New Testament books

Syria-Armenia Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Parthia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
41 Jan CALIGULA dies.  CLAUDIUS succeeds until 54.
c.41 ANTIOCHUS-IV, former king of Commagene 37-40, reinstated by Claudius until 72. 41 DGRBM 1-194, OCD 73, 273
c.42 P. PETRONIUS governor of Syria from 39, ends.  C. Vibius MARSUS succeeds until 45. Ant 19:6:4 TAn 2:74, 4:56, 6:47
41/2 wikRGS     42 BNTH 253, 262, CAH 10-754, Jud 13-346, OCD 807, 1119, rcS     47 DGRBM 2-962
42 Bro of Iberian king Pharasmanes, MITHRIDATES, former king of Armenia 35-37, imprisoned in Rome 37-41, reinstated by Claudius until 51, sails from Rome to Syria. TAn 11:8 39 rcCau 42 hifiGeo, wikMtA
42 ORODES, Parthian former king of Armenia from 37, ends. 42 hifi, wikLAK
c.43 In Tiberias Galilee, Son of Antiochus-IV king of Commagene, ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, is betrothed to DRUSILLA, dau of Agrippa-I. Ant 19:9:1    43 DGRBM 1-194
c.43 When Claudius wants to make Iberian MITHRIDATES king of Armenia.  Cotys of Thrace tries to get Armenia, and wins some nobles to his cause.  Claudius makes him desist. 47 DGRBM 1-870
43 Bro of Iberian king Pharasmanes, MITHRIDATES, former king of Armenia 35-40 backed by Iberians and Romans, invades Armenia, chases Parthians out, becomes client king of Armenia until 51. TAn 11:8     42 hifi, bdrs, wikLAK     43 CAH 10-754     47 DGRBM 1-362
44 Armenia devastated by Iberian MITHRIDATES. 44 KHA 91
c.44 VARDANES, king of Parthia 42-5, starts to invade Armenia, but stops because Vibius Marsus threatens to invade Mesopotamia. TAn 11:10
44 CAH 10-754-5
c.44 C. Vibius MARSUS governor of Syria 42-5, on orders from Claudius, takes army to Judea to ensure safety of procurator Fadus. Ant 20:1:1 44 JZ 101
Longinus; not Marsus Ant 20:1:1
c.44 Church center, Jerusalem from 33, but now persecuted there, shifts to Antioch until 68. 44 Qlb 43
c.45 VARDANES, king of Parthia 42-5, seizes Atropatene in Media. 45 GHH
c.45 C. Vibius MARSUS governor of Syria from 42, ends.  C. Cassius LONGINUS succeeds until 49. Ant 20:1:1     44 BNTH 262, rcS
44/5 wikRGS     45 B76 II-617, CAH 10-754-5, OCD 212, 1119, jvlCVM
50 DGRBM 2-803
c.45 Now that bro Vardanes is dead, GOTARZES, king of Hyrcania 38-51 and now all of Parthia, siezes Armenia (under Parthians 37-47). 45 wikAdA
c.45 BARNABAS, a church leader at Antioch from 40, apparently needs help against the Judaizers, goes to Tarsus to find Saul, brings Saul back to Antioch to be his colleague. Ax 11:25     43 CBCNT 129, gnwd     44 civPl
45 BNTH 246, ISBE 3-709 46 blbPl     46/7 WHCC 25
c.45 SAUL & BARNABAS begin evangelizing in Antioch. Ax 11:26     39 civPl
43 MCAW     47 blbPl
c.46 Prophets including AGABUS go from Jerusalem to Antioch, declare worldwide famine. Ax 11:27
44 CBCNT 129, gnwd
c.46 1st journeySAUL, with Barny and his cousin Mark begin 1st missionary journey from Antioch to Seleucia Pereia, and sail in a merchant ship to Salamis Cyprus. map: Richard Aschmann

