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Italy
c.340 The MARSI of central Italy allow Romans to pass thru their land. 340 OCD 651
c.340 LATIN LEAGUE (Antium, Aricia, Lanuvium, and Velitrae) sends 2 of their praetors with 10 men of their senate to propose terms of union with Rome.  Latium and Rome are to form one state but 1 of the 2 consuls is to be Latin.  The Roman senate is doubled by admission of 300 Latin members.  Latin tribes to have equal vote with Roman tribes in comitia.  Rome refuses. 341
MCAW 163 340 LdHR 1-208, SORH
c.340 Latin envoy L. ANNIUS comes to Rome, demands Latin equality with Romans.  Under circumstances obscured by Romans, he falls down the steps of the temple of Jupiter, and dies. 340 DGRBM 1-181
c.340 Rome / Latin War begins until 338.  Latin cities secede from Latin League.  Rome declares war on Latin League.  Some Tusculans join Latins.  The Hernici remain loyal to Rome. 341 CAH 7.2-360, CDCC 780
340 CAH 7.2-319, CDGRA 370, DGRG 1-211, 1060, Dur 3-37, CDCC 220, GHH, HRRP 1-322, LEWH 85, OCD 1100, RAH, SHWC 103, SORH
no date: OCD 505
340 July CONSULS:  patrician T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus (3rd) and pleb P. Decius Mus (dad of V) 340 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-1123, 3-1163, OCD 316, csm, wikCon
c.340 Consuls T.(1) Manlius Torquatus and P. Decius Mus defeat LATIN LEAGUE and Campanians at Trifanum and Veseris (Vesuvius) on coast of Campania east of Neapolis, confiscates Latin Land, then gives them lenient terms, granting many cities citizenship.  They are now friends of Rome. 340
CAH 7.2-362,
DGRBM 3-1163, DGRG 1-493, Dur 3-37, MCAW 166-7, SORH
c.340 At Veseris (Vesuvius), consul T.(1) Manlius Torquatus decrees death to any soldier who leaves his post.  His son sees an opportunity for glory, leaves his post with his friends, defeats several Latins, and brings back spoils.  Some sources say he kills Tusculum cavalry commander, Geminus Maecius in single combat.  Titus beheads his son for it. 340 CAH 7.2-362,
DGRBM 3-1163, HRRP 1-323, MCAW 169, wikTMT
c.340 At Veseris, consul P. Decius Mus "devotes himself" and the enemy to Janus, Mars, and Bellona with elaborate religious ritual visible to both armies.  He then wraps himself in his toga, charges into the opposing ranks and is killed.  A quarter of the Latin army is spooked enough to desert the battle.  Campania is conquered by Manlius. 340
CAH 7.2-362, DGRBM, GHH, HRRP 1-324
c.340 L.(4) Papirius Crassus is praetor and made dictator to deal with the Latins because consul Decius Mus is dead and consul Manlius Imperiosus is sick. 340 DGRBM 1-882, HRRP 1-324, wikLRD
c.340 L. Papirius Cursor is magister equitum to dictator L.(4) Papirius Crassus. 340 DGRBM 1-904
c.340 Dictator L.(4) Papirius Crassus marches against Antium, camps by it several months, does nothing. 340 DGRBM 1-882, HRRP 1-325
c.340 CAMPANIANS are punished for rebellion by forfeiting the fertile wine country north of Volturnus river to Rome.  It is now called "Falernus ager" (probably after a town named Faleria) and given to plebs. 340 DGRG 1-493, 892, HRRP 1-324
c.340 The equites of Capua (equites Campani), who had opposed defection from Rome, are rewarded with full rights of Roman citizens; with an annual stipend of 450 denarii each, levied on the rest of Capua, which gets only citizenship without suffrage. 340 DGRG 1-493, HRRP 1-324
c.340 ARICIA Latium, in Latin League from 500, comes under Rome until 990CE. 340 rcRm
c. 340 Roman army is reorganized by Camillus.  Arms and tactics of the phalanx are abandoned.  A legion forms in 3 to 5 lines.
1st line consists of "Hasti", young sturdy men distributed in 15 maniples.  A maniple has 60 privates, 2 centurions, and a vexilarius (standard bearer).  2/3 are heavy armed and carry a scutum (oblong shield).  1/3 carry only a hasta (spear) and light gacsa (javelins)
2nd line consists of "Principes", age 20-30 distributed in 15 maniples, all heavy armed, with impressive equipment.
3rd line consists of "Triari", tried veterans, also in 15 divisions, but each division contains 3 maniples of 180 privates, 6 centurions, and 3 vexilarii.  The 2nd line of a triari is called a rorari, composed of men of inferior prowess.  The 3rd line of a triari is called an accensi, composed of supernumeraries of least reliability.
