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Italy
c.390 SENONE Gauls, invade Italy. 390 CAH 7.2-302-3, OCD 189
c.390 Roman offensive from 450 ends. 390 HRRP 1-252
390 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Q. Fabius Ambustus (2nd), Kaeso Fabius Ambustus (4th), N. Fabius Ambustus (2nd), Q. Sulpicius Longus, Q. Servilius Fidenas (4th), P. Cornelius Maluginensis (2nd) 391 OCD 426
390 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 1-141, 2-806, 909, 3-528, csm, wikCon
c.390 M. Fabius Ambustus is pontifex maximus. 390 DGRBM 1-141, wikPM
c.390 BRENNUS, chief of Gauls, with battle tactics unfamiliar to Romans, overwhelm Romans at the ALLIA stream 11 miles north of Rome. July 18 390 LEWH 85
390 B76 15-1090, CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-104, Dur 3-36, GHH, LdHR 1-165, LEWH 85, MCAW 148, OCD 179, SORH, wikLRB     390 or 387 OCD 46
c.390 ROME captured and sacked by BRENNUS chief of Gauls.  Capitoline Hill, under Roman commander M. Manlius, is besieged for 7 months.  Most historical records are destroyed, leaving the origin of Rome to be recreated by legend.  Brennus is bought off with 1,000 lbs. of gold.  Roman survivors flee to Veii and elect M. Caedicius their leader.  Most want to abandon Rome and move to Veii, but M. Furius Camillus persuades them to rebuild Rome, which is completed in 387.  ROME / GAULS WAR begins intermittently until 334.  Gauls leave until 367. 390 B76 II-254, 15-1067, CAH 7.2-21, 302, CDCC 338, 456, DGRBM 1-503, 531, Dur 3-12, 36, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-184, LEWH 85, OHG, RAH, SHWC 103, SORH, TToH, bk, wikLRB
390 or 387 OCD 46, 179, 219
387 OCD 927, lvR
Traditional date is 390; actual date is 387. B76 3-1074
Varronian year 390 corresponds with our year 387/6, and the best we can say is that Rome was sacked in summer 387. lvR
c.390 C. Fabius Dorso performs some religious heroics confused by conflicting versions. 390 DGRBM 1-1069
c.390 M. Furius CAMILLUS exiled and retired in Ardea, appointed dictator 2nd time until 389.
LEGEND:  defeats Gauls and recovers ransom gold.  Probably a lie.
390 B76 II-485, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-591, OCD 102, lvR, wikLRD
no date: OCD 199
c.390 L. Valerius Potitus is magister equitum. 390 DGRBM 3-515
c.390 Embassy (including A. Manlius Capitolinus) sent to Delphi to deliver a gold crater which Camillus had vowed.  In the straits of Messana they are captured by pirates, but later released at Lipara, when it became known who they were.  The story (Roman) does not mention ransom. 390 DGRBM 1-604
c.390 ANCONA, Adriatic seaport in central Italy, founded by Syracusan exiles.  Under Syracuse until ?. 390 rcRm
380 DGRG 1-133
c.390 LATINS and HERNICI, allies of Rome by treaty from ?, renounce alliance when treaty expires. 390 LEWH 85, OCD 183 390/89 CAH 7.2, DGRBM
c.390 Lucani tribe of Samnites appear near Laus in Bruttium, and defeat Thuri.  THURI, under democracy from 443, comes under Lucani until 282. 390 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-128, DGRG 1-448, OCD 183, rcSI
c.390 Mountainous region of south Italy contested by Greeks and Samnites from 420, is conquered by Samnites, who are now called LUCANI, and impose Oscan language. 390 OCD 183, 621, 941
by 390 Tyrrhenian coast down to Rhegium is under the Italici. by 390 CAH 6-386
c.390 Lucanians ally with Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 390 GHH, HRR
c.390 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse sends bro LEPTINES ahead to invade south ITALY to help Lucanians against Italian Greeks. 390
DGRBM 1-1034, 2-771, wikLS
c.390 LEPTINES defeats the Thurians, then mediates peace between Greek tribes and the Lucanians, contrary to the wishes of Dionysius-I. 390 CAH 6-151, wikLS
c.390 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, invades south ITALY until 388, allies with Locri. 391 CAH 6, Dur 2-458, MCAW 144
390 LEWH 80, wikLS
c.390 Dionysius-I disaproves of Leptines' actions, and gives command of his fleet to younger bro Thearides. 390 CAH 6-151, wikLS
c.390 RHEGIUM besieged by DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse with 20,000 inf, 1,000 cav, 120 triremes and Locrians unsuccessfully. 391 MCAW 144
390 CAH 7.2, DGRG 2-704 388/7 CAH 6
c.390 LYSIS of Taras, Pythagorean philosopher, moves from Italy to Greece. 390 B76 VI-421
c.390






c.390
ARCHYTAS of Taras, Pythagorean, mathematician, astronomer, statesman, and strategist, flourishes.  Elected strategos of Taras 7 years in a row.

Λ MATH:  Reputed discoverer of mathematical mechanics.  Believed that only arithmetic, not geometry, could provide a basis for satisfactory proofs.
(See Theodoros 400, Thymaridas 375,  Eudoxos 360)

doubling the cube
Λ GEOMETRY:  Solved the problem of doubling the cube with a geometric construction: the Archytas curve.
(See Hippias 420 Theodoros 400, Democritos 400,  Theaetetos 380,  Minaechmos 350)

MECHANICS:  Designed and built the 1st artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was probably steam, said to have flown 200 meters (may have been suspended on a wire).  Some say he invented the pulley.
420-11 TTS
390 TTT no date: hstpDC, wikAT
389 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Valerius Poplicola (2nd),  L. Verginius Tricostus,  P. Cornelius (-----),  A. Manlius Capitolinus,  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (2nd),  L. Postumius Albinus Regillensis 389 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 1-605, 2-911, 3-602, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.389 CENSORS:  patricians Marcus Furius Fusus (?) and Lucius Papirius Mugillanus (?) 389 wikLC
c.389 Rome rebuilt. 389 GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-278
c.389 C. (or Gn.) MARCIUS is pleb tribune.  He prosecutes Q. Fabius, because, in opposition to the law of nations, he had fought against the Gauls, to whom he had been sent as ambassador. 389 DGRBM 2-944
c.389  Lex de Civitate Agraria :  Incorporates residents of Veii, Capenae, and Fidenae who helped Rome in wars of M. Furius Camillus as citzens. 389 invf, unrv
c.389 M. Furius Camillus is made dictator to hold elections.  He appoints C. Servilius Ahala magister equitum. 389 DGRBM 1-83, 591
c.389 Rome Volscii war begins until 385.  Aequi, Latins, and Hernici join Volsci. 389 CDCC 938, GHH, SORH
c.389 M. Furius CAMILLUS, dictator of Rome 390-89 marches southeast thru Latium where the Volscii live, defeats Volscian of Antium, and Etruscans between Antium & Velitrae, and burns their camp.  Immediately, Camillus marches to the Aequi town of Bola, and captures it on 1st assault. 389
CAH 7.2-316, GHH, DGRBM 1-591, OCD 199, lvR, wikMFC
c.389 AEQUI defeated at Bola Latium by M. Furius CAMILLUS, dictator 390-89.  On return to Rome, Camillus celebrates a triumph. 389 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-417,
OCD 199, lvR     388 CDCC 938
c.389 Surviving inhabitants of VEII, FALERII, and CAPENA are given Roman citizenship on their own lands. 389 CAH 7.2-312, SORH
c.389 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, invades Italy until ?. 389 DGRG 1-575
c.389 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, with Lucanian support, besieges Caulonia near Locri.  A coalition headed by Croton opposes him. 389 DGRG 1-575, 595, 710
no date: ccan
c.389 27,000 Caulonians and Greeks, under Syracusan exile Heloris, defeated by Dionysius-I with 500 elite troops at Helleporus River 20km east of Caulonia. 390 CAH 6     389 CAH 6-387, 7.2, DGRG 1-710, LEWH 80, ccan     388 OCD 350
c.389 CAULONIA, 40km northeast of Locri, taken and destroyed by DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse allied with Locri and Lucanians.  Caulonia territory is assigned to Locri, but population is sent to Syracuse. 389
CAH 6-387, 7.2, OCD 217-8
c.389 HIPPONIUM, Greek city on west coast of Bruttium Peninsula, taken and destroyed until 379 by Dionysius-I of Syracuse.  Inhabitants removed to Syracuse.  Territory comes under Locri. 389
DGRG 1-1070     388 OCD 350
c.389 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, under democracy from 510, taken by Dionysius-I of Syracuse.  Put under tyrant Eloris until ?. 389 DGRG 1-710, rcSI
c.389 MASSILIA on south coast of Gaul allies with Rome. 389 CAH 7.2-315
c.389 DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse defeats Italian Greeks at Helorus river. 389 DGRBM 1-1034, DGRG 2-705, GHH
c.388 Golasecca culture Golasecca culture begins between rivers Po, Serio and Sesia from 850 ends with Gallic invasion. 388 wikGC, wikPIIA


map
GNU FDL
c.388 Romans invade Tarquinii territory, capture and destroy 2 otherwise unknown towns, Cortuosa and Contenebra. 388 CAH 7.2-312, DGRG 1-665, 693
c.388 DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse controls Greek south Italy until ?. 388 OCD 350
c.388 DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse in south ITALY from 390, returns to Sicily. 379 LEWH 80 387 Dur 2-458
