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Italy
c.450 A murdered corpse is found in the house of P. Sestius, who is prosecuted by decemvir C. Iulius Iulus. 450 DGRBM 2-656
c.450 L. Quinctius CINCINNATUS is an unsuccessful candidate for 2nd Decemvirate. 450 DGRBM 1-752
c.450 2nd DECEMVIRATE:  Ap.(3) Claudius Crassus,  M. Cornelius Maluginensis,  (L. or M.?) Sergius Esquilinus,  L. Minucius Esquilinus Augurinus,  Q. Fabius Vibulanus,  Q. Poetelius Libo Visolus,  T. Antonius Merenda,  pleb Kaeso Duillius Longus,  Sp. Oppius Cornicen,  M'. Rabuleius - all to rule 2 years. 451 CAH 7.2, Dur 3-20, 23, OCD 246, bk     451/0 CAH 7.2-173
450 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-857, 1090, 2-53, 779, 909, 1047, 3-34, 640, 1255, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-129, LEWH 84, OCD 316, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.450  TEN TABLES  of laws, Rome's 1st written code, produced by the Decemviri.  They codify existing laws. 451 GHH     451/0 B76 X-210, DGRA 688, HRR     450 LEWH 84, OCD 316
c.450 Bronze Λ COINS V issued.
coin weight     head of deity
as 1 lb. Janus
semis ½ lb. Jupiter
triens ⅓ lb. Minerva
quadrans ¼ lb. Hercules
sextians ⅙ lb. Mercury
uncia l oz. Rome
soon after 454
HRRP 1-208
c.450 Ap.(3) Claudius Crassus and Sp. Oppius Cornicen are left to guard Rome, whil the rest of the Decemviri march against the Sabines, and are defeated. 450
DGRBM 1-857, 3-816
c.450 L. Sicinius Dentatus tries to persuade the plebs to secede to the Sacred Mount, as their forefathers had done.  The decemviri send him on an assignment to view the country with other men who murder him, and blame it on an enemy ambush. 450
DGRBM 3-816
c.450 DECEMVIRI refuse to disband, threaten to assume dictatorial powers. 450 MCAW 124
c.450 Romans resume offensive until 390. 450 HRRP 1-252
c.450 HIPPON of Rhegium?, Metapontum?, Croton?, or maybe Samos?, philosopher, flourishes.  Tries to resurrect Thales' idea that water is the base of everything.  Accused of atheism. 450 B76 V-56
no date: wikHp
c.450 Attic painted pottery imports begin general decline, maybe due to new markets becoming available to the Greeks, notably the north Adriatic port of Spina whose imports increase in this period.  New outlets open up for Etruscan metal in North Italy and beyond the Alps. 450
CAH 7.2-131
c.450 ZENO of Elea flourishes.  Alleges certain phenomena as paradoxes, an attempt to confuse rather than clarify reality.    Like his teacher Parmenides, he employs reductio ad absurdum arguments.  Invented dialectic, according to Aristotle.  Though much referred to, none of his works survive.  Visits Athens. 490-30 wikZoE 450 Dur 2-244, OHG
450-41 TTS
c.450 COMITIA CENTURIATA, begun by Servius Tullius 560, re-established and revised.  A military assembly, decides issues of war and peace, enacts legislation, elects consuls, and considers appeals of citizens convicted of capital crimes.  Included plebs as well as patricians, but gives greater influence to the rich. 450 B76 III-36, brit
c.449 2nd Λ PLEB SECESSION V to force patricians to adopt the Twelve Tables. 449 CAH 7.2-212, Dur 3-20, SORH, wikSP
c.449 Sextus Manlius and M. Oppius are elected pleb commanders on the Aventine hill. 449 DGRBM 2-917, 3-35
c.449 PLEBS on advice of M. Duilius, move from Aventine hill to Sacred Mount. 449 DGRG 1-1090
c.449 Border wars resume with Sabines and Aequi.  Aequi penetrate to Mt. Algidus. 449 LdHR 1-130
c.449










c.449
10 TABLES of laws prove inadequate.  Two more (unfavorable to plebs) are added.  The  12 Tables  are engraved on 12 bronze tablets and put in the forum.  They are memorized by school children until Augustus, and are the basis for Roman laws to the 2nd century CE.
 TWELVE TABLES 
DEATH penalty, rarely imposed on freemen, for libel, bribery, perjury, harvest thieving, nocturnal damage to neighbors' crops, arson, patron defrauding client, enchantment, murder, PERDUELIO:  hostile activity againt the state (includes political satire), seditious gathering in Rome by night.  Parricides are tied in a sack with a cock, dog, and either monkey or viper, and thrown in the Tiber.
CREDITORS may enslave or kill an insolvent debtor.  Joint creditors may cut up his corpse proportional to amounts owed.  (repealed 367)
FINES:  300 asses for breaking a bone of a freeman, 150 for a slave.
THIEVES are enslaved to their victims.
No INERMARRIAGE between patrician and pleb.  (repealed 445)
DIVORCE is permitted to husbands, but they must state a reason.  (Nobody divorces until 233.)
FATHERS may scourge, chain, imprison, sell, or kill their children.  But a son sold thrice is free from his father's rule.
"The safety of the people is the highest law."
450
CAH 7.2-114, Dur 3-20, 23, 32, 99, GHH, HRR,
SHWC 105, TToH, unrv
449
MCAW 124, MNDQ 655, RAH
c.449  Lex Duilia de Provocatione  by tribune M. Duilius:  Anyone who leaves the plebs without tribunes, or who creates a magistrate from whom there is no appeal, shall be scourged and beheaded. 449
CAH 7.2-219, invf, unrv
c.449  Lex Valeria et Horatia de Plebiscitum  (historicity disputed) by consuls (or decemviri?) L. Valerius Potitus and M. Horatius Barbatus is passed in the Comitia Centuriata:  A series of laws passed to restore and define rights of tribunes in response to 2nd pleb secession.  Makes PLEBISCITES, until now nothing but recommendations, binding on the whole populace (Subject to approval by either Senate or patrician assembly).  Whether or not this plebiscite law is historical, it will be repeated in 339 and 287.  Restore right of appeal (provocatio) against a magistrate's judgment.  Restore sanctity of tribunes and aediles.  Quaestors, until now appointed by each consul, are now elected by tribal assembly, but not open to plebs until 421. 449
CAH 7.2-223, 342, CDGRA 199, 204, 379, DGRA 337, 700, 928, OCD 845, 927, SORH, bk, invf, unrv, wikLRL
448 LEWH 84
447 OCD 906
c.449  Lex Valeria et Horatia de Aedilis :  Orders resolutions of senate or consular decrees to be stored in temple of Ceres under care of pleb aediles. 449 GHH, invf, unrv     446 DGRBM 2-525, wikAd
c.449 Sp. Oppius Cornicen is charged by an old soldier whom he had unjustly scourged 20 years previously.  Cornicen is imprisoned, and suicides out. 449 DGRBM 1-857
c.449 C. Sicinius and M. TITINIUS are elected pleb tribunes. 449 DGRBM 3-816, 1158
c.449 INTEREST RATES on loans limited to 8⅓% per year.  Lowered 347. 10% Tacitus Annals VI-16
8⅓% Dur 3-79
c.449 Rome's SABINE WARS, from regal times, end with defeat of Sabines, who now move south. 449 DGRBM, Dur 3-35, GHH, HRR, OCD 942, SORH
c.449 AEQUI, at war with Rome from ?, defeated again. 449 DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.449 VOLSCI, at war with Rome from ?, defeated again. 449 SORH
c.449 Q. Furius Pacilus becomes pontifex maximus. 449 DGRBM 2-190, lvR, wikPM
c.449 L. Siccius DENATUS murdered by Ap.(3) Claudius Crassus. 449 OCD 332
c.449 A legend says the DECEMVIRI continued illegally in 449 under patrician AP.(3) CLAUDIUS CRASSUS.  He tries to get a pleb maiden VIRGINIA by legal force.  Her father L. Viginius stabs her to death, and asks his legion to overthrow Appius Claudius.  The legion won't fight for either of them.  Their leader L. Siccius Denatus is murdered by Appius Claudius.  Plebs secede to the Sacred Mount.  The army favors them.  Sp. Oppius Cornicen convenes the SENATE, which deposes the Decemviri, banishes Appius Claudius, restores the consulate, enlarges the tribunate, and makes tribunes inviolable.  Appius Claudius suicides out.  Decemviri collapse. 450 CDCC 925, DGRBM 1-857, 2-560,
MCAW 124
449 CDCC 749, DGRA 688, DGRBM,
Dur 3-20, 23, GHH, HRR, LEWH 84,
OCD 332
c.449 P. Numitorius, C. Oppius, M. Pomponius, and P. Villius elected pleb tribunes after expulsion of decemviri. 449 DGRBM 2-1215, 3-35, 493, 1260
c.449 The Decemviri entered office on the ides (15th) of May.  Consuls resume, and enter office on the ides of December until 443. 450 DGRA 353
c.449 Via FiculensisVIA FICULENSIS mentioned as existing from Rome to Nomentum.  It is called Ficulensis because it originally went only to Ficulea. 449 bbhst, wlwnd
449 Dec. CONSULS:  L. Valerius Potitus and M. Horatius Barbatus, both patricians and benefactors of plebs. 449 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-461, 3-514, 602, OCD 1105, csm, wikCon
448 LEWH 84
c.448 Sp. Tarpeius Montanus Capitolinus and A. Aternius (both patricians) are elected pleb tribunes to get the tribunes to support the senate against the Tribonian law. 448
DGRBM 1-606
c.448 Roman CALENDAR is still lunar. 448 DGRA 229
c.448  Lex Trebonia de Tribunis Plebis  a plebiscite by tribune L. Trebonius:  The comitia must not disband until all 10 tribunes are elected. 448
CAH 7.2-228-9, DGRA 700, 1150, DGRBM 3-1171, GHH, HRR, invf
448 Dec CONSULS:  Lars (or Sp.) Hermenius Cortinesanus and T. Verginius Tricostus Caeliomontanus 448 CAH 7.2-631, csm, wikCon
c.447 QUAESTORS:  2 patricians in charge of Roman treasury, until now nominated by consuls, henceforth elected by tribal assemblies without reference to consuls. 447 DGRA 980, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-232, SORH, TToH
c.447 Roman army led by Decemvirs against the Sabines, deserts their standards, and retreats to Crustumerium in Roman territory. 447
DGRG 1-713
c.447 SYBARIS, under tyrant Thetallos from 452, back under Croton until 445. 447 rcSI
447 Dec. CONSULS:  M. Geganius Macerinus (1st) and C. Iulius Iullus 447 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 2-657, 884, csm, wikCon
c.446 AEDILES are appointed to keep the senatus consulta, which the consuls had been suppressing or altering. 446 DGRA 18
c.446 Aequi and Volsci ravage Latium and advance to the gates of Rome, which is distracted by patrician / pleb hostility. 446 CAH 7.2-288, DGRBM 1-605
c.446 T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus repels the Aequi and Volscii from Rome and defeats them at Corbione. 446 DGRBM 1-590, 605, DGRG 1-669, wikLRB
c.446 Latin cities ARDEA and ARICIA have another boundary dispute over territory which had belonged to Corioli (apparently no longer extant).  Dispute is ultimately referred to the Romans, who appropriate the disputed lands to themselves. 446 DGRG 1-211, OCD 107
443 DGRG 1-686
446 Dec. CONSULS:  T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (4th) and Agrippa Furius Medullinus Fusus 446 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-605, 2-1005, OCD 906, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.445 3rd Λ PLEB SECESSION V alluded to by Florus (Lex Canuleia). 445 wikSP
c.445 C.(1) Claudius Sabinus opposes tribune C. Canuleius. 445 DGRBM 1-767
c.445 C. Furnius is pleb tribune.  He opposes opening of consulship to plebs. 445 DGRBM 2-190
c.445  Lex Canuleia de Conubio Patrum et Plebis  by tribune C. Canuleius:  Allows marriage between plebs and patricians (forbidden 451).  The children to inherit their father's rank.  But free people can't marry X-slaves until 18 BCE.  The senate, threatened by wars, does not oppose it.  Canuleius also proposes eligibility of plebes to consulship, but to prevent this the constitution is altered by patricians to allow for the election of military tribunes with consular power, as opposed to consuls. 445 CAH 7.2-239,
CDGRA 378, DGRA 685, 1152, Dur 3-24, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-232, LdHR 1-145, LEWH 84, MCAW 125, OCD 202, 602, 650, 927, SORH, TToH, bk, invf, unrv, wikLRL
c.445 Tribune CANULEIUS also proposes that plebs can become consuls.  To prevent this the patricians alter the constitution to allow for election of military tribunes with consular power as opposed to consuls.  For the next 78 years, either consuls or military tribunes can be elected to lead the government depending on circumstances. 445
CAH 7.2-223, CDGRA 644, DGRBM 1-596, invf
c.445 TRIBUNUM MILITUM CONSULARI established by Senate:  3 to 6 military tribunes chosen by Central Assembly, are given authority of consuls.  The law authorizes nomination of plebs as consular tribunes, but none obtain it until 400. 445 Dur 3-24, HRR, OCD 927     444 CAH 7.2-336, HRRP 1-236, LdHR 1-152, LEWH 85
c.445 LACUS CURTIUS, a pond in the Roman forum, supposedly created by lightning and dedicated to C. Curtius. no date: OCD 303
c.445 VERRUGO (unknown location in Latium), fortified by Romans, under Rome until 422. 445 bril
c.445 SYBARIS, under Croton from 447, under aristocracy until 443. 445 rcSI
c.445