340 CDGRA 375, DGRA 494-5
c. 340 RIGHTS of Roman citizens:
  1.   marriage with any other family of citizens
  2.   making legal contracts of bargain and sale
  3.   bequeathing and inheriting property
  4.   voting in Popular Assembly, Comitia Centuriata, Comitia Tributa
  5.   to be elected to all state offices
340 LdHR 1-216
340/39 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 165,000 or 160,000 adult males. 340 csun     340/39 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179
339 Jul CONSULS:  patrician Ti. Aemilius Mamercinus and pleb Q. Publilius Philo 339 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 3-298, 603, OCD 899, csm, wikCon
c.339 Pleb consul Q. Publilius Philo is appointed dictator by consul Aemilius Mamercinus for an unknown reason.  Philo is Rome's 1st pleb dictator. 340 LdHR 1-215
c.339  Leges Publiliae Philonis de Plebiscitis , 3 laws by pleb dictator Q. Publilius Philo further restricting patrician priviliges:  (Parts are similar to Lex Valeria-Horatia 449 and Lex Maenia 288):  Require 1 of the 2 censors and 1 of the 2 consuls to be pleb.  PLEBISCITES get the force of law, and are binding on the whole community, if they are subsequently ratified by the senate (repeated 287).  For regular laws, Senatorial consent is given in advance.  Veto power of senate ends.  This gets Philo senatorial hatred for the rest of his life. 340 LdHR 1-215
339 CAH 7.2-185, 217, 342, 394, CDGRA 97, 199, DGRA 261, 337, 928, DGRBM 3-298, Dur 3-20, EDRL 558, GHH, HRRP 1-291, LEWH 85, OCD 219, 899, 927, SORH, invf, unrv, wikLRL
337 DGRA 334
336 DGRBM 2-525
c.339 Some Latins again rebel until 338. 339 CAH 7.2-362, DGRBM
c.339 Q. Publilius Philo is appointed dictator by colleague Mamercinus to fight Latins.  339 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.339 Decimus(1) Junius Brutus Scaeva is magister equitum. 339 DGRBM 1-508
338 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius 338 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-592, 2-896, csm, wikCon
c.338 ARCHIDAMOS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta from 360, mercenary for Taras, in Italy from 342, killed in battle with Lucanians at Manduria (Mandonium) Iapygia.  Son AGIS-III, succeeds to 331. 338 CAH 6, 7.2, DGRG 1-473, GHH, MCAW 166, OCD 27, 98, 643, 1007, 1037, SORH, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.338 Consul C. Maenius totally defeats combined forces of Antium, Lanuvium, Aricia, and Velitrae in the plain near Asturia where Asturia stream reaches the coast of Latium. 338
DGRG 1-249, HRRP 1-325
c.338 Consul Furius Camillus defeats Latins at Mt. Algidus. 338 GHH, HRRP 1-325-6
c.338 Consuls L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius crush the Latins at Trifanum on the coast, defeat the fleet of Volscian Antium. 338 OCD 199, 636
T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus did it. 338 LEWH 85, wikLRB
c.338 ECONOMY:  Copper Λ COINS V issued in Rome - a pound of copper called an "as".  They have an image of a sheep, hog, or ox on them, and are therefore called pecunia (pecus = cattle).  It generates so much borrowing as to produce a financial crisis.  Merchants use Greek silver drachmas. 347 MCAW 163 338 Dur 3-78, TToH
c.338 BANKING stalls begin in Roman forum. 338 MCAW 167
c.338 Roman territory, 1582 km2 in 396, is now 5525 km2, population 347,300 persons. 338
CAH 7.2-403
c.338 Latin city of TIBUR, 30km northeast of Rome on the Anio, taken by L. Furius Camillus. 338 CDCC 892, DGRBM 1-592
c.338 VELITRAE Latium taken by Romans.  Walls destroyed, ruling class banished.  Land of dispossessed aristocrats is distributed to Roman settlers, remaining Veliterni are given Roman citizenship. 338 CAH 7.2-365
c.338 Latin stronghold PEDUM in front of Mt. Algidus taken by Consul Furius Camillus. 339 LdHR 1-214
338 CAH 7.2-362, HRRP 1-325
c.338 Rome / Latin War from 340 ends with fall of city of Pedum. 339 LdHR 1-214     338 BCoC 486, CAH 7.2-265, CDCC 220, 780, CDGRA 190, Dur 3-20, GHH, LEWH 85, RAH, SORH
c.338 LATIN LEAGUE, existing from 508, dissolved by consuls L. Furius Camillus and C. Maenius.  Nearly all cities of Latium incorporated into Roman states of Lanuvium, Aricia, Nomentum, and Pedum.  Their citizens in Rome get full suffrage.  Fundi, Formiae, Capua, and other Campanian towns get their citizen rights removed. 340 CDGRA 370
338 BCoC 482, CAH 7.2-265, Dur 3-37, LdHR 1-286, LEWH 85, OCD 26, 199, SORH, umucNap
c.338 From now on, every Roman field army is comprised of both citizen troops (in the legions) and contingents of allies. 338
CAH 7.2-386
c.338 NOMENTUM northwest of Fidenae on the edge of Sabine territory, annexed by Rome. 338 OCD 737, SORH
c.338 CUMAE V, under Samnites from 425, comes under Rome until 180, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-717, OCD 301, rcSI, wikCum
c.338 Dikaiarcheia (later Puteoli), adjacent to Neapolis, becomes a Roman dependency. 338 CDCC 735, OCD 901
c.338 CAPUA V, under a Roman garrison from 343, becomes a Roman dependency without suffrage until ?. 338 CAH 7.2, CDCC 163, OCD 901, wikCap
c.338 FORMIA, a Volcian town which had taken no part in the war, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-905, OCD 444
c.338 Volcian FUNDI Latium, which had taken no part in the war, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-905