388 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus,  Q. Servilius Fidenas (5th),  L. Iulius Iullus,  L. Aquillius Corvus, L. Lucretius Flavus Tricipitinus (2nd),  Ser. Sulpicius Rufus 388 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 1-605, 753, 2-657, 3-528, 945, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.388 Temple of MARS dedicated. 388 CAH 7.2
c.388  Rogatio Agraria :  An attempt to distribute Pomptine territory captured from Volscians is not supported by plebs due to pre-occupation with Lex de Civitate 389. 388 SORH, invf, unrv
c.388 Pleb tribunes agitate for distribution in individual allotments of Pomptine territory captured from Volscians. 388 & 7 CAH 7.2-316
c.388 Land is distributed among new citizens from Etruria. 388 CDGRA 647
c.388 Military tribunes attack the Aequi, not to make war (the Aequi admitted they were defeated), but out of hatred, intending to destroy their lands.  Aequi drop out of history until 304. 388
CAH 7.2-316
c.388 RHEGIUM, democracy 461-387, besieged by Dionysius-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367.  Phyto is chosen general of Rhegium. 388 DGRBM 3-364, GHH
387 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Papirius Cursor,  Gn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo,  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (3rd),  Licinius Menenius Lanatus,  L. Valerius Poplicola (3rd) 387 CAH 7.2-637,
DGRBM 1-904, 2-149, 717, 911, 3-602, csm, wikCon
c.387 Roman TRIBES, 21 from 495, increased to 25 until 358 by addition of Stellatina, Tromentina, Sabatina, Arniensis. 387 CAH 7.2-313, CDGRA 647, DGRA 1156, DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.387 New wave of GAULS invades Italy. 387/6 OCD 198
c.387 HERNICI, an Italic tribe, join Gauls against Rome. 387 OCD 505
c.387 GAULS destroy a Roman army, take and SACK ROME, occupy it 7 months. 387 B76 3-1074, vrb, wikMFC 387/6 CAH 7.2-302, lvR
Traditional date is 390 B76 3-1074
c.387 M. Manlius Capitolinus repels a night attack by Gauls after being awakened by the noise of sacred geese in the Aventine temple of Juno. 390 DGRBM 1-604, MCAW 149
387 OCD 644, lvR
c.387 M. Manlius Capitolinus appointed dictator until 385. 387 DGRBM 1-604
c.387 Pleb tribune L. Sicinius, proposes an agrarian law respecting the ager Pomptinus (region in Latium between mons Albanus and the west coast). 387 DGRBM 3-816
c.387
Spanish gladius
{{PD-US}}
GLADIUS, used by Spaniards from ?, becomes preferred weapon of Roman infantry.  Weight: 1.2–1.6kg, length: 64–81cm, blade length: 60–68cm, width: 4–8cm.  The 3rd cen. Pompeian gladius will be shorter and have straighter edges.
387 wikRL
4th cen. srdh, wikGl
c.387 Native population of territories of Veii, Falerii, and Capena receive Roman citizenship. 387 lvR
c.387 A settlement of poor plebs in Volscian territory is destroyed by Volscian hills men. 387 LdHR 1-195
c.387 PLATO sails from Greece to Italy, meets Philolaos and Eurytus, studies philosophy with Archytas at Taras, then with Timaeus at Locri, then goes to Sicily. 388 MCAW 149 387 Dur 2-458, 510, OCD 839
c.387 RHEGIUM, Chalcidian city from 720, democracy from 461, besieged by DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse from 388, starved to surrender and destroyed.  Phyto and his son are executed.  Rhegium colonized by Syracusans.  Unknown condition until 358. 387 B76 VIII-480, DGRBM 1-1034, 3-364, DGRG 2-705, GHH, HRR, IDB 4-75, MCAW 148, OCD 920, OHG, lvS, rcSI
386 B76 III-560, CAH 6-387, 7.2, OCD 350
c.387 Rhegian War with Syracuse from 399, ends. 387 DGRBM 3-875
c.387 LUDI CAPITOLINI instituted by senate on proposal of dictator Camillus to be played annually in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus.  Commemorates the Capitol's not being taken by the Gauls.  A college of patrician priests who live in the Capital and Arx (citadel) are appointed by Camillus to supervise.  Games last 16 days. 390
CDGRA 394 387
DGRA 715, GHH, HRR, wikCG
c.386 L.(1) Cornelius Lentulus is the only senator who votes against buying off the Gauls. 387 DGRBM 2-729
c.386 Rome, besieged by Gauls 7 months, pays them 1,000 Roman pounds of gold, and confronts them with a fresh army under Camillus.  Gauls return north. 386 lvR, wikMFC
386 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  M. Furius Camillus (4th),  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis,  Q. Servilius Fidenas (6th),  L. Quinctius Cincinnatus,  L. Horatius Pulvillus,  P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola 386 CAH 7.2-637, DGRBM 1-591, 2-909, 3-515, 528, 605, OCD 198, 753, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.386 M. Furius Camillus is appointed dictator for a year to deal with Gauls. 386 wikMFC 385 bk,
c.386 Etruscans take the Roman city of Sutrium in the territory of Veii.  M. Furius Camillus arrives same day, repulses Etruscans, and recaptures Sutrium.  No further threats to Rome's north borders for nearly 30 years. 389 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 1-591
386 CAH 7.2-312, GHH, lvR
c.386 ANTIUM, back under the Volscii from ?, reconquered by M. Furius Camillus. 386 LdHR 1-195
c.386 The VOLSCII and LATINS are defeated by M. Furius Camillus. 386 CAH 7.2-316, lvR 385 HRR, bk
c.386 HERNICI, an Italic tribe, are defeated by M. Furius Camillus. 386 CAH 7.2
385 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  A. Manlius Capitolinus (2/3rd), P. Cornelius (-----) (2nd), T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus (2nd), L. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus (2/3rd), L. Papirius Cursor (2nd), Gn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo (2nd) 385 CAH 7.2-637, DGRBM 1-605, 753, 904, 2-149, csm, wikCon
c.385 Patricians refuse equal rights to the new rich, and there are many poor plebs, suffering from patrician oppression.  M. Manlius Capitolinus patrician dictator from 387, resigns dictatorship to support the plebs. 385 DGRBM 1-604, lvR
c.385 Patricians, alarmed at the rabble roused by Capitolinus, appoints Aulus Cornelius Cossus dictator, but under the pretext of defeating the Volsci. 385 DGRBM 1-604, 866
c.385 Dictator Aulus Cornelius Cossus dictator goes to fight the Volsci.  In his absence, Capitolinus resorts to violence in rescuing plebs from patricians. 385 DGRBM 1-604
c.385 ATRIA on north Adriatic coast founded as a colony by Dionysius-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367. 385 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-26
c.385 Dictator Aulus Cornelius Cossus defeats the Volsci, and hurries back to Rome. 385 SORH, lvR, wikLRD
c.385 Dictator Aulus Cornelius Cossus, back in Rome, halts actions of Capitolinus, and orders Capitolinus to appear before him.  Capitolinus complies surrounded by pleb supporters.  Cossus arrests Capitolinus, whose plebs do nothing but mourn at first.  But their indination increases, such that the patricians are persuaded to free Capitolinus.  Pleb aggitation spreads. 385 DGRBM 1-604
c.385 M. MANLIUS CAPITOLINUS, who saved Rome from the Gauls 390, spends his fortune relieving insolvent debtors.  Capitolinus is arrested and accused of trying to become king.  But the people's assembly refuses to condemn him. 385 DGRBM, lvR 385/4 CAH 7.2-184
no date LEWH 85, OCD 644
c.385 SATRICUM Latium, under the Volscii from 488, refounded as a Roman colony by dictator Aulus Cornelius Cossus2,000 poor Romans could start a new life by settling there. 385 CAH 7.2-280, 316, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH, lvR, wikLRD
c.385 LATIN LEAGUE closed to new members by Rome.  New Latin colonies are not members.  30 towns have full Latin rights.  They include: Tibut Gabii, Praeneste, .  17 share in festival Feriae Latinae without voting rights. 385 SORH
c.385 PHILOLAUS, Pythagorean of Croton, dies some time after Plato's visit 387. 385 stnf
no date: wikPhl
c.385 Dionysius-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 suppresses piracy on Etruscan coasts. 385 GHH, HRR
384 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis (2nd),  P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola (2nd),  M. Furius Camillus (5th),  Ser. Sulpicius Rufus (2nd),  C.(1) Papirius Crassus,  T. Quinctius Cincinnatus (2nd) 384 CAH 7.2-637, DGRBM 1-591, 753, 882, 2-909, 3-515, 945, OCD 198, csm, wikCon
c.384 M. Maenius and Q. Publilius are pleb tribunes.  They accuse Manlius Capitolinus of aspiring to royal power. 384 DGRBM 2-896, 3-603, GHH
c.384 ARX (citadel) CAPITOLINI, on the north of the hill, where some patricians had lived, is made off limits for private dwellings.  The house of M. Manlius Capitolinus, a patrician champion of the plebs, is torn down.  It will be replaced by the Temple of Juno Moneta 344. 384 CDGRA 394, wikArx
c.384 PYRGI, Etruscan port near CAERE, sacked by DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse on pretext of suppressing pirates.  He also loots the temple of Leucothea at Pyrgi. 385 GHH     384 CAH 7.2-306, 526, DGRG 1-861, wikPr
384/3 CAH 6-148
c.384 Tribunes convene the assembly on a place where the Capitol is not visible, and now M. MANLIUS CAPITOLINUS is accused of treason and sentenced to death.  He is thrown by tribunes from the Tarpeian Rock.  His family side with the patricians, and swear that no future Manlius would be named Marcus. 385/4 CAH 7.2-184
