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Italy
c.340 The MARSI of central Italy allow Romans to pass thru their land. 340 OCD 651
c.340 LATIN LEAGUE (Antium, Aricia, Lanuvium, and Velitrae) sends 2 of their praetors with 10 men of their senate to propose terms of union with Rome.  Latium and Rome are to form one state but 1 of the 2 consuls is to be Latin.  The Roman senate is doubled by admission of 300 Latin members.  Latin tribes to have equal vote with Roman tribes in comitia.  Rome refuses. 341
MCAW 163 340 LdHR 1-208, SORH
c.340 Latin envoy L. ANNIUS comes to Rome, demands Latin equality with Romans.  Under circumstances obscured by Romans, he falls down the steps of the temple of Jupiter, and dies. 340 DGRBM 1-181
c.340 Rome / Latin War begins until 338.  Latin cities secede from Latin League.  Rome declares war on Latin League.  Some Tusculans join Latins.  The Hernici remain loyal to Rome. 341 CAH 7.2-360, CDCC 780
340 CAH 7.2-319, CDGRA 370, DGRG 1-211, 1060, Dur 3-37, CDCC 220, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-322, LEWH 85, OCD 1100, RAH, SHWC 103, SORH     no date: OCD 505
340 July CONSULS:  patrician T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus (3rd) and pleb P. Decius Mus (dad of V) 340 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-1123, 3-1163, OCD 316, csm, wikCon
c.340 L.(4) Papirius Crassus is praetor and made dictator to deal with the Latins because consul Decius Mus is dead and consul Manlius Imperiosus is sick. 340 DGRBM 1-882, HRRP 1-324, wikLRD
c.340 L. Papirius Cursor is magister equitum to dictator L.(4) Papirius Crassus. 340 DGRBM 1-904
c.340 Dictator L.(4) Papirius Crassus marches against Antium, camps by it several months, does nothing. 340 DGRBM 1-882, HRRP 1-325
c.340 Consuls T.(1) Manlius Torquatus and P. Decius Mus defeat LATIN LEAGUE and Campanians at Trifanum and Veseris (Vesuvius) on coast of Campania east of Neapolis, confiscates Latin Land, then gives them lenient terms, granting many cities citizenship.  They are now friends of Rome. 340
CAH 7.2-362,
DGRBM 3-1163, DGRG 1-493, Dur 3-37, MCAW 166-7, SORH
c.340 At Veseris (Vesuvius), consul T.(1) Manlius Torquatus decrees death to any soldier who leaves his post.  His son sees an opportunity for glory, leaves his post with his friends, defeats several Latins, and brings back spoils.  Some sources say he kills Tusculum cavalry commander, Geminus Maecius in single combat.  Titus beheads his son for it. 340 CAH 7.2-362,
DGRBM 3-1163, HRRP 1-323, MCAW 169, wikTMT
c.340 At Veseris, consul P. Decius Mus "devotes himself" and the enemy to Janus, Mars, and Bellona with elaborate religious ritual visible to both armies.  He then wraps himself in his toga, charges into the opposing ranks and is killed.  A quarter of the Latin army is spooked enough to desert the battle.  Campania is conquered by Manlius. 340
CAH 7.2-362, DGRBM, GHH, HRRP 1-324
c.340 CAMPANIANS are punished for rebellion by forfeiting the fertile wine country north of Volturnus river to Rome.  It is now called "Falernus ager" (probably after a town named Faleria) and given to plebs. 340
DGRG 1-493, 892, HRRP 1-324
c.340 The equites of Capua (equites Campani), who had opposed defection from Rome, are rewarded with full rights of Roman citizens; with an annual stipend of 450 denarii each, levied on the rest of Capua, which gets only citizenship without suffrage. 340 DGRG 1-493, HRRP 1-324
c.340 ARICIA Latium, in Latin League from 500, comes under Rome until 990CE. 340 rcRm
c.340 Roman army is reorganized by Camillus.  Arms and tactics of the phalanx are abandoned.  A legion forms in 3 to 5 lines.
1st line consists of "Hasti", young sturdy men distributed in 15 maniples.  A maniple has 60 privates, 2 centurions, and a vexilarius (standard bearer).  2/3 are heavy armed and carry a scutum (oblong shield).  1/3 carry only a hasta (spear) and light gacsa (javelins)
2nd line consists of "Principes", age 20-30 distributed in 15 maniples, all heavy armed, with impressive equipment.
3rd line consists of "Triari", tried veterans, also in 15 divisions, but each division contains 3 maniples of 180 privates, 6 centurions, and 3 vexilarii.  The 2nd line of a triari is called a rorari, composed of men of inferior prowess.  The 3rd line of a triari is called an accensi, composed of supernumeraries of least reliability.
340 CDGRA 375, DGRA 494-5
c.340 RIGHTS of Roman citizens:
1.  marriage with any other family of citizens
2.  making legal contracts of bargain and sale
3.  bequeathing and inheriting property
4.  voting in Popular Assembly, Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Tributa
5.  to be elected to all state offices
340 LdHR 1-216
340/39 Roman CENSUS registers 165,000 or 160,000 adult males. 340 csun     340/39 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179
339 Jul CONSULS:  patrician Ti. Aemilius Mamercinus and pleb Q. Publilius Philo 339 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 3-298, 603, OCD 899, csm, wikCon
c.339 Pleb consul Q. Publilius Philo is appointed dictator by consul Aemilius Mamercinus for an unknown reason.  Philo is Rome's 1st pleb dictator. 340 LdHR 1-215
c.339  Leges Publiliae Philonis de Plebiscitis , 3 laws by pleb dictator Q. Publilius Philo further restricting patrician priviliges:  (Parts are similar to Lex Valeria-Horatia 449):  Require 1 of the 2 censors and 1 of the 2 consuls to be pleb.  PLEBISCITES get the force of law, and are binding on the whole community, if they are subsequently ratified by the senate (repeated 287).  For regular laws, Senatorial consent is given in advance.  Veto power of senate ends.  This gets Philo senatorial hatred for the rest of his life. 340 LdHR 1-215
339 CAH 7.2-185, 217, 342, 394, CDGRA 97, 199, DGRA 261, 337, 928, DGRBM 3-298, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-291, LEWH 85, OCD 219, 899, 927, SORH, invf, unrv, wikLRL
337 DGRA 334
336 DGRBM 2-525
c.339 Some Latins again rebel until 338. 339 CAH 7.2-362, DGRBM
c.339 Q. Publilius Philo is appointed dictator by colleague Mamercinus to fight Latins.  339 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.339 Decimus(1) Junius Brutus Scaeva is magister equitum. 339 DGRBM 1-508
338 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius 338 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-592, 2-896, csm, wikCon
c.338 ARCHIDAMOS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta from 360, mercenary for Taras, in Italy from 342, killed in battle with Lucanians at Manduria (Mandonium) Iapygia.  Son AGIS-III, succeeds to 331. 338 CAH 6, 7.2, DGRG 1-473, HRR, MCAW 166, OCD 27, 98, 643, 1007, 1037, SORH, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.338 Consul C. Maenius totally defeats combined forces of Antium, Lanuvium, Aricia, and Velitrae in the plain near Asturia where Asturia stream reaches the coast of Latium. 338
DGRG 1-249, HRRP 1-325
c.338 Consul Furius Camillus defeats Latins at Mt. Algidus. 338 HRR, HRRP 1-325-6
c.338 Latin stronghold PEDUM in front of Mt. Algidus taken by Consul Furius Camillus. 339 LdHR 1-214
338 CAH 7.2-362, HRRP 1-325
c.338 Consuls L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius crush the Latins at Trifanum, defeat the fleet of Volscian Antium. 338 OCD 199, 636
T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus did it. 338 LEWH 85, wikLRB
c.338 ECONOMY:  Copper Λ COINS V issued in Rome - a pound of copper called an "as".  They have an image of a sheep, hog, or ox on them, and are therefore called pecunia (pecus = cattle).  It generates so much borrowing as to produce a financial crisis.  Merchants use Greek silver drachmas. 347 MCAW 163 338 Dur 3-78, TToH
c.338 BANKING stalls begin in Roman forum. 338 MCAW 167
c.338 Roman territory, 1582 km2 in 396, is now 5525 km2, population 347,300 persons. 338
CAH 7.2-403
c.338 Latin city of TIBUR, 30km east of Rome on Anio River, taken by L. Furius Camillus. 338 CDCC 892, DGRBM 1-592
c.338 VELITRAE Latium taken by Romans.  Walls destroyed, ruling class banished.  Land of dispossessed aristocrats is distributed to Roman settlers, remaining Veliterni are given Roman citizenship. 338 CAH 7.2-365
c.338 Rome / Latin War from 340 ends with fall of city of Pedum. 339 LdHR 1-214     338 BCoC 486, CAH 7.2-265, CDCC 220, 780, CDGRA 190, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, LEWH 85, RAH, SORH
c.338 LATIN LEAGUE dissolved by consuls L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius.  Nearly all cities of Latium incorporated into Roman states of Lanuvium, Aricia, Nomentum, and Pedum.  Their citizens in Rome get full suffrage.  Fundi, Formiae, Capua, and other Campanian towns get their citizen rights removed. 340 CDGRA 370     338 BCoC 482,
CAH 7.2-265,
Dur 3-37, LdHR 1-286, LEWH 85, OCD 26, 199, SORH, umucNap
c.338 From now on, every Roman field army is comprised of both citizen troops (in the legions) and contingents of allies. 338