c.445
HIPPASUS of Metapontum (or Sybaris or Croton), Pythagorean, flourishes.  Evidence is contradictory as to whether he wrote anything.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:   Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM is fire (contrary to the Pythagoreans, who say it's number).  Fire is the the cause of all things.
(See Parmenides 460, Anaxagoras 450,  Leucippos 440,  Diogenes 440)

Λ MATH V:  Discovers that some magnitudes are not comeasurable, meaning irrational numbers exist (a shock to the Pythagoreans, who preached that all numbers could be expressed as a ratio of integers).
(See Mahavira 468, Theodoros 400, Thymaridas 375)

GEOMETRY V:  Constructs a dodecahedron inside a sphere.
(Math & geometry: See Hypocrates 460 Hippocrates 450, Bryson 425,  Hippias 420)

Λ MUSIC V:  Made use of bronze disks to discover the fundamental musical ratios, 4:3, 3:2, and 2:1, according to Plato.
500 B76 V-54     500-400 wikHps
450 B76 14-252     450-41 TTS
400 BHM 62, aleph
c.445 CLEANDRIDAS, counsellor of Pleistoanax Agiad king of Sparta, condemned, flees to Sybaris, received as a citizen. 445 DGRBM 1-779
c.445 PYTHAGOREAN SOCIETY at Croton discovers that the diagonal of a square is incomearurable with its side.  Tries to hush it up, lest the world suspect that everything cannot be reduced to math. no date: BHM 79
445 Dec. CONSULS:  M. Genucius Augurinus and C. (or Agrippa) Curtius Philo (or Chilo) 445 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-905, 2-245, OCD 303, csm, wikCon
c.444 ARDEA, under Rutulian Latins, makes separate peace with Rome. 444 B76 I-495, CAH 7.2, OCD 102
444 Dec. TRIBUNES with consular power are first limited to 3:  A. Sempronius Atratinus,  L. Atilius Luscus,  T. Cloelius Siculus are appointed, but a religious glitch causes them to have to resign.
Suffects: L. Papirius Mugillanus and L. Sempronius Atratinus are made consuls.  The consular tribunate will increase to 7 in 405, and continue intermittently to 367.
444 CAH 7.2-165, 174, 631, DGRA 1152, DGRBM 1-407, 2-1119, 3-118, 3-817, HRR, LdHR 1-148, csm, wikCon
c.443 SYBARIS, under aristocracy from 445, refounded by Sybarites aided by a fresh colony of Athenians sent by Pericles under command of soothsayer Lampon and Xenocritus.  Herodotus may be among them. Now called THURI, a Pan-Hellenic colony.  PROTAGORAS of Abdera is appointed to draft a law code for it.  Under a democracy until 390. 444 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-715, OCD 890, lvS     444/3 CAH 5, OCD 507     443 B76 8-353, CDGRA 189, DGRBM, Dur 2-437, GHH, GRG 226, LEWH 70, 71, MCAW 124, OCD 1026, 1070, OHG, RAH 232, rcSI, wikθr     440 TToH
c.443 Plebs of ARDEA, who had been driven out by optimates, ask Cloelius, an Aequi commander of a Volscii army, to restore them.  Cloelius besieges Ardea.  Consul M. Geganius Macerinus intervenes on the side of the optimates and surrounds Cloelius and his army.  The army delivers Cloelius to the Romans, and goes home. 443 DGRBM 1-805, 2-884
c.443 While consul Geganius Macerinus is at Ardea, Capitolinus Barbatus mediates between patricians and plebs at Rome. 443 DGRBM 1-605
c.443 DUUMVIRI NAVALES, 2 officers appointed ad hoc to equip a fleet, established.  They are appointed by consuls and dictators until 311. 443 GHH, HRR
c.443 QUAESTORS, 2 junior magistrates (raised to 4 in 421) charged with financial duties, until now under the consuls, are put under the censors. 443 CAH 7.2-172
c.443 CENSUS taking, since 509 a duty of the consuls, is assigned to 2 elected patrician CENSORS for 5 year terms (until 435) to hold a census every 5 years for tax and military purposes.  Women and children not counted.  Censors also take on some other power from consuls (though not necessarily now):  administer the lustrum, enroll senators and equites, examine public morals, make up budget, handle state property and contracts for public works.  If both consuls are absent from Rome the censors appoint a city prefect to see to its protection and domestic administration.  Censors are L. Sempronius Atratinus and L. Papirius Mugillanus.  Office of censor lasts until 22. 444 LEWH 84 443 B76 II-678, 3-1084, CAH 7.2-172, CDGRA 154, 206, DGRA 260, 354, 719, DGRBM 1-407, Dur 3-20,
GHH, HRR, MCAW 125, OCD 219-20, 927, SORH, bk
c.443 Livy says from now to 294 there are 26 pairs of censors and 21 lustra, rather than the expected 30 pairs of censors and 30 lustra.  Therefore sometimes the census is not held, and the lustrum is not performed, which is recorded to have not happened in 459 and 214. 443 DGRA 719
c.443 The VOLSCI penetrate to the Esquiline Gate, but are annihilated by consul T. Quinctius. 443 GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-241
c.443 Thurii/Taras war begins until ? over possession of the fertile district of the Siritis, 50km north of Thurii.  Spartan general, Cleandridas, banished from Greece years before, and moved to Thurii, is general of the Thurians.  443
CAH 7.2, wikθr
c.443 RHEGIUM makes  treaty  with Athens. 443 CAH 5
c.443 Athenian fleet appears at Neapolis. 443 CAH 5
c.443 HERODOTUS in Athens from 447, moves to Thuri until ?. 443 wikHrd
c.443 Consuls and consular tribunes entered office on the ides (15th) of December from 449.  They now begin entering office on the kalends (1st) of October until 397. 443 or 400 DGRA 353
443 Oct. CONSULS:  M. Geganius Macerinus (2nd) and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (5th) 443 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-605, 2-884, OCD 906, csm, wikCon
c.443 Consul T. Quinctius establishes a garrison at the entrance to Volscii country, which keeps them back for 15 years. 443 HRRP 1-241
c.442 ARDEA, under Rutulian Latins, is content to receive Latin colonists to strengthen it against the Volsci. 442 CAH 7.2-279-80, CDCC 219, DGRBM 2-11, 3-1255, DGRG 1-194, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-155, OCD 102, SOHR
c.442 1st Roman law to check electoral corruption. 442 Dur 3-20
442 Oct. CONSULS:  M. Fabius Vibulanus and Post. Aebutius Helva Cornicen 442 CAH 7.2-631, DGRBM 1-857, 2-11, csm, wikCon
c.441  Rogatio Poetilia Agraria  by tribune Poetilius, a failed attempt at division of territory. 441 invf, unrv
441 Oct. CONSULS:  C. Furius Pacilus Fusus and M. Papirius Crassus 441 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-882, 3-80, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.440 Grain shortage causes famine in Rome.  A PREFECT ANNONAE is appointed to deal with it.  This office is created only in times of emergency, and is given charge of supplying Rome with all food provisions - mainly grain.  He fixes the grain price.  Patrician L. Minucius Augurinus is appointed, and distributes grain to the poor, but plebs complain that he is slow an ineffective. 440 DGRBM 2-717, 895, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-152 440/39
CAH 7.2-134
439 DGRA 952
c.440 CAMPANIA, under Greeks 474-20, infiltrated by Samnites, who become numerous in Etruscan Capua. 440 OCD 204
c.440 Etruscan supremacy in Campania destroyed by Samnites (aka Sabelli). 440 B76 III-289
c.440 BRUNDISIUM / THURI  treaty . 440 OCD 182
440 Oct. CONSULS:  Proculus Geganius Macerinus and T. Menenius Lanatus (2nd)  OR  L. Menenius Lanatus 440 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 2-717, 884, csm, wikCon
c.439 Sextus TITINIUS is pleb tribune. 439 DGRBM 3-1158
c.439 Spurius MAELIUS, rich pleb equite, relieves a food shortage by distributing cheap (sometimes free) grain to Roman plebs at his own expense.  Patricians think this an attempt at tyranny.  Consuls appoint L. Minucius Augurinus prefect annonae to concoct a fictitious conspiracy implicating Maelius. 440 DGRBM
440/39 OCD 636, 693, LdHR 1-152
439 CAH 7.2-183, DGRBM 2-895, Dur 3-23, LEWH 85, MCAW 129, OCD 32, 636, SORH
c.439 Consul Capitolinus is forced to appoint a dictator to deal with Sp. Maelius.  Capitolinus appoints L. Quinctius CINCINNATUS, age 80, (2nd time) on the pretense that pleb Sp. Maelius is attempting tyranny.  C. Servilius Structus Ahala is magister equitum. 439 B76 II-940, DGRBM 1-83, 752, 2-717, 895, Dur 3-20, GHH, HRR, TToH, wikLRD
c.439 C. Servilius AHALA summons Spurius MAELIUS to appear before dictator Cincinnatus.  Maelius refuses and hides in the crowd.  Maelius is murdered in his home by Ahala assisted by L. Minucius. 440/39 OCD 636, 693
439 CAH 7.2-183, DGRBM 1-83, Dur 3-23, GHH, HRR, LEWH 85, MCAW 129, OCD 32, 636, SORH
c.439 C. Servilius AHALA is tried for murder, escapes condemnation by voluntary exile. 439 DGRBM 1-83, Dur 3-23
439 Oct. CONSULS:  Agrippa Menenius Lanatus and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (6th) 439 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-605, 2-717, OCD 906, csm, wikCon
c.438 FIDENAE rebels until 435, joins Lars Tolumnius, tyrant of Veii. 438 DGRBM 2-187, 3-1162, GHH, HRR, SORH
