Han commanderies and kingdoms
23 Oct SHEN YI, Xin governor of Chenting Commandery, does not surrender after the death of Wang Mang and is executed by Gengshi troops. 23 HFHD99c 78
23 Oct LOYANG falls to Gengshi troops.. 23 CHC 248
23 Oct WANG CHIN, Xin Governor of Shangtu Commandery, surrenders to Emperor Gengshi, and is made a marquis. 23 HFHD99c 79
c.23 The GENGSHI Emperor moves his headquarters from Wancheng to Loyang.. 23 wikGE, wikLYX
23 Nov? GONGSUN SHU, governor of Daojiang from 15 CE, declares himself king of Shu until 25.. 23 wikGS
24 CHC 254, wikCnj'  
23 After death of Wang Mang, Wei Ao's generals, overrun Longxi, Wudu, Jincheng, Wuwei, Zhangyi, Jiuquan, and Dunhuang Commanderies, and makes them all surrender. 23 HFHD99c 62
23 Oc/Nv Kunpin Chiu from Donghai Commandery takes the imperial seals and cords to Yuan.  Gengshi is sitting at ease in the Yellow Hall.  He takes them and is delighted. 23 HFHD99c 56
23 After Wang Mang is dead, LI SUNG goes to Loyang, gets Gengshi, and brings him to Chang'an.  Li Sung is then made Lieutenant Chancellor. 23 HFHD99c 74
c.23 The Gengshi Emperor, a descendant of Emperor Jing (r. 157-141), tries to restore the Han dynasty, occupies Chang'an. 23 wikHD
23 CHANG'AN, capital of China from 200BC, moved to LOYANG until 24 by Gengshi. 23 B76 II-731, 4-30, HFHD99c 56, wikHH, wikRE
c.23 After moving to Loyang, the Gengshi Emperor promises to allow Xin local officials who submit to him to keep their posts.  For a brief period, nearly the entire empire nominally submits. 23 wikGE, wikLln
c.23 After Gengshi movies to Loyang, son of Liu Li, LIU YONG is named Prince of Liang.  Suiyang (Liang Commandery) is his capital. 23 wikLYX
c.23 Emperor GENGSHI invites Chimei leader Fan Chung to Loyang.  Gengshi makes Fan Chung and c.20 of his generals marquises, but without any actual marches, so the Chimei begin to desert, and Fan Chung flees back to his troops. 23 B76 II-731, 4-30, CHC 249, wikGE, wikHH, wikRE
c.23 LIU JI, is critical of the Gengshi Emperor.  The emperor arrests Liu Ji and wants to execute him, but Liu Yan tries to intercede.  Gengshi executes Liu Ji and Liu Yan as well. 23 wikEGH, wikGE, wikLYn
c.23 LIU YAN dies, prime minister 23, executed by Gengshi. 23 wikGE, wikHH
c.23 Emperor GENGSHI regrets executing Liu Yan.  Gengshi spares Liu Yan's bro Liu Xiu and creates him Marquis of Wuxin. 23 wikEGH, wikGE
c.23  Book of Han  composed by Ban Gu, covering history from 125BCE to death of Wang Mang will not be published until 111. 23 wikBH, wikKsg
c.23 LIU XIU, an official in the Han government of Gengshi Emperor, marries childhood sweetheart, YIN LIHUA. 23 wikEGH, wikEMH, wikYL
23 Nv/Dc LIU SHENG dies.  Son of Heaven from Sep/Oct, in Juyang Commandery from Sep/Oct, attacked and killed by Liu Xin.  His followers CHUANG YU and CHEN MOU are beheaded. 23 HFHD99c 56, 80
CONFUSION ALERT!  CHEN MOU and CHEN MU are different men.