c.338 SUESSULA, Campania between Capua and Nola, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-905
c.338 VOLSCI get Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 OCD 703
c.338 CAMPANIA gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 338 OCD 703
c.338 Romans isolate Latin cities by making treaties with each individually, and forbidding them mutual trade and intermarriage. 338 SORH
c.338 ANTIUM conquered, forced to surrender fleet, colonized by Romans.  Inhabitants become Roman citizens.  A Roman garrison is established to guard the coast. 338 CAH 7.2-365, 391, OCD 265, 834
c.338 TUSCULUM:  ringleaders executed, Roman citizenship restored. 338 CAH 7.2-365
c.338 C. MAENIUS decorates the speaker's platform with beaks of defeated ships from Antium.  These beaks are called rostra, and the speaker's platform becomes called a rostrum. 338 OCD 446, 937, SORH
337 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Servius Longus and P. Aelius Paetus 337 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-27, 2-806, 3-83, csm, wikCon
c.337 C.(2) Claudius Inrelligensis is dictator. 337 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.337 C. Claudius Hortator is magister equitum. 337 DGRBM
c.337 Vestal virgin MINUCIA (Misurtia), fond of pretty clothing, is accused of violating her vows, buried alive near the Colline Gate by state order. 337 DGRBM 2-1091, GHH, HRRP 1-328
c.337 Office of PRAETOR, created in 367 and reserved for patricians, is now opened to plebs.  Q. Publilius Philo is 1st PLEB PRAETOR.  (see 242) 337 CAH 7.2-335, CDGRA 487, 515, DGRA 956, DGRBM 3-298, Dur 3-24, GHH, HRRP 1-292, OCD 99, unrv     336 CAH 7.2, DGRA 927
c.337 The mountain tribe of Aurunci (aka Ausones), being hard pressed by the Sidicini of Teanum and Cales, abandon AURUNCA, and go to Suessa east of Formia.  They fortify Suessa.  Aurunca is destroyed by the Sidicini and never rebuilt. 337
DGRG 1-343, HRRP 1-327
c.337 Campaigns against Sidicini, Aurunci, and Volsci. 337 CAH 7.2
336 Jul. CONSULS:  L.(4) Papirius Crassus and Kaeso Duilius 336 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-882, 1090, 3-118, csm, wikCon
c.336 Temple of CONCORD, vowed 367, built in the west end of the Forum on the Capitoline Hill. 336 OCD 446
c.336 Consul L.(4) Papirius Crassus campaigns against the Sidicini of Cales. 336 DGRBM 1-882
c.336 Further campaigns against the Sidicini until 335. 336 CAH 7.2
c.336/5 Teanum and adjacent Sidicinum, on the Latium/Campania border, taken by Rome. 336/5 CAH 7.2
335 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Atilius Regulus Calenus and M. Valerius Corvus (4th) 335 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-405, 862, 3-642, OCD 1105, wikCon
c.335 Both consuls march against the Sidicini. 335 DGRBM 3-642
c.335 CALES Campania, a strategic site on the route from Rome to Capua, under the Sidicini from ?, taken by M. Valerius Corvus. 336/5 CAH 7.2     335 CAH 7.2-368, DGRBM 1-862, GHH, LdHR 1-220, wikCl     334 SORH
no date: HRRP 1-327
c.335 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas is dictator to hold elections, because consuls are away. 335 DGRBM 2-911, wikLRD
c.335 Q. Publilius Philo is magister equitum. 335 DGRBM 3-298
c.335 Muscle cuirassMUSCLE CUIRASS, dating from 5th century, is worn only by generals and emperors.  This one from south Italy, like most archaeological finds, is relatively unadorned, but in sculpture, it is often ornamented with mythological scenes. photo: Alexander VanLoon

340-30 wikMC
334 Jul. CONSULS:  Sp. Postumius Albinus and T. Veturius Calvinus 334 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-91, 586, csm, wikCon
c.334 P. Cornelius Rufinus is made dictator, but is obliged to lay down his office because of a fault in the auspices at his election.  M.(1) Antonius is his magister equitum. 334 DGRBM 1-212, 3-665
c.334 Consuls Albinus and Calvinus invade Sidicini territory. 334 DGRBM 1-91
c.334 Kaeso Duilius is triumvir to conduct a colony to Cales. 334 DGRBM 1-1090
c.334 Rome and the Gauls, at intermittent war from 390, make peace treaty. 335 GHH
334 DGRBM, LEWH 85
c.334 CALES Campania, an Ausonian town, under Rome from 335, becomes a Latin colony (1002km).  Colonized by 2,500 Roman plebs, Latins, and other allies. 334 CAH 7.2-368, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, GHH, LdHR 1-220, SORH     333 DGRG 1-345
no date: DGRBM 1-862, HRRP 1-327-8
c.334 Rome and Taras make peace treaty.  Tarentines agree not to send warships into Tarentine Gulf. 334
OCD 1037
c.334 Greeks in Italy, under Taras invite ALEXANDER-I king of Molossia in Epirus to rule them, and keep the natives away.  He arrives with 15 warships and does so until 331/0, campaigns successfully against the Iapygii (Apulii), Lucanii, Bruttii, and Samnites. 337 GHH     334 Agθ 32, CAH 6-440, 7.2, LEWH 80, MCAW 168, bk, lvG, lvS
332 DGRBM 1-116, GHH, LdHR 1-221
c.333 ALEXANDER-I king of Molossia in Epirus 342-30, mercenary leader working for Taras, defeats Lucanians, conquers most of south Italy, but then quarrels with his employers. 334 OCD 1037
333 OCD 41
332 DGRBM
326 OCD 621
c.333 No consuls are known for this year - possibly L. Papirius Cursor and C. Poetelius Libo Visolus.  P. Cornelius Rufinus is dictator.
