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c. 400

c. 400
HIPPOCRATES of Cos Island, physician, flourishes.

Λ ANATOMY:  Disected and vivisected animals, assuming humans to be same.
(See Diogenes 440, Diocles 350, Praxagoras 320)

Λ MEDICINE:  1st to say disease is not caused by gods or demons.  "I do not believe that body is ever befouled by a god."  Disease is caused by undigested residues (produced by bad diet), which excrete vapors which pass into body.
Mental disorders have natural causes and should be treated as disease.  Observed and recorded case histories, emphasized diet & climate.  Says body is an organism, and must be understood as a whole.
Picks up 4 humors theory of Empedocles: Health results from harmony of the humors: blood, bile, black bile, phlegm.
Refused to perform or assist in abortions.
(See Philolaus 400, Diocles 350)
430 GHH, OHG
Dur 2-244
MNDQ 4 400-391 TTS
no date:
B76 8-943, OCD 518, TAWH 311, TTPC
c. 400 HIPPOCRATES of Cos publishes  Aphorisms .
"Old people have fewer diseases than the young, but their diseases never leave them."  "Life is short, art long, opportunity fleeting, experience treacherous, judgment difficult."  "Sneezing will stop a hiccup."
Disected and vivisected animals to study anatomy, assuming humans to be same.  Observed and recorded case histories, emphasized diet & climate.  Says body is an organism, and must be understood as a whole.
MNDQ 22, 59, 534
no date:
OCD 518,
c. 400 HIPPOCRATES of Cos publishes  On the Sacred Disease 
Goat brains resemble human brains in symetry.  Describes veins of neck.  says arteries contain air! - a misconception from examining dead animals.
400 OCD 58
CONFUSION ALERT!  NOT mathematician Hippocrates of CHIOS.  f. 450
c.398 Athenian CONON, on Cyprus 405-395, opens negotiations with Artaxerxes-III thru historian/physician Ctesias. 398 CAH 6-114
398/7 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis Cyprus 411-374 under Persia has 1st open conflicts with other Cypriot kings. 398/7 CAH 6-114
398/7 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis Cyprus 411-374 under Persia pays arrears of tribute which he had withheld, remains in principle loyal to Artaxerxes II. 398/7 CAH 6-113
397 Pharnabazos, satrap of Phrygia at Dascylium,   goes to Cyprus, orders Evagoras to build 100 triremes, finds Athenian CONON, and hires him to command his new Persian fleet against Spartans until 393. 397 CAH 6-314, DGRBM 3-240
c.397 Pharnabazos has amassed 300 ships, including 80 Phoenician triremes, commanded by the Sidonian king plus Cypriot ships, but Pharnabazos has no experienced commander. 397 wikCn
c.397 Pharnabazos, satrap of Phrygia hires Athenian CONON to command Persian fleet until 393. 397 DGRBM 3-240
c.396 CONON, Athenian admiral, hiding from Athenians on Cyprus from 405, appointed to command a Persian fleet to fight Spartans. 397 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-825     396 CAH 6-314     395 MCAW 144     no date: wikCn
c.396 CONON, Athenian commander of Persian fleet, sails to Caria with a small portion of the fleet, where he is blockaded by Spartan admiral Pharax with 120 shipsConon's Cypriot mercenaries mutinyPharax is driven off by a superior fleet under Pharnabazos and Tissaphernes. 397 CAH 6-67, DGRBM 3-239 396 CAH 6-314, DGRBM 3-239 395 MCAW 144
no date: wikCn
c.396 Athenian CONON fleet commander for Persians, sails to Rhodes. 396 wikCn
c.396 RHODES, under Sparta from 412, taken by CONON, Athenian admiral working for Persians, replaces its pro-Spartan oligarchy with a democracy.  Rhodes becomes independent ally of Athens until 386. 396 CAH 6-67, 98, wikCn
395 lvG
c.395 HYDRA Island off coast of Argolis, under Argos from 431, comes under Corinth until 379. 395 rcAg
c.395 A grain fleet sent by Egypt for Sparta is captured by Conon, because its admiral did not know Conon captured Rhodes. 395 lvG
395/4 Inexperienced Spartan commander PISANDER sent against CONON, Athenian admiral, working for Persians, in Rhodes. 395/4 wikCn
c.394 EVAGORAS-I of Cyprus joins Conon prior to battle at Knidos. 394 B76 III-1008, DGRBM 2-54
c.394 CONON, Athenian admiral working for Persia, aided by Pharnabazos and Evagoras of Cyprus, destroys Spartan fleet under PISANDER off KNIDOSSpartan sea supremacy from Aegospotami 405 ends. 394 B76 III-88, 1008, 1-824, 8-362,
Aug CAH 6-216, 314, CDCC 608, DGRBM 1-825, DGRG 1-639, Dur 2-458, GHH, Grim 374, ISBE 1-843, LEWH 76, MCAW 144, OCD 186, 278, 297, OHG, RAH 300, anan, bk, lvG, wikCn
c.394 PISANDER, half-bro of Agesilaos-II, killed at Knidos. 394 GHH
c.394 Athenian IPHICRATES gains fame at Knidos by boarding an enemy ship and hijacking its captain to his own trireme. 394 DGRBM 2-616
c.394 CURRENCY ALLIANCE between Samos, Ephesus, Knidos, Rhodes. 394 OCD 949
c.394 CONON and Pharnabazos operate in Aegean, expelling Spartan harmosts from towns, and promising freedom from foreign garrisons. 394 mid CAH 6, DGRBM 1-825
c.394 CHIOS Island drives out Spartan garrison. 394 CDCC 188
c.393 CONON, Athenian admiral, working for Persians, sails thru Cyclades to Melos. 393 CAH 6-104
c.393 CYCLADES islands repudiate Sparta and establish democracies until 378. 393 LEWH 76
c.393 KYTHERA island, under Sparta 404-310, under a Spartan garrison from ?, garrison is expelled by Conon, who replaces it with one under Athenian Nicophemos. 393
CAH 6-104, DGRG 1-738
c.393 LEMNOS island, under Sparta from 404, rejoins Athenian League until 323. 393 LEWH 76, OCD 594     375 rcAg
c.393 IMBROS and SCYROS islands rejoin Athenian League. 393 LEWH 76
c.393 ATHENS makes alliances with CHIOS, RHODES, and COS, also with MYTILENE and KNIDOS, most of which end with the dissolution of the Athenian League 386. 393 LEWH 76
c.393 ISOCRATES sets up a school of rhetoric on Chios. 393 MCAW 145
c.393 DelosDELOS in Cyclades, semi-Independent, under Spartan influence from 404, rejoins Athenian League until 338Athenian control of the amphictyony at Delos is restored. 393 LEWH 76
393/2 CAH 6-105 377 rcAg
c.391 Exiled Rhodian oligarchs appeal to Sparta for help. 391 CAH 6-532
c.391 Spartan admiral ECDICOS with 8 ships sails for Rhodes to oppose Athenian democrats, and restore exiled oligarchs.  He arrives at Knidos, and finds enemy forces twice his own.  He spends winter there and contrives to detach Samos from Athens. fall 391
CAH 6-113, DGRBM 2-2, GHH
c.391 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis Cyprus 411-374, under Persia has gained control of all Cypriot cities except Citium, Soli and Amathus, which appeal to Artaxerxes-III for help. 391 CAH 6-113, 314, wikEv
c.391 HECATOMNOS of Caria is ordered by Artaxerxes-III to intervene against Evagoras in Cyprus.  Evagoras / Persia war begins until 385. 391
B76 III-1008, CAH 6-113, 314