384 CAH 7.2-331, DGRBM 1-604, Dur 3-23, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-280, SORH, TToH     no date LEWH 85, OCD 644
383 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Valerius Poplicola (4th),  A. Manlius Capitolinus (3/4th),  Ser. Sulpicius Rufus (3rd),  L. Lucretius Flavus Tricipitinus (3rd),  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (4th),  M. Trebonius 383 CAH 7.2-637, DGRBM 1-605, 2-911, 3-602, 945, 1171, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.383 A  5 man commission is formed for distributing to plebs the Pomptine territory (Ager Pomptinus in Latium between mons Albanus and the west coast) in Latium.  Due in part to resistance by the Volscians, it is not fully accomplished until 358. 383
CAH 7.2-316-7, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.383 SUTRIUM Etruria, under Rome from 386, becomes a Latin colony. 383 CAH 7.2-280, 312, CDCC 219, SORH
c.383 NEPET, east of Sutrium, becomes a Latin colony. 383 CAH 7.2-280, 312, CDCC 219, DGRBM, SORH
c.383 SETIA Latium in Volscii land west of Privernum becomes a Latin colony. 383 CAH 7.2-280, CDCC 219 382 CAH 7.2-316
c.383 LANUVIUM, between Lavinium & Velitrae, loyal to Rome from ?, joins the Volscii. 383 CAH 7.2-318, DGRG 2-120
382 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Sp. Papirius Crassus,  L.(2) Papirius Crassus Mugillanus,  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis (3rd),  Q. Servilius Fidenas,  C. Sulpicius Camerinus, L. Aemilius Mamercinus (5th) 382 CAH 7.2-637, DGRBM 1-590, 882, 2-909, 3-528, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.382 Praenestines attack Roman allies and join the Volscii.  War with Praeneste begins until 380. 382 CAH 7.2-318, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-196, SORH
c.382 Lanuvium and Velitrae ally with Praeneste. 382 LdHR 1-196
c.382 Consular tribunes Sp. and L.(2) Papirius Crassus march south against Velitrae.  Livy says they defeat the enemy but did not want to besiege a town of the Latins, who were related to the Romans.  The truth may be that the Romans were defeated. 382 DGRBM 1-882, lvR
c.381 LUCRETII, a patrician clan, disappears. 381 CAH 7.2-178
c.381 The VOLSCII rebel.  War with Volscii resumes. 381 DGRBM 1-591, GHH, HRR
381 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  M. Furius Camillus (6th),  A. Postumius Regillensis,  L. Postumius Regillensis (2nd),  L. Furius Medullinus,  L. Lucretius Tricipitinus (4th),  M. Fabius Ambustus 381 CAH 7.2-637, DGRBM 1-141, 591, 2-1005, 3-1174, OCD 198, SORH, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.381 M. Furius Camillus and neph L. Furius Medullinus (son of Camillus' bro Spurius) march on the Volscii at Satricum.  Medullinus disapproves of Camillus' slowness, and attacks without permission.  The enemy feign flight, draw Medullinus into a trap, and rout him.  Camillus rescues Medullinus, and gains complete victory.  However, Satricum is not taken until 346. 381 DGRBM 1-591, 2-1005, lvR
c.381 Senate orders M. Furius Camillus to attack Tusculum for helping the Volsci.  Camillus lets Medullinus keep his command, and redeem his disgrace. 381 DGRBM 1-592
c.381 TUSCULUM Latium is annexed by Rome.  1st Latin city to have Roman citizenship. 381 CAH 7.2-318, OCD 1100, SORH
c.381 GABI territory ravaged by Praenestines in a predatory incursion against Rome. 381 DGRG 1-920
c.380 ROME / LATIN  TREATY  of 493, providing peace in Latium and mutual military aid, ends until 358. 380 OCD 211
c.380 LATINS are defeated by Rome. 380 CAH 7.2
380 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Valerius Poplicola (5th),  P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola (3rd),  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis (4th),  Licinus Menenius Lanatus (2nd),  C. Sulpicius Peticus,  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (6th),  Gn. Sergius Fidenas Coxo (3rd),  Ti. Papirius Crassus,  L. Papirius Mugillanus (2nd) 380 CAH 7.2-638, DGRBM 2-149, 717, 909, 3-515, 602, csm, wikCon
c.380 CENSORS:  patricians Spurius Postumius Albinus Regillensis and C. Sulpicius Camerinus   Regilensis dies.  Therefore Camerinus resigns.  Therefore no census is taken. 380 DGRBM 1-590, wikLC
c.380 T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus is appointed dictator to deal with Praeneste. 380 DGRBM 1-753, wikLRD
c.380 A. Sempronius Atratinus is magister equitum.  After 380 the Atratinus family is not mentioned until 34. 380 DGRBM 1-407
c.380 TIMAEUS of Locri, Greek Pythagorean philosopher, dies.  Possibly wrote  On the Soul of the Universe , now lost. 380 wikTm
c.380 PRAENESTINES penetrate to the Colline Gate, ravage land between Tibur & Anio rivers. 379 HRRP 1-266
c.380 PRAENESTE Latium attacked at Allia river by T. Quinctius Cincinnatus.  Praeneste loses 8 cities and surrenders. 381 DGRBM 1-591     380 CAH 7.2-318, DGRBM, GHH, HRR
379 HRRP 1-266, SORH
377 DGRG 1-104     376 DGRBM 2-571
c.380 Statue of Jupiter at Praeneste brought by dictator T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus to Rome, where it is put between chapels of Jupiter and Minerva. 380 DGRBM 2-571
c.380 Dictator T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus takes 9 towns in 9 days. 380 DGRBM 1-753
c.380 VELITRAE Latium taken by Rome until ?. 380 CAH 7.2-318
c.380 OSTIA ANTICA, inland from the port of Ostia, fortifications begun by Rome until 350. 380 CAH 7.2-315
c.380 Tribunes aggitate over debt by the poor to the rich. 380 CAH 7.2-331
379 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  P. Manlius Capitolinus C. Manlius (---),  L. Iulius Iullus,  C. Sextilius (---),  M. Albinius (---),  L. Antistius (---),  P. Trebonius (---),  C. Erenucius (?) (---)
Half patricians, half plebs.
379 CAH 7.2-638, DGRBM 1-605, 2-657, 3-810, 1171, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.379 A military command is given to 2 patrician tribunes, and their pleb colleagues are left behind to guard the city. 379 CAH 7.2-338
c.379 SETIA Latium colony from 381, receives new colonists. 379 SORH
c.379 CROTON taken by Dionysius-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367. 379 CAH 7.2
c.379 Carthaginians invade Italy. 379 GHH, HRR
c.379 HIPPONIUM Brutium, destroyed 389, restored by Carthaginians.  Former inhabitants exiled in Syracuse are re-established there. 379
DGRG 1-1071
378 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Sp. (L.?) Furius Camillus, Q. Servilius Fidenas (2nd), Licinus Menenius Lanatus (3rd), P. Cloelius Siculus, M. Horatius Pulvillus, L. Geganius Macerinus 378 CAH 7.2-638,
DGRBM 2-717, 884, 3-528, 605, 3-817, csm, lvR, wikCon
Sp. Furius Medullinus DGRBM 2-1005
c.378 Servian WallSERVIAN WALL construction begins around Rome encompasing all 7 HILLS:
  1. PALATINE: where wolf suckled Romulus & Remus
  2. CAPITOLINE: seat of government
  3. AVENTINE: repeated fires, temple of Diana
  4. CAELIAN: almost half parkland
  5. ESQUILINE: fire of 64, rebuilt with Nero's palace, Trajan's baths, temple of Venus
  6. VIMINAL: heart of modern Rome
  7. QUIRINAL: heart of modern Rome
Servian WallIt will be called Servian much later by writers who erroneously think it was built by Servius Tullius, king 578-34.  Parts of it still stand.
380 PW 16
378 IDB 4-125, lvR 377 TToH post-375 lvSW





photo
pub dom
c.378 CENSORS:  patricians Spurius Servilius Priscus and Quintus Cloelius Siculus 378 DGRBM 3-528, 817, wikLC
c.378 More aggitation over debt.  A tax is levied to build a city wall, causing more debt of poor to rich. 378
CAH 7.2-332
c.378 Livy says legions have 4,000 men.  In 376 he says they have 4,200 inf and 300 cav. 378 DGRA 493
c.378 Spurius Furius Medullinus conducts a successful campaign against the Volscii at Antium. 378 DGRBM 2-1005, lvR
377 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (7th),  P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola (4th),  C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus,  Ser. Sulpicius Rufus (4th) (OR Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus),  L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (3/4th),  C. Quinctius Cincinnatus 377 CAH 7.2-638,
DGRBM 1-748, 753, 2-911, 3-515, 515, csm, wikCon
c.377 Distress of farmers and growing influence of rich plebs leads to a combination for purpose of securing economic and political reform. 377 SORH
c.377 TUSCULUM annexed by Rome 381, besieged by Latins, rescued by tribune L. Quinctius Cincinnatus. 377 CAH 7.2, SORH
376 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L.(2) Papirius (Crassus 2nd or Mugillanus 3rd?),  Licinus Menenius Lanatus (4th),  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis (5th),  Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus (2nd?) 376 CAH 7.2-638,
DGRBM 1-882, 2-717, 909, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.376 PLEB TRIBUNES:  C. Licinius Calvus Stolo and L. Sextius Lateranus until 367.  Licinius Stolo proposes 3 rogations to help plebs.