Ax 13:1
45 Dur 3-582, GHH, IDB 3-704, MCAW, TToH, mtmg
46 ENBD 227, TTPC, gnwd
47 BAA, CBCNT 119, 124, ISBE 1-43, 3-709, blbPl
48 CBCNT 129, civPl
49 IDB 4-265, dnt
The account of Paul's missionary journeys in  Acts  disagrees with Paul's own  letters . B76 2-948
47 ARMENIA, under Parthia from 37, comes under Mithridates of Iberia (2nd time) until 51. 39 rcCau     42 wikLAK 47 hystn, wikHA
c.47 GORDYENE (Corduene), under Parthia from 37, back under Rome until 252. 47 rcT, wikGrd
c.47 MEHERDATES, son of Vonones sent from Rome to replace Gotarzes as king of Hyrcania 38-51 and part of Parthia, arrives in Syria, and is escorted by C. Cassius Longinus to the Euphrates. TAn 12:11 47 CAH 10-755
c.47 MEHERDATES and C. Cassius arrive at the Euphrates, and are met by Akbar, king of Arabs. TAn 12:12
c.47 MEHERDATES parties at Edessa instead of advancing to Mesopotamia, then detours thru Armenia. TAn 12:12
c.47 MEHERDATES leaves Armenia, weary from snows, met by Parthian dissidents under Carenes. TAn 12:13
c.47 MEHERDATES and Parthian dissidents pass thru Adiabene under Izates-II. TAn 12:13
c.47 1st journeyPAUL and Barny, on 1st missionary journey from 45, in Anatolia from 46, sail from Attalia Pamphilia to Antioch.  1st journey ends. map: Richard Aschmann

Ax 14:26     47 Dur 3-582, ENBD 227, mtmg
48 BAA, blbPl
49 CBCNT 119, 124, 130, civPl
50 dnt
c.47 Ctn Jews from Judea come to Antioch, tell the Ctn gentiles they have to be circumcised.  PAUL & Barny decide to go to Jerusalem, and set them straight. Ax 15:1
49 CBCNT 124, clwa
47±1 PAUL, Barny, Mark & Titus, come from Antioch thru Phoenicia to Samaria to Jerusalem (famine relief visit). Ax 11:29-30, 15:1-29, Gal 2     44 gnwd     45 civPl     46 BAA     46/7 CBCNT 119 GSNT 316, WHCC 23     47 BNTH 350, GSNT 316, blbPl
48 ENBD 226     49 blbPl     51 JZ 163, no date: BBA 287
48±1 PAUL, Barny, Mark, Judas, & Silas return from Jerusalem to Antioch. Ax 15:22     47/8 CBCNT 129 48 gnwd     49 CBCNT 130, blbPl     50 Dur 3-583
48±1 PETER visits Antioch, eats with gentile Ctns until Jew Ctns sent by James arrive.  Then Peter separates from the gentile Ctns.  Other Jew Ctns, including Barnabas, follow his example.  Paul denounces Peter for it. Gal 2:11-16
47 gnwd
48/9 CBCNT 127
49 CBCNT 130, clwa
48±1 PAUL and Barny plan a 2nd journey.  Barny wants to take cousin Mark.  Paul doesn't, so they split.  Barny & Mark sail to Cyprus. Ax 15:36-39
49 blbPl, clwa, gnwd, wikRC
c.49 PAUL at Antioch writes  Epistle to the Galatians  against the Judaizers.   South Galatian theory 48 BAA, ISBE 3-699
48/9 CBCNT 127, NIV 1779     49 gnwd     49 or 52 Sco 1264
49 after 1st journey CBCNT 16, 130, GSNT 318
c.49 spring 2nd journeyPAUL begins 2nd missionary journey, this time with Silas, from Antioch to visit churches of Syria and Cilicia, etc. until 52. map: Richard Aschmann
Ax 15:41     48 ENBD 226