CAH 7.2-386
c.338 NOMENTUM northwest of Fidenae on the edge of Sabine territory, annexed by Rome. 338 OCD 737, SORH
c.338 CUMAE V, under Samnites from 425, comes under Rome until 180, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-717, OCD 301, rcSI, wikCum
c.338 Dikaiarcheia (later Puteoli), adjacent to Neapolis, becomes a Roman dependency. 338 CDCC 735, OCD 901
c.338 CAPUA V, under a Roman garrison from 343, becomes a Roman dependency without suffrage until ?. 338 CAH 7.2, CDCC 163, OCD 901, wikCap
c.338 FORMIA, a Volcian town which had taken no part in the war, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-905, OCD 444
c.338 Volcian FUNDI Latium, which had taken no part in the war, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-905
c.338 SUESSULA, Campania between Capua and Nola, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-905
c.338 VOLSCIUM gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 OCD 703
c.338 CAMPANIA gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 OCD 703
c.338 Romans isolate Latin cities by making treaties with each individually, and forbidding them mutual trade and intermarriage. 338 SORH
c.338 ANTIUM conquered, forced to surrender fleet, colonized by Romans.  Inhabitants become Roman citizens.  A Roman garrison is established to guard the coast. 338 CAH 7.2-365, 391, OCD 265, 834
c.338 TUSCULUM:  ringleaders executed, Roman citizenship restored. 338 CAH 7.2-365
c.338 C. MAENIUS decorates the speaker's platform with beaks of defeated ships from Antium.  These beaks are called rostra, and the speaker's platform becomes called a rostrum. 338 OCD 446, 937, SORH
337 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Servius Longus and P. Aelius Paetus 337 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-27, 2-806, 3-83, csm, wikCon
c.337 C.(2) Claudius Inrelligensis is dictator. 337 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.337 C. Claudius Hortator is magister equitum. 337 DGRBM
c.337 Vestal virgin MINUCIA (Misurtia), fond of pretty clothing, is accused of violating her vows, buried alive near the Colline Gate by state order. 337 DGRBM 2-1091, GHH, HRRP 1-328
c.337 Office of PRAETOR, created in 367 and reserved for patricians, is now opened to plebs.  Q. Publilius Philo is 1st PLEB PRAETOR.  (see 242) 337 CAH 7.2-335, CDGRA 487, 515, DGRA 956, DGRBM 3-298, Dur 3-24, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-292, OCD 99, unrv     336 CAH 7.2, DGRA 927
c.337 The mountain tribe of Aurunci (aka Ausones), being hard pressed by the Sidicini of Teanum and Cales, abandon AURUNCA, and go to Suessa east of Formia.  They fortify Suessa.  Aurunca is destroyed by the Sidicini and never rebuilt. 337
DGRG 1-343, HRRP 1-327
c.337 Campaigns against Sidicini, Aurunci, and Volsci. 337 CAH 7.2
336 Jul. CONSULS:  L.(4) Papirius Crassus and Kaeso Duilius 336 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-882, 1090, 3-118, csm, wikCon
c.336 Temple of CONCORDIA built on the Clivus Capitolinus in Roman forum. 336 OCD 446
c.336 Consul L.(4) Papirius Crassus campaigns against the Sidicini of Cales. 336 DGRBM 1-882
c.336 Further campaigns against the Sidicini until 335. 336 CAH 7.2
c.336/5 Teanum and adjacent Sidicinum, on the Latium/Campania border, taken by Rome. 336/5 CAH 7.2
335 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Atilius Regulus Calenus and M. Valerius Corvus (4th) 335 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-405, 862, 3-642, OCD 1105, wikCon
c.335 Both consuls march against the Sidicini. 335 DGRBM 3-642
c.335 CALES Campania, a strategic site on the route from Rome to Capua, under the Sidicini from ?, taken by M. Valerius Corvus. 336/5 CAH 7.2     335 CAH 7.2-368, DGRBM 1-862, GHH, LdHR 1-220, wikCl     334 SORH
no date: HRRP 1-327
c.335 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas is dictator to hold elections, because consuls are away. 335 DGRBM 2-911, wikLRD
c.335 Q. Publilius Philo is magister equitum. 335 DGRBM 3-298
c.335 Muscle cuirassMUSCLE CUIRASS, dating from the 5th century, is worn only by generals and emperors.  This one from south Italy, like most archaeological finds, is relatively unadorned, but in sculpture, it is often ornamented with mythological scenes. 340-30 wikMC
Photo by Alexander VanLoon
334 Jul. CONSULS:  Sp. Postumius Albinus and T. Veturius Calvinus 334 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-91, 586, csm, wikCon
c.334 P. Cornelius Rufinus is made dictator, but is obliged to lay down his office because of a fault in the auspices at his election. 334 DGRBM 3-665
c.334 Consuls Albinus and Calvinus invade Sidicini territory. 334 DGRBM 1-91
c.334 Kaeso Duilius is triumvir to conduct a colony to Cales. 334 DGRBM 1-1090
c.334 Rome and the Gauls make peace treaty. 335 HRR
334 DGRBM, LEWH 85
c.334 CALES Campania, an Ausonian town, under Rome from 335, becomes a Latin colony (1002km).  Colonized by 2,500 Roman plebs, Latins, and other allies. 334 CAH 7.2-368, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-220, SORH     333 DGRG 1-345     no date: DGRBM 1-862, HRRP 1-327-8
c.334 Rome and Taras make peace treaty.  Tarentines agree not to send warships into Tarentine gulf. 334
OCD 1037
c.334 Greeks in Italy, under Taras invite ALEXANDER-I king of Molossia in Epirus to rule them, and keep the natives away.  He arrives with 15 warships and does so until 330, campaigns successfully against the Iapygii (Apulii), Lucanii, Bruttii, and Samnites. 337 HRR     334 Agθ 32, CAH 6-440, 7.2, LEWH 80, MCAW 168, bk, lvG, lvS
332 DGRBM 1-116, HRR, LdHR 1-221
c.333 ALEXANDER-I king of Molossia in Epirus 342-30, mercenary leader working for Taras, defeats Lucanians, conquers most of south Italy, but then quarrels with his employers. 334 OCD 1037
333 OCD 41
332 DGRBM
326 OCD 621
c.333 No consuls are known for this year - possibly L. Papirius Cursor and C. Poetelius Libo Visolus.  P. Cornelius Rufinus is dictator.
333 DGRBM 1-904, 2-779, csm, wikCon, wikLRD
332 Jul. CONSULS:  Gn. Domitius Calvinus and Aulus Cornelius Cossus Arvina (2nd) 332 CAH 7.2-640, csm, wikCon
c.332 CENSORS:  patrician Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus and pleb Q. Publilius Philo 332 DGRBM 1-91, 3-298, wikLC
c.332  Lex Papiria de Civitate Acerranorum  by praetor L. Papirius:  Citizenship without suffrage granted to inhabitants of Acerrae. 332 DGRA 695, invf, unrv
c.332 Roman TRIBES, 27 from 358, increased to 29 until 318 by addition of MAECIA and SCAPTIA, created by censor, Q. Publilius Philo. 332 CAH 7.2-403, DGRA 1156, DGRBM 3-298, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-217, OCD 899, SORH
c.332 Lanuvium Latium is incorporated into tribe Maecia. 332 CAH 7.2-366
c.332 Velitrae Latium is incorporated into tribe Scaptia. 332 CAH 7.2-366
c.332 M. Papirius Crassus is appointed dictator to fight Gauls, who were falsely reported to have invaded. 332 DGRBM 1-882, wikLRD
c.332 P. Valerius Poplicola is magister equitum. 332 DGRBM 3-602
c.332 Cornelius Callissa is pontifex maximus. 332 wikPM
c.332 METAPONTUM on south coast sides with Alexander of Epirus. 332 DGRG 2-347
c.332 ALEXANDER-I, king of Molossia in Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy 334-31/0, begins war with Samnites and Lucani. 332 GHH, HRR
c.332 ALEXANDER-I, king of Molossia in Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy 334-31/0, has victories over Samnites, Lucanians, and Brutti, makes a  treaty  with Rome for joint attack on Samnites. 332 DGRBM GHH, HRR, SORH
c.332 ACERRAE Campania, 20km northeast of Neapolis, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 332 CAH 7.2-367, DGRBM 3-298, DGRG 1-11, HRR, SORH
331 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Valerius Potitus Flaccus and M.(1) Claudius Marcellus 331 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-927, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.331 Gn. Quinctius Varus Capitolinus is dictator. 331 DGRBM 3-1230, wikLRD
c.331 C. Valerius Potitus Flaccus is magister equitum. 331 DGRBM 3-515
c.331 PLAGUE attacks Rome.  A slave girl tips off an aedile that they were being poisoned.  Aediles investigate and blame it on some Roman women.  190 are condemned and executed. 331 CDGRA 665, DGRA 1188, HRRP 1-328
c.331 Roman patricians CORNELIA and SERGIA plan to poison some statesmen.  A slave girl tips off an aedile.  Cornelia, Sergia, and their accomplices are caught preparing some drugs over a fire.  The magistrates require the women to drink them, and they die. 331 DGRBM 1-854, 3-787
329 CDGRA 602
c.331 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus is curule aedile.  A female slave tells him that Roman women are poisoning their husbands. 331 DGRBM 2-991
c.331 Romans make peace with Gauls, who do not return for another 30 years. 331
CAH 7.2-321