c.438 4 Roman ambassadors C. Fulcinius, Cloelius Tullus, Sp. Aritius, and L. Roscius) are sent to Fidenae investigate.  They are murdered on orders of Lars Tolumnius, tyrant of Veii.
1st ROME vs. VEII & FIDENAE WAR, dormant from 474, resumes until 435.
438 DGRBM 1-209, 805, 2-187, 3-662, 1162, DGRG 1-899, GHH, HRR, LEWH 85     437 CAH 7.2-298, OCD 294, lvR
438 Oct. TRIBUNES with consular Power:  Mam. Aemilius Mamercinus (Macerinus?),  L. Quinctius Cincinnatus,  L. (or C.) Iulius Iullus 438 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-752, 2-657, 910, csm, wikCon
c.437 Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus is dictator 1st time to fight Veii and Fidenae. 437 DGRBM 2-910, wikLRD
c.437 L. Quinctius Cincinnatus is magister equitum. 437 DGRBM 1-752, 2-910
c.437 FALISCI tribe of Falerii, Latin speakers of south Etruria, join Veii against Rome. 437 B76 IV-37, DGRG 1-891
c.437 Dictator MAMERCINUS, and legate Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus campaign against Fidenae. 437 DGRBM 1-605
c.437 LARS TOLUMNIUS, tyrant of Veii, killed by consul A. Cornelius Cossus in a single combat cavalry duel, thereby winning the battle.  From now until the fall of Veii 396, the Faliscans support Veii against Rome. 437 B76 VI-601, CAH 7.2-168, 298, DGRG 1-891, GHH, HRR     428 OCD 294
437 Oct. CONSULS:  M. Geganius Macerinus (3rd) and L. Sergius Fidenas 437 DGRBM 2-149, 884, 3-787, csm, wikCon
c.436  Rogatio Maelia Agraria  by pleb tribune Sp. Maelius:  a bill to confiscate property of Servilius Ahala for executing another Sp. Maelius for sedition without trial.  Bill is defeated. 436
DGRBM 2-896, invf, unrv
c.436 Servilius Ahala is tried for executing Sp. Maelius for sedition without trial.  He escapes condemnation only by voluntary exile. no date:
DGRBM 2-896, invf
436 Oct. CONSULS:  L.(1) Papirius Crassus and M. Cornelius Maluginensis 436 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-882, csm, wikCon
c.436 Consuls L.(1) Papirius Crassus and M. Cornelius Maluginensis campaign against Veii and Falerii, find no enemy, ravage land. 436
DGRBM 1-882
c.435 CENSORS:  M. Geganius Macerinus and C. Furius Pacilus Fusus hold a census in the 1st censors' office, Villa Publica on Campus Martius. 435 CDGRA 154, DGRBM 2-884
c.435 Plague hits Rome.  So devastating that Romans do not oppose armies of Fidenae and Veii, which advance almost to the Colline gate. 435 DGRBM 2-657, 3-528
c.435 Q. Servilius Priscus is dictator 1st time, because of invasion by Veientes and Fidenates. 435 DGRBM 2-11, 2-149, 3-528, wikLRD
c.435 Post. Aebutius Helva Cornicen is magister equitum. 435 DGRBM 2-11
c.435 1st ROME vs. VEII & FIDENAE WAR from 438 won by Aulus Cornelius Cossus.  2nd 428. 435 OCD 294, lvR
c.435 FIDENAE, independent from 438, besieged and taken by means of a mine by dictator Q. Servilius Priscus, who gains the name Fidenas for his ancestors.  Fidenae comes fully under Roman control.  Its population and importance diminish. 435 CAH 7.2-298, DGRBM 3-528, HRR, HRRP 1-241, wikFdn
c.435 LEUCIPPUS of Miletus comes to Elea, studies under Zeno. 435 Dur 2-352
c.435 CENSUS of Rome, until now held in Campus Martius, henceforth held at a special building called Villa Publica. 435 CAH 7.2
435 Oct. CONSULS:  C. Iulius Iullus (2nd) and L. (or Proc.) Verginius Tricostus 435 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 2-657, 3-1174, csm, wikCon
c.434 Patrician Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus is appointed dictator 2nd time for fear of an impending war in Etruria.  This never happens, so Mamercinus stays home, and his dictatorship is not counted. 434 LdHR 1-149, wikLRD     433 DGRBM 2-910
c.434 A. Postumius Tubertus is magister equitum to Mamercinus. 433 DGRBM 3-1180
c.434  Lex Aemilia de Censoribus  proposed and carried by dictator Mamilius Aemilius Mamercinus:  reduces censorship term from 5 years to 18 months.  The censors retaliate by removing him from his tribe. 435 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-884, 3-80     434 LdHR 1-149, unrv     433 CDGRA 378, DGRA 261, DGRBM 2-910, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-237, wikLRL
434 Oct. CONSULS:  C. Iulius Iullus (3rd) and L. (or Proc.) Verginius Tricostus (2nd)  (Accounts disagree, some asserting consular tribunes.) 434
DGRBM 2-657, 3-1174, csm, wikCon
M. Manlius Capitolinus (Vulso?) and Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Praetextatus
CONFUSION ALERT!  The fact that consuls and consular tribunes are assigned to 434 means somebody's wrong.
434 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Ser. Cornelius Cossus, M. Manlius Capitolinus (Vulso?), Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Praetextatus 434 DGRBM 1-865, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.433 PLAGUE hits Rome. 433 OCD 82
433 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  M. Fabius Vibulanus, M. Folius Flaccinator, L. Sergius Fidenas 433 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 2-153, 3-1255, csm, wikCon
c.433 RHEGIUM renews 443 alliance with Pericles. 433 TTPC     433/2 CAH 5
c.432 HERACLEA Lucania, on south coast, founded by Greeks of Taras. 437 CAH 6-387     433 B76 IV-1035 433/2 OCD 1037 432 DGRG 1-1047, OCD 498, wikHL
c.432  Lex Pinaria et Furia et Postumia  by tribunes L. Pinarius Mamercus, L. Furius Medullinus, and Sp. Postumius Albus:  an election canvassing law that makes whitening of a toga for candidates illegal. 432 CDGRA 708, DGRA 77, invf, unrv
c.432  Lex de Ambitu  to check electoral corruption is probably either a forgery or an anticipation of Lex Poetelia 358. 432 Dur 3-20, 71, OCD 51, SORH
432 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Pinarius Mamercinus,  L. Furius Medullinus,  Spurius Postumius Albinus (Regellensis) 432 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-91, 2-911, 1005, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.431 AEQUI tribe on the Alban hills from ?, allied with Volsci, renew attacks on Roman territory, Aequi camp on Mt. Algidus. 431 DGRBM 1-752, LdHR 1-153
c.431 Consul Iulius Mento is unsuccessful against the Aequi. 431
DGRBM 2-1044
c.431 Senate asks consuls to appoint a dictator.  Consuls refuse.  Senate asks tribunes to compel the consuls to appoint a dictator.  Tribunes threaten consuls with imprisonment if they don't appoint a dictator.  Consul Cincinnatus appoints his father-in-law, Aulus POSTUMIUS TUBERTUS dictator.  Iulius Mento is left in charge of Rome. 431 DGRA 1151 DGRBM 1-752, 2-1044, wikLRD
c.431 A. Postumius Tubertus is dictator. 431 DGRBM 3-1180
c.431 L. Iulius Iullus is magister equitum. 431 DGRBM 2-657
c.431 Cornelius Cossus is pontifex maximus. 431 wikPM
c.431 Temple to Apollo dedicated by Iulius Mento. 433 GHH, HRR     431 DGRBM 2-1044
c.431 AEQUI tribe on the Alban hills from ?, allied with Volsci, decisively defeated at the Algidus River by dictator A. Postumius Tubertus and consul T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus, helped by Latins and Hernici.  Aequi are driven out of the valley. 432/1 CAH 7.2-191
431 B76 I-111, CAH 7.2-289, DGRBM 1-752, 3-1180, GHH, HRR, LEWH 85, MCAW 128, OCD 15, SORH
c.431 VOLSCII defeated by Romans. 431 CAH 7.2-294, MCAW 128
c.431 Intermitent wars of AEQUI and VOLSCII with Rome from 489 end.  Peace with Volcii until 423. 431 SORH
c.431 Cult of APOLLO the Healer brought from Cumae to Rome.  Temple built on Campus Martius in hopes of stopping a plague. 431 B76 15-1064, CAH 7.2-138, CDCC 398, Dur 3-62, TToH
430 DGRBM 1-232
no date: HRRP 1-553
431 Oct. CONSULS:  T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus (1st) and C. (or Cn.) Iulius Mento 431 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-752, 2-1044, csm, wikCon
430 Oct. CONSULS:  L.(1) Papirius Crassus (2nd) and L. Iulius Iullus 430 CAH 7.2-632, about, csm, wikCon
C. Papirius Crassus: DGRBM 1-882, 2-657
c.430 Consuls are tipped off that the tribunes are planning to introduce a popular bill that will undoubtedly pass.  The consuls therefore propose the bill themselves to get credit for it. 430
DGRBM 1-882, 2-657
c.430  Lex Iulia et Papiria de Mulctarum Aestimatione  by consuls L.(1) Papirius Crassus and L. Iulius, eliminates arbitrary fines by fixing the cost of fines e.g the value of a sheep at 10 ases, an ox at 100 ases.  Payment of taxes in cattle and sheep is eliminated.  Payment in bronze is mandatory. 430 CAH 7.2-123, CDGRA 182, DGRA 695, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-238, invf, unrv, wikLRL
c.430 ZENO of Elea, founder of Eleatic school, monist, dies.
Originator of DIALECTIC according to Aristotle.
430 B76 X-874, wikZen
430-21 TTS
c.430 aes signatum MONEY:  AES SIGNATUM: cast lumps of bronze, embossed with a government stamp.  Earliest are not cast in Rome proper, but in central Italy.  Image is a branch with side branches radiating from it.  They vary from @600 to 2500 grams.  Later ones will be of standardized weights and imprinted with a bull, eagle, and/or other religious symbols. photo LmK


