Livy says Appius corrupted the Forum and assemblies by distributing the lower classes (humiles), until now confined to only 4 of the 31 tribes, thruout all the tribes.  In Livy's words it transfers control of the assembly from the honest citizens to the faction of the Forum, the lowest of the low.  It is reversed in 304. 312 CAH 7.2-395
c.312 Via AppiaVIA APPIA, Rome's 1st paved road, begun from Rome to Aricia by censor Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus).  Begins as a leveled dirt road on which small stones and mortar are laid.  Gravel is laid upon this.  Tight fitting, interlocking stones provide a flat surface.  Extended 309. 312 B76 18-650, CAH 6-402, 7.2-732, CDGRA 668, DGRBM, Dur 3-29, 77, GHH, HRRP 1-404, IDB 1-175, LEWH 86, MCAW 175, OCD 1117, SORH, TTS, TTT, atl4, bk, wikAW
c.312 TERRACINA (formerly Anxur) Latium, on west coast, Roman colony from 329, made more important by proximity to Via Appia. 312 wikTr
c.312 Rome's 1st AQUEDUCT, Aqua Appia begun and finished 312 by censor Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) brings water from springs in Sabine hills up to 16km away near Via Praenestina.  Mostly an underground tunnel lined with block and mortar to prevent leakage.  Constructing thru hilly areas required digging vertical shafts, at regular intervals.  Bases of each shaft were connected by tunnels.  Bridges enable the aqueduct to cross rivers and deep depressions. 313 DGRA 109
312 B76 19-649, CAH 7.2-408, CDCC 769, CDGRA 44, DGRBM, Dur 3-28, 81, GHH, ISBE 4-234, OCD 89, 246, SORH, TTT, atl4, bk, rbbr, wikLA
c.312 POLLITIUM (location unknown, unless it's Peltuinum), under the Marrunci, attacked by Romans. 312 atl4
311 CONSULS:  C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus (3rd) and Q. Aemilius Barbula (2nd) 311 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-516, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.311 C. PLAUTIUS resigns as censor as required by lex Aemilia 435, but AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus) remains as sole censor, which means he had much support in the senate and among the people.  He holds the censorship until 308. 312 atl4
311 DGRBM 1-947, 3-1237
c.311 CENSORS, in accordance with the law of 312, make changes to senate.  New consuls refuse to accept changes, but continue to summon the senate using the old list drawn up by previous censors. 311
CAH 7.2-396, Mar atl4
c.311 Decian plebiscite establishes a small fleet of triremes under 2 naval commanders, primarily to guard the coast of Latium against pirates or enemy attacks. 311
CAH 7.2-410
c.311 L. ATILIUS and C. MARCIUS are pleb tribunes. 311
DGRBM 2-944
c.311 DUUMVIRI NAVALES, 2 men assigned to equip and repair the fleet, appointed by consuls and dictators from 443, now elected by the people. 311 CDGRA 439, DGRA 439, 791, SORH
c.311  Lex Atilia et Marcia de Tribunis Militum  by pleb tribunes L. Atilius and C. Marcius:   16 out of 24 military tribunes previously appointed by consuls for the 4 legions are now to be elected by the people.  See 362, 171.   This policy is maintained until 207. 312 DGRA 685, wikLRL
311 CAH 7.2-373, SORH, atl4, invf, unrv
c.311 Romans lose control of Cluvia Samnium (a city of the Caraceni), but C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus quickly recaptures it. 311 CAH 7.2, atl4
c.311 CERAUNILA (location unknown), in Samnium or Apulia, taken by C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus. 311 DGRG 1-590
c.311 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, taken by C. Junius Bubulcus.  Yields more loot than any other Samnite city. 311 CAH 7.2,
DGRG 1-425, 516, atl4
c.311 Etruscans, no longer threatened by Gauls, declare war on Rome. 312 GHH
311 DGRBM, SORH