c.331/0 ALEXANDER-I, king of Molossia in Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy from 334, defeated by Samnites at PANDOSIA near Heraclea Lucania.  Murdered by one of his allies.  Widow Cleopatra returns to Epirus. 332 GHH     331 B76 III-926, CAH 6-441, MCAW 170, MRDK, lvG, rcSB2, wikAl1Ep     331/0 Agθ 32, CAH 7.2     330 CDCC 325, LEWH 80, OCD 41, 400, bk, wikAryb
326 DGRBM 1-116, 3-610
330 Jul. CONSULS:  L.(4) Paprius Crassus (2nd) and L. Plautius Venno 330 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-882, 3-1237, csm, wikCon
c.330 PRIVERNUM Latium, a newly conquered Volscian city, under Vitruvius Vaccus of Fundi, stirred up by Samnites, rebels against Rome until 329. 330 CAH 7.2, GHH, HRR       329 HRRP 1-333, LdHR 1-221
c.330 FUNDI (between Anxur & Formia) and PRIVERNUM Latium, under Vitruvius Vaccus of Fundi, ravage territory of Cora, Norba, and Setia. 330 DGRBM 3-1202, 1237, DGRG 1-667, GHH, HRR
c.330 Consuls L.(4) Crassus and Venno campaign against Fundi and Privernum Latium. 330
DGRBM 1-882, DGRBM 3-1202, 1237
c.330 The Bruttii resume attacks on Greek cities of south Italy.  Croton appeals to Syracuse. 330
CAH 7.1-385
c.330 Syracusans help Croton against the Bruttii. 330 CAH 7.2
c.329 Consuls and consular tribunes entered office on the kalends (1st) of July (then called Quintilis) from 397.  It is not known what month they enter office until 223. 329 DGRA 353
c.329 CIRCUS MAXIMUS between the Palatine and Aventine hills from 605, receives its first permanent starting gates.  (See 174) 329 avoc
329 CONSULS:  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (2nd) and C. Plautius Decianus 329 CAH 7.2-640,
DGRBM 1-947, 2-911, wikCon
c.329 Volscian ANXUR Latium, on west coast, under Romans from 400, refounded as a citizen colony by 300 Roman settlers as TERRACINA.  A Roman garrison is established to guard the coast. 329 CAH 7.2-365, 391, CDCC 219, 861, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 265, 1039, SORH, wikTr
c.329 PRIVERNUM Latium, at war with Rome from 330, surrenders to consul L. Aemilius Mamercinus, who is henceforth called Privernas.  Privernum gets its walls destroyed and Roman citizenship without suffrage.  Rebel leader Vitruvius Vaccus will be executed at Rome. 329 CAH 7.2-367,
DGRBM 2-911, 3-529, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-333, SORH, bk
328 CONSULS:  C. Plautius Decianus (or C. Plautius Proculus?) and P.(3) Cornelius (Scapula or Scipio Barbatus?) 328 CAH 7.2-640,
DGRBM 3-741, csm, wikCon
c.328 The Volscii of FABRATERIA near Fregellae are attacked by Samnites, and appeal to Rome. 328
LdHR 1-221
c.328 Senate warns Samnites to quit attacking Latin areas. 328
LdHR 1-221
c.328 M. FLAVIUS, at the funeral of his mother, distributes meat to the plebs, in grattitude for their having caused his acquittal of a previous adultery charge. 328
DGRBM 2-172
c.328 FREGELLAE Latium on the east bank of the Liris at the junction with the Trerus, under Samnites from ?, restored, made a Latin colony (3052km, 4,000 adult male settlers) by Rome until 326, provoking 2nd Samnite War. 328 CAH 7.2-368, 405, CDCC 219, 780, DGRBM, DGRG 1-913, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-221, OCD 448, SORH     326 LEWH 86
327 CONSULS:  L.(2) Cornelius Lentulus and Q. Publilius Philo (2nd) 327 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-729, 3-298, OCD 899, csm, wikCon
c.327 M.(1) Claudius Marcellus is dictator to hold elections. 327 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.327 Patrician Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus is magister equitum. 327 DGRBM 1-91
c.327 PALAEPOLIS, under Greeks from 800, but now partly Samnite, is visited by Roman delegation complaining of pirates and other attacks on Romans in Campania.  Palaepolis, confident of aid from local Greeks and Samnites, refuses to give satisfaction. 327 LdHR 1-222
c.327 Senate sends consul L. Publilius Philo to besiege Palaepolis.  2,000 Nolans and 4,000 Samnites garrison Palaepolis.  Philo camps between Palaepolis and Neapolis.        327 DGRBM 3-298, LdHR 1-222, SORH
c.327 NEAPOLIS, under Greeks from 600, taken over by Samnites until 326, with help of an internal Samnite faction. 327 CAH 7.2-369, LdHR 1-222, umucNap
c.327 NEAPOLIS, under a Samnite garrison 327-6, besieged by L. Publilius Philo.  Populace is divided.  Poor favor Samnites; rich favor Romans. 327
CAH 7.2-369
c.327/6 2nd SAMNITE WAR with Rome begins until 321.  Ends 304. 328 CDCC 938, bk     327 Agθ 32, CAH 7.2-334,
CDCC 780, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, OCD 948, OHG, SORH, TToH     326 B76 IV-20, 15-1090, CAH 7.2, CDCC 174, 456, DGRBM 1-904, LdHR 1-224, LEWH 86, MCAW 170, OCD 927, RAH
c.326 Consul Q. Publilius Philo is about to take Neapolis from Samnites when his consulate runs out.  Roman populace votes to extend his imperium.  He becomes Rome's 1st PRO-CONSUL with authority in Neapolis only. 327 CDGRA 517, DGRA 960
326 CAH 7.2-347, DGRBM 3-298, HRRP 1-292, LdHR 1-223, LEWH 86, OCD 880, 899
c.326 PALAEPOLIS, Greek city in Campania, besieged by proconsul Q. Publilius Philo, betrayed by Greeks Charilaus and Nymphius, who coax the Samnite garrison out of the town, then deliver it to Philo, which causes neighboring Neapolis to make treaty with Rome.  Palaepolis drops out of history. 326 DGRBM 3-298, DGRG 1-493, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-223, SORH
323 DGRBM 1-685, 2-1217
c.326 NEAPOLIS, under Samnites from 327, besieged from 327, delivered by pro-Roman faction to proconsul Q. Publilius Philo.  Neapolis then allies with Rome, bringing Rome into conflict with Samnite hill tribes.  Philo, having succeeded, returns to Rome.  "Naples" is under Rome until 396CE. 327 LEWH 86, OCD 725, 899     326 B76 12-827,
CAH 7.2-369, LdHR 1-223, OCD 927, rcSI
326 Q. PUBLILIUS PHILO is 1st Roman allowed a triumph before resigning his office. 326 LdHR 1-223
c.326 ALLIFAE Samnium, between Cales & Bovianum, taken by Consul C. Marcius Rutilus. 326 wikAlf
c.326 Western Samnium invaded by Romans. 326 CAH 7.2-369
c.326 APULIA, southeast Italy, allies with Rome until ?. 326 DGRG 1-165, SORH
c.326 LUCANIA allies with Rome until ?. 326 SORH
326 CONSULS:  C. Poetilius Libo Visolus (3rd?) and L. Papirius (Cursor or Mugillanus?) 326 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-904? 2-779, OCD 778, csm, wikCon
c.326 C. Publilius, a boy who had given himself to slavery (as a nexus), to pay his father' debts, is treated so cruelly by usurer, L. Papirius, as to rouse the people to legal action. 326 HRRP 1-306
no date:
DGRBM 3-603
c.326  Lex Poetelia Papiria de Nexis  by consul C. Poetelius against actions of a money-lender named L. Papirius:  Forbids bondage and enslavement for private debts.  Only the property of the debtor can be confiscated. 327 DGRA 207, 696, 797     326 DGRBM 3-603, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRRP 1-551, OCD 731, SORH, invf, wikLRL
326 or 313 CAH 7.2-215, 333
c.326 FREGELLAE, Latin colony from 328, annexed by Rome until 320. 326 LEWH 86
325 CONSULS:  patrician L. Furius Camillus and pleb D.(1) Junius Brutus Scaeva 325 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-508 592, OCD 199, csm, wikCon
c.325 Consul L. Furius Camillus is sent to Samnium to fight the Vestinii, but gets sick. 325 DGRBM 1-592
c.325 Consul L. Furius Camillus is forced by illness to nominate L. Papirius Cursor dictator to continue the war.  Cursor is dictator thru 324. 325 DGRBM 1-592, 904, wikLRD
c.325 Dictator Papirius Cursor gets bad chicken omens at his camp.  He leaves magister equitum Fabius Rullianus in charge, with orders not to attack, while Cursor goes to Rome to get better omens. 324 HRRP 1-335
c.325 SAMNITES defeated at Imbrinium (location unknown) by magister equitum Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus.  Dictator Papirius Cursor learns of it and returns.  He threatens to beat and execute Rullianus, but the troops threaten mutiny.  Execution is postponed until next day. 325 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-369, OCD 427
324 GHH, HRRP 1-336
c.325 Magister equitum Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus escapes and returns to Rome.  Papirius Cursor follows him and tries in vain to get the senate to deliver Rullianus for execution.  Papirius Cursor returns to camp, and finds his army about to mutiny. 325 LdHR 1-228
324 HRRP 1-336
c.325 Magister equitum Q.(1) Fabius Maximus abdicates to L.(4) Papirius Crassus (not Cursor). 325 DGRBM 1-882, 904, 2-991
c.325 VESTINI, allies of the Samnites, attacked and conquered by consul D.(1) Junius Brutus. 325 CAH 7.2-369, DGRBM 1-508
c.325 CINGILIA (location unknown), a Vestini town, taken by consul D.(1) Junius Brutus. 325 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-508, DGRG 1-625
c.325 CUTINA, a Vestini town, taken by consul D.(1)Junius Brutus. 325 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-508