post-450 wikAS, wikRC
429 Oct. CONSULS:  Hostus Lucretius Tricipitinus and L. Sergius Fidenas (2nd) 429 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 2-149, 3-1174, csm, wikCon
428 Oct. CONSULS:  A. Cornelius Cossus and T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus (2nd) 428 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 1-752, 865, OCD 294, csm, wikCon
L. Quinctius (Cincinnatus ?) and A. Sempronius (Atratinus)
c.428 The consuls are defeated by the Aequi, but refuse to nominate a dictator.  The senate appeals to the pleb tribunes, who threaten to imprison the consuls. 428 HRRP 1-237
c.428 AEQUI defeated by dictator A. Postumius Tubertus.  Aequi begin decline. 428 DGRG 1-54
c.428 2nd ROME vs. VEII & FIDENAE WAR begins until 425. 428 OCD 294     427 GHH
427 Oct. CONSULS:  C. Servilius Structus Ahala and L. Papirius Mugillanus 427 CAH 7.2-632, DGRBM 2-1119, csm, wikCon
c.427 Tribunes oppose military levies, thereby forcing the senate to let the comitia centuriata decide on war with Veii. 427 HRRP 1-238
c.427 War declared against Veii by vote of the comitia centuriata. 427 DGRBM, HRR
c.427 20 Athenian ships under Laches and Charoeades arrive at Rhegium, which is their base to support the Leontines against Syracuse until 424.  They get control of Strait of Messana. 427 B76 14-22, CDCC 819, DGRG 2-704, IDB 4-75, OCD 985, 1030
c.426 ETRUSCANS are pressed by Gauls from the north and Samnites invading their Campanian lands, as well as Romans. 426 SORH
c.426 Mamercus Aemilius Mamercinus is appointed dictator 3rd time, and Cincinnatus becomes his legate.  A. Cornelius Cossus is magister equitum. 426 DGRBM 1-752, 2-910, wikLRD
c.426 FIDENAE, ally of Veii from 438, at war with Rome from 428, vital to trade with mountain communities, sacked by dictator MAMERCUS AEMILIUS and magister equitum A. CORNELIUS COSSUS.  Inhabitants enslaved. 426 B76 15-1090, CAH 7.2-280, 298, DGRBM, DGRG 1-899, HRR, LEWH 85, SORH
425 OCD 294
c.426 Athenian LACHES defeats a body of Locrian troops on banks of Caecinus river in Bruttium. 426 DGRG 1-464
426 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus (3rd), C. Furius Pacilus Fusus, M. Postumius Albinus Regillensis, A. Cornelius Cossus 426 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-752, 865, 3-80, csm, wikCon
c.426 Consular tribune T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus is defeated by the Veii. 426 DGRBM 1-752
c.426 Consular tribune C. Furius Pacilus Fusus is defeated by the Veii. 426 DGRBM 3-80
c.425 2nd ROME vs. VEII & FIDENAE WAR from 428 won by Aulus Cornelius COSSUS.  Veii forced to make  20 year truce . 426 CAH 7.2, SOHR
425 GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-241, LEWH 85, OCD 294
which expires in 407, because old Roman years were 10 months. DGRBM
c.425 CAMPANIA comes under domination by Samnites. 430-20 CAH 7.2
c.425 Western CAMPANIA penetrated by Samnites, who come into contact with Greeks of Neapolis and learn writing. 425 umucNap
c.425 CAPUA, Etruscan city from 600, Etruscan rulers overthrown by Oscan speaking SAMNITES, who occupy it until 343. 432 OCD 856     425 CDCC 163, OCD 199, 204     424 SORH, wikCap 423 CAH 7.2-285, DGRG 1-510, LdHR 1-201
c.425 CUMAE, on Campanian coast, under Greek oligarchic republic from 503, taken by Samnites, walls broken down, becomes an Oscan speaking city until 338. 428 MCAW 132, rcSI   425 OCD 199
428 or 21 B76 III-289
421 CDCC 246, OCD 301, wikCum 421/0 CAH 7.2
c.425 NEAPOLIS, Cumean city from 600, becomes chief Greek center of Campania. 425 OCD 725
425 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  A. Sempronius Atratinus, L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (2nd), L. Furius Medullinus, L. Horatius Barbatus 425 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-407, 461, 752, 2-1005, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.424 CENSORS:  L.(1) Papirius Crassus and ?. 424 DGRBM 1-882
c.424  Lex Silia de Condictiones  establishes legis actio per condictionem for claims of a fixed amount of money.  i.e.  At 1st appearance before a judge, a claimant declares that a defendant owes him a certain amount. 424 CDGRA 743,
424 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Ap.(4) Claudius Crassus, Spurius Nautius Rutilus, L. Sergius Fidenas, Sex. Iulius Iullus 424 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-767, 2-149, 657, 3-682, csm, wikCon
c.423 Rome/Volscii war, dormant from 431, resumes. 423 GHH, HRR
c.423 Consul Sempronius Atratinus defeated by the Volscii at Verrugo (unknown location in Latium).  Battle is saved from total disaster by cavalry officer Sextus Tempanius. 423 CAH 7.2-291, 294, DGRBM 1-407, 3-994
c.423 Vulturnum on coast of Campania near Capua taken by the Samnites. 423 DGRBM, GHH
c.423 Tribunes revive the Agrarian law, demand that tithes be paid more punctually by occupiers of domain land, and the money paid to the troops. 423 HRRP 1-238
423 Oct. CONSULS:  C. Sempronius Atratinus and Q. Fabius Vibulanus 423 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-407, csm, wikCon
c.422 Sextus Tempanius and L. Hortensius elected pleb tribunes.  Hortensius tries to prosecute Sempronius Atratinus for misconduct in the war.  Tempanius defends his former commander. 422 DGRBM 3-994
c.422 PHAEAX, Athenian ambassador arrives in Italy and Sicily, tries to rouse people to help Leontini against Syracuse. 422 CAH 5, DGRBM 3-229, OCD 808, lvG
422 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Manlius Capitolinus, Q. Antonius Merenda, L. Papirius Mugillanus 422 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-604, 2-1047, 1119, csm, wikCon
c.421  Rogatio Agraria :  A proposed division of public land and formation of colonies.  Occupiers of public lands to pay a tax for payment of soldiers.  Has alternate motive of prosecuting consular tribune A. Sempronius Atratinus (patrician) for illegally preventing plebs from holding higher office.  Fails. 421 DGRA 1071, invf, unrv 420 invf
c.421 QUAESTORS, 2 patricians from 449, increased to 4 until 267: 2 for the city and 2 for the army, opened to plebs.  No plebs are elected until 409. 427 CAH 7.2-173, 196, MCAW 133
421 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 529, DGRA 981, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-238, LdHR 1-151, LEWH 84, OCD 906, 927, SORH, unrv
c.421 Consuls propose that in addition to the 2 city quaestors, 2 others should be appointed to attend the consuls in war time.  The tribunes insisted that some of the quaestors be plebs. 421 DGRBM 3-1255
421 Oct. CONSULS:  Gn. (or N.) Fabius Vibulanus and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus 421 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-141, 605, 3-1255, csm, wikCon
c.421 Consul Fabius Vibulanus easily routs the Aequi. 421 CAH 7.2-294, DGRBM 3-1255
c.421 VIA LABICANA mentioned as existing.  It may be identical to Via Latina. 421 bbhst, wlwnd
no date: wikVL
420 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Quinctius Cincinnatus (3rd)  OR  T. Quinctius Poenus Cincinnatus (4th), L. Furius Medullinus (3rd), M. Manlius Vulso, A. Sempronius Atratinus (2nd) 420 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-407, 2-1005, 3-1285, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.420 Minucius is pontifex maximus. 420 wikPM
c.420  Rogatio Agraria :  A failed agrarian law inspired by the alternative motive of trying consular tribune A. Sempronius Atratinus (patrician) on for illegally preventing plebes from holding higher office. 420 unrv
c.420 Pleb tribune M. Canuleius accuses C. Sempronius Atratinus, consul 423, of misconduct in Volscian war. 420 DGRBM 1-596
c.420 Pleb tribune M. Canuleius brings up the subject of assigning public land to plebs. 420 DGRBM 1-596
c.420 Sextus Pompilius is pleb tribune. 420 DGRBM 3-492
c.420 SAMNITES complete their conquest of Campania, and begin to oppress southern Italy. 420 OCD 856, 941
c.420 CUMAE besieged, taken, and sacked by Samnites.  Citizens killed or enslaved, except those who escape to Neapolis.  Their wives and daughters are taken by Campanian conquerors, who establish a colony.  Cumae is no longer a Greek city. 420 DGRBM, DGRG 1-717, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-241, SORH
c.420 Mountainous region of south Italy occupied on its 2 coasts by Greeks from 700, invaded by Samnites, who begin to subjugate the native tribes and Greeks. 420 OCD 621, 941
419 Oct. TRIBUNES with consular Power:  Agrippa Menenius Lanatus,  P. Lucretius Tricipitinus,  Spurius Nautius Rutilus,  C. Servilius Axilla 419 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-448, 2-717, 3-682, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.419 Q. Hortensius is pleb tribune.  He indicts C. Sempronius for misconducting the Volscian war, but drops it because of colleague resistance. 419 DGRBM 2-525
c.419 Vestal virgin POSTUMIA accused of incest, because of her attractive dress and free remarks.  Acquitted, but warned to watch it. 419 DGRBM 3-510
c.419 LABICI Latium (location disputed), joins the Aequi and Volscii against Rome until 418. 419 wikLb
c.418  Lex Agraria de Labici :  Senate decrees that 1,500 colonists be sent to newly conquered lands of the Labici with 2 iugera of land each. 418 invf, unrv
c.418 Roman campaign against the Aequi. 418 CAH 7.2-294, DGRBM
c.418 Romans defeated by the Aequi and Lavicani, because of dissensions and incompetence of the consular tribunes. 418 DGRBM 3-528
c.418 Q. Servilius Priscus Fidenas is made dictator 2nd time. 418 wikLRD
c.418 Dictator Q. Servilius Priscus Fidenas defeats the Aequi. 418 DGRBM 3-528
c.418 LABICI (Lavici) Latium, under the Aequi from 419, taken by dictator Q. Servilius Priscus Fidenas 1st time, made a Roman colony. 418 CAH 7.2-280,
DGRBM 3-528, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-155, wikLb
418 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Sergius Fidenas, M. Papirius Mugillanus, C. Servilius Axilla 418 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-448, 2-149, 1119, csm, wikCon
c.417 SAMNITES sieze territory in Campania, begin war with Romans. 417 HRR
c.417 2 tribunes propose distribution of public land, but are vetoed by other tribunes. 417 SORH
417 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  T. (or P.) Lucretius Tricipitinus, Agrippa Menenius Lanatus (2nd), Sp. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus OR Sp. Rutilius Crassus, C. Servilius Axilla (or Structus) 417 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-748, 2-717, 3-1174, csm, wikCon
c.416 Pleb tribunes:  Sp. Maecilius, Sp. Metilius. 416 DGRBM 2-895, 1067
c.416 Pleb tribune Sp. Metilius proposes a law assigning public lands to commoners, but is thwarted by tribune Maecilius. 416 DGRBM 2-1067
c.416  Rogatio Maecilia et Metilia Agraria  by tribunes Sp. Maecilius and M. Metilius:  A creative and dangerous attempt at an agrarian law providing that territory taken from an enemy be assigned to individual owners.  If it were passed the fortunes of a large number of the nobility would be confiscated.  For as the City itself possessed hardly any territory which had not been won by arms. 416 invf, unrv
416 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  A. Sempronius Atratinus (3rd), M. Papirius Mugillanus (2nd), Q. Fabius Vibulanus, Spurius Nautius Rutilus (2nd) 416 CAH 7.2-633, DGRBM 1-407, 2-1119, 3-682, 1256, csm, wikCon
c.415  Rogatio Sextia Agraria  by tribune L. Sextius:  tries to send colonists to Bolae in same manner as Labici in 418. 415 invf, unrv
415 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  P. Cornelius Cossus, C. Valerius Potitus Volusus, N. (or M.) Fabius Vibulanus, Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus, (N.?) Fabius Vibulanus 415 CAH 7.2-633-4, DGRBM 1-753, 866, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.414 P. Sestius is quaestor. 414 DGRBM 3-796
c.414 Pleb tribune Sextius proposes that a colony be sent to Bolae. 414 DGRBM 3-810
c.414 Roman campaign against the Aequi. 414 CAH 7.2-294, DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.414 Power of the Aequi and Volscii begins decline, chiefly from increasing might of the Samnites. 414 DGRBM
c.414 ETRUSCANS help Athenians against Syracuse. 414 DGRG 1-861
414 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  Gn. Cornelius Cossus,  L. Valerius Potitus,  Q. Fabius Vibulanus,  P. Postumius Albinus Regillensis 414 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-91, 3-515, 1256, LdHR 1-153, csm, wikCon