c.311 SUTRIUM Etruria attacked by Etruscans, who are defeated and repulsed by Consul Q. Aemilius Barbula.  Prompts Roman intervention in a region that has been quiet since the 350s. 311 CAH 7.2-373, DGRG 1-862, SORH, atl4
c.311 TARQUINI, Etruscan city, overcome by Romans.   Colony 181. 311 B76 IX-829
c.311 Samnites ambush Consul C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus returning from Bovianum, but Samnites are defeated, losing 20,000 men. 311 DGRBM 1-516, SORH, atl4
c.311 Consuls defeat Samnites at Talium (location unknown). 311 DGRBM, atl4
310 Aug. 15 SOLAR ECLIPSE seen in Sicily, is noted by Diodorus as being in the consulship of C. Junius Bubulcus, and Q. Aemilius Barbula 311. 310 Agθ 97
310 CONSULS:  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus (2nd) and C. Marcius Rutilus 310 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-664, 2-940, 992, OCD 427, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.310 L. Papirius Cursor is dictator 3rd time thru 309. 310 wikLRD
c.310 P. Sempronius Sophus is pleb Tribune.  He tries to compel censor Ap.(6) Claudius to conform to Lex Aemilia 433 which limited the censor term to 18 months, but fails to stop Ap.(6) Claudius remaining in office as censor. 310 DGRBM 3-877, GHH, atl4
c.310 Etruscans renew conflict with Rome.  Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus advances into central Etruria. 310 CAH 7.2-373, DGRBM, MCAW 178, OHG
c.310 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeats an Etruscan army near Sutrium.  (see 311) 310 atl4
c.310 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus encounters the Ciminian forest, so dense that the senate tells him not to enter it.  310
DGRG 1-623
c.310 POMEPII first mentioned, when a Roman fleet lands at its port, Sarnus.  310
B76 14-789
c.310 A consul's brother, on a recon mission crosses the Ciminian forest and continues as far as Camerinum in Umbria. 311
CAH 7.2-373
c.310 CAMERINUM Umbria allies with Rome. 310 CAH 7.2
c.310 Lake VadimoConsul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus expedition thru Ciminian Forest, defeats Northern Etruscans at 1st Battle of LAKE VADIMO (partly dry lake east of Ferentinum Etruria).  (2nd 283) 311 OCD 293
310 B76 IV-20, DGRG 1-862, LEWH 86, OCD 427, SORH, TToH, atl4 bk, wikLRB     308 GHH
Dictator L. Papirius Cursor did it. 310 wikLRB     309 atl4
c.310 Roman victories in south Etruria. 310 CAH 7.2, GHH
c.310 Ferentinum Etruria (later called Viterbo), comes under Rome until 395CE. 310 B76 X-471, rcRm 309 TToH
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is a Ferentinum in Etruria and Latium.
c.310 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus defeats Etruscans and Umbrians in a 2nd battle (near Perusia).  He makes a 30 year truce with Etruscan cities:  PERUSIA, CORTONA, and ARRETIUM (see 294).  Fabius takes Castola by siege, forces Etruscans to raise the siege of Sutrium. 310 B76 VII-897, CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4, rcRm no date: OCD 293
c.310 ALLIFAE Samnium, between Cales & Bovianum, taken by Consul C. Marcius Rutilus. 310 CAH 7.2, atl4, wikAlf
c.310 SAMNITES defeated by Romans at Longula (location disputed). 310 CAH 7.2, GHH
c.310 1st SILVER Λ COINS struck in Rome.  Based on Greek prototypes and used in addition to cast Italic bronze coins.   (See Celts 310) 310 CAH 7.2, CDCC 587
c.309 No consuls this year.   L. Papirius Cursor, dictator 310, is dictator 4th time to rescue C. Marcius in Apulia.  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus continues as proconsul in Etruria. 309 OCD 778, DGRBM 1-905, LdHR 1-234, atl4, csm, wikCon, wikLRD
c.309 Magister equitum C. Junius Bubulcus receives a bad omen while trying to pass lex curiata. 309 atl4
c.309 ARRETIUM is only Etruscan city that does not join war against Rome. 309 DGRG 1-222