c.325 AGATHOCLES, exiled from Syracuse, goes to Italy until 322, attacks Croton unsuccessfully, takes refuge in Taras.  He is soon expelled. 326 Agθ 43-44, CAH 7.1-387
c.324 Dictator L. Papirius CURSOR and magister equitum L.(4) Papirius CRASSUS are reinstated by senate. 324 DGRBM, OCD 778, csm, wikCon
c.324 Dictator L. Papirius CURSOR defeats Samnites. 324 DGRBM, HRR     323 HRRP 1-337
323 CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Servius Longus (2nd) and Q. Aulius Cerretanus 323 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-435, 674, 2-806, csm, wikCon
c.323 Roman CENSUS registers 150,000 adult males. 323 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179
c.323 M. FLAVIUS is tribune.  He urges chastisement of the Tusculans for inciting the Veliternii and Privernii to oppose Rome.  Tusculans send reps to Rome, which plead mercy, and are spared. 323 DGRBM 2-172
c.323 Apulia and Lucania ally against Romans. 323 GHH, HRR
c.323 Romans operate in Samnium. 323 CAH 7.2
c.323 Samnites sue for peace. 323 HRRP 1-337
c.323 Consul Aulius Cerretanus operates in Apulia. 323 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-674
c.323 Tusculum wavers in loyalty.  Velitrae, and Privernum declare independence.  Senate averts a war by granting them all full citizenship. 323 HRRP 1-337
322 CONSULS:  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus and L. Fulvius Curvus 322 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-188, 991, OCD 427, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.322 Aulus Cornelius COSSUS Arvina is dictator. 322 wikLRD     320 DGRBM 1-378
c.322 M. Fabius Ambustus is magister equitum. 322 DGRBM
c.322 Samnite Papius Brutulus raises rebellion against Romans. 322 DGRBM 3-116
c.322 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus is sent to Apulia.  He defeats Samnites. 322 DGRBM 2-992, HRR
c.322 Dictator Aulus Cornelius COSSUS Arvina defeats Samnites. 322 CAH 7.2-369, atl4
c.322 Senate refuses to discuss peace with Samnite envoys. 322 atl4     321 SORH
c.322 RHEGIUM, attacked by Syracusan oligarchs Sostratus and Heracleides, who want to replace its democracy with an oligarchy.  Rhegium is defended by Agathocles of Syracuse. 322 atl4,
CAH 7.1-387
c.322 SOSTRATUS, oligarch of Syracuse, besieging RHEGIUM from ?, fails, returns to Syracuse. 322 Agθ 45
c.322 AGATHOCLES exiled in Italy from 325, returns to Syracuse. 322 Agθ 44
321 CONSULS:  T. Veturius Calvinus (2nd) and Spurius Postumius Albinus (2nd), both sent to Campania 321 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-91, 586, LdHR 1-229, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.321 Consuls Vetruvius and Postumius arrive at Capua, and are told that Gavius Pontius and the whole Samnite army are besieging Luceria Apulia. 321 LdHR 1-229
c.321 Consuls Vetruvius and Postumius invade Samnium towards its most important city, Malventum. 321 umucNap
c.321 Consuls Vetruvius and Postumius hurrying to relieve their allies at Lucera Apulia, are trapped by Samnite Gavius PONTIUS in the closed valley of CAUDINE FORKS between Capua and Malventum, 20,000 Roman soldiers surrender to Samnites.  Consuls sign a humiliating treaty which the senate refuses to ratify. 321 B76 15-1090, CAH 7.2-370, CDCC 780, DGRBM 3-496, DGRG 1-573, Dur 3-20, 37, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-339, LdHR 1-229, MCAW 172, OCD 217, 778, 860, 927, SORH, TToH, atl4, bk, wikLcr, wikLRB
c.321 CAPUANS provide clothing and supplies for Roman soldiers returning from Caudine Forks. 321 atl4
c.321 After Caudine Forks, the Etruscans and Gauls ally with the Samnites.  Nearly all Italy now opposes Rome. 321 Dur 3-37
c.321 2nd SAMNITE WAR 327-04, suspended until 316. 321 CDCC 174, OCD 948
c.321 Q. Fabius Ambustus is made dictator, but resigns for technical reasons.  Consuls return to Rome and appoint M.(1) Aemilius Papus to replace Fabius. 321 DGRBM 1-141, 3-120, atl4, wikLRD
c.321 L.(1) Valerius Flaccus is magister equitum to M.(1) Aemilius Papus. 321 DGRBM 2-157
c.321 Dictator Q. Fabius Ambustus has a triumph over Samnites and Apulians. 321 DGRBM, atl4
c.320 SATRICUM, 30km southeast of Rome, joins Samnites. 320 SORH
320 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (2nd) and Q. Publilius Philo (3rd) are elected and take office the same day, when the senate debates the Caudine treaty.  Both are assigned to Samnium. 320 CAH 7.2-640,
DGRBM 1-904, 3-298, OCD 778, 899, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.320 C. Maenius is dictator (1st time). 320 DGRBM 2-729, 896, wikLRD
c.320 M. Fosilius FLACCINATOR is magister equitum to dictator C. Maenius. 320 DGRBM 2-153
c.320 Dictator C. Maenius and magister equitum M. Fosilius FLACCINATOR both resign because of accusations, both tried and acquitted. 320 DGRBM 2-153
c.320 L.(2) Cornelius Lentulus is dictator, followed by T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus (3rd time). 320 DGRBM 2-729, 896, wikLRD
c.320 L.(5) Papirius Crassus is magister equitum to dictator Imperiosus Torquatus. 320 DGRBM 1-882
c.320 Q. Maelius and Ti. Numicius (or L. Livius) are pleb tribunes.  They had been taken prisoner at Caudine Forks 321, and favor keeping the Caudine treaty. 320 DGRBM 2-896, 1215
c.320 Romans attempt to hand over Postumius and others responsible for the treaty to the Samnites, but Samnites refuse to accept them. 320 atl4
c.320 Senate decides to reject the Caudine treaty.  Therefore Pleb tribunes Q. Maelius and Ti. Numicius are handed over to the Samnites. 320
DGRBM 2-1215
c.320 FREGELLAE Latium, annexed by Rome in 326, captured by Samnites until 313. 320 CAH 7.2-372, SORH, atl4
c.320 Consul Q. Publilius Philo defeats Samnites, who scatter in the direction of Apulia.  They then gather at Lucera Apulia. 320 atl4
c.320 LUCERA Apulia besieged by consul L. Papirius Cursor, but Samnites cut off his supplies and besiege him in his camp.  He is rescued by consul Q. Publilius Philo, who defeats the Samnites. 320 DGRBM 1-904, 3-298, DGRG 1-221
c.320 SAMNITES defeated by consul L. Papirius Cursor at Lucera, forces 7,000 Samnites including Pontius to pass under a yoke. 320 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-904, HRRP 1-340, SORH, TToH, atl4     319 GHH, HRR
c.320 LUCERA Apulia asks Romans for protection, becomes a colony ruled by the Senate. 320 wikLcr
c.320 TARAS makes peace with SAMNITES. 320 LEWH 90
c.320 T.(1) Manlius Torquatus is appointed dictator, to hold elections for new consuls. 320 atl4
319 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (3rd) OR L. Papirius Mugillanus (2nd) and Q. Aulius Cerretanus (2nd) OR Q. Aelius 319 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-435, 674, 904, OCD 778, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.319 CENSORS:  patrician C. Sulpicius Servius Longus and pleb ??? 319 DGRBM 2-806, wikLC
c.319 C. Sulpicius Longus is elected censor, but later resigns. 319 atl4
c.319 Consul? L. Papirius Cursor continues to operate in Apulia. 319 DGRBM 1-904
c.319 The Ferentani on the east coast oppose Rome, but are quickly subdued. 319 DGRG 1-915, SORH
c.319 Consuls capture Ferentinum and Satricum Latium. 319 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4
318 CONSULS:  M. Folius Flaccinator and L. Plautius Venno 318 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-153 3-1237, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.318 CENSORS:  patrician L.(4) Papirius Crassus; pleb C. Maenius 318 DGRA 723, DGRBM 1-882, 2-897, OCD 637, wikLC
c.318  Lex Ovinia de Senatus Lectione :  transfers the right to appoint senators from the consuls to the censors.  Purpose apparently to exclude improper persons from the senate.  Those who are chosen become senators for life; their position no longer depends on favor of magistrates in office.  By specifying the criteria of selection (which are unknown) it restricts discretionary powers of the censors; and while it allows censors to omit names from the senate roll, it specifies that only men morally unfit for membership should be passed over.  Lex Ovinia is a step in freeing the senate from the power of the magistrates. pre-318 CAH 7.2-393 318 wikLRL 312 invf, unrv
c.318 Romans & Samnites declare 2 year truce. 318 CAH 7.2-371, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-340, atl4
c.318 Roman campaigns in Apulia and Lucania. 318 CAH 7.2
c.318 CANUSIUM, town in Apulia, submits to consul L. Plautius, remains an ally until Social War. 318 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-503, OCD 202, SORH, atl4, wikCdP
c.318 ARISTOXENUS of Taras, philosopher, music theorist, flourishes. 320 GHH     318 Dur 2-555
no date: OCD 118
c.318 TEATE, chief town in Apulia, submits to Rome.  Name changed to TEANUM. 318 CAH 7.2, OCD 202, SORH, atl4, wikTA
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is also a Teanum in Latium northwest of Cales.