333 DGRBM 1-904, 2-779, csm, wikCon, wikLRD
332 Jul. CONSULS:  Gn. Domitius Calvinus and Aulus Cornelius Cossus Arvina (2nd) 332 CAH 7.2-640, csm, wikCon
c.332 Λ CENSORS V patrician Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus and pleb Q. Publilius Philo 332 DGRBM 1-91, 3-298, wikLC
c.332  Lex Papiria de Civitate Acerranorum  by praetor L. Papirius:  Citizenship without suffrage granted to inhabitants of Acerrae. 332 DGRA 695, invf, unrv
c.332 ACERRAE Campania, 20km northeast of Neapolis, gets Roman citizenship without suffrage. 332 CAH 7.2-367, DGRBM 3-298, DGRG 1-11, GHH, SORH
c.332 Roman TRIBES, 27 from 358, increased to 29 until 318 by addition of MAECIA and SCAPTIA, created by censor, Q. Publilius Philo. 332 CAH 7.2-403, DGRA 1156, DGRBM 3-298, GHH, LdHR 1-217, OCD 899, SORH
c.332 Lanuvium Latium is incorporated into tribe Maecia. 332 CAH 7.2-366
c.332 Velitrae Latium is incorporated into tribe Scaptia. 332 CAH 7.2-366
c.332 M. Papirius Crassus is appointed dictator to fight Gauls, who were falsely reported to have invaded. 332 DGRBM 1-882, wikLRD, wikRGG
c.332 P. Valerius Poplicola is magister equitum. 332 DGRBM 3-602
c.332 Cornelius Callissa is pontifex maximus. 332 wikPM
c.332 METAPONTUM on south coast sides with Alexander of Epirus. 332 DGRG 2-347
c.332 ALEXANDER-I, king of Molossia in Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy 334-31/0, begins war with Samnites and Lucani. 332 GHH
c.332 ALEXANDER-I, king of Molossia in Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy 334-31/0, has victories over Samnites, Lucanians, and Brutti, makes a  treaty  with Rome for joint attack on Samnites. 332 DGRBM GHH, SORH
331 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Valerius Potitus Flaccus and M.(1) Claudius Marcellus 331 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-927, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.331 Gn. Quinctius Varus Capitolinus is dictator. 331 DGRBM 3-1230, wikLRD
c.331 C. Valerius Potitus Flaccus is magister equitum. 331 DGRBM 3-515
c.331 PLAGUE hits Rome.  A slave girl tips off an aedile that they were being poisoned.  Aediles investigate and blame it on some Roman women.  190 are condemned and executed. 331 CDGRA 665, DGRA 1188, HRRP 1-328
c.331 Roman patricians CORNELIA and SERGIA plan to poison some statesmen.  A slave girl tips off an aedile.  Cornelia, Sergia, and their accomplices are caught preparing some drugs over a fire.  The magistrates require the women to drink them, and they die. 331 DGRBM 1-854, 3-787
329 CDGRA 602
c.331 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus is curule aedile.  A female slave tells him that Roman women are poisoning their husbands. 331 DGRBM 2-991
c.331 Romans make peace with Gauls, who do not return for another 30 years. 331
CAH 7.2-321
c. 331/0 ALEXANDER-I, king of Molossia in Epirus from 342, ruler of Greeks in Italy from 334, defeated by Samnites at PANDOSIA near Heraclea Lucania.  Murdered by one of his allies.  Widow Cleopatra returns to Epirus. 332 GHH     331 B76 III-926, CAH 6-441, MCAW 170, MRDK, lvG, rcSB2, wikAl1Ep     331/0 Agθ 32, CAH 7.2     330 CDCC 325, LEWH 80, OCD 41, 400, bk, wikAryb
326 DGRBM 1-116, 3-610
330 Jul. CONSULS:  L.(4) Paprius Crassus (2nd) and L. Plautius Venno 330 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-882, 3-1237, csm, wikCon
c.330 PRIVERNUM Latium, a newly conquered Volscian city, under Vitruvius Vaccus of Fundi, stirred up by Samnites, rebels against Rome until 329. 330 CAH 7.2, GHH       329 HRRP 1-333, LdHR 1-221
c.330 FUNDI (between Anxur & Formia) and PRIVERNUM Latium, under Vitruvius Vaccus of Fundi, ravage territory of Cora, Norba, and Setia. 330 DGRBM 3-1202, 1237, DGRG 1-667, GHH
c.330 Consuls L.(4) Crassus and Venno campaign against Fundi and Privernum Latium. 330 DGRBM 1-882, DGRBM 3-1202, 1237
c.330 The Bruttii resume attacks on Greek cities of south Italy.  Croton appeals to Syracuse. 330
CAH 7.1-385
c.330 Syracusans help Croton against the Bruttii. 330 CAH 7.2
c.329 Consuls and consular tribunes entered office on the kalends (1st) of July (then called Quintilis) from 397.  It is not known what month they enter office until 223. 329 DGRA 353
c.329 CIRCUS MAXIMUS between the Palatine and Aventine hills from 605, receives its first permanent starting gates.   See 174. 329 avoc