c.309 Via AppiaVIA APPIA, connecting Rome to Aricia from 312, extended to Capua before Ap.(6) Claudius censorship ends in 308.  Extended again 295. 312 brit, itgd
before censorship ends: DGRG 2-1288
c.309 Dictator L. Papirius Cursor defeats Samnites, threatens an ally from Praeneste with a lictor's axe. 309 GHH, SORH, atl4
308 CONSULS:  P. Decius Mus (2nd) and Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus (3rd) 308 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-992, 1123, OCD 316, 427, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.308 UMBRIANS, PICENTINI, and MARSIANS of central Italy attack Rome, which is already warring with Samnites. 308 LEWH 86, MCAW 178, SORH
c.308 Consul P. Decius Mus campaigns successfully against Etruscans in Umbria.  Etruscans pay Romans 1 year's troop pay and clothing allowance to buy a 1 year truce. 308 CAH 7.2-373, DGRBM 2-1123, HRRP 1-351, SORH, atl4
c.308 OCRICULUM south Umbria, northwest of Falerii, allies with Rome. 308 CAH 7.2
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus sent to Samnium. 308 DGRBM 2-992
c.308 Roman deputies employed to explore the Ciminian forest and beyond it, advance as far as the Camertes and establish friendly relations with them. 308 DGRG 1-489
c.308 The Marsi and Peligni rebel. 308 GHH
c.308 Rebellion of the Marsi, Peligni, and Hernici quelled by consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus. 308 DGRBM 2-992, SORH 306 CDGRA 190
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus joins with the Marsi to fight against Samnites. 308 atl4
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus marches from Samnium to Umbria. 308 DGRBM 2-992
c.308 40 year truce of Tarquinii with Rome 351 renewed. 308 CAH 7.2-374
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus defeats Umbrians at Mevania, which surrenders. 308 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-992, atl4
c.308 Banker stalls in the Forum are adorned with gilt shields taken from the Samnites. 308 DGRA 547
c.308 Senate alone, with no plebiscite, decides to extend the imperium of consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus. 308 DGRA 960
c.308 AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus), censor from 312, finally forced to resign in order to run for consul. 308 atl4
307 DGRBM 1-768
c.308/7 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus becomes proconsul in Samnium. 308/7 DGRBM 2-992
307 CONSULS:  Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) and L. Volumnius Flamma Violens 307 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-168, OCD 246, atl4, csm, wikACC, wikCon
c.307 Λ CENSORS V patrician M.(3) Valerius Maximus Corvinus; pleb C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus 307 DGRBM 1-516, 2-1001, 3-364, wikLC
c.307 L. ANTONIUS expelled from the senate by censors M.(3) Valerius Maximus Corvinus and C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus. 307 DGRBM 1-516
c.307 Consul AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (possibly now blind or near blind, for which he is now called CAECUS) chooses to stay at Rome, while consul Volumnius takes charge of army. 307 atl4
c.307 Consul Volumnius attacks the Sallentini on the heel of Italy.  He is successful, and popular with his troops for liberal distribution of loot. 307 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 2-168, atl4
c.307 NUCERIA Campania near the coast, with Samnites from c.315, besieged and recovered by Rome.  Gets favorable terms.  Remains loyal until 216. 308 DGRG 1-493, SORH 307 wikNI
c.307 Proconsul FABIUS decisively defeats Samnites near Allifae 23km northeast of Cales. 307 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, GHH, atl4, wikAlf
c.307 L. ANNIUS expelled from senate by censors for Λ DIVORCING V his wife without first consulting his friends. 307 wikMAR