391 late HECATOMNOS of Caria lands troops in Cyprus unopposed by an unprepared Evagoras. late 391
CAH 6-314
391/0 10 triremes under Philocrates sent by Athens to help Evagoras in Cyprus.  Athens is officially allied with Persia at this time. 391/0 CAH 6-315 390 DGRBM 3-302, GHH
c.390 TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II, at Lechaeum on the Corinthian Gulf from ?, sent with 12 ships to supersede Ecdicos in command of Spartan fleet at RhodesTeleutias sails by way of Samos, picks up more ships, sails to Knidos, receives the fleet from Ecdicos, captures 10 Athenian triremes commanded by Philocrates, which had been on their way to Cyprus to help Evagoras of Salamis, eventually arriving at Rhodes with 27 ships. 391
CAH 6-113, 315, wikTl 390 spring CAH 6, DGRBM 3-302, 993
c.390 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS sent with 40 ships to oppose Teleutias. 390 DGRBM 3-993
c.390 THERIMACHOS Spartan harmost at Methymna Lesbos, attacked by Athenian ThrasybulosTherimachos is defeated and killed. 390 DGRBM 3-993
c.390 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis Cyprus 411-374, persuades Hecatomnos of Caria to evacuate his forces and later to secretly assist Evagoras with money.  At the same time Evagoras allies with Athens, and Egyptian king Achoris. 390 CAH 6-315, Dur 2-458, LEWH 76, hCyp, wikCyp
c.389 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS sails a force of triremes to levy tribute from cities around the Aegean and support Rhodes, where a democratic government opposes the SpartansThrasybulos arrives at Rhodes, finds his friends there don't need his help.  He therefore sails north. 390 DGRBM 3-993
389 wikθrs
c.389 THASOS island again allies with Athens until ?. 389 OCD 1051
c.389 Athenian IPHICRATES, with 8 ships, 1200 pelasts, sent to Hellespont, defeats ANAXIBIOS harmost of Abydos. 389 CAH 6,
DGRBM 2-617, GHH, brlI 388
CAH 6-458
c.389 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, moves south.  On Lesbos he finds Mytilene favorable to Athens, but the other cities pro-Spartan; Methymna had even retained a Spartan garrison and harmostThrasybulos anchors off Eresos Lesbos, but loses 23 ships in a storm.  Nevertheless he defeats the harmost and receives surrender of Eresos and Antissa. spring 389 CAH 6-114
c.389 LESBOS Island under Sparta from 405, most of it comes under Athens until 377. 389 B76 VI-164, rcAg
c.389 Spartan naval commander HIERAX sails for Rhodes, but stations Gorgopas with 12 ships at Aegina to oppose the Athenians, who must mount a relief expedition to evacuate their fort. 389 mid
CAH 6-115, DGRBM 2-286
c.388 CHABRIAS commands Athenian fleet sent to help Evagoras, king of Cyprus, against Persians. 390 B76 8-362, MCAW 148
388 mid CAH 6, wikCha
387 bk
c.388 CHABRIAS enroute to Cyprus, ambushes and defeats Spartans under Gorgopas and Aeginetans on Aegina. 388 B76 II-702, CAH 6-116, DGRBM 1-676
c.388 Athenians, under Pamphilus establish a fortified post in Aegina island, and annoy the locals. no date: DGRBM 3-993
c.388 TELEUTIAS, bro of Agesilaos-II, sails to Aegina, chases away the Athenian ships, but Pamphilus still holds the fort. 388 DGRBM 3-993
c.388 ANTALCIDAS Spartan fleet commander, escorted by Gorgopas, vice-admiral to Hierax, to Ephesus. 388 CAH 6-116, DGRBM 1-182, 2-95, 286, 1193, GHH
c.388 ANTALCIDAS Spartan fleet commander, operates on Ionian coast against Athenians Iphicrates and Chabrias. 388 DGRBM
c.388 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, hastens towards Rhodes with his surviving ships and others drawn from Mytilene and Chios, needs money. 389/8
CAH 6-114 388 wikθrs
c.388 Spartan GORGOPAS, vice-admiral to Hierax, returning from Ephesus, encounters Athenian EUNOMOS with 13 triremes, who chases him to Aegina.  Eunomos sails away after dark.  Gorgopas follows him, captures 4 of his triremes off Zoster Attica.  Eunomos escapes with the rest to Piraeus. 388 DGRBM 2-95
c.388 ANTALCIDAS Spartan fleet commander, helps Persians against Athens, especially in Hellespont. 388 OCD 66, wikAnt 387 CAH 6
c.388 THRASYBULOS, Athenian admiral, anchors off the coast of Aspendos Pamphilia to secure its surrender.  Hoping to avoid war, the people of Aspendos collect money and pay Thrasybulos not to harm them.  Thrasybulos takes the money, then has his men trample all the crops in the fields. 389 wikAsp, wikθrs
c.388 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS killed in his tent by Aspendians who raid the Athenian camp by night. 390 DGRBM, GHH     389 OCD 349 388 LEWH 76, MCAW 151, OCD 1066, wikθrs
c.388 Spartan admiral ANAXIBIOS, harmost of Abydos, returning unguarded from a mission to win over Antandros in the Troad, ambushed by Athenian Iphicrates, sees no escape, orders most of his fleet to flee, remains with a small body of comerades and dies fighting.  But Iphicrates cannot prevail against Antalcidas 388
CAH 6-115, DGRBM 1-164, 2-617
c.387 ANTALCIDAS Spartan admiral, relieves blockade of Nicolochos at Abydos by Athenian generals Iphicrates and DiotimosSpartans gain mastery of Aegean. 387 DGRBM 2-1193
c.387 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis Cyprus 411-374, rebels against Persians. 387 ISBE 1-843
c.387 THASOS Island, under Athens from 390s, rebels, independent until 377. 387 rcAg
c.387 SAMOTHRACE Island, under Sparta from 405, independent until 377. 387 rcAg
c.387 Dionysius-I of Syracuse intervenes in Corinthian war on Spartan side by sending his bro-in-law POLYXENOS with 20 ships from Sicily and Italy to help Antalcidas in the final campaign which blockades the Hellespont. 387
CAH 6-149 385 GHH
c.387 10 Athenian ships under Chabrias carry 800 peltasts to Cyprus.  With this help, Evagoras subdues Cyprus except for Citium, Soli, and Amathus. 387
CAH 6-315
c.386 Athenian admiral Chabrias with 800 peltasts in Cyprus from 387, forced by King's Peace to withdraw. 386
CAH 6-315
c.386 CYPRUS, contested between locals & Persia 464-333, conceded by Greeks to Persia in KING'S PEACE negotiated by Spartan ANTALCIDAS and Persians. 387/6 LEWH 76, OCD 63, 276, 306
c.386 EVAGORAS king of Salamis 411-374 refuses to agree to King's Peace, which causes Athenians to stop supporting him. 387 wikEv
386 B76 III-1008
c.386 ATHENIAN possessions and alliances in Aegean voided by King's Peace. 386 LEWH 76
c.386 CHIOS island, under Sparta from 404, comes under Persia until 378. 386 CAH 6-80
c.386 SAMOS, loyal to Athens from 405, comes under Persia until 365. 365 CAH 6-80
c.386 RHODES, independent ally of Athens from 396, comes under Persia until 377. 386 CAH 6-80
c.385 PharosGreek colony from PAROS island in Cyclades founded on PHAROS island off the Illyrian coast. 385 B76 VII-768, wikDP
CONFUSION ALERT!  PHAROS island is in the Adriatic.  PAROS island is in the Cyclades.