49 BAA, CBCNT 119, FHBC 320, ISBE 3-709, blbPl, clwa, gnwd     50 CBCNT 130, Dur 3-583     51 mtmg
c.50 C. Cassius LONGINUS governor of Syria from 45, returns to Rome.  C. Ummidius QUADRATUS succeeds as proconsul until 60. 49 B76 II-617, OCD 212, wikRGS, rcS     50 Jud 13-1419     51 DGRBM 3-632, wikGCL
 c.50 Armenia 50CE
Armenia and the Roman East           Cplakidas
c.50 ABGAR-V Uchama dies.  King of Osroene at Edessa from 13 CE.  Son MANU-V resumes until 57. 46 50 ODCC 5, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
57 OCD 760
c.50 HELENA, Queen mother of Adiabene (Parthian vassal) 30-58, makes son IZATES-II official ruler until 54, opposed by Parthian occupation. 50 B76 I-89, wikPsk
c.51 PHARSAMANES king of Iberia 1-58, is old, and fears revolt by his son Rhadamistus, promises him Armenia TAn 12:44
c.51 RHADAMISTUS, son of Pharsamanes king of Iberia, pretends enmity with father, flees to uncle Mithridates in Armenia TAn 12:44
c.51 RHADAMISTUS in Armenia, plots revolution with Armenian nobles.  Then fains reconciliation with father, and returns to Iberia. TAn 12:44
53 DGRBM 3-239
c.51 Aug Bro of Artabanus, VONONES-II dies.  King of Media Atropatene from 11, Parthia 51.  Son by a Greek concubine: VOLOGASES-II succeeds in Parthia until 78PACORUS succeeds in Media Atropatene until 75. 51 B76 9-845, CAH 10-755, 11-90, OCD 123, LEWH, RPar 272, eiArs, icsPE, lvArs, wikAtr, wikLPK, wikPE, wikP, wikPsk, wikTr1, wikVn2
c.51 Caelius POLLIO, commander in Armenia, is bribed by Rhadamistus to betray Mithridates, king of Armenia. 51 DGRBM 3-439
c.51 MITHRIDATES, Iberian client king of Armenia from 42, flees from neph Rhadamistus to fortress of Gornea in central Armenia under Caelius Pollio. TAn 12:45 51 cnfl
c.51 MITHRIDATES dies, Iberian client king of Armenia from 42, murdered by neph RHADAMISTUS who usurps throne until 52 and marries Mith's dau Zenobia. TAn 12:44     51 CAH 10-757, OCD 119, RPar 273, bdrs, hifi, hifiGeo, lvArt, rcCau, wikAdA, wikLAK, wikMtA wikRdm
52 DGRBM 1-362, GHH
c.51 Julius PELIGNUS, procurator of Cappadocia invades Armenia intending to recover it, but plunders allies instead of enemies.  Troops desert.  Pelignus runs to Rhadamistus to save him, and acknowledges Rhadamistus as king. TAn 12:49 51 wikTr1 52 DGRBM 3-179
c.51 Large Parthian army sent by Vologases-II into Armenia. 51 wikRdm, wikTr1
c.51 ARMENIA, under Iberians from 47, taken by Vologases-II. 51 MCAW
c.51 Ummidius QUADRATUS, governor of Syria 50-60, for appearance sake, sends message to Iberian king Pharsamanes, tells him to remove his son Rhadamistus from Armenia. TAn 12:48 51 CAH 10-757
c.51 Ummidius QUADRATUS, governor of Syria 50-60, ordered by Claudius to investigate the Jew vs. Samaritan controversy, takes army to Tyre. TAn 12:54 51 CAH 10-853
c.52 Apr Ummidius QUADRATUS, governor of Syria 50-60, returns from Jerusalem to Antioch. 52 BNTH 342, Jud 13-1420