c.307 Romans fighting Samnites, discover some Hernici among the prisoners.  Disturbing because the Hernici are supposedly loyal to Rome. 308 HRRP 1-351 307 atl4
c.307 CALATIA (Caiatia) Campania 10km southeast of Capua, under Rome from 313, taken by Samnites until 305. 311 wikClt
307 CAH 7.2-375
306 atl4
306 CONSULS:  Q. Marcius Tremulus and P. Cornelius Arvina 306 DGRBM 1-378, 3-1172, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.306 P.(3) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus is dictator to hold elections. 306 DGRBM 3-741, wikLRD 305 atl4
c.306 P. Decius Mus is magister equitum. 306 DGRBM 2-1123
c.306 Senate calls for investigation of the HERNICI, because of Hernici POWs among the Samnite POWs 307. 306
DGRG 1-1060
c.306 The HERNICI of Latium, supposedly loyal to Rome since 358, instigated by city of Frusino, rebel against Rome.  Some Hernician cities in Latium abstain:  Ferentinum, and Aletrium and Verulae just east of it (all between Anagnia & Fregella). 306 CAH 7.2-375, DGRBM 2-132, GHH, GRG 1-85, 1060, OCD 449, 505, SORH
c.306 ANAGNIA, capital of the Hernici, falls to Marcius Tremulus, becomes city without suffrage until ?. 306 SORH, atl4, B76 1-335, OCD 57
c.306 The HERNICI easily conquered by consul Q. Marcius Tremulus, granted a truce and citizenship without suffrage.  Tremulus then marches to assist his colleague in Samnium 306 CAH 7.2-386, DGRBM 3-1172, GHH, atl4, wikHrn
c.306 SAMNITES invade Roman territory in north Campania. 306 CAH 7.2-375
c.306 SORA Latium, 5 miles north of Arpinum, under Rome from 314, taken by Samnites until 305. 307 CAH 7.2-375 306 SORH, atl4
c.306 Consul Q. Marcius Tremulus defeats Samnites. 306 CAH 7.2, GHH, atl4
c.306 Romans push into central Etruria. 306 B76 15-1090
c.306 TiburtinaVIA TIBURTINA VALERIA built by censors C. Junius Bubulcus and M.(3) Valerius Maximus from Rome to Tibur.  Extended 303. 307 CAH 7.2-375 306 atl4
286 wikVT
c.306 Rome / CarthageΛ 3rd TREATY  V (the Philinus treaty) renews previous pacts.  Romans to stay out of Sicily and eastern seas and have no trade with Sardinia and Africa, Carthage to stay out of Italy. 306 CAH 7.1-404, 7.2-532,
DGRG 1-540, MWΦ 129, SORH, atl4, bk
c.306 Temple of SALUS (safety & prosperity) begun on Quirinal hill by censor C. Junius Bubulcus in fulfillment of a vow 307.  Finished 302. 307 DGRBM 1-516, 3-702 306 CAH 7.2-408, atl4     305 LdHR 1-465
c.306 AP.(6) CLAUDIUS CAECUS, consul 307, goes blind, semi-retires.  But his freedman Gn. Flavius will carry on his agenda. 306 atl4
c.306 APOLLONIA on coast of Illyria makes treaty with Rome. 306 SORH
c.306 FERENTINUM Latium, occupied by the Hernici, displays sufficient loyalty to Rome to be granted limited independence until 90. 306
OCD 434
c.306 Bronze statue of HERCULES installed on Capitoline Hill.. 306 DGRA 1068
c.305 Earliest Roman contacts (friendly) with Rhodes. 306 SORH    305 CAH 8-84
305 CONSULS:  L. Postumius Megellus and Ti. Minucius Augurinus
Suffete: M. Fulvius Curvus Paetinus
305 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-188, 1008, 3-83, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.305 Castor & Pollux (the Dioscuri) are now honored by the equites with an annual procession every July 15.  Equites crowned with olive wreaths march on horseback from the temple of Mars, thru the main streets of Rome across the Forum to the temple of the Dioscuri.  A sacrifice is performed by the most honored equites. 305 DGRBM 1-1054
c.305 P.(3) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus is pontifex maximus. 305 DGRBM 3-741 304 wikPM
c.305 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, stormed by consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius.  Samnite general Gellius Statius captured.   Peace treaty  signed.  Bovianum is soon evacuated. 306 B76 15-1090