c.385 TIRIBAZUS, satrap of Sardis, blockades Evagoras in Salamis, while ORONTES king of Armenia, commands land forces against Evagoras. 386 DGRBM 3-1151 no date: DGRBM 3-58
c.385 Sea battle between Persians and Evagoras. 385 DGRBM, GHH
c.385 Persian admiral GAOS (Glos) begins attacking Evagoras until 382. 386 DGRBM 2-230
385 CAH 6-347, DGRBM 1-371
c.385 Egypt pharaoh ACHORIS 393-80 helps Evagoras-I of Cyprus with ships and money against Artaxerxes-II. 385 DGRBM 1-14
c.385 TIRIBAZUS, satrap of Sardis, offers peace terms to Evagoras requiring him to be vassal to PersiaEvagoras accepts, but demands the title of king. 385 DGRBM 3-58
c.385 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis 411-374 goes to Tyre. 385 CAH 6
c.385 At Cyprus, ORONTES king of Armenia, writes to Artaxerxes-II accusing Tiribazus of treason.  Artaxerxes-II writes back ordering arrest of Tiribazus, and command of the whole operation given to Orontes.  Tiribazus' popularity with the troops causes desertions and near mutiny, so Orontes makes peace.  Evagoras / Persia War from 391 ends. 385 DGRBM 3-58, 1151,
c.384 Athens makes another alliance with CHIOS.  Both parties claim it is not merely compatible with, but conducive to, maintenance of King's Peace. 384 B76 8-364, CAH 6-163
c.382 ALONNISOS island in Sporades independent from 404, comes under Athens until 356. 382 rcAg
c.382 Persians TIRIBAZUS, satrap of Sardis and ORONTES, king of Armenia invade Cyprus with a force too big for Evagoras-I king of Salamis. 385 wikEv     382 CAH 6 381 Grim 375
c.381 ACHORIS, pharaoh 399-80, sends 50 triremes with food, money, and other resources to help EVAGORAS of Salamis against Persians. 381 CAH 6-348, Shaw 382
c.381 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis 411-374 cuts Persian supply lines, and the starving troops rebel. 385 wikEv     381 Grim 375
c.380 EVAGORAS king of Salamis visits Egypt in person to persuade Achoris to prosecute the war against Persians more vigorously, but gets only more financial support. 380 CAH 6-348
c.380 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis under Persia 411-374, is defeated at sea off Citium by Persians.  He is besieged in Salamis by ORONTES until 376.  His rebellion flops because of Greek disunity.
CYPRUS, under EVAGORAS-I from 390, back under Persia, but contested with locals until 333.
381 B76 III-1008, CDCC 249, MCAW 148, cpnt     380 B76 5-406, GHH, bk, CAH 6-313, hCyp, wikCyp
c.380 ISOCRATES on Chios, publishes  Panegyrics  after 10 years composition.  Blasts Spartan imperialism.  Preaches repudiation of King's Peace and a panhellenic crusade against Persia under leadership of Athens. 381/0 CAH 6-164 380 B76 9-1031, Dur 2-458, OCD 554
c.379 HYDRA Island off coast of Argolis, under Corinth from 395, comes back under Argos until 306. 379 rcAg
c.378 ATHENS makes defensive alliances with BYZANTIUM and RHODES until 357, LESBOS until ?. 378 B76 8-364, OCD 186
c.378 CHIOS island, under Sparta from 386, enters 2nd Athenian League until 354. 378 CAH 6-167, rcAg
c.378 AMORGOS Island, under Sparta from 404, comes under Athens until 338. 378 rcAg
c.378 CYCLADES Islands, democracies from 393, enter 2nd Athenian League until 377 - OR in 378/7 they enter the league. 378
OCD 304
c.378 ANDROS Island in Cyclades, under Sparta from 404, independent until 375. 378/7
OCD 64
c.378 IOS Island in Cyclades under Sparta from 404, independent until 305. 378 rcAg
c.378 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Athens 479-338, joins 2nd Athenian League. 378 B76 VII-768
c.378 ASTYPALAEA Island in west Dodecanese, under Sparta from 411, comes under Athens until 338. 378 rcAg
c.377 THASOS Island, semi-independent under Athens from 387, rebels, back under Athens until 340. 377 rcAg
369 CDCC 874
c.377 LESBOS Island under Athens from 389, joins 2nd Athenian League until 332. 377 B76 VI-164, rcAg
c.377 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Sparta from 404, joins League of Islands until 316. 377 rcAg
c.377 SAMOTHRACE Island, independent from 387, joins 2nd Athenian League until 355. 377 rcAg
c.377 RHODES, under Persia from 386, joins 2nd Athenian League until 357. 377 rcAg
c.376 Spartans man 60 ships under POLLIS, which control waters around Aegina, Ceos and Andros islands, and during summer 376 interferes with grain imports from Black Sea to Athens. 376 CAH 6-173, DGRBM 3-440
c.376 CHABRIAS of Athens sails with 83 ships to besiege Naxos, defeats 60 Spartan ships under Pollis near NAXOSAthenians lose 18 ships, Spartans 24, with 8 more capturedChabrias wins Athenian sea supremacy plus control of the amphictyony of Delos, besieges Naxos.  This is the 1st clear Athenian victory since the Peloponnesian War. 376 Sep CAH 6-173, CDCC 610, Sep DGRBM 1-676, GHH, LEWH 77, MCAW 152-3, OCD 140, 225, OHG 170, bk
c.376 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis 411-374, besieged in Salamis by ORONTES from 380, is granted an honorable peace, allowed to remain king of Salamis as vassal of Persia, to which he pays annual tribute. 380 CAH 6
376 DGRBM 1-371, wikEv
c.375 ANDROS Island in Cyclades, independent from 378, rejoins 2nd Athenian League, under Athens until 338. 375 rcAg
c.375 Athenian CHABRIAS operates at sea near Thrace, where he saves Abdera from attack by the Triballi, and garrisons Abdera, then sails to Hellespont. 375
CAH 6-174
c.375 Physician, HIPPOCRATES of Cos, dies.  Greek medicine soon becomes entrenched in speculation, seeing little progress. 375 wikPrx
c.375 Athenian Timotheos sent out with 60 ships, but low funds, to circle the Peloponnese. 375
CAH 6-174
c.375 Spartan Nicolochos, with fewer ships, sent to counter Timotheos. 375 DGRBM 2-1193
c.375 Spartan Nicolochos defeated by Timotheos near Alyzia on Acarnanian coast. 375 DGRBM 2-1193
c.375 COS Island, under Sparta from 404, joins 2nd Athenian League until 354. 375 rcAg
c.374 TIMOTHEOS, son of Conon, in Adriatic recalled to Athens. 374 CDCC 891,
MCAW 152, OCD 1077
c.374 Timotheos with 60 ships on his way home, drops some democratic Zakynthian exiles, who had fought with him at Alyzia, on Zakynthos and establishes them in a stronghold.  This is a violation of the peace with Sparta. 374 CDCC 891,
MCAW 152,
OCD 1077
no date CAH 6-176
c.374 Spartan expedition, 23 ships under Aristocrates, to help ZAKYNTHOS. 375/4 CAH 6-177
c.374 EVAGORAS-I dies.  King of Salamis Cyprus from 411, under Persia from 380, falls victim to a court scandal and is murdered by eunuch Thrasydaeos as revenge for a private injury.  Eldest son Pyntagoras also murdered.  2nd son NICOCLES succeeds without opposition and continues Hellenizing policy, until 368. 374 B76 III-1008, 5-406, DGRBM 2-55, 3-1109, Dur 2-726, GHH, MCAW 153, cpnt, hCyp, wikAGhC, wikCyp, wikEv, wikHC, wikT