c.52 ARMENIA, invaded by Vologases-II of Parthia from 51, submits until winter.  Claudius, lets it go, rather than fight Parthia. 51 CAH 10-757, OCD 119, RPar 272, ada     52 B76 4-696, CAH 10-757, OCD 119
c.52 RHADAMISTUS, Iberian client king of Armenia from 51, flees from Parthians until 53. 52 CAH 10-757, OCD 119, anan, wikTr1     53 hifi, hifiGeo, wikLAK, wikRdm
c.52 Son of Vologases, TIRIDATES-I becomes king of Armenia until winter. 52 wikTr1 53 wikRdm
c.52 Centurion CASPERIUS, serving under prefect Caelius Pollio, and commanding garrison at Gornea in central Armenia during war between Armenians and Iberians. 52 DGRBM 1-619
c.52 Helvidius PRISCUS, legate under Ummidius Quadratus, sent to handle problems in Cappadocia caused by Julius Pelignus. TAn 12:49 52 DGRBM 3-526
c.52 VOLOGASES-II, king of Parthia 51-78, Media Atropatene from 51, gives Media Atropatene to bro PACORUS until 75. 52 guess
c.52 PAUL, on 2nd missionary journey from 49, quickly returns from Jerusalem to Antioch.  2nd missionary journey ends. Ax 18:21     50 BAA     51 CBCNT 119, ENBD 227, FHBC 321, clwa     52 BAA, BBA, BNTH 318, CBCNT 125, 130, ISBE 3-702, 709, dnt, gnwd     53 Dur 3-552, Schaff 1-303, blbPl, mtmg
54 Schaff 1-71
c.52 3rd journeyPAUL begins 3rd missionary journey until 56, goes from Antioch to Cilicia.  Companions are not mentioned. map: Richard Aschmann
Ax 18:23     52 BBA, CBCNT 119, 125, FHBC 321, dnt
53 CBCNT 130, Dur 3-585, ENBD 227, GHH, gnwd
54 Schaff 1-72, clwa, mtmg
52 late ARMENIA under Vologases of Parthia & son Tiridates 52, Parthians withdraw because of harsh winter, low supplies, and pestilence. 52 CAH 10-757-8
c.53 PETER at Antioch from ?, leaves.  EUODIUS is 2nd bishop of Antioch until 68. 44 DGRBM 2-564 53 odwLPA, wikLPA
c.53 RHADAMISTUS, Iberian former king of Armenia 51-2, returns until 53. 53 CAH 10-757-8, hifi, hifiGeo, wikLAK     54 wikRdm
c.53 ARMENIA, under Vologases-II of Parthia from 52, reoccupied by Parthians until 55.  Vologases appoints bro TIRIDATES king of Armenia until 60, re-establishes Arsacid dynasty in Armenia until 428. 52 anan, wikAdA, wikLAK
53 CAH 10-758, OCD 119, bdrs, caisAD, eiArs
54 OCD 1078, hifi, rcCau, wikAdA, wikRdm, wikTAH
c.54 RHADAMISTUS, Iberian king of Armenia 53, with pregnant wife Zenobia, chased out by locals, returns to IberiaParthian prince TIRIDATES-I succeeds until 60. 53 CAH 10-758, OCD 119     54 RPar 273, bdrs, hifi, hifiGeo, rcCau, wikLAK     55 DGRBM 3-239, lvArt, wikRdm
chased out by Vologases in 54 RPar 275
c.54 RHADAMISTUS, fleeing to Iberia, can't take his pregnant wife Zenobia on horseback, stabs her, throws her in the Aras river.  She survives, and is rescued by shepherds. 55 wikRdm, wikTr1
c.54 Son of Monobaz, IZATES-II dies.  King of Adiabene (Parthian vassal) from 50.  Older bro MONOBAZ-II succeeds until 75, while HELENA remains queen 30-58. 54 wikI2
55-59 wikAdb
60 encI2
c.54 VOLOGASES-I, king of Parthia 52-78, busy with internal revolt, withdraws army from Armenia until 61. 54 CAH 10-759, ada