c.414 BOLA Latium, under the Aequi from ?, taken by consular tribune Postumius Albinus Regillensis.  He forbids his troops to plunder it, and is stoned to death by them. 415 CAH 7.2-301
415/4 CAH 7.2     414 DGRBM 1-91, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-238, LdHR 1-154
413 Oct. CONSULS:  A.(?) Cornelius Cossus, L. Furius Medullinus 413 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-866, 2-1005, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.413 Censor CAMILLUS imposes a tax on bachelors in order to encourage legitimate procreation. 413 Dur 3-68
c.413 FERENTINUM, on Latium/Samnium border 5 miles southeast of Anagnia, under the Volscii from ?, taken by consul L. Furius, but it is soon abandoned.  Since Ferentinum is in Hernican territory, it is given to the Hernican federation, rather than the Latin League. 413 CAH 7.2-278, 281, 301,
DGRBM 2-1005, DGRG 1-895
c.413 METAPONTUM supplies ships and javelin throwers to support Athenian invasion of Sicily. 413 CDCC 577
c.413 ARTAS, king of the Messapii, contributes 150 dartmen to Demosthenes, who is enroute to Sicily. 413
DGRBM 1-369
412 Oct. CONSULS:  Q. Fabius Ambustus Vibulanus (whose clan now drops the name Vibulanus) and C. Furius Pacilus 412 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-141, 3-80, 1253, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.412 L. Icilius is pleb tribune.  He opposes military levies in order to push thru his agrarian law. 412 DGRBM 2-560, HRRP 1-238
c.412  Rogatio Icilia Agraria  by tribune L. Icilius:  Various failed and undetailed agrarian proposals.  They are presumably related to the colonization of Bolae and ejection of patricians from public lands. 412 invf, unrv
c.411 BOLANI of BOLA Latium ravage lands of neighbouring Labicum, but being unsupported by the rest of the Aequi, they are defeated.  Bola is taken. 411 DGRG 1-417
c.411 Oct. CONSULS:  M. Papirius Mugillanus (Livy says Atratinus) and Sp. (or C.) Nautius Rutilus 411 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 2-1119, 3-682, csm, wikCon
c.411 Livy says grain is brought down the Tiber from inland Etruria and by sea from coastal Etruria and Sicily. 411
CAH 7.2-409
c.411 Anyone in south Italy and Sicily suspected of Athenian sympathies is persecuted. 411 DGRBM 2-865
c.410 RESURRECTION:  Aristeas of Proconnesus who died c.650, appears in Metapontum and tells the citizens to set up an altar to Apollo and put beside it a statue bearing the name of Aristeas.  Furthermore that to their land alone of all the Italiotes Apollo had come.  Having said this, Aristeas disappears.  The Metapontines send to Delphi to ask Apollo what to do.  The Pythian prophetess tells them it will be the better for them to obey, so they do. Herodotus Histories 4:17-18
240 yrs later: wikArs
no date: elop
410 Oct. CONSULS:  M'. Aemilius Mamercinus and C. Valerius Potitus Volusus 410 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 2-910, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.410  Rogatio Maenia Agraria  by pleb tribune M. Maenius:  tries to force an agrarian law by withholding plebean levies in war with Aequi and Volscii.  The consuls, supported by the other 9 tribunes, enforce the levy. 410
DGRBM 2-896, HRR, HRRP 1-238, invf, unrv
c.410 GAULS cross Alps into Italy 410 MCAW 142
c.410 CARVENTUM (unknown location near Praeneste) taken by Rome until 409. 410 CAH 7.2-301
c.409 3 out of 4 quaestors elected are plebs.
Patrician Kaeso Fabius Ambustus is quaestor.
1st pleb QUAESTORS.  3 plebs elected quaestors, an office open to plebs from 421.  They include P. Pupius,  Q. Silius.
409 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 487, DGRBM 1-141, 2-560, 3-605, 823, GHH, HRR, SORH, bk
c.409 3 plebs of the Isilii elected pleb tribunes.  They urge the plebs to elect pleb quaestors.  They also try to get plebs elected consular tribunes for 408, but it backfires. 409
DGRBM 2-560, HRRP 1-238
c.409 CARVENTUM Latium, under Rome from 410, taken by the Aequi and Volsci. 409 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-554
c.409 CARVENTUM Latium, taken back by consul L. Furius Medullinus.  Under Rome until ?. 409 DGRBM 2-1005
c.409 VERRUGO (unknown location in Latium), under Volscii from 422, taken by Rome until 407. 409 CAH 7.2, bril
409 Oct. CONSULS:  Gn. Cornelius Cossus and L. Furius Medullinus (2nd) 409 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-866, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.408 Consular tribunes C. Iulius Iullus and P. Cornelius Cossus oppose the appointment of a dictator. 408 DGRBM 2-657
c.408 P. Cornelius Rutilus Cossus is appointed dictator to deal with the Volsci. 408 DGRBM 1-866, wikLRD
c.408 P. Cornelius Rutilus Cossus defeats Volscii at Antium, ravages their land, storms a fort near Lake Fuchinus, takes 3,000 prisoners. 408 CAH 7.2-301, DGRBM 1-866    407 GHH, HRR
408 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power, all patricians:  C. Iulius Iullus,  P. Cornelius Cossus,  C. Servilius Ahala, who is also magister equitum 408 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-83, 866, 2-657, csm, wikCon
c.407 The 425 truce with Veii expires. 407 DGRBM, LdHR 1-156
c.407 Veii approach Etruscans for alliance, but Etruscans fear Gauls more than they hate Romans. 407 LdHR 1-156
c.407 VERRUGO in Latium, under Rome from 409, recovered by Volscii until ?. 407 CAH 7.2
407 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Furius Medullinus (3rd), C. Valerius Potitus Volusus (2nd), N. (or Cn.) Fabius Vibulanus (2nd), C. Servilius Ahala (2nd) 407 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-83, 2-1005, 3-515, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.406 LAKE ALBAN (a volcanic crater) surges over the surrounding hills, despite there being no rain nor tributaries flowing into the lake to account for the rise in water level.  Flood destroys fields and vineyards.  Romans fear an evil omen and send envoys to Delphi to inquire about the reason for this. Plutarch:
Life of Camillus
406 wikLA
no date: LdHR 1-157
c.406 ANTIUM Latium joins other Volscian cities against Rome. 406 DGRG 1-149, HRRP 1-243
c.406 Volscian ANXUR, on west coast, stormed and taken by Romans, under Rome until 402. 406 CAH 7.2-301, DGRBM, GHH, HRR HRRP 1-243, wikTr
c.406 Senate declares war with Veii, who are helped by the Falisci and Capenates. 406 DGRBM GHH, SORH
406 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  P. Cornelius Rutilus Cossus, Gn. Cornelius Cossus, N. (or Gn.) Fabius Ambustus, L. Valerius Potitus (2nd)
The 2 Cornelii represent the first time 2 members of the same clan held office together.
406 CAH 7.2-194, 634, DGRBM 1-141, 866, 3-515, csm, wikCon
c.406 Consular tribune Gn. Cornelius Cossus is left in charge of Rome while the rest march against the Veii. 406 DGRG 1-866
c.406/5 3rd ROME / VEII WAR begins for control of the Tiber River until 396.  Rome besieges Veii until 396.  Nearby Etruscans send armies to break the siege. 406 CAH 7.2, CDCC 511, HRR, MCAW 140, bk, lvR
405 B76 15-1090, CAH 7.2-298, CDCC 938, Dur 3-24, 36, HRR
c.406/5 STIPENDIUM:  Roman army is given a new fringe benefit - PAY V, because troops had to be kept in the field all winter, and to to appease the poor.  Each tribune aerari has to collect triibute from his tribe and pay it to the troops. 406 CAH 7.2, CDGRA 597, 649, DGRA 1149, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, SORH, lvR
405 DGRA 1071, Dur 3-34, HRRP 1-239, LEWH 85
c.405 VEII besieged by consular tribunes.  Lasts until 395. 405 DGRBM 2-657, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-244
c.405 SOOTHSAYER of Veii tells Romans it is written in the  Book of Fate  that Veii shall not be taken until the water of Lake Alban flows to the sea.  A centurion arrests him and sends him to Rome to be interrogated by the senate, which pays no attention to him. no date: LdHR 1-158
c.405 Roman envoys return from Delphi and corroborate the soothsayer's story 405.  Senate now takes it seriously. no date: LdHR 1-158
405 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus (2nd),  Q. Quinctius Cincinnatus (2nd), C. Iulius Iullus (2nd),  A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus,  L. Furius Medullinus (3rd),  M'. Aemilius Mamercinus (or Mamercus) (2nd) 405 CAH 7.2-634, DGRA 1152, DGRBM 1-604, 605, 753, 2-657, 910, 1005, 3-1285, csm, lvR, wikCon
404 SOLAR ECLIPSE is falsely recorded in June of this year in the Annales Maximi according to Cicero.  404 DGRBM
c.404 ARTENA in Latium, under Volscii from ?, taken by Rome, but its citadel holds out until ?. 404 CAH 7.2-301, DGRG 1-54, 227
404 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  C. Valerius Potitus Volusus,  M' Sergius Fidenas,  P. Cornelius Maluginensis,  Gn. Cornelius Cossus,  Kaeso Fabius Ambustus,  Sp. Nautius Rutilus 404 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-141, 866, 2-149, 909, 3-515, 682, csm, wikCon
c.403 CENSORS:  M. Furius Camillus and M. Postumius Albinus Regillensis raise taxes to recover war losses.  Aes Uxorum a tax on male bachelors who reach a certain age. 403 CAH 7.2-634, DGRA 26, DGRBM 1-91, GHH, HRR, lvR, wikMFC
c.403 Consular tribunes besiege Veii in winter. 403 DGRBM 2-657
c.403 EQUITES are divided into 2 classes.  Equites equo publico receive horses from the state.  Other equites serve when required and furnish their own horses.  These are called equites Romani when contrasted with cavalry, but have no legal right to the name equites. 403 DGRA 472
403 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  M'. Aemilius Mamercinus (or Mamercus)(2nd),  L. Valerius Potitus (3rd),  Ap.(5) Claudius Crassus Regillensis,  M. Quinctilius Varus,  L. Iulius Iullus,  M. Furius Fusus   (Livy erroneously includes 2 more names.) 403 CAH 7.2-634, DGRBM 1-91, 591, 767, 2-192, 657, 910, 3-515, 1230, csm, wikCon
c.402 Grain shortage in Rome is relieved by a shipment from DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367. 402 DGRBM 1-1035
c.402 ANXUR, on west coast, under Romans from 406 surprised and recovered by Volscii until 400. 402 DGRBM, GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-244, wikTr
c.402 Romans defeated at Veii. 402 DGRBM, GHH, HRR
402 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  C. Servilius Ahala (3rd),  Q. Servilius Fidenas,  L. Verginius Tricostus Esquilinus,  Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus,  A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus (2nd),  M'. Sergius Fidenas (2nd) 402 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 1-83, 590, 604, 2-53, 3-528, 1285, csm, wikCon
c.401  Rogatio Trebonia Agraria  by tribune Gn. Trebonius:  An attempted land distribution after bringing consular tribunes to trial for selecting tribunis plebis without a vote of the comitia (per Lex Trebonia of 448). 401 invf, unrv
c.401 C. Lacerius, M. Minucius, Sp. Metilius, and Gn. Trebonius are pleb tribunes. 401 DGRBM 2-699, 1067, 1092, 3-1171
c.401 Pleb tribune Gn. Trebonius vigorously resists attempts of the patres to undermine the law of his ancestor. 401 DGRBM 3-1171
c.401 Pleb tribune M. Minucius prosecutes 2 consular tribunes of 402 for misconducting war with Veii. 401 DGRBM 2-1092
c.401 Pay of equites is raised to 3 times that of infantry by tribune Gn. Cornelius Cossus. 403 DGRA 1071
401 CDGRA 279, DGRA 472 400 DGRA 1072
c.401 Tribune Gn. Cornelius Cossus ravages Capena territory. 401 DGRBM 1-866
c.401 Tribune M. Furius Camillus marches into Falliscan country, finds no enemy, ravages land, goes home. 401 DGRBM 1-591
c.401 VELITRAE becomes a Latin colony 2nd time, pacified until 393.  This helps shut out Volscii from coast lands. 404 LdHR 1-155     401 CAH 7.2-280
401 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Valerius Potitus (4th),  M. Furius Camillus,  M'. Aemilius Mamercinus (or Mamercus)(3rd),  Gn. Cornelius Cossus (3rd),  Kaeso Fabius Ambustus (2nd),  L. Iulius Iullus 401 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 1-866, 2-657, 910, 3-515, OCD 198, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.400 Mars of Todi MARS of TODI:  Etruscan bronze statue of Mars, originally had a bronze helmet.  It had been buried, perhaps ritually, and undisturbed until discovery in 1835. 5th cen. wikMdT
400 TToH