329 CONSULS:  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (2nd) and C. Plautius Decianus 329 CAH 7.2-640,
DGRBM 1-947, 2-911, wikCon
c.329 Volscian ANXUR Latium, on west coast, under Romans from 400, refounded as a citizen colony by 300 Roman settlers as TERRACINA.  A Roman garrison is established to guard the coast. 329 CAH 7.2-365, 391, CDCC 219, 861, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 265, 1039, SORH, wikTr
c.329 PRIVERNUM Latium, at war with Rome from 330, surrenders to consul L. Aemilius Mamercinus, who is henceforth called Privernas.  Privernum gets its walls destroyed and Roman citizenship without suffrage.  Rebel leader Vitruvius Vaccus will be executed at Rome. 329 CAH 7.2-367,
DGRBM 2-911, 3-529, GHH, HRRP 1-333, SORH, bk
328 CONSULS:  C. Plautius Decianus (or C. Plautius Proculus?) and P.(3) Cornelius (Scapula or Scipio Barbatus?) 328 CAH 7.2-640,
DGRBM 3-741, csm, wikCon
c.328 The Volscii of FABRATERIA (10km south of Fregellae) are attacked by Samnites, and appeal to Rome. 328
LdHR 1-221
c.328 Senate warns Samnites to quit attacking Latin areas. 328
LdHR 1-221
c.328 M. FLAVIUS, at the funeral of his mother, distributes meat to the plebs, in grattitude for their having caused his acquittal of a previous adultery charge. 328 DGRBM 2-172
c.328 FREGELLAE Latium on the east bank of the Liris at the junction with the Trerus, under Samnites from ?, restored, made a Latin colony (3052km, 4,000 adult male settlers) by Rome until 326, provoking 2nd Samnite War. 328 CAH 7.2-368, 405, CDCC 219, 780, DGRBM, DGRG 1-913, GHH, LdHR 1-221, OCD 448, SORH     326 LEWH 86
327 CONSULS:  L.(2) Cornelius Lentulus and Q. Publilius Philo (2nd) 327 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-729, 3-298, OCD 899, csm, wikCon
c.327 M.(1) Claudius Marcellus is dictator to hold elections. 327 DGRBM, wikLRD
c.327 Patrician Sp. Postumius Albinus Caudinus is magister equitum. 327 DGRBM 1-91
c.327 PALAEPOLIS (just west of Neapolis), under Greeks from 800, but now partly Samnite, is visited by Roman delegation complaining of pirates and other attacks on Romans in Campania.  Palaepolis, confident of aid from local Greeks and Samnites, refuses to give satisfaction. 327 LdHR 1-222
c.327 Senate sends consul L. Publilius Philo to besiege Palaepolis.  2,000 Nolans and 4,000 Samnites garrison Palaepolis.  Philo camps with Palaepolis on the west and Neapolis on the east.        327 DGRBM 3-298, LdHR 1-222, SORH
c.327 NEAPOLIS, under Greeks from 600, taken over by Samnites until 326, with help of an internal Samnite faction. 327 CAH 7.2-369, LdHR 1-222, umucNap
c.327 NEAPOLIS, under a Samnite garrison 327-6, besieged by L. Publilius Philo.  Populace is divided.  Poor favor Samnites; rich favor Romans. 327
CAH 7.2-369
c.327/6 2nd Λ SAMNITE WAR with Rome begins until 321.  Ends 304. 328 CDCC 938, bk     327 Agθ 32, CAH 7.2-334,
CDCC 780, Dur 3-20, GHH, OCD 948, OHG, SORH, TToH     326 B76 IV-20, 15-1090, CAH 7.2, CDCC 174, 456, DGRBM 1-904, LdHR 1-224, LEWH 86, MCAW 170, OCD 927, RAH
c.326 Consul Q. Publilius Philo is about to take Neapolis from Samnites when his consulate runs out.  Roman populace votes to extend his imperium.  He becomes Rome's 1st PRO-CONSUL with authority in Neapolis only. 327 CDGRA 517, DGRA 960
326 CAH 7.2-347, DGRBM 3-298, HRRP 1-292, LdHR 1-223, LEWH 86, OCD 880, 899
c.326 PALAEPOLIS, Greek city in Campania, besieged by proconsul Q. Publilius Philo, betrayed by Greeks Charilaus and Nymphius, who coax the Samnite garrison out of the town, then deliver it to Philo, which causes neighboring Neapolis to make treaty with Rome.  Palaepolis drops out of history. 326 DGRBM 3-298, DGRG 1-493, GHH, LdHR 1-223, SORH
323 DGRBM 1-685, 2-1217
c.326 NEAPOLIS, under Samnites from 327, besieged from 327, delivered by pro-Roman faction to proconsul Q. Publilius Philo.  Neapolis then allies with Rome, bringing Rome into conflict with Samnite hill tribes.  Philo, having succeeded, returns to Rome.  "Naples" is under Rome until 396CE. 327 LEWH 86, OCD 725, 899     326 B76 12-827,
CAH 7.2-369, LdHR 1-223, OCD 927, rcSI
326 Q. PUBLILIUS PHILO is 1st Roman allowed a triumph before resigning his office. 326 LdHR 1-223
c.326 ALLIFAE Samnium, between Cales & Bovianum, taken by Consul C. Marcius Rutilus. 326 wikAlf
c.326 Western Samnium invaded by Romans. 326 CAH 7.2-369
c.326 APULIA, southeast Italy, allies with Rome until ?. 326 DGRG 1-165, SORH