54 Oct 13 Empire 54CECLAUDIUS dies.   NERO succeeds until 68.
c.54 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene, required by Nero to help against Parthians. 54 GHH
54 SOAEMUS appointed king of Sophene by Nero until 63. TAn 13:7
54 DGRBM 3-847
called king of Emessa by Josephus
c.54 Caelius POLLIO, commander in Armenia from ?, ends.  LAELIANUS succeeds until ?. TAn 2:44-5     54 DGRBM 3-439
c.54 Gn. Domitius CORBULO sent by Nero from Rome to Syria to restore Roman dominance in Armenia. 54 CDCC 234, GHH, ada
c.54 Legion VI Ferrata serves under Corbulo until 62/3. 54 wik6Fr
c.54/5 Ummidius QUADRATUS, governor of Syria 50-60, goes to Cilicia to meet Gn. Domitius CORBULO, commander of East 54- . TAn 13:8 54 CAH 10-758
c.55 ZENOBIA, wife of Rhadamistus delivered by Armenian shepherds to Artaxata.  She lives in court of Tiridates-I and is treated well. 55 wikRdm
no date: wikZnb
c.57 CHALCIS, in unknown state from 53, ARISTOBULUS becomes tetrarch of Chalcis until 92. 57 wikHrD, wikKC
c.57 MANU-V, king of Osroene at Edessa from 50, ends.  Bro MANU-VI succeeds until 71 ruled 7 years ANF 57 rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
57-8 Gn. Domitius CORBULO, commander of east, winters near Armenia, loses some men to cold weather. 57/8 CAH 10-760
58 Gn. Domitius CORBULO, commander of east, finally gets his half prepared army into Armenia.  Allies include Iberians and Commagenians 57 58 B76 III-143, wikRPW, wikTAH, wikTg6, wikTr1
c.58 PHARSAMANES-I king of Iberia 1-58, kills his son Rhadamistus, to prove loyalty to Rome, renews offensive against Parthians in Armenia TAn 13:37 58 wikRdm
c.58 TIRIDATES-I, Parthian client king of Armenia 53-60, ravages all places in Armenia suspected of sympathy with Rome, avoids confrontation with Corbulo. TAn 13:37 58 DGRBM 2-1163
58 Artaxiad TIGRANES-VI is crowned king of Armenia by Nero in Rome. 58 wikTg6
c.58 Rome / Parthia War begins in Armenia until 63. 54 GHH     55 wikHA     58 DGRBM 1-358, wikAdA, wikPE, wikRPW
c.58 The MOSCHI tribe of Armenia ally with Corbulo, overrun Armenia. TAn 13:37
c.58 CORBULO attacks Parthians in Armenia. 57/8 wikNr     58 MCAW, caisAD, eiArs, wikTg6
c.58 PHARSAMANES-I king of Iberia 1-58, invades Armenia from the north to help Corbulo. 58 wikTg6, wikTr1
c.58 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene, invades Armenia from southwest to help Corbulo. 58 wikTg6, wikTr1
c.58 TIRIDATES-I, Parthian client king of Armenia 53-60, attacked by Corbulo and client kings, agrees to Roman vassalage, but continues recalcitrance. 58 CAH 10, KHA 92
c.58 ARTAXATA, capital of Tiridates, taken by Corbulo, destroyed next spring. TAn 13:41     58 CAH 10, CDCC 234, DGRG 1-227, LEWH, OCD 126, RPar 279, wikNr
c.58 Corbulo is successful in Armenia; Tigranes-VI is expelled.  Romans occupy Armenia until 62. 58 GHH, hifi
c.58 PHARSAMANES-I king of Iberia from 1 CE, ends.  58 hifiGeo, wikΦ1
c.58 HELENA dies.  Queen of Gordyene and Adiabene from 30, with Monobaz-II bar Monobaz from 54MONOBAZ-II succeeds until 75. 58 rcM, wikAdb, wikPsk
64 BI+N 212
c.59 TIGRANOCERTA, east capital of Armenia, taken without a fight by Corbulo and occupied TAn 13:41, 14:24     58 GHH     58/9 MCAW     59 CAH 10-764, CDCC 234, LEWH
60 DGRBM 2-1163, RPar 279
c.59 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72 serves under Corbulo against Tiridates, bro of Parthian king Vologases. TAn 13:&:37 59 DGRBM 1-194
c.60 C. Ummidius QUADRATUS dies.  Governor of Syria from 50Gn. Domitius CORBULO succeeds until 63. TAn 14:26     60 CAH 10, DGRBM 3-630,2, Jud 13-1419, rcS, wikRGS
c.60 TIRIDATES, client king of Armenia from 53, deposed until 63 by Gn. Domitius CORBULO, who appoints Capadocian neph of Tig-4, TIGRANES-VI king until 62, then retires to Syria. TAn 13:34-41, 14:23-6