1.  Interest already paid should be deducted from the principal and the remainder paid in 3 equal installments over 3 years.
2.  No man allowed more than 500 iugera (312 acres) of public land or keep more than 100 oxen & 500 sheep on public land.
Limits ratio of slaves to free laborers.
3.  No more consular tribunes, back to 2 consuls, but one must be a pleb.
Patricians induce other 8 tribunes to veto these bills.
378/7 CDCC 862     377 SORH, bk
376 CDGRA 645, DGRBM 1-586, 2-724, Dur 3-24, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-281, MCAW 153,
OCD 1016, lvR     375 DGRA 693
c.376 ARIMINUM taken by Senone Gauls. 376 HRRP 1-267
c.375 Pleb Tribunes C. Licinius Calvus Stolo and L. Sextius Lateranus re-elected every year to 367.  As the patricians would not allow the Rogationes Liciniae to become laws, the tribunes prevent election of all patrician magistrates and veto all other legislation except election of aediles and pleb tribunes during these years. 375 CDGRA 380, DGRA 693, DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.375 No patrician Curule Magistrates elected until 370.  All elections are vetoed by tribunes Stolo and Lateranus.  (375-70 are so-called "Anarchy Years".) 375 HRR, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.375 TEMPLE of JUNO LUCINA built on the Esquiline Hill in the grove sacred to the goddess from 735, near the 6th shrine of the Argei. 375 CAH7.2, wikJ
c.374 Sanctuary of ITALIOTE LEAGUE, at Croton from ?, moved to Tarantine Heraclea Lucania. 374 CAH 6-388
c.371 War with VELITRAE Latium begins until 367. 371 GHH, HRR
370 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Furius Medullinus (2nd),  A. Manlius Capitolinus (4/5th),  Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus (3rd?),  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis (6th),  P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola (5th),  C. Valerius Potitus 370 CAH 7.2-638,
DGRBM 1-605, 2-909, 1005, 3-515, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.370 TUSCULUM, annexed by Rome 381, wars with colonists of Velitrae. Via Latina 370 SORH
c.370 VIA LATINA, existing from at least 490 between Rome and Tusculum at the pass between Mt. Algidus and Mt Alban, is rebuilt by Romans. 370 Dur 3-77
389-44 rmrbrn
c.370 VELITRAE Latium besieged by Romans until 367. 370 CAH 7.2
c.370 Plebs C. Licinius and L. Sextius, who are again elected tribunes, allow consular tribunes to be chosen this year, because of the war with Velitrae. 370 DGRBM
369 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Q. Servilius Fidenas (3rd),  C. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus (2nd),  A. Cornelius Cossus,  M. Cornelius Maluginensis,  Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus,  M. Fabius Ambustus (2nd) 369 CAH 7.2-638-9,
DGRBM 1-141, 748, 753, 866, 3-528, csm, wikCon
c.368 All 10 pleb tribunes support proposals of Stolo and Lateranus.  They add another rogation:  Keepers of the oracles, now raised to 10 (decemviri sacris faciundis) are to be 5 patrician and 5 pleb. 368 SORH
c.368 M. Furius CAMILLUS, patrician supporter, is made dictator 4th time thru 367.  The official reason is the war against Velitrae in the south, but it is clear to anyone (according to Livy) that he was chosen by patricians to halt the demands of tribunes Stolo and Lateranus.  Camillus appoints L. Aemilius Mamercinus magister equitum.  Soon he is forced by plebs to resign, and pleb P. Manlius Capitolinus is appointed dictator. 368 DGRBM 1-592, 2-911, SORH, lvR wikLRD, wikMFC
c.368 Dictator P. Manlius Capitolinus appoints C. Licinius CALVUS is 1st pleb magister equitum. 368 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-586, SORH
368 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Capitolinus,  Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis (7th),  Ser. Sulpicius Praetextatus (4th?),  Sp. Servilius Structus,  L.(3) Papirius Crassus,  L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus 368 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-606, 748, 753, 2-909, 3-515, 928, csm, wikCon
367 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  A. Cornelius Cossus (2nd),  M. Cornelius Maluginensis (2nd),  M. Geganius Macerinus,  P. Manlius Capitolinus (2nd),  L. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus (2nd),  P. Valerius Potitus Poplicola (6th) 367 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-605, 748, 866, 2-233, 909, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.367 14 MILITARY TRIBUNES are to be chosen to lead the tribes in war.  10 PLEBEAN TRIBUNES represent them in peace. 367
Dur 3-30
c.367 Gauls return to raid Roman territory, reach the Alban Mount. 367 CAH 7.2-319, DGRBM 1-592, Dur 3-36, HRRP 1-268
c.367 Nobody opposes a 5th dictatorship of M. Furius CAMILLUS (nearly 80), because the Gauls penetrated south of Rome into Latium.  Camillus appoints T. Quintius Pennus Cincinnatus magister equitum.  To better deal with Gauls, he revises Roman armament:  smooth iron helmets, brass-rimmed shields, long pikes. 367
CAH 7.2-319 DGRBM 1-592, 753, wikLRD, wikMFC
c.367 M. Furius Camillus defeats Gauls near the Alban Mount, returns to Rome, celebrates a triumph. 367 CAH 7.2-319, DGRBM 1-592, HRR, HRRP 1-268, SORH, lvR
c.367 M. Furius CAMILLUS vows to build a temple to Concordia (a goddess) to commemorate the Leges Liciniae Sextiae of L. Sextius Lateranus and the resulting reconciliation between patricians and plebs after the Aventine Secession.  (see 336) 367 CAH 7.2, GHH, HRR, OCD 199, 277, SORH, lvR, wik
366 HRRP 1-282, TToH
c.367 M. Furius CAMILLUS convinces patricians to give in to pleb demands and pass the Licinian laws.  In return, judicial power is taken from the consuls and given to the office of PRAETOR, to be occupied by patricians only until 337.  Henceforth consuls judge only when called on by a senatus consultum. 367 CAH 7.2-204, 335, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, lvR
366 CDGRA 206, 513, DGRA 354, 956
c.367 Latin city VELITRAE besieged by Romans from 370, falls. 367 CAH 7.2-318
c.367  All 3 Leges Licinia Sextia  by tribunes C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius Sextinus Lateranus are passed.  Original proposal in 376 failed, but in retaliation tribunes prevented any magisterial election (except for tribunes and aediles in tribal assembly) for next 5 years while securing their own re-elections in this same time period.  One of the consuls may be a pleb (strengthened 342).
First pleb consul is one of the tribunes who proposed the law, L. Sextius Sextinus.
Increases power for praetors and aediles, who are increased from 2 to 4.  2 CURULE AEDILES (police chiefs) elected —at first from patricians alone.  Aedileship becomes a magistracy of the whole people.
Agrarian laws of C. Licinius Stolo limit each person's ownership of public land to 500 iugera (312 acres) of land of the Ager Publicus, curtailing economic power of patricians.
One law alleviates the law of debt.  Nothing is mentioned about interest rates.  (Suspended 129)
All laws confirmed 299.