Photo Jean-Pol GRANDMONT
c.400 LEGION, 4,600 men from 500, expanded to 6,000 plus 1,800 auxiliaries. 406-396 CDCC 511
400 Jun 21 ECLIPSE recorded by Roman priests. Jun 21, 400 CAH 7.2-21
c.400 BOII Gauls enter Italy, oust Etruscans and Umbrians from land between Apennines and Po River in Cisalpine Gaul. 400 Dur 3-36, OCD 171
c.400 ANXUR, on west coast, under Volscii from 402, recovered by Romans. 400 B76 IX-901, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, wikTr
c.400 CENOMANI (aka Aulerci) Gauls enter Italy, settle in Cisalpine Gaul around Lake Garda.  Cities:  Brixa, Bergomum, Verona. 400 B76 2-449, OCD 219
c.400 Gauls settle around the Ticinus River.  Become known as INSUBRES. 400 OCD 548
c.400 A branch of the SENONE Gauls of the Seine River enter Italy, oust Umbrians from east coast and settle between Ariminum and Ancona. 400 B76 IX-58
no date:
OCD 977
c.400 The VENETTI of northeast Italy successfully resist Gauls. 400 OCD 242
c.400 ETRURIA, with most of its troops deployed against Romans at Veii, invaded and plundered by Gauls. 400 Dur 3-36
by 400  LATIN INSCRIPTION  in stone written in vertical columns, readind bottom to top alternating top to bottom, letters on their side. by 400 BBP 13
c.400 ETRUSCAN Λ ALPHABET reaches its final form, with 16 consonants and 4 vowels (a, e, i, u). 400 B76 III-983, 1-624
c.400 POSIDONIA, Greek city from 700 on Campania/Lucania border, taken by Lucanians.  Under Lucanians until 273. 400 B76 VI-369
c.400 PHILOLAUS, Pythagorean of Croton, in Greece from 454, returns to Croton. no date: wikPhl
c.400