c.326 LUCANIA allies with Rome until ?. 326 SORH
326 CONSULS:  C. Poetilius Libo Visolus (3rd?) and L. Papirius (Cursor or Mugillanus?) 326 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-904? 2-779, OCD 778, csm, wikCon
c.326 C. Publilius, a boy who had given himself to slavery (as a nexus), to pay his father' debts, is treated so cruelly by usurer, L. Papirius, as to rouse the people to legal action. 326 HRRP 1-306
no date:
DGRBM 3-603
c.326  Lex Poetelia Papiria de Nexis  by consul C. Poetelius against actions of a money-lender named L. Papirius:  Forbids bondage and enslavement for private debts.  Only the property of the debtor can be confiscated. 327 DGRA 207, 696, 797     326 DGRBM 3-603, Dur 3-20, EDRL 557, GHH, HRRP 1-551, OCD 731, SORH, invf, wikLRL
326 or 313 CAH 7.2-215, 333
c.326 FREGELLAE, Latin colony from 328, annexed by Rome until 320. 326 LEWH 86
325 CONSULS:  patrician L. Furius Camillus and pleb D.(1) Junius Brutus Scaeva 325 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-508 592, OCD 199, csm, wikCon
c.325 Consul L. Furius Camillus is sent to Samnium to fight the Vestini, but gets sick. 325 DGRBM 1-592
c.325 Consul L. Furius Camillus is forced by illness to nominate L. Papirius Cursor dictator to continue the war.  Cursor is dictator thru 324. 325 DGRBM 1-592, 904, wikLRD
c.325 Dictator Papirius Cursor gets bad chicken omens at his camp.  He leaves magister equitum Fabius Rullianus in charge, with orders not to attack, while Cursor goes to Rome to get better omens. 324 HRRP 1-335
c.325 SAMNITES defeated at Imbrinium (location unknown) by magister equitum Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus.  Dictator Papirius Cursor learns of it and returns.  He threatens to beat and execute Rullianus, but the troops threaten mutiny.  Execution is postponed until next day. 325 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-369, OCD 427
324 GHH, HRRP 1-336
c.325 Magister equitum Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus escapes and returns to Rome.  Papirius Cursor follows him and tries in vain to get the senate to deliver Rullianus for execution.  Papirius Cursor returns to camp, and finds his army about to mutiny. 325 LdHR 1-228
324 HRRP 1-336
c.325 Magister equitum Q.(1) Fabius Maximus abdicates to L.(4) Papirius Crassus (not Cursor). 325 DGRBM 1-882, 904, 2-991
c.325 VESTINI Sabines, allies of the Samnites, attacked and conquered by consul D.(1) Junius Brutus. 325 CAH 7.2-369, DGRBM 1-508
c.325 CINGILIA (location unknown), a Vestini town, taken by consul D.(1) Junius Brutus. 325 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-508, DGRG 1-625
c.325 CUTINA, a Vestini town, taken by consul D.(1)Junius Brutus. 325 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-508
c.325 AGATHOCLES, exiled from Syracuse, goes to Italy until 322, attacks Croton unsuccessfully, takes refuge in Taras.  He is soon expelled. 326 Agθ 43-44, CAH 7.1-387
c.324 Dictator L. Papirius CURSOR and magister equitum L.(4) Papirius CRASSUS are reinstated by senate. 324 DGRBM, OCD 778, csm, wikCon
c.324 Dictator L. Papirius CURSOR defeats Samnites. 324 DGRBM, GHH     323 HRRP 1-337
323 CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Servius Longus (2nd) and Q. Aulius Cerretanus 323 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-435, 674, 2-806, csm, wikCon
c.323 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 150,000 adult males. 323 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179
c.323 M. FLAVIUS is tribune.  He urges chastisement of the Tusculans for inciting the Veliternii and Privernii to oppose Rome.  Tusculans send reps to Rome, which plead mercy, and are spared. 323 DGRBM 2-172
c.323 Apulia and Lucania ally against Romans. 323 GHH
c.323 Romans operate in Samnium. 323 CAH 7.2
c.323 Samnites sue for peace. 323 HRRP 1-337
c.323 Consul Aulius Cerretanus operates in Apulia. 323 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-674
c.323 Tusculum wavers in loyalty.  Velitrae, and Privernum declare independence.  Senate averts a war by granting them all full citizenship. 323 HRRP 1-337
322 CONSULS:  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus and L. Fulvius Curvus 322 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-188, 991, OCD 427, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.322 Aulus Cornelius COSSUS Arvina is dictator. 322 wikLRD     320 DGRBM 1-378