23 Nv/Dc LIU TZU is made Lieutenant Chancellor by Gengshi and ordered first to go to Guanzhong and prepare the ancestral temples, palaces, and a house.  Liu Tzu returns and accompanies Gengshi to the capital, whereon Liu Tzu is made king of Yuan. 23 HFHD99c 56, 81
23 Nv/Dc Shentu Jian and Li Sun brings the imperial equipage and robes from Chang'an. 23 HFHD99c 56
23 Nv/Dc LIU TZU, now King of Yuan, is sent by Gengshi with credentials to pacify the region east of Guanzhong. 23 HFHD99c 81
23 late WANG LANG, fortuneteller in Handan, claims to be a son of Emperor Cheng named Liu Ziyu.  Wang Lang says his mother was a singer in Emperor Cheng's service, and that Empress Zhao Feiyan had tried to kill him after his birth, but that a substitute child was killed instead.  After Wang Lang spreads these rumors, the people of Handan believe him.  Commanderies north of the Yellow River quickly pledge allegiance to him as emperor. 23 HFHD99c 69, wikEGH, wikGE, wikGuo
23 late LIU YANG, prince of Zhending, supports claim of Wang Lang until 24. 23 wikGuo
23 end The CHIMEI are at a standstill just south of the Yellow River east of Loyang. 23 CHC 249
23/4 LIU XIU, still an official under Gengshi, is put in charge north of the Yellow River and created Prince of Xiao, but Liu Xiu, still aware that he is not trusted, and angry about his bro's murder, secretly plans to break from Gengshi rule.  When Liu Xiu goes north, his wife from 23, Yin Lihua goes home to Nanyang Commandery. 23 CHC 248, HFHD99c 80, wikEGH
24 wikGE, wikGuo, wikYL
23/4 WANG LANG is acknowleged Emperor by Li Yu and Liu Lin.  Li Yu then becomes his Commander-in-chief. 23/4 HFHD99c 69
23/4 Deng Yu joins Liu Xiu (later to be his prime minister); other later important men who join Liu Xiu around this time include Feng Yi and Geng Chun. 23 wikEGH
24 Feb Li Yu is defeated by Liu Xiu at Kuomen. 24 HFHD99c 69
24 WEI TSUI and WEI YI accompany Wei Ao to the court of Gengshi, who confirms Wei Tsui in his former title. 24 HFHD99c 69
24 spring LIU TZU, king of Yuan under Gengshi, goes to his state of Yuan, leading 6 divisions of troops. 24 HFHD99c 81
24 Fortuneteller Wang Lang in Handan, is popular enough to force Liu Xiu to withdraw to the northern city of Jicheng. 23 wikGE     24 wikEGH
24 LIU XIU at Jicheng faces rebellions in his immediate vicinity, and is nearly killed by rebels loyal to Wang Lang. 23 wikGE 24 wikEGH
24 LIU XIU reaches 2 commanderies in modern central Hebei still loyal to Gengshi - Xindu (modern Hengshui, Hebei), whose governor is Ren Guang, and Herong, (part of modern Shijiazhuang, Hebei), whose governor is Pi Tong.  Ren's deputy Li Chong, Wan Xiu, and Liu Zhi, who is powerful in the region, also join Liu Xiu.  Additionally, Liu Xiu makes Liu Zhi persuade Liu Yang Prince of Zhending, who has 100,000 troops, to defect from Wang Lang and join him. 24 CHC 278, wikEGH, wikGuo
24 LIU XIU and LIU YANG, Prince of Zhending, win some major battles against Wang Lang's generals. 24 wikEGH
24 A follower of Liu Xiu, GENG YAN, son of the governor of Shanggu Commandery, flees back to his father's commandery, and persuades both his father Geng Kuang and the governor of neighboring Yuyang Commandery (modern Beijing), Peng Chong, to support Liu Xiu. 24 wikEGH
24 Mar Emperor GENGSHI proposes to make all his courtiers kings.  Chu Wei protests, saying that according to Gaozu's oath, only members of the Liu clan should become kings.  Chu Wei is nevertheless made king of Jiaodong, but refuses, so he is made Commander-in-chief at the Left. 24 HFHD99c 33