c.318 CAPUA, Roman city without voting rights from 338, has civil discord, appeals to Rome, and is put under a praetor, L. Furius until 314. 318 OCD 204, atl4 317 DGRG 1-511
c.318 Roman TRIBES, 29 from 332, increased to 31 until 299 by addition of Capuan tribes:  UFENTINA and FALERNA. 318 CAH 6-402, 7.2-371, 403, DGRA 1156, DGRBM, GHH, atl4
c.318 CUMAE, Roman city without voting rights from 338, put under a Roman prefect. 318 OCD 204
317 CONSULS:  C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus and Qunitus Aemilius Barbula 317 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-461, 518, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.317 FORENTUM taken by consul Bubulcus.  The rest of Apulia then submits. 317 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-166, atl4, bril
c.317 NERULUM Apulia taken by Qunitus Aemilius Barbula. 317 DGRBM 1-461
c.317 TEATES of Apulia make treaty with Rome. 317 DGRBM 1-461
c.317 APULIA (the heel of Italy), under Greeks from 700, comes under Romans but not annexed until 270. 317 guess
c.317 LUCANIA submits to Rome. 317 CAH 7.2
c.317 New constitution for ANTIUM drafted by Romans. 317 atl4
c.317 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, makes peace with Bruttii, and defeats a group of exiles who try to force their way back into Croton. 317 atl4
c.317 Bruttians, at war with Syracusans from ?, make peace. 317 Agθ 41
316 CONSULS:  Sp. Nautius Rutilus and M. Popillius Laenas 316 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-708, 3-682, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.316 2nd SAMNITE WAR 327-04, suspended from 321, resumed until 304.  Samnites push towards Rome. 316 B76 VIII-832, CAH 7.2DGRBM, OCD 948, umucNap
c.316 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas is made dictator to fight Samnites. 316 DGRBM 2-911, wikLRD
c.316 L, Fulvius Curvus is magister equitum. 316 DGRBM
c.316 Dictator L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas defeats Samnites near Saticula west of Malventum. 316
CAH 7.2, atl4
c.316 SATICULA Samnium, 20km west of Malventum, besieged by Romans until 315. 316
CAH 7.2-372
c.316 NUCERIA Campania, ally of Rome from ? defects to Samnites. 316 atl4
c.316 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, under oligarchy from ?, no longer under oligarchy. 316 rcSI
315 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (4th) and Q. Publilius Philo (4th)
Both stay home, while the dictator does the fighting.
315 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 3-298, OCD 778, 899, atl4, csm, wikCon
Cursor 314 DGRBM 1-904
c.315 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus is dictator 1st time. 315 B76 IV-20, DGRBM 2-992, wikLRD
c.315 Q. Aulius Cerretanus is magister equitum. 315 DGRBM 1-674
c.315 Q. Junius is pleb tribune.  He tries to incite the people against murderers of Sp. Maelius. 315 DGRBM 2-658
c.315 Dictator Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus is sent to sieze Lucera Apulia.  He is defeated by SAMNITES at LAUTULAE near Terracina Latium.  Samnites raid south Latium to within 20 miles of Rome, and devastate the coastal region as far as Ardea. 316 MCAW 174, wikLRB
315 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-372, DGRBM 2-992, GHH, HRR, OCD 427, atl4
c.315 ARDEA Latium, under Rutullian Latins, raided by Samnites. 315 OCD 102
c.315 NUCERIA Campania near the coast taken by Samnites. 315 SORH
c.315 NOLA Campania taken by Samnites until 313. 315 SORH
c.315 Magister equitum Q. AULIUS fights Samnites near Saticula, kills their general, but is himeslf killed.  C. Fabius Ambustus succeeds. 315 DGRBM 1-141, 674, atl4
c.315 Roman battle tactics revised.  Phalanx (6 lines of 500 men) is discarded for maniple - 120 men with javelin and short sword.  This works better in mountainous areas. 366 Dur 3-33 315 MCAW 175
c.315 Romans capture 7,000 Samnite troops at Lucera Apulia. 315 bk
c.315 PLESTICE, under a Roman garrison from ?, besieged by Samnites from ?, taken by Samnites, who then advance across the Liris. 315 CAH 7.2-372, atl4
c.315 Samnites attack Roman army besieging Saticula Samnium.  Romans win.
SATICULA taken by Romans.
316 SORH
315 CAH 7.2-372, atl4
c.315 SORA Latium, Roman garrison expelled, colonists are massacred.  Sora defects to Samnites until 314. 315 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4
c.315 Dictator Q. Fabius defeats Samnites near Sora Latium, punishes Roman soldiers who were defeated by Samnites. 315 atl4
c.315 The land around ARDEA Latium is devastated by Samnites. 315 atl4
314 CONSULS:  M. Poetilius Libo and C. Sulpicius Servius Longus (3rd) 314 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-779, 806, csm, wikCon
c.314 Q. Publilius Philo accused of complicity in a plot to subvert the Republic.  Philo is acquitted, but disappears from the record. 314
CAH 7.2-394
c.314 Romans crush Samnites at Terracina Latium on west coast.  Samnites lose 10,000. 314 CAH 7.2-372, GHH, HRR, MCAW 174, atl4
c.314 LUCERA  Apulia recaptured by Romans. 315 CAH 7.2-372
314 B76 VI-371, CAH 7.2
c.314 LUCERA  Apulia becomes Roman colony (7902km).  2,500 adult male settlers move to Lucera, which becomes a steadfast supporter of Rome.. 314 CAH 6-402, 7.2-372, 405, CDCC 219, SORH, atl4
c.314 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, besieged by consuls M. Poetilius and C. Sulpicius until 313. 314 DGRG 1-425, hwSB 313 CAH 7.2
c.314 SORA, 10km north of Arpinum, allied with Samnites from 315, taken by Romans, under Rome until 306. 314 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4
c.314 AUSONES (aka Aurunci) of Latium, allies of Samnites, subdued by consuls.  Main Ausonian cities:  Ausona, Minturnae, Vescia, and Sinuessa, are destroyed. 314 CAH 7.2, OCD 199, SORH, atl4
c.314 Spartan ACROTATOS-I sails a small squadron to Taras, to help against Agathocles of Syracuse.  Taras votes him 20 ships, but before they are ready, he sails to Acragas. 314 CAH 6-399 no date: Agθ 62
c.314 CAPUA, under a Roman prefect from 318, rebels under Campanians Novius and Ovius Calavius. 314 DGRBM 1-560, OCD 899
c.314 C. MAENIUS is appointed dictator (2nd time) to deal with the Capua rebellion. 314 DGRBM 1-560, 2-897, OCD 637, atl4, wikLRD
c.314 M. Fosilius Flaccinator is magister equitum. 314 DGRBM 2-153, 897
c.314 Campanians Novius and Ovius Calavius escape from Capua, and the rebellion disintegrates. 314 DGRBM 1-560, HRR
c.314 Dictator C. Maenius investigates anti-Roman plots at Capua. 314 atl4
c.314 C. Maenius resigns dictatorship to face allegations of treason. 314 atl4
c.314 Investigation of malpractice at Rome and alleged abuses in Campania. 314 CAH 7.2
c.314 A Roman law outlaws societies of illegal canvassers. 314 OCD 51
313 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (5th) and C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus (2nd)
Who commanded the armies this year is uncertain.
313 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-516, OCD 778, 905, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.313 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus is dictator, followed by Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus 2nd time. 313 DGRBM 2-779, wikLRD
c.313 M. Poetelius Libo Visolus is magister equitum, to bro Caius. 313 DGRBM 2-779
c.313 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, besieged by M. Poetilius from 314 siege abandoned by Poetilius in order to retake Fregellae. 313 CAH 7.2-372, hwSB
c.313 FREGELLAE Latium, under Samnites from 320, recovered by dictator C. Poetelius Libo, under Rome until ?. 313 CAH 7.2-372, atl4
c.313 NOLA Campania, under Samnites from 315, taken, either by dictator C. Poetilius or consul C. Junius, comes under Rome until ?. 313 CAH 7.2-372,
DGRG 1-493, OCD 736, atl4
c.313 APULIA and CAMPANIA secured by new Roman fortresses: Saticula, Pontia Island, Suessa, Aurunca. 313 SORH
c.313 The AURUNCI of Ausonia, 10km north of Terracina, conquered and absorbed by Rome. 313
OCD 153
c.313 PONTIA island off Latium becomes Latin colony (102km, 300 adult male settlers). 313 CAH 7.2-372, 405, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, atl4
c.313 CALATIA Campania 10km southeast of Capua taken by Rome until 307, receives a garrison. 313 CAH 7.2-372, SORH
c.313 Volscian city ATINA, 20km east of Arpinium taken by consul C. Junius Bubulcus. 313 CAH 7.2-372, DGRG 1-310
c.313 SUESSA AURUNCA, east of Formia in Latium, becomes a Latin colony (1802km, 2,500 adult male settlers). 313 CAH 7.2-391, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, DGRG 1-343, GHH, HRR, atl4
c.313 SATICULA Samnium, 20km west of Malventum, under Rome from 315, becomes a Latin colony (1952km, 2,500 adult male settlers). 313 CAH 7.2-391, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM 1-516, GHH, HRR, atl4
312 CONSULS:  M.(3) Valerius Maximus (Corvinus) and P. Decius Mus (son of Λ)(2nd) 312 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-1001, 1123, OCD 316, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.312 CENSORS:  patrician Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) and pleb C. Plautius Venox 312 B76 II-976, DGRBM 1-761, 3-514, 1237, LdHR 1-249, SORH, wikLC
C. Plautius DECIANUS: DGRBM 1-947
c.312 Censor Ap.(6) Claudius pays the Potiti clan 50,000 pounds copper, to instruct public slaves in performance of sacred rites of Hercules.  Legend says Hercules gets so angry, that the whole clan, 12 families and 30 men, die within a year. 312 DGRBM 3-514
c.312 LIBERTINI (aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves), in the 4 urban tribes from 570, distributed by censor Ap.(6) Claudius among all the tribes until 304.  This is a move to gain popularity. 312 DGRBM GHH, HRR
311 DGRA 731
c.312 C. Sulpicius Servius Longus is dictator, followed by his magister equitum C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus, in anticipation of an Etruscan attack. 312 DGRBM 1-516, 2-806, wikLRD, atl4
c.312 L. Papirius Maso is aedile. 312 DGRBM 2-970
c.312 Cult of HERCULES at Ara Maxima transferred to public supervision. 312 CAH 7.2
c.312 Consul M.(3) Valerius Maximus is sent to Samnium. 312 DGRBM 2-1001
c.312 INTERAMNA LIRENAS in Latium near the confluence of the Liris and Rapido, becomes a Latin colony (2652km, 4,000 adult male settlers), helps contain the Samnites.