367 B76 I-143, CAH 7.2-204, 335, 340, CDGRA 14, 306, DGRA 41, 1152, Dur 3-20, 30, HRR, LdHR 1-182, OCD 11, 26, 927, SORH, invf, unrv, wikLRL
366
CAH 7.2-225, CDGRA 380, HRRP 1-285
365 DGRA 18
c.367  LICINIAN LAWS :  Change in the composition of the committee in charge of sacred performances is the 1st attempt to break the patricians' hold on priesthoods.   (see Lex Ogulnia 300) 367
CAH 7.2-343
c.367 RESULTS of  Licinian Laws :  Patrician/pleb adversity dies out.  Aristocracy of birth is replaced by aristocracy of office.  Economic laws fail to provide permanent solution for management of public land.  Condition of farmers is improved temporarily by relief of direct taxation thru increase of indirect revenues. 367
SORH
c.367 The ludi maximi are extended from 3 days to 4.  The aediles refuse to bear the cost, so the patricians offer to pay it, in exchange for admition to aedileship.  The plebs accept.  Accordingly 2 patrician CURULE AEDILES are elected. 367 wikAd 365
DGRA 18
c.367 Consular tribunate, intermittent from 444, abolished by Licinian Laws. 367 CAH 7.2-194
c.367 The DUUMVIRI (2 men), who cared for the Sibylline books and celebration of the games of Apollo since 520, are increased to 10 DECEMVIRI SACRORUM until ?.  5 are patricians.  5 are plebs.  All are considered priests of Apollo.  Membership is for life. 367 DGRA 387, wikDcm
c.367 PLEB TRIBUNES from 375:  C. Licinius Stolo and L. Sextius Lateranus from 376 end. 367 DGRBM 1-586, 2-724, OCD 1016     366 DGRA 694, bk
366 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Aemilius Mamercinus (Mamercus?) and L. Sextius Sextinus Lateranus (1st pleb consul) 366 CAH 7.2-229, 639, CDGRA 206, 487, DGRA 353, 799, DGRBM 1-586, 2-724, 911, 3-810, GHH, HRR, SORH, TToH, bk, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.366 CENSORS:  patricians C. Sulpicius Peticus and Postumius Regillensis Albinus (?) 366 DGRBM 3-212, wikLC
c.366 In the 72 years between 366 and 291, 54 consulships are held by only 14 men, 38 of them by just 8, each of whom is consul 4 or more times. 366 CAH 7.2-347
c.366 Patrician Sp. Furius Camillus, Rome's 1st URBAN PRAETOR is elected.  Responsible for administration of justice. 366 DGRBM, GHH,
HRR, OCD 873, bk, lvR
c.366 P.(2) Cornelius Scipio appointed curule aedile. 366 DGRBM 3-741
c.366 QUAESTORS PARRICIDII, having their functions gradually transferred to triumviri capitales, drop out of history. 366 DGRA 908
c.366 LUDI ROMANI, a religious festival (3 days long 494-191) in honor of Jupiter held somewhat annually Sept. 12 to 14, is now held annually.  Consuls administrate until ?. 367 CDGRA 395
366 CDGRA 393, wikLR
c.366 PHALANX:  (6 lines of 500 men), the base of the legion from 509, rearranged following the Samnite model: MANIPLES of 2 centuries (100 men) each.  Space is left between maniples. 366 Dur 3-33 300 wikRA
c.366 ARCHYTAS, philosopher mathematician of Taras, becomes commander of Taras until 347. 366 CAH 6-388
365 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Genucius Aventinensis and Q. Servilius Ahala 365 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-83, 418, csm, wikCon
c.365 Plague at Rome.  Romans turn to the gods.  No help.  They turn to the Etruscans, who recommend games, music, dances, and stage performances, because the gods like to be entertained. 365 DGRA 779, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH
364 HRRP 1-540
c.365 M. Furius CAMILLUS (age about 80) dies of plague. 365 B76 II-484, DGRBM 1-592, GHH HRR, MCAW 157, SORH, TToH
364 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Peticus and pleb C. Licinus Calvus Stolo 364 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-586, 2-782, 3-212, csm, wikCon
c.364 FERENTINUM Latium, under Hernici from ?, taken by Romans. 364 wikFr
361 CAH 7.2-320
c.364 Plague at Rome continues. 364 DGRA 612, DGRBM 3-212, HRRP 1-540
c.364 Etruscan plague busters summoned to Rome.  They convince the Romans that the gods like dance and music as well as sacrifices and temples.  LUDI SCAENICI "games of stage" introduced in Rome.  Etruscan players perform a pantomime/dance to flute music to entertain the gods, not the audience.  No plot until 240. 365 TToH
364 B76 18-220, CAH 7.2, CDGRA 395, DGRBM 3-212, GHH, HRR, SORH, bk
363 DGRA 345
c.363 CENSORS:  patricians M. Fabius Ambustus and L. Furius Medullinus. 363 CAH 7.2-344,
DGRBM 1-141, 2-1005, wikLC
363 Jul. CONSULS:  Gn. Genucius Aventinensis and L. Aemilius Mamercinus (2nd) 363 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-418, 2-911, csm, wikCon
c.363 L. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus is dictator. 363 DGRBM 1-605, 2-571, 1143, 3-1163, SORH, wikLRD
c.363 L. Pinarius Natta is magister equitum. 363 DGRBM 2-1143
c.362 The HERNICI, an Italic tribe allied to Rome from 486, now oppose Rome.  War until 360. 362 CAH 7.2, LdHR 1-196, OCD 505, wikHrn     361 DGRG 1-1060
362 Jul. CONSULS:  Q. Servilius Ahala (2nd) and L. Genucius Aventinensis (2nd) 362 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-83, 418, csm, wikCon
c.362 Pleb tribune M. Pomponius tries to impeach L. Manilius Imperiosus because of cruelties during dictatorship, but drops it because of a death threat by Manilius' son. 362 DGRBM 3-493, 1163
c.362 Military tribunes, until now appointed by consuls or dictators, 6 of the 12 are for the first time elected by the people, and are therefore plebs.  But the plebs do not enforce this precedent until 311. 363 SORH
362 CDGRA 293, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-293
361 DGRA 503
c.362 Earthquake at Rome. 362 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.362 Legend of M. CURTIUS:  A deep chasm opens in the forum.  Seers declare that it will not close until Rome's most valuable possession is thrown into it.  M. Curtius figures nothing is more valuable to Rome than its cavalry, puts on armor, mounts his horse, and jumps into the chasm.  It closes.  A pond forms on the spot.  It is called Lacus Curtius.  Schollars think the story was invented to explain the name of the lake. 362
B76 III-308, GHH, HRR
c.362 Consul L. GENUCIUS is the first pleb to conduct a military campaign under his own auspices.  C. Sulpicius Peticus is his legate. 362 CAH 7.2-339, DGRBM 3-212
c.362 Pleb Consul L. GENUCIUS is defeated by the Hernici, and killed in battle.  Legate C. Sulpicius Peticus repels the Hernici from the Roman camp. 362 DGRBM 1-83, 418, DGRBM 3-212
c.362 Consul Q. Servilius Ahala appoints Ap.(6) Claudius Crassus dictator to fight the Hernici. 362 DGRBM 1-767, wikLRD
c.362 P, Cornelius Scapula is magister equitum. 362 DGRBM
c.362 HERNICI defeated by dictator Ap(6) Claudius Crassus. 362 SORH
361 July CONSULS:  C. Licinius Calvus Stolo and C. Sulpicius Peticus (2nd), both sent against the Hernici. 361 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-586, 606, 3-212, csm, wikCon
c.361 Senone Gauls raid Roman territory, Latium, and Campania.  Senones camp on Via Salaria near Anio River. 361 CAH 7.2-320, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-171, SORH
c.361 Via SalariaVIA SALARIA mentioned as existing from Rome to Reate.  It was the route by which the Sabines came to fetch salt from the marshes at the mouth of the Tiber. 361 bbhst, wlwnd
no date: wikVS
c.361 T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus is appointed dictator to deal with Gauls. 361 DGRBM 1-606, 2-909, wikLRD
c.361 T. Manlius Imperiosus serves under dictator T, Quintius Pennus in the war against the Gauls.  At a bridge over the Anio River a Gaul (gigantic of course) steps out of the ranks and challenges a Roman to fight him.  Manlius kills him in single combat, takes a chain (Latin torques) from the Gauls neck, and placed it around his own;  His comrades give him the surname TORQUATUS, which is ever afterwards handed down to his descendants. 361
CAH 7.2-320, DGRBM 3-1163, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-172, LEWH 85, SORH
c.361 Ser. Cornelius Maluginensis is magister equitum to dictator Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus. 361 DGRBM 2-909
c.361 Dictator T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus defeats Gauls, and has triumph. 361 DGRBM 1-606, 2-909, wikLRD
c.361 FERENTINUM, in Hernici territory, taken by consul C. Sulpicius Peticus. 361 DGRG 1-895, DGRBM 3-212
c.361 TIBUR allies with Gauls. Hostilities between Rome and Tibur begin until 354. 361 CAH 7.2-318, 321 360 SORH
360 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Fabius Ambustus and C. Poetelius Libo Visolus (Balbus?) 360 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-141, 2-779, 3-433, OCD 426, 850, csm, wikCon
c.360 Q. Servilius Ahala is appointed dictator because of Gauls. 360 DGRBM 1-83, wikLRD
c.360 T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus is magister equitum. 360 DGRBM 1-606