305 Agθ 205, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-902, DGRG 1-425, GHH, LEWH 86, OCD 373, SORH, atl4, wikLRB
c.305 ARPINUM Latium, under Samnites from ?, taken by consuls, under Rome until ?, but not Roman until 303. 305 CAH 7.2-375, DGRG 1-221, OCD 122, SORH, atl4
c.305 CESENA, near northeast coast, under Gauls from ?, taken by Romans until ?. 305 CAH 7.2, atl4
c.305 CALATIA Campania, under Samnites from 307, recovered by Romans until ?. 306 SORH
305 DGRG 1-476
c.305 SORA Latium, under Samnites from 306, recovered by consuls, under Romans until ?. 305 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-476, SORH, atl4
c.305 PAELIGNI tribe of east Samnium subjugated by Romans. 305 CAH 7.2
c.305 Consul MINUCIUS is wounded in battle against Samnites, and later dies.  Suffete M. Fulvius Curvus Paetinus replaces him. 305 DGRBM 2-188, atl4
c.305 Earthquake at Rome. 305 atl4
304 CONSULS:  P. Sempronius Sophus and P. Sulpicius Saverrio 304 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 3-728, 877, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.304 Λ CENSORS V patrician Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus; pleb P. Decius Mus (2nd) 304 DGRBM 2-992, 1123, HRRP 1-314, OCD 316, 427, wikLC
c.304 LIBERTINI (aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves), having been distributed among all the tribes by Ap.(6) Claudius' tribal reorganization 312, are allowed to retain some of the rights given them by Appius, but again confined to the 4 urban tribes by censors P. Decius Mus and Q. Fabius Rullianus.  At some point this changes, because they are again confined to the 4 urban tribes in 220. 304 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-397, CDGRA 199, 648, DGRA 731, DGRBM 2-992, GHH, HRRP 1-314, SORH, atl4
303 LdHR 1-253
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, a freedman of Ap.(6) Claudius, becomes curule aedile, an office reserved for patricians. 304 B76 IV-176, CAH 7.2-397, LEWH 86, OCD 441, 927
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, freedman of Ap.(6) Claudius, curule aedile, fraudulently makes the Fasti public by posting them in the Forum.  Fasti are chronological or calendar-based lists, or other diachronic records or plans of official and religiously sanctioned events.  This list is the origin of the written calendar, in which days are divided into weeks of 8 days each. 304 DGRA 230, wikFs
c.304 The Ferentani, Marsi, Marrucini, and Peligni voluntarily sue for alliance with Rome, and are accepted. 304 CAH 7.2,
DGRG 1-915, atl4
c.304 Consul P. Sulpicius Saverrio is sent to Samnium with a small army, while peace is negotiated. 304 DGRBM 3-728
c.304 Temple of CONCORDIA on the Clivus Capitolinus is dedicated by curule aedile Gn. Flavius Appius, whose enemies in the senate Legislate to thwart him. 304 CAH 7.2, atl4
c.304  Lex Sulpicia et Sempronia  by consuls P. Sulpicius Saverrio and P. Sempronius Sophus:  Forbids dedicating a temple or altar without consent of the senate or by a majority of tribunes. 304 DGRA 699, GHH, invf, unrv
c.304  Lex Papiria de dedicationibus  forbids consecration of real property without approval of the popular assembly. 304 wikLRL
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, a freedman of Ap.(6) Claudius, publishes  Leges Actiones" : rules of legal procedure begun by decemvirs in protecting poor from manipulation of the law by the rich. 304 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-397, LEWH 86, OCD 441, 927, SORH
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS publishes  Jus Flavianum : The 2nd private work in Roman law, a collection of legal rules. 304  B76 IV-176, GHH, britJF
no date: DGRBM 2-173-4
c.304 Patrician jurists are indignant that their advice and intervention are rendered unnecessary by works of Gn. Flavius.  They make new rules in addition to the "Legis Actiones", and invent a CYPHER to keep them secret.  This works until 200. no date: DGRBM 2-174