(Interamna means "between rivers".)
312 CAH 7.2-372, 405, CDCC 219, DGRG 1-557, 2-55, OCD 548, SORH, atl4, wikIL
c.312 CASINUM, 10km southeast of Fregellae in Latium, becomes a Latin colony. 312 DGRG 1-557, 2-55, SORH
c.312 Patrician AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus) becomes censor (an 18 month office from 435) until 308.  He increases power of lower classes: makes some of them senators, gets freed slaves the right to hold office, distributes landless citizens among existing tribes. 312 CAH 7.2-395, Dur 3-29, MCAW 175, OCD 246, 1092, atl4
c.312 Contentious revision of senatorial roll by censor Ap.(6) Claudius.  Sons of freedmen are included.  Consuls and tribunes refuse to accept his list.  Even plebean nobility are offended. 312 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-311
c.312 TRIBAL REGISTRATION REORGANIZED by censor Ap(6) Claudius (his most important measure).  Increases voting power of city proletariat in tribal assemblies.  Livy says Appius corrupted the Forum and assemblies by distributing the lower classes (humiles), until now confined to only 4 of the 31 tribes, throughout all the tribes.  In Livy's words it transfers control of the assembly from the honest citizens to the faction of the Forum, the lowest of the low.  It is reversed in 304. 312 CAH 7.2-395
c.312 Via AppiaVIA APPIA, Rome's 1st paved road, begun from Rome to Aricia by censor Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus).  Begins as a leveled dirt road on which small stones and mortar are laid.  Gravel is laid upon this.  Tight fitting, interlocking stones provide a flat surface.  Extended 309. 312 B76 18-650, CAH 6-402, 7.2-732, CDGRA 668, DGRBM, Dur 3-29, 77, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-404, IDB 1-175, LEWH 86, MCAW 175, OCD 1117, SORH, TTS, TTT, atl4, bk, wikAW
c.312 TERRACINA (formerly Anxur) Latium, on west coast, Roman colony from 329, made more important by proximity to Via Appia. 312 wikTr
c.312 Rome's 1st AQUEDUCT, Aqua Appia begun and finished 312 by censor Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) brings water from springs in Sabine hills up to 16km away near Via Praenestina.  Mostly an underground tunnel lined with block and mortar to prevent leakage.  Constructing thru hilly areas required digging vertical shafts, at regular intervals.  Bases of each shaft were connected by tunnels.  Bridges enable the aqueduct to cross rivers and deep depressions. 313 DGRA 109
312 B76 19-649, CAH 7.2-408, CDGRA 44, Dur 3-28, 81, CDCC 769, DGRBM, OCD 89, 246, GHH, HRR, SORH, TTT, atl4, bk, rbbr, wikLA
c.312 POLLITIUM (location unknown), under the Marrunci, attacked by Romans. 312 atl4
311 CONSULS:  C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus (3rd) and Q. Aemilius Barbula (2nd) 311 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-516, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.311 C. PLAUTIUS resigns as censor as required by lex Aemilia 435, but AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus) remains as sole censor, which means he had much support in the senate and among the people.  He holds the censorship until 308. 312 atl4
311 DGRBM 1-947, 3-1237
c.311 CENSORS, in accordance with the law of 312, make changes to senate.  New consuls refuse to accept changes, but continue to summon the senate using the old list drawn up by previous censors. 311
CAH 7.2-396, Mar atl4
c.311 Decian plebiscite establishes a small fleet of triremes under 2 naval commanders, primarily to guard the coast of Latium against pirates or enemy attacks. 311
CAH 7.2-410
c.311 L. ATILIUS and C. MARCIUS are pleb tribunes. 311
DGRBM 2-944
c.311 DUUMVIRI NAVALES, 2 men assigned to equip and repair the fleet, elected by the people. 311 CDGRA 439, DGRA 439, 791, SORH
c.311  Lex Atilia et Marcia de Tribunis Militum  by pleb tribunes L. Atilius and C. Marcius:   16 out of 24 military tribunes previously appointed by consuls for the 4 legions are now to be elected by the people.  (see 361)   This policy is maintained until 207. 312 DGRA 685, wikLRL
311 CAH 7.2-373, SORH, atl4, invf, unrv
c.311 Romans lose control of Cluvia Samnium (a city of the Caraceni), but C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus quickly recaptures it. 311 CAH 7.2, atl4
c.311 CERAUNILA, in Samnium or Apulia, taken by C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus. 311 DGRG 1-590
c.311 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, taken by C. Junius Bubulcus.  Yields more loot than any other Samnite city. 311 CAH 7.2,
DGRG 1-425, 516, atl4
c.311 Etruscans, no longer threatened by Gauls, declare war on Rome. 312 GHH, HRR     311 DGRBM, SORH
c.311 SUTRIUM Etruria attacked by Etruscans, who are defeated and repulsed by Consul Q. Aemilius Barbula.  Prompts Roman intervention in a region that has been quiet since the 350s. 311 CAH 7.2-373, DGRG 1-862, SORH, atl4
c.311 TARQUINI, Etruscan city, overcome by Romans. 311 B76 IX-829
c.311 Samnites ambush Consul C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus returning from Bovianum, but Samnites are defeated, losing 20,000 men. 311 DGRBM 1-516, SORH, atl4
c.311 Consuls defeat Samnites at Talium. 311 DGRBM, atl4
310 CONSULS:  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus (2nd) and C. Marcius Rutilus 310 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-664, 2-940, 992, OCD 427, atl4, csm, wikCon
310 Aug. 15 SOLAR ECLIPSE seen in Sicily, is noted by Diodorus as being in the consulship of C. Junius Bubulcus, and Q. Aemilius Barbula. 310 Agθ 97
c.310 L. Papirius Cursor is dictator 3rd time thru 309. 310 wikLRD
c.310 P. Sempronius Sophus is pleb Tribune.  He tries to compel censor Ap.(6) Claudius to conform to Lex Aemilia 433 which limited the censor term to 18 months, but fails to stop Ap.(6) Claudius remaining in office as censor. 310 DGRBM 3-877, GHH, HRR, atl4
c.310 Etruscans renew conflict with Rome.  Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus advances into central Etruria. 310 CAH 7.2-373, DGRBM, MCAW 178, OHG
c.310 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeats an Etruscan army near Sutrium.  (see 311) 310 atl4
c.310 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus encounters the Ciminian forest, so dense that the senate tells him not to enter it.  310
DGRG 1-623
c.310 POMEPII first mentioned, when a Roman fleet lands at its port, Sarnus.  310
B76 14-789
c.310 A consul's brother, on a recon mission crosses the Ciminian forest and continues as far as Camerinum in Umbria. 311
CAH 7.2-373
c.310 CAMERINUM Umbria allies with Rome. 310 CAH 7.2
c.310 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus expedition thru Ciminian Forest, defeats Northern Etruscans at LAKE VADIMO (partly dry lake near Etruscan town of Orte). 311 OCD 293     310 B76 IV-20, DGRG 1-862, LEWH 86, OCD 427, SORH, TToH, atl4 bk, wikLRB     308 HRR
Dictator L. Papirius Cursor did it. 310 wikLRB     309 atl4
c.310 Roman victories in south Etruria. 310 CAH 7.2, GHH, HRR
c.310 ???? (later called Viterbo), Etruscan city near Sutrium, comes under Rome until 395CE. 310 B76 X-471, rcRm     309 TToH
c.310 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus defeats Etruscans and Umbrians in a 2nd battle (near Perusia).  He makes a 30 year truce with Etruscan cities:  PERUSIA, CORTONA, and ARRETIUM (see 294).  Fabius takes Castola by siege, forces Etruscans to raise the siege of Sutrium. 310 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4, rcRm no date: OCD 293
c.310 ALLIFAE Samnium, between Cales & Bovianum, taken by Consul C. Marcius Rutilus. 310 CAH 7.2, atl4, wikAlf
c.310 SAMNITES defeated by Romans at Longula. 310 CAH 7.2, HRR
c.310 1st SILVER Λ COINS struck in Rome.  Based on Greek prototypes and used in addition to cast Italic bronze coins.   (See Celts 310) 310 CAH 7.2, CDCC 587
c.309 No consuls this year.   L. Papirius Cursor, dictator 310, is dictator 4th time to rescue C. Marcius in Apulia.  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus continues as proconsul in Etruria. 309 OCD 778, DGRBM 1-905, LdHR 1-234, atl4, csm, wikCon, wikLRD
c.309 Magister equitum C. Junius Bubulcus receives a bad omen while trying to pass lex curiata. 309 atl4
c.309 ARRETIUM is only Etruscan city that does not join war against Rome. 309 DGRG 1-222
c.309 Via AppiaVIA APPIA, connecting Rome to Aricia from 312, extended to Capua before Ap.(6) Claudius censorship ends in 308. 312 brit, itgd
before censorship ends: DGRG 2-1288
c.309 NUCERIA Campania near the coast, loyal to Rome from ?, rebels, joins Samnites until 307. 309 wikNI
c.309 Dictator L. Papirius Cursor defeats Samnites, threatens an ally from Praeneste with a lictor's axe. 309 GHH, HRR, SORH, atl4
308 CONSULS:  P. Decius Mus (2nd) and Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus (3rd) 308 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-992, 1123, OCD 316, 427, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.308 UMBRIANS, PICENTINI, and MARSIANS of central Italy attack Rome, which is already warring with Samnites. 308 LEWH 86, MCAW 178, SORH