c.360 Gauls and Tiburtines raid Roman territory and are defeated by dictator Ahala at Colline Gate, and driven back. 360 CAH 7.2-320,
DGRBM 1-83, GHH, HRR, MCAW 158
c.360 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus defeats Gauls and inhabitants of Tibur. 360 DGRBM 2-779
c.360 VOLSINI:  A popular revolt overthrows the government.  The nobles appeal to Rome, which takes Volsini by famine, confiscates 2,000 statues, and destroys it.  Population remnant is forbidden to live there. 360 HRRP 1-385
c.360 The HERNICI, an Italic tribe fighting Rome from 362, defeated by consul Fabius Ambustus.  Alliance renewed, but hostilities linger until 358. 360 CAH 7.2, LdHR 1-197
c.360 Both consuls, but not dictator Servilius Ahala are granted triumphs. 360 LdHR 1-192
359 Jul. CONSULS:  pleb M. Popillius Laenas and Gn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus 359 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-605, 2-571, 707, 3-496, csm, wikCon
c.359 Tiburtines try to enter Rome at night. 359 GHH, HRR
c.359 Consul Gn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus continues the war against Tibur. 359 DGRBM 1-605
358 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Fabius Ambustus and pleb C. Plautius Proculus 358 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-141, 3-405, 541, csm, wikCon
c.358 C. Poetelius Libo Visolus is pleb tribune. 358 DGRBM 2-779
c.358 Various Gaul tribes return to raid Roman territory, penetrate thru Praeneste as far as Pedum. 358 CAH 7.2-320, DGRBM 3-212, DGRG 1-416, Dur 3-36, MCAW 158
c.358 C. Sulpicius Peticus is made dictator for fear of Gauls. 358 DGRBM 3-212, wikLRD
c.358 M. Valerius Poplicola is magister equitum. 358 DGRBM 3-602
c.358 Various Gaul tribes beaten back by dictator C. Sulpicius and Latins. 358 CAH 7.2-320, DGRBM 3-212, DGRG 1-416, Dur 3-36, GHH, HRR, MCAW 158, SORH
c.358 The Italic HERNICI, supposedly at peace with Rome from 360, resubdued by consul C. Plautius, and again ally with Rome because of the Gauls. 358 DGRBM 3-541,
DGRG 1-1060, GHH, HRR, OCD 505, SORH
c.358 Etruscans of Tarquinii declare war on Rome. 358 HRRP 1-268
c.358 Etruscans of Tarquinii defeat Romans and then sacrifice 307 Roman P.O.W.s to their gods in the forum of Tarquinii. 358 CAH 7.2-321, LdHR 1-197
c.358  Lex Poetelia de Ambitu  by tribune C. Poetelius Libo:  1st prohibition of ambitus.  Forbids bribery (1st Roman law to do so), candidates canvassing on market days, and soliciting votes outside Rome.  Checks the growing political potential of rich plebean novi homines (new men). 358 CAH 7.2-394, DGRA 77, 696, DGRBM 2-779, GHH, HRR, OCD 51, SORH, bk, invf, unrv
c.358 Roman TRIBES, 25 from 387, increased to 27 until 332 by addition of POMPTINA and PUBLILIA.  They are settled in Pomptine, and Hernici territory. 358 CAH 7.2-320, DGRA 1156, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-193
c.358 ROME - LATIN  TREATY , defunct from 380, renewed to mutually fight the Volscii. 358 CAH 7.2-310, 320, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-202
c.358 ROME - TARQUINI WAR begins until 351. 358 CAH 7.2-321
c.358 Consul C. Fabius Ambustus fights unsuccessfully against the Tarquini. 358 DGRBM GHH
c.358 Romans defeat Privernum and move south. 358 SORH
357 Jul. CONSULS:  Pleb C. Marcius Rutilus and Gn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus (2nd?) 357 CAH 7.2-639, CDCC 552, DGRBM 1-605, 2-571, 3-682, OCD 647, csm, wikCon
c.357  Lex Manlia de Vicesima Manumissionum  by consul Gn. Manlius:  unprecedented passing of a law in a military camp by the tribes.  Levies 5% tax on the value of every slave freed.  1st tax aimed at the rich.  Raises much money, so the senate supports it. 357 CAH 7.2-334, CDGRA 669, DGRA 23, 731, DGRBM, HRR, SORH, invf, unrv
c.357 L. Menenius is pleb tribune. 357 DGRBM 2-896
c.357  Lex Duilia et Menenia de Unciario Fenore  by tribunes M. Duilius and L. Menenius:  intends to prevent unconstitutional acts such as enactment of a lex by soldiers outside of Rome. 357 CDGRA 379, DGRA 687
c.357  Lex Comitia Tributa :  Pleb tribunes, in response to Lex Manlia, make it a capital offense to convene the tribal assembly outside their usual meeting place. 357 invf, unrv
c.357  Lex Duilia et Menenia de Unciario Fenore  by tribunes M. Duilius and L. Menenius:  restores the 8⅓% interest rate fixed by the Twelve Tables. 358 bk     357 CAH 7.2-333, CDGRA 306, DGRBM 1-1091, LdHR 1-184, 190, invf, unrv
10% interest 357 GHH, HRR, SORH
c.357 Roman TRIBAL ASSEMBLY gains legislative power.  Voters arranged according to tribe and residence.  Each tribe has 1 vote.  Wealth is irrelevant. 357
Dur 3-26-7
c.357 C. Licinius Calvus Stolo is prosecuted by curule aedile M. Popillius Laenas, and fined 10,000 ases for owning 1,000 iugera of public land, violating the law which Licinius himself passed limiting the amount of public land one can own to 500 iugera.  He claims that 500 of those iugera are in the name of his son. 357 DGRBM 1-586, HRRP 1-303, SORH
354
LdHR 1-192
c.357 Consul Gn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus starts war against the Faliscans of Falerii and continues war against the Tarqininienses. 357 DGRBM 1-605
c.357 Rome Falerii War begins until 351. 357 CAH 7.2-321 356 SORH
c.357 Gauls return to raid Roman territory. 357 CAH 7.2-320
c.357 PRIVERNUM Latium, under Volsci, raided then taken by consul Rutilus. 357 CAH 7.2-322, DGRBM 3-682, GHH, HRR
c.357 DIONYSIUS-II tyrant of Syracuse goes to Italy to visit two new colonies in Iagygia. 357/6 OCD 351
c.357 DIONYSIUS-II former tyrant of Syracuse, in Italy, learns that Dion has taken Syracuse, holds up in Rhegium until 351. no date: OCD 351
356 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Fabius Ambustus (2nd) and pleb M. Popillius Laenas (2nd) 356 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-141, 2-707, OCD 426, csm, wikCon
c.356 ETRUSCANS and FALISCANS (Faliscans at peace with Rome from 396), rebel. 356 DGRG 1-891, LdHR 1-197,
c.356 LATIN LEAGUE revives and joins with Rome against Etruscans and Faliscans. 356 LdHR 1-207
c.356 C. Marcius Rutilus is made 1st pleb dictator by pleb consul Laenas, to deal with Etruscan/Faliscan invasion.  Particians are so indignant that they obstruct war preparations.  The people, however, eagerly supply Rutilus with every thing he needs. 356 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 487, DGRA 406, DGRBM 1-664, 3-682, Dur 3-24, CDCC 552, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-273, LdHR 1-193, OCD 647, SORH, bk, wikLRD
c.356 C. Plautius Proclus is 1st pleb magister equitum. 356 DGRBM 3-541
c.356 C. Marcius Rutilus, 1st pleb dictator, repels Etruscan/Faliscan invasion.  Senate refuses him a triumph.  The people give him one anyway. 356 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-664, 3-682, Dur 3-24, CDCC 552, GHH, HRR, OCD 647, bk, wikLRD
c.356 Consul M. Fabius Ambustus successful against the Hernici. 356 OCD 427
c.356 Consul M. Popillius Laenas drives Tiburtines to their towns. 356 DGRBM 2-707
c.356 Oscanized inhabitants of Calabria assert independence from the Lucani, and become called BRUTTII. 356 CAH 7.2,
DGRG 1-448, OCD 183
355 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Peticus (3rd) and M. Valerius Poplicola (both patrician, in violation of Licinian law) 355 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 3-212, 602, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-192, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.355 EMPULUM Latium, under Tibur from ?, taken by Romans. 355 DGRG 1-826
354 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Fabius Ambustus (3rd) and T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus  OR  M. Popilius (Laenas) (3rd) (all patrician, in violation of Licinian law) 354 CAH 7.2-639,
DGRBM 1-141, 606, GHH, HRR, OCD 426, csm, wikCon
c.354 TIBUR conquered by Consul M. Fabius Ambustus.  Hostilities between Rome and Tibur from 361 end. 354 CAH 7.2-321, DGRBM 1-141, 606
c.354 Consul M. Fabius Ambustus successful against the Tiburtini, gains a triumph, but is defeated by Tarquinii. 354 OCD 427
c.354 Consul M. Fabius Ambustus subdues the Tarquinii. 354 DGRBM 1-606
c.354 CAMPANIANS appeal to Rome for help against SAMNITES.  Rome responds. 354
CDCC 780
c.354 SAMNITES make  treaty  with Rome against GaulsLiris River is boundary between Samnium and Latium. 354 B76 VIII-832, CAH 7.2-323, GHH, HRR, MCAW 158, OCD 948, SORH, bk, umucNap
c.354 358 noble Etruscans of Tarquinii are beheaded in the Roman forum in retribution for execution of 307 Roman POWs in 358 (not a typo). 354 CAH 7.2-321, GHH, HRR
353 HRRP 1-273
c.354 Etruscans of Caere join other Etruscans of Tarquinii and Falerii against Romans.  Caeritans are defeated and make 100 year truce. 354 CAH 7.2-321, MCAW 158 353 CAH 7.2-313, 321, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.354 PRAENESTE Latium makes truce with Romans on condition of maintaining independence. 354 CAH 7.2-321, HRRP 1-270