24 Mar WANG KUANG is made king of Piyang by Gengshi. 24 HFHD99c 26
24 Mar CHENG DAN is made king of Xiangyi by Gengshi. 24 HFHD99c 53
24 Mar CHEN MU is made king of Yinping by Gengshi. 24 HFHD99c 34
24 Mar Han capital, LOYANG from 23, moved back to CHANG'AN by Gengshi until 25. 24 CHC 249, HFHD99c 56, wikGE, wikHH, wikLln
c.24 NAMHAE CHACHAUNG ends.  King of Silla Korea from 4 CETARHAE ISAGUM succeeds until 80. 24 rcK
c.24 A follower of Liu Xiu, GENG YAN, son of the governor of Shanggu Commandery, supported by Geng Kuang's deputy Kou Xun and Jing Dan, and Peng's deputy, Wu Han, leads Shanggu and Yuyang commanderies' cavalry and infantry forces south to join Liu Xiu.  The combined forces give Liu Xiu enough strength to assault Handan. 24 wikEGH
c.24 LIU XIU unifies the northern commanderies still loyal to Gengshi and besieges Handan, killing Wang Lang. 24 wikEGH, wikGE
c.24 Jul 6 WANG LANG dies.  Trapped in Handan, he is defeated and killed by Liu Xiu.  His man Li Yu disappears. 24 HFHD99c 69, wikEGH
c.24 RECESSION, drought and famine in Han China. 24 MCAW
c.24 MONGOLS invade China from north. 24 MCAW
c.24 Once the Gengshi Emperor is back in Chang'an, he issues a general pardon. 24 wikLln
c.24 GENGSHI sends an envoy to the Xiongnu asking them to return to the Han tributary system.  Chanyu LUANTI YU (Huduershi) says it is time to reverse the tributary system, and that the Chinese emperor must pay homage to the chanyu.  Luan-ti says he had helped Han overthrow the Xin dynasty, just as the Han court had supported Hu-han-yeh's struggle against Chih-chih. 24 CHEIA 142
c.24 GENGSHI at Chang'an sends a messenger to summon Wei Ao, his uncles, and company.  They go to Chang'an.  Emperor Gengshi makes Wei Ao General of the Right. 24 HFHD99c 62
c.24 Gengshi entrusts his government to Zhao Meng, whose dau he makes an imperial consort.  The emperor drinks a lot, and is often unable to receive officials or make important decisions. 24 wikGE
c.24 After hearing of Emperor Gengshi's chaotic rule, Prince of Liang and Suiyang LIU YONG begins acting independently.  Liu Yong appoints his bro Liu Fang chief general, his younger bro Liu Shaogong as Secretary of the Royal History, and seals the Shaogong Prince of Lu.  Zhou Jian is appointed to recruit heroes as generals, attacking Jiyin, Shanyang, Pei, Chu, Huaiyang, and Runan Commanderies, gaining 28 cities. no date: wikLYX
c.24 fall GENGSHI sends generals Li Bao and Li Zhong to try to capture Sichuan, now held by local warlord Gongsun Shu, but his generals are defeated by Gongsun Shu. 24 wikGE
c.24 fall LIU XIU, north of the Yellow River, still married to Yin Lihua (so far childless, and living, from 23, in Nanyang Commandery), enters a political marriage with Guo Shengtong until 41.  She is niece of regional warlord, Liu Yang Prince of Zhending. 24 CHC 278, wikEGH
c.24 fall LIU XIU, still ostensibly under Gengshi, pacifies some agrarian rebel groups and merges them into his own forces.  Liu Xiu starts replacing officials loyal to Gengshi with those loyal to himself.  Liu Xiu consolidates his power north of the Yellow River and, as he predicts that the Chimei would destroy Gengshi's government for him, Liu Xiu waits by for that to happen, not intervening on either side.  at Deng Yu's suggestion Liu Xiu puts Kou Xun in charge of the Henei region, north of the Yellow River) and makes it the base for food and supplies, while sending Deng Yu with a small force of 20,000 to , to wait for the confrontation between Gengshi and the Chimei. 24 wikEGH