58 wikAdA, wikLAK     58/9 hifi 59 wikAdA     60 CAH 10, CDCC 234, DGRBM 1-358, 363, 2-1163, bdrs, rcCau
c.60 ARMENIA comes under Corbulo until 62. 60 wikHA
c.60 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, for services to Corbulo., receives part of Armenia. TAn 14:26 60     OCD 73 61 DGRBM 1-194, HRRP 4.2-492
c.60 Beside Commagene, the kings of Iberia, Pontus, Armenia Minor also get their borders expanded by Corbulo.. 60 HRRP 4.2-492
c.60  Gospel of Matthew  written by someone familiar with  Mark , probably in Antioch, possibly Palestine.  Scripture consists of the Law & the Prophets.  Attributed to Matthew in the 2nd cent. 50 Sco 991     55-80 NIV 1439     60±3 GSNT 530     60-70 CBCNT 17 65-100 ODCC 891     post-70 B76 VI-697, BNTD 12     80-85 ISBE 2-536, JZ 223     80-89 ISBE 3-287 80-95 WHCC 31, no date: Jud 4-821
61 Parts of Armenia Major which had been under Tigranes-VI are given to ARISTOBULUS, king of Armenia Minor 55-72. TAn 13:7, 14:26, Wars 7:7:1
61 DGRBM 1-301
c.61 TIGRANES-VI, king of Armenia 60-2, invades and ravages Adiabene under Monobaz-II, who appeals to Vologases, king of Parthia.. TAn 15:1     61 B76 III-143, wikAdA, wikGDC 63 DGRBM 2-1112
no date: wikTg6
c.61 MONOBAZ-II, king of Adiabene 58-75, deposed by Tigranes-VI until ?. 61 wikTr1
c.61 VOLOGASES-I, king of Parthia 52-78, decides to drop Hyrcanian war, again invades Armenia on behalf of bro Tiridates. TAn 15:2
c.62 Gn. Domitius CORBULO governor of Syria 60-3, asks for another general to be sent to Armenia. 62 OCD 289
c.62 L. Caesennius PAETUS, legate of Cappadocia from 61, sent with legions XII Fulminata and IV Scythica to Syria by Nero to help Corbulo. TAn 15:6
62 OCD 289, wik12F
64 DGRBM 3-85
c.62 L. Caesennius PAETUS, invades Armenia, takes a few forts, overruns the place, boasts to Nero that he won the war, returns to Rhandea on north Euphrates. TAn 15:8 62 OCD 289
c.62 Gn. Domitius CORBULO governor of Syria 60-3, learns of Vologases' plans for Armenia, sends 2 legions under V. Severus and V. Bolanus to support Tigranes-VI. TAn 15:3
c.62 Legion XV Apollinaris is sent from Pannonia to reinforce Corbulo. 62 wik22D
c.62 Gn. Domitius CORBULO governor of Syria 60-3, marches legions XV Apollinaris, III Gallica, V Macedonica, X Fretensis and XXII to Melitene and beyond to Armenia, eliminating all regional governors suspected of Parthian sympathies. 62 wik22D, wikTr1
c.62 ARMENIA, under Roman occupation from 58, and Tigranes-VI from 60, evacuated by Romans, Parthians, and Tig-6. TAn 15:5-6     62 bdrs, hifi, wikAdA, wikHA, wikLAK     63 rcCau
c.62 C. Calvisius SABINUS commands legion XII under Caesennius Paetus. TAn 15:7     62 DGRBM 3-689
c.62 late L. Caesennius PAETUS with legions XII Fulminata and IV Scythica at Rhandea, gives out indiscriminate furlohs, seriously depletes his army. TAn 15:10
62 late VOLOGASES-I, king of Parthia 52-78, gives up on Syria because Corbulo is well prepared, throws whole force into Armenia, besieges Paetus in Rhandea TAn 15:9
61 CAH 10, OCD 289, caisAD
62 late PAETUS, besieged in Rhandea by Vologases of Parthia, has plenty of supplies, but surrenders, agrees to leave all forts and supplies, promises that no Roman will enter Armenia until given OK by Nero.  For this, Paetus and his legions XII Fulminata and IV Scythica are allowed to leave Armenia. TAn 15:13-16 62 B76 III-143, LEWH, caisAD, eiArs, wikGDC, wikTr1
62/3 PAETUS meets Corbulo, who had come to rescue him, makes no excuse for his stupidity, retires to Cappadocia. TAn 15: 13-16
62/3 After Rhandea, legions V Macedonica, III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and X Fretensis under Corbulo, are sent east to fight in the conclusion of the war.. 62 wik5Mc

Syria - Armenia 63-99