374/3 CAH 6-316, 7.1-75
373 IDB 1-753
c.373 Athenian TIMOTHEOS is given 60 ships to help Corcyra against Spartans, but not enough funds to man them.  He sails among the Cyclades in search of crews and may even have ranged as far as Thrace.  He fritters away the sailing season, and is recalled, to be charged with treason by Callistratos and Iphicrates. 373 mid
CAH 6-177, DGRBM 3-909, 1145, OCD 1077
c.373 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, under oligarchy from 404, back under democracy until 217. 373 rcSB3
373/2 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral, sails to Acarnania, helps friendly cities, sails to Cephalonia island with 90 ships and extracts money. 372 CAH 6-179
c.372 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral prepares for a campaign against Laconia itself.  Asks Athens to send him as colleagues Chabrias, and Callistratos. 372/1
CAH 6-179
c.372 MILKYATON, son of Baalram, becomes king of Citium Cyprus until 361. 372
MWΦ 105
c.368 NICOCLES ends.  King of Salamis Cyprus from 374.  Pro-Persian EVAGORAS-II succeeds until 351. 368 wikAGhC, wikCyp 360 CAH 6-329
c.366 COS Island:  After internal strife, Athenians merge the townships into one capital city on the northeast coast. 366
OCD 293
c.366 SAMOS, under Persia 386-365, is besieged by Athenian Timotheus until 365. 366 B76 IX-1018, CAH 6-684
c.365 SAMOS, under Persia from 386 besieged 10 months by Athenian Timotheus, captured, inhabitants expelled until 324 by Athenians, who send in a cleruchy of 2,000.  Under Athens until 322. 365 B76 IX-1018, CDCC 780, LEWH 77, OCD 949, 969, OHG 172, bk     361 OCD 252 352 DGRBM 1-1092
c.364 EPAMINONDAS of Thebes, ruler of Boeotia, challenges Athenian naval supremacy, leads a fleet as far as Byzantium without serious opposition.  Gets several cities in 2nd Athenian League to rebel.  Fleet returns home. 364 CAH 6-201-2, OCD 386, 969
364/3 B76 6-903
c.364 Athenian Timotheus rejects an appeal from the nobles of Heraclea on the Black Sea to aid them against their own people. 364 DGRBM 3-1146
c.364 Athenian Timotheus relieves Cyzicus from a siege. 364 DGRBM 3-1146
c.363/2 CEOS and NAXOS, both in Cyclades, come under Athenian jurisdiction. 363/2 LEWH 77
c.362/1 Athenians use naval convoys to protect merchant ships in 362 and 61. 362/1
CAH 6-560
c.361 Athenian Leosthenes commands a fleet in the Cyclades.  He is surprised by Alexander of Pherae, and loses 5 triremes and 600 men.  Athenians condemn him to death. 361 DGRBM 2-760, wikL
c.361 MILKYATON, Phoenician king of Citium Cyprus from 372, ends.  PUMAYYATON succeeds as king of Citium and Idalion until 312. 361
MWΦ 105
c.357 2nd Athenian League comes into conflict with Mausolus of Caria, tightens up on allies.  Result - SOCIAL WAR (aka War of the Allies) begins until 355.  RHODES, COS, and CHIOS, supported by BYZANTIUM and Mausolus, rebel against Athens. 357 B76 8-366, CDCC 829, 938, DGRBM, Dur 2-470, GHH, LEWH 77, OCD 114, 141, 186, 226, 230, 657, 801, 997, OHG, bk, lvG
356 DGRG 1-658
c.357 RHODES, in 2nd Athenian League from 377 goes independent until 353. 357 bk, rcAg
c.357 CHIOS besieged by Athenians Chares and Chabrias. 357 DGRBM,
DGRG 1-611, GHH
357/6 Athenian fleet commander CHABRIAS at Chios Island, sails into the harbor ahead of his fleet, and is killed in battle. 357 B76 II-702, DGRBM 1-676, GHH, bk
357/6 LEWH 77, OCD 225
356 OCD 997
c.356 120 Athenian ships under IPHICRATES and son Menesthios, TIMOTHEOS, and CHARES attack 100 Chian galleys in straits between Chios and Anatolia near Embata.  Stormy weather persuades Iphicrates and Timotheos, to back out.  Chares, leaves with ⅓ of his fleet, attacks Chians and is defeated. 356 B76 8-366, CDCC 829, DGRBM 3-1147, OCD 997, 1007, wikEmb
355 OCD 551
c.356 TIMOTHEOS fails to reestablish Athenian control of Chios. 355 MCAW 158
c.356 ALONNISOS island in Sporades, under Athens from 382, comes under pirates until 350. 356 rcAg
c.355 SAMOTHRACE Island, in 2nd Athenian League from 377, independent until 346. 355 rcAg
c.355 SOCIAL WAR (aka War of the Allies) from 357 ends.  Threat of Persian intervention causes negotiations.  Athens, financially exhausted, recognizes independence of many allies, including Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium which become autonomous until ?. 355 CDCC 829, 938, Dur 2-470, LEWH 77, OCD 114, 141, 226, 230, 997, OHG, bk
c.354 CHIOS Island, in 2nd Athenian League from 378, is acknowledged independent until 333. 354 CDCC 188, rcAg
c.354 COS Island, in 2nd Athenian League from 375, is acknowledged independent until 336. 354 ISBE 1-785
c.353 EUDEMUS, political exile from Cyprus and friend of Aristotle, after whom Aristotle's Eudemus, or On the Soul is named, dies. 354/3 OCD 115 353 wikEdm
c.353 RHODES, independent from 357, annexed by Mausolus, satrap of Caria, under Caria until 334. 353 LEWH 77
c.352 SAMOS, under Athens 365-322, receives 2,000 Athenian colonists.  Cydias the orator dissuades them from equally distributing the land. 352 GHH
c.351 EVAGORAS-II deposed.  King of Salamis Cyprus from 368, deposed by Pyntagoras.  PYNTAGORAS succeeds until 332.  Evagoras' son of the same name flees to Persians. 351
wikAGhC, wikCyp
c.351 CYPRUS, contested between locals & Persia 464-333:  Nine Cypriot kings rebel until 344. 351 DGRBM 2-55,
MCAW 160, OCD 306
350 hCyp, wikCyp, wikHC
c.351 Athenian Phocion, Evagoras Jr., and Hydrytes of Caria help Persians subdue Cyprus until 349.  Salamis is besieged by Persians and Evagoras Jr. until 343. 351 DGRBM 2-55, 3-339, 432, wikΦoc
c.350 SALAMIS Island in Saronik Gulf, under Athens from 570, independent until 318. 350 rcAg
c.350 ALONNISOS island in Sporades, under pirates from 356, comes under Macedonia until 168. 350 rcAg
c.350 Mentor of Rhodes leads 4,000 Greeks to help Sidon rebel against Artaxerxes-III. 351 GHH
c.350 RHODES, annexed to Caria 353-34, attacked by democratic exiles supported by Athens.  This gives Artemisia-II, satrap of Caria a pretext to subdue Rhodes until 334 and nearby islands. 350
OCD 127
c.350 PASICYPROS king of Tamasos Cyprus from ?, bankrupt, sells his city-state to PUMAYYATON king of Citium and Idalion.  Pasicyprus then retires to live as a private citizen at Amathus. 350
CAH 6-327
c.348 HYDRYTES (aka Idrieus) satrap of Caria 350-43, on orders of Artaxerxes, finishes and equips 40 triremes, assembles 8,000 mercenaries, and sends them to take Cyprus. no date:
DGRBM 2-563
c.347 PRIVATEERS sent by Philip-II of Macedonia to attack Athenian colonies on Aegean islands. 347 wikPΦ