c.354 TIBUR surrenders to Rome and makes alliance on condition of maintaining independence. 354 CAH 7.2-321, HRRP 1-270
353 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Peticus (4th) and M. Valerius Poplicola (2nd) (both patrician, in violation of Licinian law) 353 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 3-212, 602, csm, wikCon
c.353 T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus is dictator 1st time, having never been a consul to carry on the war against the Caerites and Etruscans. 353 DGRBM 2-571, 3-1163, wikLRD
c.353 A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina is magister equitum. 353 DGRBM 1-378
c.353 Tarquinii, oppose Rome until 351. 353 DGRBM
c.353 CAERE south Etruria, in sympathy with Tarquins, opposes Rome, but is quickly subdued.  100 year truce is made. 353 DGRBM, DGRG 1-467, GHH
352 Jul. CONSULS:  P. Valerius Poplicola and C. Marcius Rutilus (2nd) 352 CAH 7.2-639, CDCC 552, DGRBM 3-602, 682, OCD 647, csm, wikCon
c.352 C. Julius Iullus is made dictator, ostensibly for a war with Etruscans, but really to get 2 patricians elected consuls (see Licinian law 367, 342.) 352 DGRBM 2-657, wikLRD
c.352 L. Aemilius Mamarcinus is magister equitum. 352 DGRBM 2-911
c.352 Consuls Valerius and Marcius pass a law to assist the Licinian law of debt.  QUINQUEVIRI MENSARII "5 men: bankers" 2 patricians and 3 plebs (C. Duilius, P. Decius Mus, Q. Publilius) appointed to meet problem of plebs forced to borrow from new creditors to pay old ones.  Introduces a system of state mortgages and bankruptcy proceedings.  Lends money at a low interest rate.  Fixes prices at which land, cattle, and flocks are given in repayment of loans.  This enables repayment of many debts. 352 CAH 7.2-333, DGRBM 2-1123, 3-603, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-305, SORH, pnlp
c.351 CENSORS:  patrician Gn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus;   C. Marcius Rutilus elected 1st pleb censor. 351 B76 II-678, CAH 7.2, CDGRA 154, 487, DGRA 261, 927, DGRBM 1-605, 664, 3-682, Dur 3-24, CDCC 552, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-193, OCD 219, 647, SORH, wikLC     350 MCAW 163
351 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Sulpicius Peticus (5th) and T. Quinctius Poenus Capitolinus Crispinus (2nd) (both patrician) 351 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-605, 3-212, csm, wikCon
c.351 M. Fabius Ambustus is made dictator merely to frustrate the Licinian Law at the comitia.  He fails to prevent readmission of plebs to the consulate. 351 DGRBM 1-141, OCD 427, wikLRD
c.351 Q. Servilius Ahala is magister equitum. 351 DGRBM 1-83
c.351 Rome / Tarquini War from 358 ends with 40 year truce. 351 CAH 7.2-321, DGRBM, DGRG 1-862, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.351 Rome / Falerii War from 357 ends with 40 year truce. 351 CAH 7.2-321, LdHR 1-198, SORH
c.351 RHEGIUM, under Syracuse from 357, expels Syracusan garrison.  Callipus of Rhegium is joined by Syracusan Leptines against Dionysius-II. 352 CAH 6-391
351 DGRBM 2-771, OCD 351
c.351 South ETRURIA annexed to Rome.  Named TUSCIA. 351 Dur 3-36
c.351 CAERE south Etruria, comes under Rome without suffrage. 351 SORH
c.351 DIONYSIUS-II former tyrant of Syracuse, in Rhegium from 357, holds up in Locri until 347/6.  Locri is under him until 345. 351 OCD 351
350 Jul. CONSULS:  patrician L.(1) Cornelius Scipio and pleb M. Popilius Laenas (3/4th) 350 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 2-707, 3-741, GHH, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.350 Population of Rome 30,000. 350 wikHR
c.350 Gauls cross Alps and settle in north Italy. 350 TToH
c.350 Gauls raid Roman territory in Latium and are defeated by Consul M. Popillius Laenas.  They continue raiding until 349. 350 CAH, 7.2-321, DGRBM, Dur 3-36, HRR, MCAW 162, SORH     349 HRRP 1-273
c.350 P. Valerius Poplicola is praetor.  He commands the reserve army against the Gauls. 350 DGRBM 3-602
c.350 Consul M. Popillius Laenas comes back from fighting Gauls with a serious leg wound.  He is 1st pleb to hold a triumph. 350 DGRBM 1-592, 2-707
c.350 2nd temple to APOLLO built. 350 DGRBM 1-232
c.350 PHYLAX PLAY (aka hilarotragedy), a burlesque dramatic form, apparently evolving from Greek satyr plays, develops in Greek colonies of Magna Grecia.  From surviving titles they appear to be mythological burlesque, mixing Greek gods with the stock characters and situations of Attic New Comedy.  5 authors are known by name: Rhinthon and Sciras of Taranto, Blaesus of Capri, Sopater of Paphos, and Heraklides. 4th cen. wikΦlx
c.350 Consul L.(1) Cornelius Scipio is sick, and Laenas wounded.  L. Furius Camillus is appointed dictator (1st time) to hold elections.  P.(2) Cornelius Scipio is magister equitum.  L. Furius Camillus, a radical patrician, refuses to let any plebs stand for consul. 350 DGRBM 1-592, 3-741, lvR, wikLRD
c.350 Dictator L. Furius Camillus vows a temple to Juno Moneta. 350
HRRP 1-548
c.350 Etruscan MAIL ARMOR: earliest known examples. 4th cen. wikMlA
c.350 winged helmetAttic winged helmet found in south Italy.  Attic helmets decorated with wings of sheet bronze were worn by Samnites and other Italians before their conquest by Rome. 4th cen. wikWH
Photo: Doreio
349 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Furius Camillus and Ap.(6) Claudius Crassus (both patrician) 349 CAH 7.2-639, DGRBM 1-767 GHH, HRR, OCD 199, wikCon
c.349 M. Valerius Corvus is military tribune under Camillus. 349 DGRBM 1-861
c.349 L. Pinarius Natta is praetor. 349 DGRBM 2-1143
c.349 Consul Ap.(6) Claudius Crassus Regillensis, prepares for Gallic war, but dies. 349 DGRBM 1-592, 767
c.349 10 legions are levied. 349 SORH
c.349 Sole consul L. Furius Camillus leaves 2 legions to protect Rome, divides 8 legions between himself and praetor L. Pinarius. 349 DGRBM 1-592
c.349 Latin League refuses to send troops to the Roman army, and Greek pirates ravage the coast. 349 CAH 7.2-321
c.349 Sole consul L. Furius Camillus sends praetor Pinarius to defend the coast against Sicilian Greek pirates. 349 DGRBM 1-592, SORH
c.349 Consul L. Furius Camillus pursues Gaul thru Volscian plains.  M. Valerius Corvus has single combat with a Gaul.  Who won is not mentioned. 349 DGRBM 1-592, LEWH 85, HRR, HRRP 1-273, LdHR 1-172
Valerius won.  A crow (corvus) lighted on his helmet and attacked the Gaul, thus distracting him so Valerius could kill him.  Henceforth Valerius and his descendants are surnamed Corvus . 349 GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-273, LdHR 1-172, SORH
c.349 Consul L. Furius Camillus and tribune M. Valerius Corvus defeat the Gauls in Pomptine area, and chase them to Apulia. 349 DGRBM 1-592, GHH, HRR, OCD 199
c.349 Consul L. Furius Camillus rewards tribune M. Valerius Corvus for his single combat with the Gaul with 10 oxen and a gold crown. 349 DGRBM 1-592
c.349 T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus is dictator (2nd time) to hold elections. 349 DGRBM 3-1163, wikLRD
c.349 A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina is magister equitum (2nd time). 349 DGRBM 1-378
348 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Valerius Corvus and M. Popillius Laenas (4/5th) 348 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-708, 861, OCD 969, 1105, csm, wikCon
c.348 Roman taxes, and conscription reduced. 348 bk
c.348 ROME / Carthage Λ  2nd TREATY  V and trade agreement.  Romans will stay away from Sardinia and LibyaCarthage will not attack Latin cities loyal to Rome.  Romans may trader with Sicily or Africa, but treaty is primarily to protect commercial interests of Carthage, not Rome. 348 Agθ 33, B76 13-149, CAH 7.2-323, 410, HRR, HRRP 1-463, LEWH 85, MCAW 163, MWΦ 210, OCD 208, SORH, TToH, bk
c.348 Roman interest rate reduced to 4¼%. 348 bk     347 DGRBM
c.348 C.(2) Claudius Crassus Regillensis is dictator.??? 348 DGRBM 1-993
c.348 C. Livius Denter is magister equitum. 348 DGRBM 1-993
347 Jul. CONSULS:  C. Plautius Vennox Hypsaeus and T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus 347 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-540, 3-1163, 1237, csm, wikCon
c.347 INTEREST RATES on loans limited to 10% from 449, lowered to 5% until 342.  This law is easily evaded.  Actual percentage averages 12%. 347 CAH 7.2-333, CDGRA 306, Dur 3-79, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-191, SORH
c.347 T. Manlius executed for defying orders. 347 CAH 7.2-168
c.347 ARCHYTAS of Taras, scientist, philosopher, commander of Taras from 366, dies. 347 Dur 2-713, wikAT
c.347 TARAS, Greek democracy from 475, comes under oligarchy until 304. 347 rcSI
c.347 DIONYSIUS-II former tyrant of Syracuse 367-6, in Italy from 357, Locri from 351, leaves his family in Locri, returns to Syracuse. 347 B76 8-370, LEWH 80, MRDK 347/6 OCD 351     346 Dur 2-458, MCAW 162