304 Jul 15 Censor Q. Fabius Rullianus holds a parade of equites.  Wearing olive crowns and white robes striped with purple, they ride from the temple of Mars to the Capitol.  It is just to glorify the nobility, and made an annual event. Jul 15, 304 HRRP 1-314, atl4
c.304 Roman Λ CALENDAR V of days on which legal business is permitted (dies fasti), and days on which assemblies and courts could not convene (dies nefasti), until now published only by priests, and a formulary of legal procedures, are now published by aedile Gn. FLAVIUS, secretary of censor Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus.   (See  Babylonian 380, Eudoxos 370) 304
CAH 7.2-397 CDCC 159, Dur 3-32, GHH, SORH, wikFst
304 2nd SAMNITE WAR with Rome from 327, active from 316, ends.  Samnite control of Campania ends, but it does not come officially under Rome Treaty  of 341 renewed. 304 B76 VIII-832, 15-1090, CAH 7.2-334, 375, CDCC 456, 780, 938, DGRBM, DGRG 1-493, Dur 3-20, GHH, LdHR 1-237, LEWH 86, MCAW 178, OCD 927, 948, OHG, RAH, TToH, atl4
c.304 Rome makes peace with Samnite and Sabellian tribes: Marsi, Marrucini, Paeligni, Feranti, Vestini, Picentes. 304 SORH
c.304 Consuls turn on the AEQUI, and overwhelm them, taking 41 towns in 50 days. 304 CAH 7.2-376, DGRBM 3-877, DGRG 1-54, GHH
c.304 AEQUI tribe occupying their original areas in central Italy, are nearly exterminated by Sempronius.  The rest get citizenship without suffrage. 304 B76 I-111, CAH 7.2-316, OCD 15, atl4
c.304 The Marsi, Paeligni, Marrucini, and Frentani conclude permanent treaties of alliance with Rome. 304 CAH 7.2-376, DGRBM, GHH
c.304 TARAS, under Greek oligarchy from 347, oppressed by Lucanians, makes peace with Rome, but is still pressed by Lucanians, sends envoys to Sparta to ask Spartans to defend Taras. 304 LEWH 90, SORH
303/2 CAH 7.1-406
303 CONSULS:  Ser. Cornelius Lentulus and L. Genucius Aventinensis 303 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-418, 2-729, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.303 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, a freedman of Ap(6) Claudius, elected a curule aedile. 303 DGRBM 2-174
c.303 Long hair and beards on Roman men go out of fashion.  Professional barbers appear in Rome and soon form guilds. 303 EOET 231
300 CDGRA 634, Dur 3-70, atl4
c.303 ALBA FUCENS in central Appenines north of Lake Fucinus founded as Latin colony (4202km, 6,000 adult male settlers). 303 CAH 7.2-376, 405,
CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 34
c.303 TREBULA Baliensis in Campania granted Roman citizenship with suffrage. 303 CAH 7.2-376, SORH, atl4, wikTB
c.303 ARPINUM Latium, under Rome from 305, becomes a Roman city without suffrage until 188. 303 CAH 7.2-376, OCD 122, SORH, atl4     302 DGRG 1-221
c.303 SORA Latium, under Rome from 305, becomes a Latin colony (2302km, 4,000 adult male settlers). 303 CAH 7.2-376, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 1003, SORH, atl4
c.303 Spartan CLEONYMOS invited to help Taras against the Lucanians, lands 5,000 mercenaries at Taras, hires another 5,000, rules Taras until 303/2. 304 rcSI     304/3 Agθ 205/6
303 DGRBM 1-799, OCD 251, wikCS     303/2 CAH 7.1, 7.2
no date: LEWH 90
c.303 ValeriaVIA VALERIA, a continuation of the Via Tiburtina 306 from Rome to Tibur, extended east from Tibur to Alba Fucens.  (see 220) 303 SORH
c. 303/2 Spartan CLEONYMOS, ruler of Taras 304-02, scares Lucanians into making peace with Taras.  Success leaving him unemployed, he attacks METAPONTUM, extorts 600 talents from citizens, annexes METAPONTUM to Sparta, abducts 200 noble maidens as hostages. 304/3 Agθ 205/6 303 wikCS
302 OCD 251