c.346 SAMOTHRACE Island, independent from 355, comes under Macedonia until 306. 346 rcAg
c.345 DelosDELOS, though not a member, appeals to the Amphictyonic Council against Athenian control over their temple of Apollo. early 345
CAH 6-763
c.345 ARISTOTLE, at Assos in Mysia from 347, goes to Mytilene Lesbos until 344, to continue research and teaching, probably in a philosophical community including Theophrastos, a native of Lesbos until 344.  Teaches, studies biology. 345 EoΦ 1-151, OCD 114
344 CAH 6-621, 770, KPHP 75, TTPC
c.344 ARISTOTLE at Mytilene Lesbos from 345, returns to Athens until 343/2. 344 KPHP 75
c.344 CYPRUS, contested between locals & Persia 464-333:  Nine Cypriot kings rebelling from 351 are crushed by Artaxerxes-III leaving only Salamis, which is besieged until 343. 344 CAH 6-91, Grim 380, hCyp, wikCyp, wikHC
c.343 PYNTAGORAS, king of Salamis, besieged by Persians from 344 falls.  Pyntagoras somehow reconciles with Artaxerxes-III, and is left in command until 332.  Evagoras Jr., who expected the throne, is compensated with a dominion in inner Anatolia. 343 Grim 380 no date: DGRBM 2-55
c.343 Possession of HALONNESOS (Scopelos) island in Aegean near Magnesia Thessaly is disputed by Philip-II and Athens. 343 DGRG 1-1028
c.340 PHILIP-II king of Macedonia 356-36, captures grain fleet bound for Athens. 340 fall CAH 6
c.340 THASOS island in 2nd Athenian League from 377, taken by Philip-II, under Macedonia until 311, and Macedonians until 275. 340 CDCC 874, OCD 1051, rcAg
c.340 Athenian Chares drives Macedonian fleet into Black Sea. 340 CAH 6
c.340 Athenian Phocion arrives at Hellespont. 340 CAH 6
c.340 ARTERIES and VEINS distinguished by Praxagoras of Cos. 340 TToH
c.338 ANDROS island in Cyclades under Athens from 375, comes under Macedonians and remains there mostly until 200. 338
OCD 64
XX in 2nd Athenian League 375-200 rcAg
c.338 AMORGOS Island, under Athens from 378, comes under Macedonia until 168. 338 rcAg
c.338 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Athens from 479, comes under Macedonia until 308. 338 rcAg
c.338 DelosDELOS Island in Cyclades, under Athens from 393, comes under Macedonia until 301. 338 rcAg
c.338 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Athens from 479, comes under Macedonia until 308. 338 rcAg
c.338 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, under Athens from 479, comes under Macedonia until 301. 338 rcAg
c.338 ASTYPALAEA Island in west Dodecanese, under Athens from 378, comes under Macedonia until 308. 338 rcAg
c.336 COS Island, independent from 354, comes under Macedonia until 323. 336 rcAg
c.335 Athenian MENESTHEOS, son of Iphicrates, sent with 100 galleys to oppose Macedonians which had intercepted Athenian ships coming from the Black Sea. 335 DGRBM 2-1040
c.334 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese, under Sparta from 404, comes under Macedonia until 306. 334 rcAg
c.334 RHODES under Caria from 353, comes under Macedonia until 323. 334 rcAg
c.334 400 Phoenician warships are mobilized by Persians in the Levant for action in the Aegean. 334 CAH 6-797
c.334 Memnon of Rhodes, mercenary under Persia, put in command of Phoenician fleetNeph Pharnabazos joins him. 334 lvLx
c.334 ORONTOBATES and MEMNON send their money to Cos island, entrench themselves in Halicarnassus.  Despairing of success, they burn the city and escape to Cos. 334 DGRBM 3-58
c.333 CYPRUS, under Persia from 380, contested between locals and Persia from 464, declares for ALEX-III, comes under Macedonia until 323 and under Hellenics until 58. 333 B76 5-406, OCD 306
c.333 STASANOR of Soli Cyprus, enters the service of ALEX-III. 333 DGRBM 3-899
c.333 Phoenician fleet, under Persia, commanded by Memnon of Rhodes, begins offensive in Aegean until 332, threatens to bring the war to Thrace and Macedonia. 333 OCD 227, lvLx
c.333 MYTILENE Lesbos besieged by MEMNON of Rhodes 333, now falls to Pharnabazos and Autophradates.  The Persian fleet disperses. 333 CAH 6-804, DGRBM 1-119, 448, OCD 719, wikAnt
c.333 Athenian CHARES holds a command working for Persians in Mytilene Lesbos until 332 during Persian offensive in the Aegean. 333 DGRBM 1-683, OCD 227
c.333 MEMNON of Rhodes dies.  Commander of Darius' Greek mercenaries in Anatolia from 334, dies of illness at Mytilene Lesbos.  His Greek mercenaries are recalled to Syria by Darius-III.  Pharnabazos and Autophradates succeed as fleet commanders, and continue the siege.  Pharnabazos succeeds as Persian commander of west. 333
DGRBM 1-119, 448, 2-1029, 3-241, LEWH 79, OCD 669, lvA, lvLx
no date; hmLx
c.333 TENEDOS island, off the Troad, taken by Pharnabazos. 333 CAH 6-804
333 Nov 5 ISSUS
c.333 Pharnabazos, at Siphnos Island in Cyclades negotiating with Spartan king Agis-III, learns of defeat of Darius at Issus, continues fighting defensively in Anatolia and Aegean until 332. 333 lvLx
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, at Siphnos Island in Cyclades, learns of Issus, sends word to his bro Agesilaos to meet him in Crete, so that together they might secure it for Sparta. 333 DGRBM 1-72
c.333 Persians are able to sail at will in the Cyclades.  Datames is surprised off Siphnos and loses 8 triremes, but that is the only recorded setback. late 333
CAH 6-804
c.333 ORONTOBATES, former satrap of Caria, on Cos island from 334, defeated by Ptolemaeus son of Philip and Asander governor of Lydia. 333 DGRBM 3-58
c.333 AMPHOTEROS, bro of Craterus, appointed fleet commander of Hellespont by Alex-III. 333 DGRBM 1-153
c.333 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, leading mercenaries working for Persia, gathers 8,000 fugitives of Issus and goes to Crete, sends word to his bro Agesilaos to meet him in Crete, so that together they might secure it for Sparta 333 DGRBM 1-72, OCD 27
c.333 Historian THEOPOMPOS of Chios, exiled from ?, is able to return to Chios thru influence of Alex-III until 323. He becomes a leader of the aristocratic party. 333 lvG, wikθp
c.333 After Issus, 8,000 Greek mercenaries who had fought for Darius sail from Tripolis to Cyprus.  They divide, some attack Egypt, others join Spartan operations in Crete. 333
CAH 6-808
c.333 CHIOS island, independent from 354, comes under Macedonians until 168. 333 rcAg 332 DGRBM 1-311
333/2 AGIS-III Eurypontid king of Sparta 338-31, working for Pharnabazos with mercenaries, invades Crete.  This forces Alex-III to send ships commanded by Amphoterus with reinforcements to the Aegean. winter 333/2 lvG
c.332 Persian fleet in the Aegean disintegrates.  The new Macedonian fleet under Hegelochos and Amphoteros quickly occupies the Aegean coast and islands from Tenedos to Cos. 333 CAH 6-808