c.322 M. Fabius Ambustus is magister equitum. 322 DGRBM
c.322 Samnite Papius Brutulus raises rebellion against Romans. 322 DGRBM 3-116
c.322 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus is sent to Apulia.  He defeats Samnites. 322 DGRBM 2-992, GHH
c.322 Dictator Aulus Cornelius COSSUS Arvina defeats Samnites. 322 CAH 7.2-369, atl4
c.322 AGATHOCLES exiled in Italy from 325, returns to Syracuse. 322 CAH 6, 7.1, Agθ 44
c.322 Senate refuses to discuss peace with Samnite envoys. 322 atl4     321 SORH
c.322 RHEGIUM, attacked by Syracusan oligarchs Sostratus and Heracleides, who want to replace its democracy with an oligarchy.  Rhegium is defended by Agathocles of Syracuse. 322 atl4,
CAH 7.1-387
c.322 SOSTRATUS, oligarch of Syracuse, besieging RHEGIUM from ?, fails, returns to Syracuse. 322 Agθ 45
c.322 AGATHOCLES exiled in Italy from 325, returns to Syracuse. 322 Agθ 44
321 CONSULS:  T. Veturius Calvinus (2nd) and Spurius Postumius Albinus (2nd), both sent to Campania 321 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-91, 586, LdHR 1-229, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.321 Consuls Vetruvius and Postumius arrive at Capua, and are told that Gavius Pontius and the whole Samnite army are besieging Lucera (Luceria) Apulia. 321 LdHR 1-229
c.321 Consuls Vetruvius and Postumius invade Samnium towards its most important city, Malventum. 321 umucNap
c.321 Consuls Vetruvius and Postumius hurrying to relieve their allies at Lucera Apulia, are trapped by Samnite Gavius PONTIUS in the closed valley of CAUDINE FORKS between Capua and Malventum, 20,000 Roman soldiers surrender to Samnites.  Consuls sign a humiliating treaty which the senate refuses to ratify. 321 B76 15-1090, CAH 7.2-370, CDCC 780, DGRBM 3-496, DGRG 1-573, Dur 3-20, 37, GHH, HRRP 1-339, LdHR 1-229, MCAW 172, OCD 217, 778, 860, 927, SORH, TToH, atl4, bk, wikLcr, wikLRB
c.321 CAPUANS provide clothing and supplies for Roman soldiers returning from Caudine Forks. 321 atl4
c.321 After Caudine Forks, the Etruscans and Gauls ally with the Samnites.  Nearly all Italy now opposes Rome. 321 Dur 3-37
c.321 2nd SAMNITE WAR 327-04, suspended until 316. 321 CDCC 174, OCD 948
c.321 Q. Fabius Ambustus is made dictator, but resigns for technical reasons.  Consuls return to Rome and appoint M.(1) Aemilius Papus to replace Fabius. 321 DGRBM 1-141, 3-120, atl4, wikLRD
c.321 L.(1) Valerius Flaccus is magister equitum to M.(1) Aemilius Papus. 321 DGRBM 2-157
c.321 Dictator Q. Fabius Ambustus has a triumph over Samnites and Apulians. 321 DGRBM, atl4
c.320 SATRICUM, 30km southeast of Rome, joins Samnites. 320 SORH
320 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (2nd) and Q. Publilius Philo (3rd) are elected and take office the same day, when the senate debates the Caudine treaty.  Both are assigned to Samnium. 320 CAH 7.2-640,
DGRBM 1-904, 3-298, OCD 778, 899, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.320 C. Maenius is dictator (1st time). 320 DGRBM 2-729, 896, wikLRD
c.320 M. Fosilius FLACCINATOR is magister equitum to dictator C. Maenius. 320 DGRBM 2-153
c.320 Dictator C. Maenius and magister equitum M. Fosilius FLACCINATOR both resign because of accusations, both tried and acquitted. 320 DGRBM 2-153
c.320 L.(2) Cornelius Lentulus is dictator, followed by T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus (3rd time). 320 DGRBM 2-729, 896, wikLRD
c.320 L.(5) Papirius Crassus is magister equitum to dictator T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus. 320 DGRBM 1-882
c.320 Q. Maelius and Ti. Numicius (or L. Livius) are pleb tribunes.  They had been taken prisoner at Caudine Forks 321, and favor keeping the Caudine treaty. 320 DGRBM 2-896, 1215
c.320 Romans attempt to hand over Postumius and others responsible for the treaty to the Samnites, but Samnites refuse to accept them. 320 atl4
c.320 Senate decides to reject the Caudine treaty.  Therefore Pleb tribunes Q. Maelius and Ti. Numicius are handed over to the Samnites. 320
DGRBM 2-1215
c.320 FREGELLAE Latium, annexed by Rome in 326, captured by Samnites until 313. 320 CAH 7.2-372, SORH, atl4
c.320 Consul Q. Publilius Philo defeats Samnites, who scatter in the direction of Apulia.  They then gather at Lucera Apulia. 320 atl4