c.400






c.400
PHILOLAUS, philosopher, flourishes.  Wrote 1 book:  On Nature  probably the first book written by a Pythagorean.

Λ METAPHYSICS:  Λ SOUL (See Diogenes 440, Meno 386, Republic 370) is a "mixture and harmony" of body parts.

Λ PHYSICS:  Matter is composed of limiters and unlimiteds.  Limiters set boundaries, such as shape and quantity.  Unlimiteds are universal forms and rules such as earth, air, fire and water and space/time.  Limiters and unlimiteds are combined together in a harmony, which can be described mathematically.  Expands 4 elements doctrine:  The nature of elements depends on FORM:  Fire = tetrahedron, Air = octahedron, Water = icosahedron, Earth = cube.
(See Anaxagoras 450,  Leucippos 440,  Democritos 400,  Plato Timaeos 358)

Λ COSMOLOGY V:  1st to say the Earth is not the stationary center of the universe.  A fire, which is the force that controls the universe, exists in the center of the universe.  Around it spin 10 divine bodies - the sky, planets, then the sun, next the moon, next the earth, next the counter-earth, and last another fire at the periphery.  Spherical earth with fire inside it rotates around the fire in 24 hours.
(See Anaxagoras 450Empedocles 444, Diogenes 440,  Plato Phaedo 370)

Λ MEDICINE:  The health of animate bodies depends on a balance of hot and cold.
(See Hippo 450, Hippocrates 400, Diocles 350, Herophilos 320)