c. 303/2 Out of favor at Taras, Spartan CLEONYMUS sails to Corcyra.  TARAS restores its oligarchy until 272, calls in AGATHOCLES of Syracuse. 303 rcSI     303/2 CAH 7.1, wikCS
no date: Agθ 207, LEWH 90
c.303/2 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse enters south Italy until ?. 303/2 CAH 7.1
302 CONSULS:  pleb M. Livius Denter and M.(1) Aemilius Paulus 302 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-993, 1076, 3-153, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.302 Temple of SALUS, begun 306 on Quirinal hill, finished with paintings of Fabius Pictor.  Art, until now something to be stolen, is now also to be created. 302 HRRP 1-543
c.302 Consuls attack the Aequi, and are repulsed. 302 DGRBM 1-993
c.302 CARSIOLI becomes Latin colony. 302 B76 I-111
c.302 C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus is appointed dictator to deal with the Aequi, followed by M. Valerius Corvus (2nd time). 302 DGRBM 1-516, 3-364, wikLRD
c.302 M. Titinius is magister equitum to dictator Bubulcus Brutus. 302 DGRBM 3-1158
c.302 ARRETIUM has popular uprising against aristocracy.  Romans intervene for aristocracy. 302 CAH 7.2-387, bk
c.302 AEQUI tribe, renew the war, but are easily subdued on 1st encounter by dictator C. Junius Bubulcus, who returns to Rome in 7 days.  He does not resign dictatorship until he has dedicated his Temple of SALUS (safety) on Quirinal hill, begun 306. 302 CAH 7.2-408, DGRBM 1-516, DGRG 1-86, 516, GHH, SORH, atl4
c.302 Aequi city of ALBA FUCENS is occupied by 6,000 Roman colonists, becomes a fortress city. 302 DGRG 1-86
c.302 Romans begin annual campaigns into Etruria and Umbria. 302 CAH 7.2-377
c.302 VESTINI Sabines ally with Rome until 91. 302 B76 X-412, CAH 7.2-376, atl4
c.302 The complete text of Diodorus ends with 302. CAH 7.2-380
c.302 Spartan CLEONYMUS sails from Corcyra back to Italy, conquers a city called Thuriae (location unknown).  consul M.(1) Aemilius Paulus defeats him near Thuriae and forces him back to his ships.  Cleonymus then sails north across the Adriatic and lands at the coast of the Veneti.  He sails up the Meduacus River to the country of Padovia (later Patavium) and raids villages.  The Veneti defeat him.  ⅘ of his ships are destroyed.  It is unknown how his campaign ends.  Cleonymus returns to Corcyra. 302 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-153, atl4, wikCS, wikPd
no date:
Agθ 208, DGRBM 1-799
c.301 The Marsi object to a senate-proposed colony in Marsi territory on the Via Valeria 65km from Rome.  The Marsi send troops to occupy that territory. 301 DGRG 1-526
c.301 No consuls this year. 301 DGRBM 3-153
c.301 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus, age 70, is dictator (3rd time) to deal with the Marsi. 301 OCD 1105, DGRBM 1-862, atl4, wikCon, wikLRD
M. V. M. Rullianus: csm
Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus: DGRBM 3-153
c.301 C. Sempronius Sophus is magister equitum. 301 DGRBM
c.301 The CILNII, an Etruscan family of Arretium, driven out for pro-Roman interests, but soon restored by Romans. 301
DGRG 1-748
c.301 Dictator M. Valerius Corvus defeats the Marsi, takes several of their fortified towns, including Milionia, Plestina, and Fresilia (locations unknown). 301 DGRBM 1-862, atl4
c.301 Dictator M. Valerius Corvus marches from Marsi land to Etruria, but has to return to Rome to renew his appointment. 301 DGRBM 1-862, atl4
c.301 While dictator Corvus is in Rome, his magister equitum Sempronius Sophus is attacked, and loses some men and standards.  Losing men - no big deal.  Losing standards causes a panic. 301 DGRBM 1-862, atl4
c.301 ALBA attacked by the Marsi, who are defeated. 301 SORH
c.301 Dictator M. Valerius Corvus returns from Rome, defeats Etruscans near Rusellae, after which they agree to a 2 year truce. 301 atl4
From 302 to 290, ten temples are built in Rome. HRRP 1-407

Italy 300-201
V