c.347/6 LOCRI, under Dionysius-II of Syracuse from 351, murders his family, throws off Syracusan control. 347/6 OCD 351 345 CAH 6-391
346 Jul. CONSULS:  M. Valerius Corvus (2nd) age 23 and C. Poetelius Libo Visolus (2nd) 346 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-861, OCD 850, 1105, 2-779, HRRP 1-274, LdHR 1-226, csm, wikCon
c.346 LUDI SAECULARES "games secular" (evidence for which goes back to 509), probably celebrated (though 1st clearly attested time is 249).  A celebration, involving sacrifices and theater, held for 3 days and nights. 346 DGRBM 2-779, GHH, HRR
c.346 Consul M. Valerius Corvus defeats the VOLSCII at Antium and Satricum. 346 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 1-861, OCD 1105
c.346 SATRICUM, 30km southeast of Rome, under the Volscii from 488, taken and burnt by Corvus, rebuilt, settled with Romans. 346 CAH 7.2,
CDCC 788, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-273, SORH
345 July CONSULS:  M. Fabius Dorso and Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus Rufus (both patrician) 345 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-590, 1069, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.345 L. Furius Camillus is dictator 2nd time. 345 DGRBM, lvR, wikLRD
c.345 Gn. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus is magister equitum. 345 DGRBM 1-605
c.345 SORA Latium, 5 miles north of Arpinum, under the Volscii from ?, taken by consul M. Fabius Dorso, but Samnites dispute Roman control. 345 CAH 7.2-322, HRRP 1-274, OCD 1003, SORH
c.345 Earthquake destroys 12 cities in Campania. 345 GHH, HRR
c.345 Syracusan fleet raids coast of Latium. 345 CAH 7.2
c.345 The AURUNCI attacked by Romans.  Alleged Auruncan victory. 345 CAH 7.2-322, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, OCD 199, SORH
344 July CONSULS:  C. Marcius Rutilus (3rd) and T.(1) Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus (2nd) 344 CAH 7.2-640, CDCC 552, DGRBM 3-682, 1163, OCD 647, csm, wikCon
c.344 P. Valerius Publicola is dictator. 344 DGRBM 3-602, wikLRD
c.344 Q. Fabius Ambustus is magister equitum. 344 DGRBM
c.344 USURERS in Rome incur penalties up to 4 times the amount of the loan.  Some are tried and convicted.  But its not enough.  (see 342) 346 DGRA 527 344 CAH 7.2-333
c.344 AEDES MONETAE, temple of JUNO MONETA on the Capitoline where the house of M. Manlius Capitolinus had been 384, dedicated.  The moneta is an attachment to the temple where money is coined. 344 CAH 7.2, DGRA 766, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, wikArx
c.344/3 Carthaginian embassy makes alliances with Italian towns. 344/3 lvS
343 July CONSULS:  M. Valerius Corvus (3rd) and A. Cornelius Cossus Arvina (both patrician) 343 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 1-378, 861, OCD 1105, csm, wikCon
c.343 Roman citizen-army mutinies, possibly because of food shortage. 343 CAH 7.2-135, MCAW 163
c.343 P. Decius Mus is military tribune under M. Valerius Corvus Arvina fighting Samnites. 343 DGRBM 2-1123
c.343 Rome tries to make USURY illegal. 343 MCAW 163
c.343 Carthaginian embassy to Rome. 343 CAH 7.2
c.343 TEANUM, main town of the Sidicini northwest of Capua, attacked by SAMNITES. 343 CAH 7.2, LdHR 1-202, OCD 986
c.343 The Oscan speaking SIDICINI are attacked by Samnites, ask Campanians for help.  Campanians go to their assistance. 343 CAH 7.2-359, DGRG 1-493
c.343 CAMPANIANS defeated by SAMNITES at gates of Capua, retreat into Capua, and are besieged by Samnites. 343 DGRG 1-493
c.343 CAMPANIANS, besieged in Capua by Samnites camped on Mt. Tifata, ask protection from Rome.  Senate says, "What's in it for Rome?".  Capuans offer their city as a gift to Rome. 343 CAH 7.2-360, DGRBM, DGRG 1-510, HRRP 1-318, LEWH 85, OCD 199, wikCap
c.343 1st SAMNITE WAR with Rome begins until 341. 343 B76 VIII-832, CAH 7.2, CDCC 456, 780, 938, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-316, LEWH 85, OCD 948, SORH, TToH, bk
c.343 CAPUA, under Samnites from 425, but now full of Campanians, Samnites are expelled by Romans, comes under a Roman garrison until 338. 343 CAH 7.2, wikCap
341 MCAW 164
c.343 SAMNITES, expelled from Capua, devastate Campanian land. 343 HRRP 1-318
c.343 SAMNIUM:  total population: 450,000 persons. 343 CAH 7.2-353
c.343 TARAS attacked by neighbors. 343 MCAW 162
c.343 Consuls Valerius Corvus and Cornelius Cossus are sent into Campania.  Valerius goes to Capua.  Cornelius penetrates Samnium.  Latin allies cross Appenines to attack Samnites in rear. mid 343 CAH 7.2-360, DGRBM, HRRP 1-318
c.343 Military tribune DECIUS MUS persuades consul Cornelius Cossus to let him take a hill close to the Samnites.  It results in a great Roman victory.  Decius is rewarded and honored. 343 HRRP 1-319-20
c.343 Cornelius Cossus defeats Samnites at Saticula, a Samnite border city west of Malventum. 343 CAH 7.2, wikBS
c.343 Valerius Corvus defeats Samnites at Mt, Gaurus Campania near Cumae. 343 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-321, SORH, wikBMG
342 wikLRB     340 DGRG 1-980
c.343 Valerius Corvus defeats Samnites at Suessula Campania between Capua and Nola. 343 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-321, SORH, wikBSs
342 Jul. CONSULS:  Q. Servilius Ahala (3rd) and C. Marcius Rutilus (4th) 342 CAH 7.2-640, CDCC 552, DGRBM 1-83, 3-682, OCD 647, csm, wikCon
c.342 Consul C. Marcius Rutilus is stationed in Campania.  He discovers a mutinous conspiracy among Roman troops at Capua.  The equites are not part of it.  Marcius sends the most dangerous men home under various pretenses.  These men arrive at Latulae and find the cohort defending the pass ready to mutiny.  They join the cohort.  They camp at Bovillae beneath the Alban Hills.  More troops from Bovillae join the mutiny. 342 DGRBM 3-682, GHH, LdHR 1-204, SORH
c.342 Mutinous Roman troops march north, camp within 8 miles of Rome. 342 DGRBM 1-861, HRR
c.342 M. Valerius CORVUS is appointed dictator to deal with the Capua mutiny. 342 CAH 7.2-345, DGRBM 1-862, HRR, OCD 1105, wikLRD
c.342 L. Aemilius Mamercinus Privernas is magister equitum. 343 DGRBM
c.342 Tribune P. Salonius opposes mutiny, and is therefore hated by the troops. 342 DGRBM 3-700
c.342 Dictator M. Valerius CORVUS quells the Capua mutiny by diplomacy. 342 CAH 7.2-345,
DGRBM 1-862, OCD 1105
c.342 4th Λ PLEB SECESSION:  An obscure military revolt.  Army rules are reformed afterward. 342 CAH 7.2, GHH, HRR, wikSP
c.342 DEBTS abolished. 343 CDGRA 306
c.342  Lex Militaris  by M Valerius Corvus Forbids discharge of a soldier against his will.  Forbids degradation of a tribune. 342 SORH
c.342  Leges Genuciae  by plebean tribune L. Genucius:  Several laws including:  de Feneratione : Bans all usury (lending at interest) (later ignored or abandoned).   Annalis  forbids anyone to accept re-election to same office in less than 10 years or fill 2 offices in same year (void 151).  Says 1 elected consul must be a pleb, and allows both to be plebs. 342 CAH 7.2-223, 337, CDGRA 306, DGRA 353, DGRBM 1-418, GHH, HRR, SORH, invf, unrv, wikLRL
341 DGRA 527, 690
c.342 INTEREST RATES on loans limited to 5% from 347, lowered to 0%.  This law is easily evaded and soon discarded.  Actual percentage averages 12%.  (see 193) 342 CAH 7.2-333,
Dur 3-79, GHH, HRRP 1-305, OCD 462
c.342 ARCHIDAMOS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 360-38 invited to help Taras against Lucanii and Messapii, lands in Italy, remains until 338. 343 bk, CAH 7.2, lvG 342 CAH 6, OCD 98
338 LEWH 80
c.341 Dictator M. Valerius CORVUS defeats Samnites again at Suessula. 341 wikLRB
c.341 1st SAMNITE WAR with Rome from 434 ends because Rome is threatened by Latins and Samnites by Taras.  Rome controls north Campania.  2nd 327. 341 B76 VIII-832, CDCC 456, 780, 938, DGRBM, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-316, LEWH 85, OCD 948, SORH, TToH, bk
c.341 Rome renews alliance with Samnites but retains a garrison in Capua.  This causes the Sidicini and Campanians to ally with Latins and Volsci, who are close to or already rebelling against Rome. 341
CAH 7.2-360, MCAW 164
341 July CONSULS:  C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus (2nd) and L. Aemilius Mamercinus 341 CAH 7.2-640, DGRBM 2-911, 3-1237, csm, wikCon
c.341 A law is passed forbidding anyone who has been a military tribune to be a centurion. 341
DGRA 506
c.341 Consul C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus, is assigned to the war with Privernum Latium and the Volscian League. 341 DGRBM 2-540
c.341 Consul C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus, pushes the Volscians to the sea, ravages their land. 341 DGRBM 2-540
c.341 Volcian city PRIVERNUM Latium defeated by consul C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus, who takes ⅔ of their public land. 341 CAH 7.2-362, DGRBM 2-540

Italy 340-301
V