c.332 MYTILENE Lesbos, under Athenian CHARES working for Persians from 333, retaken by Macedonian fleet. 332 DGRBM 1-683 no date: OCD 719
c.332 LESBOS Island, in 2nd Athenian League from 377, comes under Macedonia until 168. 332 rcAg
c.332 SCYROS Island in Sporades, under Athens from 468, comes under Macedonia until 196. 332 rcAg
c.332 While Alex-III begieges Tyre, 80 Phoenician captains and 120 Cypriot captains decide to desert Pharnabazos and go home. 332 lvLx
c.332 Remnant of Persian navy is defeated off Chios by AtheniansPharnabazos is captured, but escapes to Cos island. 332 lvLx
c.332 ARISTONICOS tyrant of Methymnae Lesbos, arrives with privateer ships at Chios harbor, now under Macedonians, thinking it was still under Persians.  Captured and delivered to Methymnaeans, who torture and execute him. 332 DGRBM 1-311
c.332 PYNTAGORAS king of Salamis, and other princes of Cyprus visit Alex-III to offer submission.  They help Alex-III besiege Tyre. 332 DGRBM 3-432
c.332 HEPHAESTION commands fleet off coast of Phoenicia, at a time and place of little risk. 332 DGRBM 2-382
c.332 PYNTAGORAS king of Salamis helping Alex-III besiege Tyre with his fleet, gets his quinquereme sunk, but escapes.  He is rewarded by Alex-III with gifts and extension of territory. 332 DGRBM 3-432
c.332 PYNTAGORAS ends.  King of Salamis Cyprus from 351. 332 wikAGhC, wikCyp
c.332 Phalanx commander Amyntas is sent with 10 triremes from Gaza to Macedon to recruit troop replacements. late 332
CAH 6-809
c.332 Macedonian fleet disbanded by Alex-III, who says he will conquer Medo-Persia by land. 333
B76 1-469
c.331 AMPHOTEROS, fleet commander of Hellespont 333-? leads 100 Cypriot and Phoenician ships against Sparta. mid 331 CAH 6-332, DGRBM 1-153
c.331 NICOCREON, king of Salamis Cyprus, goes to Tyre as required by Alex-III to pay homage. 331 DGRBM 2-1191
c.331 PASICRATES, prince of Soli Cyprus, goes to Tyre as required by Alex-III to pay homage. 331 DGRBM 3-131
c.330 Philosopher METHODOROS of Chios, disciple of Democritos, flourishes. mid 330 DGRBM 2-1070
c.325 Cypriot and Phoenician fleets are composed mostly of quinqueremes.  Athenian navy has only 2 quinqueremes and 43 quadriremes along with its main fleet of 360 triremes.  Athenian progress is held back by tradition or finances (or even crew quality).  Sea fighting continues to be ramming after collective maneuvers designed to break the enemy's line or encircle it. 325 CAH 6-684, TTT
c.324 SAMOS, under Athenian cleruchy 365-22, the, inhabitants who were expelled in 365 are allowed to return. 324 DGRBM 1-1092
c.324 INSURANCE originated on Rhodes by Antimenes - against loss from runaway slaves. 324 Dur 2-562, MCAW 171
c.324 THEOPOMPOS of Chios writes  Philippica  (not extant)  Blames the woes of Greece on Athens, Sparta, & Thebes. 336 MCAW 169 324 lvG
c.323 COS Island, under Macedonia from 336, comes under Egypt until 30. 323 rcAg
c.323 CYPRUS, under Macedonia from 333, independent until 321. 323 ISBE 1-843
c.323 HARPALUS, cripple, traitorous treasurer of Alex-III, killed in Crete by Spartan Thibron, one of his officers. 324 DGRBM 3-1103, wikθb 323 OCD 488, alxtl
c.323 LEMNOS Island in 2nd Athenian League from 393, comes under Macedonia until 307. 323 rcAg
c.323 THIBRON, takes Harpalus's treasure, fleet, and army, and, ostensibly championing some Cyrenaean exiles, sails to Cyrene to subjugate it. 324 DGRBM 3-1103, wikθb
c.323 Historian THEOPOMPOS on Chios from 333, again forced to flee because of pro-Macedonian sympathies, goes to Egypt until death (date unknown). 323 lvG, wikθp 305 DGRBM 3-1093
c.323 RHODES under Macedonia from 334, independent republic until 43. 323 rcAg
c.323 AESCHINES, in Ionia from 330, moves to Rhodes until death 315.  Introduces study of rhetoric at Rhodes. 324 DGRBM 1-28
c.323 EPICURUS of Samos age 18, goes to Athens for the 2 years military training necessary for Athenian citizenship. 323 B76 6-914, wikEpc
c.322 CLEITUS, Macedonian Admiral loyal to Antipater, defeats Athenian admiral, Eetion, in 2 battles off the Echinades islands, closes Dardanelles to Greek ships. 323 DGRBM 1-785
322 OCD 249
c.322 Athenian fleet, 170 galleys, wiped out by 240 Macedonian ships under Cleitus at AMORGOS island. 322 LEWH 80, OCD 724, TTT, atl4, hwD, wikLmWr
c.322 SAMOS Island, under Athens from 365, comes under Macedonia until 277. 322 CDCC 780, OCD 252, rcAg
c.322 Parents of EPICURUS forced to leave Samos as poor refugees, go to Colophon Lydia. 322 IDB 2-122
c.322 EUDEMOS of Rhodes, in Athens with Aristotle from 335, returns to Rhodes.  Founds his own philosophical school, continues research, and editing Aristotle's work. 322 wikER
c.321 ATTALUS, bro-in-law and fleet commander of Perdiccas, condemned to death by Treaty of Triparadisus, sails from Tyre to Rhodes, attacks, and is defeated.  Goes to Caria. 321 DGRBM 1-409, atl4
c.321 4 Cypriot kings (Nicocreon of Salamis, Nicocles of Paphos, Pasicrates of Soli, and Androcles of Amathus) side with Ptolemy-I Soter against Perdiccas and then against Antigonus-I. 321
CAH 6-333, hCyp, wikHC
c.321 CYPRUS, independent from 323, comes under ANTIGONUS-I until 312, by treaty of Triparadisus. no date: OCD 306
c.320 ARADOS island off north coast of Phoenicia, under Gerostratos from ?, comes under the family of the Lagidae. 320 DGRG 1-185
c.318 CLEITUS dies.  Admiral under Polyperchon from 319, defeats Cassander's man NICANOR of Stagira near Byzantium, then allows his troops to disembark and encamp on landCleitus is surprised by fleet of Antigonus and Nicanor, and loses all ships except his own.  Cleitus flees to Thrace, where he is killed by soldiers of Lysimachus. 318
OCD 249, 732, atl4, hwD, lvD, lvG, wikClt
c.318 SALAMIS Island in Saronikos Gulf, independent from 350, comes under Macedonia until 229. 318 rcAg
c.318 SOSIGENES, officer under Eumenes, is commander of Eumenes' Phoenician fleet stationed at Rhosus Syria. 318 DGRBM 3-882
c.318 Antigonus' fleet, after victories in Hellespont, goes to Rhosus SyriaEumenes' Phoenician fleet surrenders to Antigonus' fleet while commander Sosigenes is on shore, and can do nothing about it. 318 DGRBM 3-882, atl4
c.318 Philosopher ANAXARCHUS of Abdera, sailing, forced by circumstances to Cyprus.  Tyrant Nicocreon, an old enemy, tortures him to death. 318 atl4
c.317 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I, fights EUMENES until 316. 317 OCD 325
c.316 Flood at Rhodes. 316 atl4
c.316 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, in League of Islands from 377, comes under Macedonia until 305. 316 rcAg