c.320 LUCERA Apulia besieged by consul L. Papirius Cursor, but Samnites cut off his supplies and besiege him in his camp.  He is rescued by consul Q. Publilius Philo, who defeats the Samnites. 320 DGRBM 1-904, 3-298, DGRG 1-221
c.320 SAMNITES defeated by consul L. Papirius Cursor at Lucera, forces 7,000 Samnites including Pontius to pass under a yoke. 320 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-904, HRRP 1-340, SORH, TToH, atl4     319 GHH
c.320 LUCERA Apulia asks Romans for protection, becomes a colony ruled by the Senate. 320 wikLcr
c.320 TARAS makes peace with SAMNITES. 320 LEWH 90
c.320 T.(1) Manlius Torquatus is appointed dictator, to hold elections for new consuls. 320 atl4
319 CONSULS:  L. Papirius Cursor (3rd) OR L. Papirius Mugillanus (2nd) and Q. Aulius Cerretanus (2nd) OR Q. Aelius 319 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-435, 674, 904, OCD 778, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.319 Λ CENSORS V patrician C. Sulpicius Servius Longus and pleb ??? 319 DGRBM 2-806, wikLC
c.319 C. Sulpicius Longus is elected censor, but later resigns. 319 atl4
c.319 Consul? L. Papirius Cursor continues to operate in Apulia. 319 DGRBM 1-904
c.319 The Ferentani on the east coast oppose Rome, but are quickly subdued. 319 DGRG 1-915, SORH
c.319 Consuls capture Ferentinum and Satricum Latium. 319 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl4
318 CONSULS:  M. Folius Flaccinator and L. Plautius Venno 318 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-153 3-1237, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.318 Λ CENSORS V patrician L.(4) Papirius Crassus; pleb C. Maenius 318 DGRA 723, DGRBM 1-882, 2-897, OCD 637, wikLC
c.318  Lex Ovinia de Senatus Lectione :  transfers the right to appoint senators from the consuls to the censors.  Purpose apparently to exclude improper persons from the senate.  Those who are chosen become senators for life; their position no longer depends on favor of magistrates in office.  By specifying the criteria of selection (which are unknown) it restricts discretionary powers of the censors; and while it allows censors to omit names from the senate roll, it specifies that only men morally unfit for membership should be passed over.  Lex Ovinia is a step in freeing the senate from the power of the magistrates. pre-318 CAH 7.2-393 318 wikLRL 312 invf, unrv
c.318 Romans & Samnites declare 2 year truce. 318 CAH 7.2-371, DGRBM, GHH, HRRP 1-340, atl4
c.318 Roman campaigns in Apulia and Lucania. 318 CAH 7.2
c.318 CANUSIUM, town in Apulia, submits to consul L. Plautius, remains an ally until Social War. 318 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-503, OCD 202, SORH, atl4, wikCdP
c.318 ARISTOXENUS of Taras, philosopher, music theorist, flourishes. 320 GHH     318 Dur 2-555
no date: OCD 118
c.318 TEATE, chief town in Apulia, submits to Rome.  Name changed to TEANUM. 318 CAH 7.2, OCD 202, SORH, atl4, wikTA
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is also a Teanum in Latium northwest of Cales.
c.318 CAPUA, Roman city without voting rights from 338, has civil discord, appeals to Rome, and is put under a praetor, L. Furius until 314. 318 OCD 204, atl4 317 DGRG 1-511
c.318 Roman TRIBES, 29 from 332, increased to 31 until 299 by addition of Capuan tribes:  UFENTINA and FALERNA. 318 CAH 6-402, 7.2-371, 403, DGRA 1156, DGRBM, GHH, atl4
c.318 CUMAE, Roman city without voting rights from 338, put under a Roman prefect. 318 OCD 204
317 CONSULS:  C. Junius Bubulcus Brutus and Qunitus Aemilius Barbula 317 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-461, 518, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.317 FORENTUM taken by consul Bubulcus.  The rest of Apulia then submits. 317 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-166, atl4, bril
c.317 NERULUM Apulia taken by Qunitus Aemilius Barbula. 317 DGRBM 1-461
c.317 TEATES of Apulia make treaty with Rome. 317 DGRBM 1-461
c.317 APULIA (the heel of Italy), under Greeks from 700, comes under Romans but not annexed until 270. 317 guess
c.317 LUCANIA submits to Rome. 317 CAH 7.2
c.317 Bruttians, at war with Syracusans from ?, make peace. 317 Agθ 41
c.317 New constitution for ANTIUM drafted by Romans. 317 atl4
c.317 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, makes peace with Bruttii, and defeats a group of exiles who try to force their way back into Croton. 317 atl4

Italy 316-301
V