c.308 Consul P. Decius Mus campaigns successfully against Etruscans in Umbria.  Etruscans pay Romans 1 year's troop pay and clothing allowance to buy a 1 year truce. 308 CAH 7.2-373, DGRBM 2-1123, HRRP 1-351, SORH, atl4
c.308 OCRICULUM south Umbria, northwest of Falerii, allies with Rome. 308 CAH 7.2
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus sent to Samnium. 308 DGRBM 2-992
c.308 Roman deputies employed to explore the Ciminian forest and beyond it, advance as far as the Camertes and establish friendly relations with them. 308 DGRG 1-489
c.308 The Marsi and Peligni rebel. 308 GHH, HRR
c.308 Rebellion of the Marsi, Peligni, and Hernici quelled by consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus. 308 DGRBM 2-992, SORH 306 CDGRA 190
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus joins with the Marsi to fight against Samnites. 308 atl4
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus marches from Samnium to Umbria. 308 DGRBM 2-992
c.308 40 year truce of Tarquinii with Rome 351 renewed. 308 CAH 7.2-374
c.308 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus defeats Umbrians at Mevania, which surrenders. 308 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-992, atl4
c.308 Bankers shops in the Forum are adorned with gilt shields taken from the Samnites. 308 DGRA 547
c.308 Senate alone, with no plebiscite, decides to extend the imperium of consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus. 308 DGRA 960
c.308 AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus), censor from 312, finally forced to resign in order to run for consul. 308 atl4
307 DGRBM 1-768
c.308/7 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus becomes proconsul in Samnium. 308/7 DGRBM 2-992
307 CONSULS:  Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) and L. Volumnius Flamma Violens 307 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-168, OCD 246, atl4, csm, wikACC, wikCon
c.307 CENSORS:  patrician M.(3) Valerius Maximus Corvinus; pleb C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus 307 DGRBM 1-516, 2-1001, 3-364, wikLC
c.307 L. ANTONIUS expelled from the senate by censors M.(3) Valerius Maximus Corvinus and C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus. 307 DGRBM 1-516
c.307 Consul AP.(6) CLAUDIUS (possibly now blind or near blind, for which he is now called CAECUS) chooses to stay at Rome, while consul Volumnius takes charge of army. 307 atl4
c.307 Consul Volumnius attacks the Sallentini on the heel of Italy.  He is successful, and popular with his troops for liberal distribution of loot. 307 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 2-168, atl4
c.307 NUCERIA Campania near the coast, with Samnites from 309, besieged and recovered by Rome.  Gets favorable terms.  Remains loyal until 216. 308 DGRG 1-493, SORH     307 wikNI
c.307 Proconsul FABIUS decisively defeats Samnites near Allifae. 307 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, atl4, wikAlf
c.307 Romans fighting Samnites, discover some Hernici among the prisoners.  Disturbing because the Hernici are supposedly loyal to Rome. 308 HRRP 1-351 307 atl4
c.307 CALATIA (Caiatia) Campania 10km southeast of Capua, under Rome from 313, taken by Samnites until 305. 311 wikClt
307 CAH 7.2-375
306 atl4
306 CONSULS:  Q. Marcius Tremulus and P. Cornelius Arvina 306 DGRBM 1-378, 3-1172, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.306 P.(3) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus is dictator to hold elections. 306 DGRBM 3-741, wikLRD 305 atl4
c.306 P. Decius Mus is magister equitum. 306 DGRBM 2-1123
c.306 Senate calls for investigation of the HERNICI, because of Hernici POWs among the Samnite POWs 307. 306
DGRG 1-1060
c.306 The HERNICI, supposedly loyal to Rome since 358, instigated by city of Frusino, rebel against Rome.  Some Hernician cities in Latium abstain:  Ferentinum, and Aletrium and Verulae just east of it (all between Anagnia & Fregella). 306 CAH 7.2-375, DGRBM 2-132, GHH, GRG 1-85, 1060, OCD 449, 505, SORH
c.306 ANAGNIA, capital of the Hernici, falls to Marcius Tremulus, becomes city without suffrage until ?. 306 SORH, atl4, B76 1-335, OCD 57
c.306 The HERNICI easily conquered by consul Q. Marcius Tremulus, granted a truce and citizenship without suffrage.  Tremulus then marches to assist his colleague in Samnium 306 CAH 7.2-386, DGRBM 3-1172, HRR, atl4, wikHrn
c.306 SAMNITES invade Roman territory in north Campania. 306 CAH 7.2-375
c.306 SORA Latium, 5 miles north of Arpinum, under Rome from 314, taken by Samnites until 305. 307 CAH 7.2-375 306 SORH, atl4
c.306 Consul Q. Marcius Tremulus defeats Samnites. 306 CAH 7.2, GHH, HRR, atl4
c.306 Romans push into central Etruria. 306 B76 15-1090
c.306 TiburtinaVIA TIBURTINA VALERIA built by censors C. Junius Bubulcus and M.(3) Valerius Maximus from Rome to Tibur.  Extended 303. 307 CAH 7.2-375 306 atl4
286 wikVT
c.306 Rome / CarthageΛ 3rd TREATY  V (the Philinus treaty) renews previous pacts.  Romans to stay out of Sicily and eastern seas and have no trade with Sardinia and Africa, Carthage to stay out of Italy. 306 CAH 7.1-404, 7.2-532,
DGRG 1-540, MWΦ 129, SORH, atl4, bk
c.306 Temple of SALUS (safety & prosperity) begun on Quirinal hill by censor C. Junius Bubulcus in fulfillment of a vow 307.  Finished 302. 307 DGRBM 1-516, 3-702 306 CAH 7.2-408, atl4     305 LdHR 1-465
c.306 AP.(6) CLAUDIUS CAECUS, consul 307, goes blind, semi-retires.  But his freedman Gn. Flavius will carry on his agenda. 306 atl4
c.306 APOLLONIA on coast of Illyria makes treaty with Rome. 306 SORH
c.306 FERENTINUM, occupied by the Hernici, displays sufficient loyalty to Rome to be granted limited independence until 90. 306
OCD 434
c.306 Brazen statue of HERCULES installed on Capitoline Hill.. 306 DGRA 1068
c.305 Earliest Roman contacts (friendly) with Rhodes. 306 SORH    305 CAH 8-84
305 CONSULS:  L. Postumius Megellus and Ti. Minucius Augurinus
Suffete: M. Fulvius Curvus Paetinus
305 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-188, 1008, 3-83, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.305 Castor & Pollux (the Dioscuri) are now honored by the equites with an annual procession every July 15.  Equites crowned with olive wreaths march on horseback from the temple of Mars, thru the main streets of Rome across the Forum to the temple of the Dioscuri.  A sacrifice is performed by the most honored equites. 305 DGRBM 1-1054
c.305 P.(3) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus is pontifex maximus. 305 DGRBM 3-741 304 wikPM
c.305 BOVIANUM, a Samnite capital, stormed by consuls M. Fulvius and L. Postumius.  Samnite general Gellius Statius captured.   Peace treaty  signed.  Bovianum is soon evacuated. 306 B76 15-1090
305 Agθ 205, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-902, DGRG 1-425, GHH, HRR, LEWH 86, OCD 373, SORH, atl4, wikLRB
c.305 ARPINUM Latium, under Samnites from ?, taken by consuls, under Rome until ?. 305 CAH 7.2-375, DGRG 1-221, OCD 122, SORH, atl4
c.305 CESENA, near northeast coast, under Gauls from ?, taken by Romans until ?. 305 CAH 7.2, atl4
c.305 CALATIA Campania, under Samnites from 307, recovered by Romans until ?. 306 SORH
305 DGRG 1-476
c.305 SORA Latium, under Samnites from 306, recovered by consuls, under Romans until ?. 305 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-476, SORH, atl4
c.305 PAELIGNI tribe of east Samnium subjugated by Romans. 305 CAH 7.2
c.305 Consul MINUCIUS is wounded in battle against Samnites, and later dies.  Suffete M. Fulvius Curvus Paetinus replaces him. 305 DGRBM 2-188, atl4
c.305 Earthquake at Rome. 305 atl4
304 CONSULS:  P. Sempronius Sophus and P. Sulpicius Saverrio 304 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 3-728, 877, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.304 CENSORS:  patrician Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus; pleb P. Decius Mus (2nd) 304 DGRBM 2-992, 1123, HRRP 1-314, OCD 316, 427, wikLC
c.304 LIBERTINI (aka aerarii, landless freemen who were born slaves), having been distributed among all the tribes by Ap.(6) Claudius' tribal reorganization 312, are allowed to retain some of the rights given them by Appius, but again confined to the 4 urban tribes by censors P. Decius Mus and Q. Fabius Rullianus.  At some point this changes, because they are again confined to the 4 urban tribes in 220. 304 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-397, CDGRA 199, 648, DGRA 731, DGRBM 2-992, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-314, SORH, atl4
303 LdHR 1-253
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, a freedman of Ap.(6) Claudius, becomes curule aedile, an office reserved for patricians. 304 B76 IV-176, CAH 7.2-397, LEWH 86, OCD 441, 927
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, freedman of Ap.(6) Claudius, curule aedile, fraudulently makes the Fasti public by posting them in the Forum.  Fasti are chronological or calendar-based lists, or other diachronic records or plans of official and religiously sanctioned events.  This list is the origin of the written calendar, in which days are divided into weeks of 8 days each. 304 DGRA 230, wikFs