c.315 AESCHINES, former Athenian statesman, rhetoric teacher in Rhodes 323-15, dies on Samos. 322 CDCC 30, OCD 16     315 CAH 7.1, atl4, lvG     314 DGRBM, Dur 2-710, GHH
c.315 AGESILAOS, envoy of Antigonus-I, goes to Cyprus, makes alliances with Pumiathon of Citium, Praxippos of Lapethos, Stasioecos-II of Marium, and Themison of Cerynia, but Ptolemy's allies stand firm. 315 CAH 6-334
c.315 MENELAOS, bro of Ptolemy-I sent with 100 ships under Polycleitos and 10,000 men to Cyprus. 315 CAH 6-334, DGRBM 2-1039, DGRBM 3-454
c.315 POLYCLEITOS sent by Menelaos with 50 ships from Cyprus to support partisans of Ptolemy-I and Cassander in PeloponnesePolycleitos arrives, finds no longer a need for his services, sails to Cilicia. 315 CAH 6-334, DGRBM 2-1039, DGRBM 3-454
c.315 NICOCREON, king of Salamis Cyprus, cooperates with Menelaos against Antigonus-I. 315 DGRBM 2-1191
c.315 Athenian MYRMIDON with 10,000 troops helps Menelaos at Cyprus. 315 DGRBM 2-1129
c.315 CITIUM Cyprus besieged by Ptolemaic troops. 315 wikCyp
c.315 STASIOECUS prince of Marion Cyprus, allies with Ptolemaic troops until 313. no date: DGRBM 3-900
c.315 SELEUCUS, commands Ptolemaic fleet raiding coast of Ionia. 315 BHS 1-52
c.315 SELEUCUS, commanding Ptolemaic fleet in the Aegean from ?, sails to Cyprus, persuaded to side with Menelaos. 315 CAH 6-334
c.315 THEMISON of Samos, naval officer under Antigonus-I, joins Antigonus-I in Phoenicia, with 40 ships from the Hellespont. 315 DGRBM 3-1023
c.315 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I, has Phoenician shipyards build warships with 6 or even 7 banks of rowers. 315 TTT
c.315 Antigonus-I Monophthalmus controls 240 warships. 315 TAG 82
c.314 LEMNOS Island, under Macedonia 323-07, besieged by ???, relieved by Antigonus-I Monophthalamus. 314 BHS 1-112
c.314 Medios, tyrant of Larissa until 309, commands fleet for Antigonus-I.  He defeats the Pydnaeans, who are working for Cassander, and takes 36 ships. 314 DGRBM 2-1004
c.314 Aristoteles, admiral under Cassander, at Lemnos, driven away by Dioscurides. 314 Dur 2-710, atl4
c.314 CYCLADES, under Macedonia from ?, under Antigonus-I from ?, occupied by PTOLEMY-IUnder Egypt until 258. 314 LEWH 90
c.313 STASIOECUS prince of Marion Cyprus, allied with Ptolemy-I from 315 drops alliance, negotiates with Antigonus-I, as do other princes of Cyprus. 313 DGRBM 3-900
c.313 Antigonus-I Monophthalmus controls 250 warships. 313 TAG 82
c.312 Ptolemy-I enters Cyprus with more military forces, captures and kills the king of Citium, arrests pro-Antigonid princes of Marion and Lapithos-Cerynia, destroys the city of Marion.  Soon king Nikoklis is distrusted, besieged and forced to suicide, his entire family executed.  Ptolemy makes NICOCREON of Salamis king of Cyprus until 311. 313 MCAW 174, atl4
312 CAH 6-334, wikCyp
no date: DGRBM 3-900
c.312 PUMAYYATON, Phoenician king of Citium, Idalion, and Tamasos, Cyprus from 361, executed by Ptolemy-I. 312 CAH 6-334, MWΦ 105
c.312 CYPRUS, under Antigonus-I from 321, comes under Ptolemy-I until 306. 313 GHH, atl4     312 B76 8-377
309 lvD     no date OCD 306
c.311 THASOS island under Macedonia from 340, comes under Antigonus until 301. 311 rcAg
c.311 NICOCREON dies.  Last king of Salamis Cyprus from 312, forced to suicide with all his family by Ptolemy-I, who becomes master of Cyprus. 311 wikCyp 310 cpnt
c. 311 3rd War of the Diadochi from 315 ends with attempted settlement:  Cassander, Lysimachus, & Ptolemy-I agree on status quo with ANTIGONUS-I (now fully controling Anatolia), except that Seleucus is not mentioned.  This allows Antigonus-I to continue fighting SELEUCUS over Syria and Mesopotamia, CASSANDER to secure Macedonia until 306, and PTOLEMY-I to continue expanding in the AegeanGreek towns are recognized by all parties as free and autonomous (but Cassander keeps several garrisons in place).  Boy king Alexander, son of Alex-III & Roxane, would rule the entire empire when he comes of age, in 305 (fat chance).  Uneasy peace lasts until 307. 311
B76 8-377, 16-503, LEWH 90, MCAW 174, OHG, anan, hifi, hwD, lvD, lvG
c.311 EPICURUS of Samos, at Colophon Lydia from 322, moves to Mytilene Lesbos until 309, sets up a school, causes strife, goes to Lampsacus in the Troad. 311 CHHΦ
311-10 wikEpc
310 IDB 2-122
309 OCD 390, atl4
c.310 NICOCLES, king of Paphos Cyprus enters secret negotiations with Antigonus-I. 310 DGRBM 2-1190
c.310 Musician STRATONICUS satyrizes sons of Nicocles, king of Paphos Cyprus, and is executed by Nicocles. 310 atl4
c.310 NICOCLES dies.  King of Paphos Cyprus forced to suicide by Ptolemy-I. 310 atl4
c.310 PTOLEMY-I sails from Egypt to Cyprus. 310 implied
c.310 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 337-31 puts bro MENELAOS in charge of Cyprus. 310 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1
c.310 Λ KYTHERA Island (south of Peloponnese), under Sparta from 404, comes under Egypt until 277. 310 rcAg
c.310 ANTIKYTHERA Island (between Kythera and Crete), comes under Egypt until 277. 310 rcAg
c.310 CRETE comes under Egypt until 277. 310 rcAg, rcCrt
c.309 After his stay on Cyprus, Ptolemy-I sails with a large fleet northwest to the coast of Ionia posing as liberator.  He gains influence in Pamphylia, Lycia, and Caria, and especially on Cos Island. 309 BHS 1-113, DGRBM 3-583, ISBE 3-1048, atl4, lvG, lytrk
c.309 EPICURUS in Mytilene Lesbos from 311, causes strife, moves to Lampsacus in the Troad. 309 OCD 390
no date: IDB 2-122, wikEpc
c.309 Nephew of Antigonus, PTOLEMAUS dies.  He sails from Chalcis to Cos island to join Ptolemy-I Soter.  Well received at first, but soon offends Pt-I by his intrigues and ambitions, and is imprisoned and forced to suicide by poison. 309 DGRBM 3-565, atl4, wikPnA
no date:
DGRBM 3-565
c.308 Ptolemy-I sails from Anatolia to Aegean islands. 308 spring DGRBM 3-583
c.308 COS island taken by Ptolemy-I, under Ptolemies until ?. 309/8 lvD, lvG
308 BHS 1-113
c.308 DelosPtolemy-I gains a bridgehead on Cos, then sails to Delos. 309/8 lvD, lvG
c.308 THERA island, southernmost of Cyclades taken by Ptolemy-I, under Ptolemies and member of Cycladic League until 146. 308 B76 IX-943 307 rcAg
c.308 ASTYPALAEA Island in west Dodecanese, under Macedonia from 338, comes under Egypt until 105. 308 rcAg
c.308 DelosPtolemy at Delos, reorganizes the Nesiotic League (confederacy of Aegean islands), which would support the ruler of Egypt. 308 lvD, lvG
c.308 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Macedonia from 338, comes under Egypt until 197. 308 rcAg
c.308 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Macedonia from 338, comes under Egypt until 197. 308 rcAg
CONFUSION ALERT!  PHAROS island is in the Adriatic.  PAROS island is in the Cyclades.