Λ MUSIC:  Whole number ratios limit the pleasing sounds  (e.g.  the octave, fifth, and fourth are defined by the ratios  2 : 1,   4 : 3,   3 : 2 ).
475
B76 VII-950 450
Dur 2-244
no date: brian, nwe, wikPll
400 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus,  P. Manlius Vulso,  L. Titinius Pansa Saccus,  P. Maelius Capitolinus,  Sp. Furius Medullinus,  pleb L. Publilius Philo Vulscus
4 of the 6 are plebs.
400 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 2-896, 1005, 3-297, 1158, HRRP 1-239, LdHR 1-152, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.399 PLAGUE in Rome. 399 CDGRA 372, DGRBM, GHH, HRR
c.399 LECTISTERNIUM introduced:  A sacred feast at which certain gods are represented by statues in male & female pairs each reclining on a lectus (couch), with left arm resting on a cushion.  Food is offered to them. 399 CAH 7.2-138, 618, CDGRA 372, DGRBM, GHH, HRR, wikLct
c.399 RHEGIUM sends 50 triremes, 6,000 inf, 600 cav to defeat Dionysius of SyracuseRhegium / Syracuse war begins until 387. 399 DGRBM 3-875, DGRG 2-704, HRR
399 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  M. Veturius Crassus Cicurinus, Voler (the only patrician), Gn. Genucius Augurinus, L. Atilius Priscus, M. Pomponius Rufus, C. Duillius Longus, Volero Publilius Philo 399 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 1-405, 419, 748, 3-298, 677, csm, wikCon
c.398 M. Furius Camillus storms 2 allies of Veii, Falerii and Capena, loots Faliscan city of Capena north of Rome. 401 wikMFC
398 DGRBM 1-591, wikMFC
398 Oct. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Valerius Potitus (5th), M.(2) Valerius Lactucinus Maximus, M. Furius Camillus (2nd), L. Furius Medullinus (3rd), Q. Servilius Fidenas, Q. Sulpicius Camerinus Cornutus (2nd) 398 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 1-590, 2-1001, 3-515, 528, OCD 198, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.397 Consuls and consular tribunes entered office on the kalends (1st) of October from 443 or 400.  They now begin entering office on the kalends (1st) of July (then called Quintilis) until 329. 397 DGRA 353
397 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Iulius Iullus (2nd), L. Furius Medullinus (4th), L. Sergius Fidenas, A. Postumius Albinus Regillensis, P. Cornelius Maluginensis, A. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus (3rd) 397 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 1-91, 604, 2-149, 657, 909, 1005, 3-1285, csm, wikCon
Consular tribunes enter office on Oct. 1 instead of usual Dec. 15. DGRBM 2-657
c.397 Tribunes Albinus Regillensis and Iulius Iullus are blocked by colleagues from drafting troops.  They recruit a volunteer army and cut off a body of Tarquinii returning home after plundering Roman territory. 397 DGRBM 1-91
c.397 ANXUR, on west coast, under Romans from 400, attacked unsuccessfully by Volscii. 397 wikTr
c.397 Tunnel begun by Romans to drain water from Lake Alban to irrigate subjacent plains.  OR to flow into the Anio River, and thence to the sea to fulfill the prophesy in the Book of Fate learned 405.  Tunnel finished 395. 397 DGRG 1-91 no date: LdHR 1-158
396 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Titinius Pansa Saccus (2nd),  P. Licinius Calvus Esquilinus (2nd),  P. Maelius Capitolinus (2nd),  Q. Manlius Vulso Capitolinus ?,  Gn. Genucius Augurinus (2nd),  L. Atilius Priscus (2nd) 396 CAH 7.2-635, DGRBM 1-405, 416, 586, 2-896, 3-1158, csm, wikCon
c.396 Veii, Falliscans, and Fidenates rebel against Rome. 396 DGRBM 1-591
c.396 M. Furius CAMILLUS is made dictator to deal with rebels, appoints P.(1) Cornelius Scipio (or Maluginensis?) magister equitum, sends an envoy to the DELPHIC APOLLO, promises a tenth of the spoils if he is promised victory over Veii.  Apollo agrees. 398 DGRBM, GHH, HRR, lvR
396 B76 15-1090, DGRBM 1-591, 2-909, 3-741, wikLRD
c.396 M. Furius CAMILLUS defeats Falliscans of Falerii, Fidenae, and Capena at Nepete, takes their camp, marches to Veii, and besieges. 396 DGRBM 1-591, wikMFC
c.396 FALISCANS of Falerii, allies of Veii from before 437, continue friendly relations with Rome until 356. 396 DGRG 1-891 394 DGRBM
c.396 Siege of Veii continues, but 2 Roman tribunes are defeated in the country of Falerii and Capena. 396 lvR
c.396 PAY to Roman troops (done only once before 405) is again practiced at Veii. 396 MCAW 145, bk
c.396 M. Furius CAMILLUS, dictator of Rome 396, defeats Lars TOLUMNIUS, ruler of Veii.
VEII, Etruscan city from ?, besieged from 406, taken by undermining a wall, destroyed by CAMILLUS, under Rome until ?.  All men killed; all women & kids enslaved.  VEII territory is annexed (562 km2) and assigned in individual allotments to Roman citizens who are not formed into a new community, but remain citizens directly administered from Rome.  Annexing land in Etruria violates Rome's  treaty  with Latin League.  3rd ROME / VEII WAR from 406 ends, but full conquest of Etruria is not finished until 265.
396 B76 II-485, X-379, 15-1067, 1090, BCoC 480, CAH 7.2-191, 201, 281, CDCC 511, 938, DGRBM, DGRG 1-416, Dur 3-24, HRR, LEWH 85, MCAW 144, OCD 198, 202, 410, 728, 927, 1026, SORH, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvR, wikLRB, wikMFC
395 GHH, HRR, HRRP 1-244     393 DGRG 1-504     392 RAH
We can not convert Roman chronology of this period to our era.  Varronian chronology is out of step with our chronology by c.3 years.  E.g.  Capture of Veii, usually dated 396 Varronian, almost certainly has to be 393BCE. lvR
c.396 Etruscan goddess UNI (in the form of a wooden statue) is transplanted by dictator M. Furius CAMILLUS from Veii to the Aventine hill, where Temple of Mater Matuta is begun to house her.  She will become JUNO.  Temple completed 392. 396 B76 15-1090, CAH 7.2, CDCC 480, DGRBM 1-591, MCAW 147
c.396 Roman territory, 822 km2 in 509, is now 1582 km2. 396 CAH 7.2-312
c.396 Triumph of M. Furius CAMILLUS enters Rome in a chariot drawn by white horses.  Causes offense because white horses are traditionally reserved for divinity. 396 CDCC 911, DGRBM 1-591
c.396 MELPUM, under Etruscans from ?, destroyed by Boii, Insubres, and Senones. 396 DGRG 1-416, 861
c.396 MEDIOLANUM founded on or near Etruscan Melpum by the Gallic Insubres.  Under them until 222. 396 OCD 664
c.396 Rome / Volscii War from 493 ends. 396 LEWH 85
395 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  P. Cornelius Maluginensis Cossus,  P.(1) Cornelius Scipio,  Kaeso Fabius Ambustus (3rd),  L. Furius Medullinus (5th),  Q. Servilius Fidenas (3rd),  M.(2) Valerius Lactucinus Maximus (2nd) 395 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 2-1001, 1005, 3-528, 741, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.395 Q. Pomponius, T. Sicinius, and Aulus Virginius are pleb tribunes.  They support the senate in opposing a bill to settle a portion of the senate and people at Veii. 395 DGRBM 3-493, 816
c.395 Pleb tribune T. Sicinius proposes a bill for removing part of the Roman people to Veil, thus making 2 capitals of the republic. 395 DGRBM 3-816
c.395 VITELLIA, in Aequi territory, becomes Roman colony. 395 CAH 7.2-280
c.395 Tribune P. Cornelius Maluginensis Cossus ravages Falisci territory. 395 DGRBM 1-866
c.395 Tunnel to drain water from Lake Alban to irrigate subjacent plains, begun by Romans 397, finished. 395 wikLA
c.395 Tribune Q. Servilius ravages Capena territory. no date: DGRG 1-504
c.395 Faliscan city of CAPENA persuaded by Q. Servilius to submit to Rome. 395 CAH 7.2-300, HRRP 1-251
no date: DGRG 1-504
394 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  M. Furius Camillus (3rd),  L. Furius Medullinus (6th),  C. Aemilius Tiberius Mamercinus,  L. Valerius Poplicola,  Sp. Postumius Albinus Regillensis,  P.(1) Cornelius Scipio 394 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 1-591, 2-910, 1005, 3-602, 3-741, OCD 198, csm, wikCon
c.394 Tribune M. Furius Camillus attacks and subdues FALERII.  Camillus accepts them.  Veii's allies are now defeated as well.  Rome is now the most powerful city in central Italy. 394 B76 II-485, CAH 7.2-300, DGRBM 1-591, LdHR 1-159, lvR
c.394 Rome sends envoys including A. Manlius Vulso with an offering to Temple of Apollo Delphi, as promised 396. 394 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-1285
393 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Valerius Potitus and P. (Ser.?) Cornelius Maluginensis Cossus, who are forced to resign because of election defects, and replaced by suffects: L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Flavus and Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus 393 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 1-590, 866, 2-909, 3-515, 1174, csm, wikCon
c.393 CENSORS:  patricians L. Papirius Cursor and C. Iulius Iullus, who dies in office, and is replaced by suffect: M. Cornelius Maluginensis 393 DGRBM 1-904, 2-657, 909, wikLC
c.393 Former tribunes Q. Pomponius and Aulus Virginius are condemned. 393 DGRBM 3-1269
c.393 CIRCEII founded as a Latin colony on coast south of Antium to contain the Volsci. 393 CAH 7.2-280,
CDCC 219, OCD 242
c.393 LABICI (Lavici), taken by Rome 418, taken by Rome again. 393 CAH 7.2
c.393 VEII territory under Rome from ?, divided up and given to plebs in 7 iugera lots. 393 GHH, HRR, SORH
c.393 SATRICUM, 30km southeast of Rome, occupied by the Volscii 488-385, under Rome from ?, rebels. 393 CAH 7.2
c.393 VELITRAE, Latin colony from 401, rebels. 393 CAH 7.2
c.393 ITALIOTE LEAGUE of Greek speaking Italians begins by alliance of Thurii, Hipponium, Rhegium, Elea, and perhaps Neapolis against rising power of Lucania. 393 CAH 6-387, SORH
c.393 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, defeats Mago the Carthaginian, who had come to aid Rhegium, and devastates the country.   Truce  for a year. 393 GHH
c.393/2 Roman CENSUS registers 152,573 adult males. 393/2 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
c.392 Temple of JUNO REGINA, begun 396 on Anentine Hill, completed and dedicated by M. Furius Camillus.  Houses the wooden statue of Uni taken from Veii. 392 CAH 7.2,
OCD 155, wikJ
392 Jul. CONSULS:  L. Valerius Potitus (2nd) and M. Manlius Capitolinus 392 CAH 7.2-636, DGRBM 1-604, 3-515, OCD 644, csm, wikCon
c.392 Consul M. Manlius defeats the Aequi, holds Rome against the Gauls.  Therefore he earns the surname CAPITOLINUS. 392 OCD 644
c.392 Plague hits Rome.  Both consuls get it, and are forced to abdicate. 392 DGRBM 1-604
391 Jul. TRIBUNES with Consular Power:  L. Lucretius Tricipitinus,  Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus,  L. (M.?) Aemilius Mamercinus,  L. Furius Medullinus (6th),  Agrippa Furius Fusus,  C. Aemilius Mamercinus (2nd) 391 DGRBM 1-590, 2-192, 911, 1005, 3-1174, csm, lvR, wikCon
c.391 Plague at Rome affects some of the consular tribunes.  M. Furius CAMILLUS is made interrex "between kings", in effect a short-term regent. 391 DGRBM 1-591
c.391 Ser. Sulpicius Camerinus defeats the Salpinates, takes much loot. 391 DGRBM 1-590
c.391 M. Furius CAMILLUS accused by pleb tribune L. Appuleius of unfairly distributing spoils of Veii, can't deny it, goes into voluntary exile in Ardea. 391 CAH 7.2,
DGRBM 1-591, GHH, HRR, LdHR 1-161, MCAW 145
c.391 M. CAEDICIUS tells pleb tribunes that he heard a voice in the night commanding him to tell the magistrates that the Gauls were coming. 391
DGRBM 1-531
c.391 While M. Furius Camillus is exiled in Ardea, the senate fines him 15,000 asses. no date: DGRBM 1-591
c.391 30,000 Gauls invade Etruria, besiege Clusium Etruria. 391 Dur 3-36, GHH, lvR 390 vrb
c.391  ATELLAN FARCE , containing low buffoonish comedy and rude jokes, usually put on after longer plays like the pantomime, named after Atella, an Oscan town in Campania, imported to Rome. 391 wikAF
c.391 Etruscan city VOLSCINII conquered by tribunes L. Lucretius Tricipitinus and Aemilius Mamercinus, compelled to make 20 year truce with Rome, bought with a years pay to the Roman army. 391 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-911, 3-1174, HRRP 1-252
c.391 Greek cities in Italy ally against Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 391 HRR, GHH

Italy 390-341
V