c.304 The Ferentani, Marsi, Marrucini, and Peligni voluntarily sue for alliance with Rome, and are accepted. 304 CAH 7.2,
DGRG 1-915, atl4
c.304 Consul P. Sulpicius Saverrio is sent to Samnium with a small army, while peace is negotiated. 304 DGRBM 3-728
c.304 Temple of CONCORDIA on the Clivus Capitolinus is dedicated by curule aedile Gn. Flavius Appius, whose enemies in the senate Legislate to thwart him. 304 CAH 7.2, atl4
c.304  Lex Sulpicia et Sempronia  by consuls P. Sulpicius Saverrio and P. Sempronius Sophus:  Forbids dedicating a temple or altar without consent of the senate or by a majority of tribunes. 304 DGRA 699, GHH, HRR, invf, unrv
c.304  Lex Papiria de dedicationibus  forbids consecration of real property without approval of the popular assembly. 304 wikLRL
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, a freedman of Ap.(6) Claudius, publishes  Leges Actiones" : rules of legal procedure begun by decemvirs in protecting poor from manipulation of the law by the rich. 304 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-397, LEWH 86, OCD 441, 927, SORH
c.304 Gn. FLAVIUS publishes  Jus Flavianum : The 2nd private work in Roman law, a collection of legal rules. 304  B76 IV-176, HRR, britJF
no date: DGRBM 2-173-4
c.304 Patrician jurists are indignant that their advice and intervention are rendered unnecessary by works of Gn. Flavius.  They make new rules in addition to the "Legis Actiones", and invent a CYPHER to keep them secret.  This works until 200. no date: DGRBM 2-174
304 Jul 15 Censor Q. Fabius Rullianus holds a parade of equites.  Wearing olive crowns and white robes striped with purple, they ride from the temple of Mars to the Capitol.  It is just to glorify the nobility, and made an annual event. Jul 15, 304 HRRP 1-314, atl4
c.304 Roman Λ CALENDAR V of days on which legal business is permitted (dies fasti), and days on which assemblies and courts could not convene (dies nefasti), until now published only by priests, and a formulary of legal procedures, are now published by aedile Gn. FLAVIUS, secretary of censor Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus.   (See  Babylonian 380, Eudoxos 370) 304
CAH 7.2-397 CDCC 159, Dur 3-32, GHH, HRR, SORH, wikFst
304 2nd SAMNITE WAR with Rome from 327, active from 316, ends.  Samnite control of Campania ends, but it does not come officially under Rome Treaty  of 341 renewed. 304 B76 VIII-832, 15-1090, CAH 7.2-334, 375, CDCC 456, 780, 938, DGRBM, DGRG 1-493, Dur 3-20, HRR, LdHR 1-237, LEWH 86, MCAW 178, OCD 927, 948, OHG, RAH, TToH, atl4
c.304 Rome makes peace with Samnite and Sabellian tribes: Marsi, Marrucini, Paeligni, Feranti, Vestini, Picentes. 304 SORH
c.304 Consuls turn on the AEQUI, and overwhelm them, taking 41 towns in 50 days. 304 CAH 7.2-376, DGRBM 3-877, DGRG 1-54, GHH, HRR
c.304 AEQUI tribe occupying their original areas in central Italy, are nearly exterminated by Sempronius.  The rest get citizenship without suffrage. 304 B76 I-111, CAH 7.2-316, OCD 15, atl4
c.304 The Marsi, Paeligni, Marrucini, and Frentani conclude permanent treaties of alliance with Rome. 304 CAH 7.2-376, DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.304 TARAS, under Greek oligarchy from 347, oppressed by Lucanians, makes peace with Rome, but is still pressed by Lucanians, ask Spartans to defend Taras. 304 LEWH 90, SORH
303/2 CAH 7.1-406
303 CONSULS:  Ser. Cornelius Lentulus and L. Genucius Aventinensis 303 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-418, 2-729, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.303 Gn. FLAVIUS Appius, a freedman of Ap(6) Claudius, elected a curule aedile. 303 DGRBM 2-174
c.303 Long hair and beards on Roman men go out of fashion.  Professional barbers appear in Rome and soon form guilds. 303 EOET 231
300 CDGRA 634, Dur 3-70, atl4
c.303 ALBA FUCENS in central Appenines north of Lake Fucinus founded as Latin colony (4202km, 6,000 adult male settlers). 303 CAH 7.2-376, 405,
CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, OCD 34
c.303 TREBULA granted Roman citizenship with suffrage. 303 CAH 7.2-376, SORH, atl4
c.303 ARPINUM Latium, under Rome from 305, becomes a Roman city without vote. 303 CAH 7.2-376, OCD 122, SORH, atl4     302 DGRG 1-221
c.303 SORA Latium, under Rome from 305, becomes a Latin colony (2302km, 4,000 adult male settlers). 303 CAH 7.2-376, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, OCD 1003, SORH, atl4
c.303 Spartan CLEONYMOS invited to help Taras against the Lucanians, lands 5,000 mercenaries at Taras, hires another 5,000, rules Taras until 303/2. 304 rcSI     304/3 Agθ 205/6
303 DGRBM 1-799, OCD 251, wikCS     303/2 CAH 7.1, 7.2
no date: LEWH 90
c.303 ValeriaVIA VALERIA, a continuation of the Via Tiburtina 306 from Rome to Tibur, extended east from Tibur to Alba Fucens.  (see 220) 303 SORH
c.303/2 Spartan CLEONYMOS, ruler of Taras 304-02, scares Lucanians into making peace with Taras.  Success leaving him unemployed, he attacks METAPONTUM, extorts 600 talents from citizens, annexes METAPONTUM to Sparta, abducts 200 noble maidens as hostages. 304/3 Agθ 205/6 303 wikCS
302 OCD 251
c.303/2 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse enters south Italy until 293. 303/2 CAH 7.1
c.303/2 Out of favor at Taras, Spartan CLEONYMUS sails to Corcyra.  Taras restores its oligarchy until 272, calls in AGATHOCLES of Syracuse. 303 rcSI     303/2 CAH 7.1, wikCS
no date: Agθ 207, LEWH 90
302 CONSULS:  pleb M. Livius Denter and M.(1) Aemilius Paulus 302 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-993, 1076, 3-153, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.302 Temple of SALUS, begun 306 on Quirinal hill, finished with paintings of Fabius Pictor.  Art, until now something to be stolen, is now also to be created. 302 HRRP 1-543
c.302 Consuls attack the Aequi, and are repulsed. 302 DGRBM 1-993
c.302 CARSIOLI becomes Latin colony. 302 B76 I-111
c.302 C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus is appointed dictator to deal with the Aequi, followed by M. Valerius Corvus (2nd time). 302 DGRBM 1-516, 3-364, wikLRD
c.302 M. Titinius is magister equitum to dictator Bubulcus Brutus. 302 DGRBM 3-1158
c.302 ARRETIUM has popular uprising against aristocracy.  Romans intervene for aristocracy. 302 CAH 7.2-387, bk
c.302 AEQUI tribe, renew the war, but are easily subdued on 1st encounter by dictator C. Junius Bubulcus, who returns to Rome in 7 days.  He does not resign dictatorship until he has dedicated his Temple of SALUS (safety) on Quirinal hill, begun 306. 302 CAH 7.2-408, DGRBM 1-516, DGRG 1-86, 516, GHH, HRR, SORH, atl4
c.302 Aequi city of ALBA FUCENS is occupied by 6,000 Roman colonists, becomes a fortress city. 302 DGRG 1-86
c.302 Romans begin annual campaigns into Etruria and Umbria. 302 CAH 7.2-377
c.302 VESTINI tribe allies with Rome. 302 CAH 7.2-376, atl4
c.302 The complete text of Diodorus ends with 302. CAH 7.2-380
c.302 Spartan CLEONYMUS sails from Corcyra back to Italy, conquers a city called Thuriae (location unknown).  consul M.(1) Aemilius Paulus defeats him near Thuri and forces him back to his ships.  Cleonymus then sails north across the Adriatic and lands at the coast of the Veneti.  He sails up the Meduacus River to the country of Patavium and raids villages.  The natives defeat him.  ⅘ of his ships are destroyed.  It is unknown how his campaign ends.  Cleonymus returns to Corcyra. 302 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-153, atl4, wikCS
no date:
Agθ 208, DGRBM 1-799
c.301 The Marsi object to a senate-proposed colony in Marsi territory on the Via Valeria 65km from Rome.  The Marsi send troops to occupy that territory. 301
DGRG 1-526
c.301 No consuls this year. 301 DGRBM 3-153
c.301 M. Valerius Maximus Corvus, age 70, is dictator (3rd time) to deal with the Marsi. 301 OCD 1105, DGRBM 1-862, atl4, wikCon, wikLRD
M. V. M. Rullianus: csm
Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus: DGRBM 3-153
c.301 C. Sempronius Sophus is magister equitum. 301 DGRBM
c.301 The CILNII, an Etruscan family of Arretium, driven out for pro-Roman interests, but soon restored by Romans. 301
DGRG 1-748
c.301 Dictator M. Valerius Corvus defeats the Marsi, takes several of their fortified towns, including Milionia, Plestina, and Fresilia. 301 DGRBM 1-862, atl4
c.301 Dictator M. Valerius Corvus marches from Marsi land to Etruria, but has to return to Rome to renew his appointment. 301 DGRBM 1-862, atl4
c.301 While dictator Corvus is in Rome, his magister equitum Sempronius Sophus is attacked, and loses some men and standards.  Losing men - no big deal.  Losing standards causes a panic. 301 DGRBM 1-862, atl4
c.301 ALBA attacked by the Marsi, who are defeated. 301 SORH
c.301 Dictator M. Valerius Corvus returns from Rome, defeats Etruscans near Rusellae, after which they agree to a 2 year truce. 301 atl4
From 302 to 290, ten temples are built in Rome. HRRP 1-407

Italy 300-201
V