c.308 ANDROS island, Macedonian garrison from ? is expelled by Ptolemy-I. 308 BHS 1-113
c.308 PTOLEMY-I, sails to Peloponnese. 308 DGRBM 3-583, atl4
c.307 LEMNOS island, under Macedonia from 323, comes under Athens until 295. 307 OCD 594
c.306 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese, under Macedonia from 334, comes under Antigonus until 301. 306 rcAg
c.306 SAMOTHRACE Island, under Macedonia from 346, comes under Antigonus until 301. 306 rcAg
c.306 HYDRA Island off coast of Argolis, under Argos from 379, comes under Antigonus until 301. 306 rcAg
c.306 DEMETRIUS-I, son of Antigonus-I, in Greece from 307, sails 118 ships to Cyprus, lands unopposed, defeats Ptolemy's bro Menelaos, who retires to the town of Salamis, where Demetrius with only 10 galleys blockades the Egyptian fleet of 60 ships in the harbor of Salamis. 307 GHH
306 CAH 7.1-57,
DGRBM 2-1039,
ISBE 1-843, 3-1048, TAG 8, atl4, hwD, lvD, wikCyp, wikD1M
c.306 PTOLEMY-I with 140 warships arrives off SALAMIS Cyprus, crushed by 108 warships of DEMETRIUS-I, son of Antigonus-I, and ally Medios of Larissa, using a Λ TORTION CATAPULT.  Ptolemy loses 120 ships, and does not even gather his men when he escapes to Egypt.  Menelaos and the 60 ships at Salamis surrender. 308 Dur 2-558
306 B76 III-456, 8-378, 15-181, CDCC 607, CHJ 2-48, DGRBM 1-962, 2-1004, GHH, LEWH 90, OCD 325, Shaw 397, TAG 8, 81, atl4, lvD, lvG, wikD1M
c.306 THEMISON of Samos, naval officer under Demetrius-I, commands part of the fleet of Demetrius, in the sea-fight off Salamis Cyprus. 306 DGRBM 3-1023
c.306 HELEPOLIS, siege tower of Demetrius at Salamis: square base, 120 feet high.  Divided into 9 stories, lower contains machines for throwing large stones, middle contains catapults for throwing spears, highest contains smaller stone-throwing machines and catapults.  Rests on 4 wheels 8 cubits in diameter.  Manned by 200 troops plus those who push it at the bottom. 306 CDGRA 343
c.306 SHIPS at Salamis are biremes 65' x 8' with 52 oars, though triremes were in use from 650.  No more data on Mediterranean ships until 880CE. 306
LS 42
c.306 CYPRUS, under Ptolemy-I from 312, comes under DEMETRIUS-I, son of Antigonus-I, until 294. 306 CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-962, hCyp, wikCyp, wikHC
c.306 After Salamis DEMETRIUS-I, son of Antigonus-I rules the Aegean down to his fall in 288.  Antigonus-I controls 198 warships, making their combined total 330 warships. 306 TAG 81, 82
c.306 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, and ally Medios of Larissa, try to invade Egypt by land and sea, get as far as the Nile, fight PTOLEMY-I until 305. 306 DGRBM 2-1004, OCD 69, Shaw 389, TAG 9, atl4, wikWD
c.306 RHODES, supposedly friendly to Antigonus-I, refuses to support Demetrius-I in his attack on Ptolemy-I. 306 BHS 1-113
c.305 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I besieges RHODES city until 304.  He uses ships transformed into floating battle towers, catapults, rams, a 9 story wheeled siege tower, and a battering ram 55m long, requiring 1000 men to operate it.  But Rhodes is supported by Cassander, Lysimachus, and especially by Ptolemy-I.  Rhodians repel 2 assaults before Ptolemy's ships arrive. 305 B76 1-990, 8-378, 381, BHS 1-113, CAH 7.1, CDCC 821, DGRBM 1-963, 3-583, LEWH 90, MCAW 178, OCD 325, OHG, TAG 9, atl4, hwD, lvD, lvG, wikD1M, wikWD
304 GHH    304/3 ISBE 4-183
c.305 A HELEPOLIS siege tower (bigger than the one at Salamis) used by Demetrius at Rhodes: square base, each side is 90 cubits high by 45 wide at the base, tapers toward the top.  Divided into 9 stories, lower contains machines for throwing large stones, middle contains catapults for throwing spears, highest contains smaller stone-throwing machines and catapults.  Rests on 4 wheels 8 cubits in diameter, plus castors to move laterally as well as forward & back.  Manned by 200 troops plus those who push it at the bottom. 306 DGRA 590
305 CDGRA 343
c.305 IOS Island in Cyclades, independent from 378, under Seleucus until 301. 305 rcAg
c.305 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Macedonia from 316, comes under Antigonos-I until 301. 305 rcAg
c.305 Earliest Roman contacts (friendly) with Rhodes. 306 SORH     305 CAH 8-84
c.304 RHODES besieged by Demetrius-I, receives grain supplies from Lysimachus and Cassander. 304
DGRBM 2-868
c.304 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I, besieging RHODES from 305, thwarted by valiant Rhodian defenses and PTOLEMY-I, makes a compromise peace with Rhodes.  Rhodians promise loyalty to Antigonus and Demetrius, and would support them against all enemies, except PtolemyDemetrius gives the Rhodians his siege engines, which they sell and use the money to build the Colossus. 304 B76 8-378, 381, 15-181, LEWH 90, CAH 7.1-58, DGRBM 1-188, 3-583, MCAW 178-9, OCD 325, OHG, TAG 9, hwD, wikCyp
c.304 RHODES names Demetrius-I POLIORCETES (city taker), and Ptolemy-I SOTER (savior), by which they are called ever since. 304 B76 8-378, MCAW 178, atl4, lvD
c.303 COLOSSUS of Rhodes, designed by Chares of Lindus, construction begins. 304 B76 8-378
303 atl4     290 GHH
c.303 Temple of Athene at Lindus on the east coast of Rhodes dedicated by Ptolemy-I. 303 atl4
c.302 PLEISTARCHOS, bro of Cassander, with 12,000 inf and 500 cav sails from Greece to join Lysimachus in Anatolia.  Since the Hellespont is occupied by Demetrius, he tries to sail from Odessos to Heraclea, but loses most of his ships to Demetrius' navy and a storm.  Pleistarchos narrowly escapes shipwreck but gets some of his troops to Anatolia. 302 DGRBM 3-412, lvD
c.301 THASOS island under Antigonus from 311, comes under Seleucids until 281. 301 rcAg
c.301 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese, under Antigonus from 306, comes under Egypt until 281. 301 rcAg
c.301 IOS Island in Cyclades under Seleucus from 305, comes under Egypt until 255. 301 rcAg
c.301 SAMOTHRACE Island, under Antigonus from 306, no longer under Antigonus.  Remains autonomous until 133. 301 rcAg
c.301 HYDRA Island off coast of Argolis, under Antigonus from 306, comes under Macedonia until 146. 301 rcAg
c.301 STRATONICE, sis of Perdiccas, in Cilicia waiting for results of Ipsus, sails to Salamis Cyprus, and drops out of history. 301 DGRBM 3-925
c.301 NAXOS Island, under Macedonia from 338, joins Island League until 275. 301 rcAg
c.301 DelosDELOS Island in Cyclades, under Macedonia from 338, independent until 166. 301 rcAg
c.301 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Antigonos from 305, comes under Seleucids until 276. 301 rcAg

East Mediterranean 300-201