c.24 HEDONG region quickly captured by DENG YU for Liu Xiu. 24 wikDY
c.24 late Wei Ao's uncles, WEI TSUI and WEI YI, plot to rebel against Emperor Gengshi and return home.  Wei Ao fears that he would be involved, so he informs Gengshi on them.  Wei Tsui and Wei Yi are executed.  Wei Ao is made Grandee Secretary and Censor-in-chief. 24 HFHD99c 62, 69
23-5 ckWA
c.24 late The Chimei stationed at Puyang are strong militarily, but tired and want to go home.  Fan Chung and the other leaders set a bigger goal in order to keep them together.  They decide to overthrow the Gengshi regime, which by then had relocated to Chang'an. 24 wikGE, wikRE
c.24/5 LIU XIU, who had been sent by Gengshi to pacify the region north of the Yellow River, is de facto independent, while the Chimei approach to attack Chang'an. by end 24 wikLln
25 Jn/Fb In winter the Chimei head west, enter Guanzhong by 2 routes:  Fan Chung and Feng An enter thru Wu Pass.  Xu Xuan, Xie, and Yang go thru Luhuan Pass. 24/5 HFHD99c 8, wikRE
25 HFHD99c 57
25 Jn/Fb Many men join the CHIMEI, which is now divided into 30 divisions of 10,000 men each.  In each division is one Sanlao and one Official Attendant. 25 HFHD99c 8, 57
25 Fb/Mr Chimei generals Fan Chung and Feng An meet at Hungnung Commandery with 300,000 men and slowly march toward Chang'an.  They fight several battles with generals of Emperor Gengshi, in which Chimei ultimately win. 25 CHC 250, HFHD99c 8, wikGE, wikLYX, wikRE
25 Fb/Mr SU MOU is sent by Gengshi to resist the Chimei in Hungnung Commandery.  But Su Mou's army is defeated, and 1,000+ men are killed. 25 HFHD99c 57
25 Mar Generals of emperor Gengshi want to abandon Chang'an and return to south Henan and north Hubei, but Gengshi refuses. 25 wikRE
25 Mar? CHIMEI advance to Cheng. 25 HFHD99c 9
c.25 Chimei general FENG AN leads 100,000+ men to attack Yen Chen. 25 HFHD99c 9
25 Ap/My Gengshi partisans Chu Wei and Li Sung are defeated by the Chimei at Maoxiang.  More than 30,000 are killed.  Li Sung flees. 25 HFHD99c 34, 57, 58, 74
25 Ap/My After Gengshi is defeated, Fang Wang, former strategist for local warlord Wei Ao, and Kung Lin lead several thousand men, which kidnap prince Ruzi (Liu Ying) and occupy Linjing (in modern Qingyang, Gansu).  Ruzi is declared emperor, and they collect several thousand men.  Fang Wang becomes Lieutenant Chancellor and Kung Lin becomes Commander-in-chief. 25 HFHD99c 34, 57, wikGE, wikLYX, wikRY
25 Ap/My Gengshi sends prime minister Li Sung with Su Mou and an army to attack the Ruzi force.  Li Sung annihilates them. 25 HFHD99c 34, 57, wikGE, wikLYX, wikRY
25 Fb/Mr Young Prince RUZI (Liu Ying) dies.  His partisans Fang Wang and Kung Lin die.  Li Sung beheads them all. 25 HFHD99c 74, , wikRY
25 Ap/My Wang Kuang and Zhang Ang control Hotung (Hedong?) Commandery.  They are routed by Deng Yu, and flee back to Chang'an.  Zhang Ang says that the Chimei would soon be in Chang'an, and so it would be best to pillage Chang'an and flee to Nanyang Commandery with their loot, or even to retreat to the mountains and become robbers.  Shentu Jian and Liao Chan and the others agree, and try to persuade Gengshi, who gets angry and refuses to answer.  Gengshi sends Wang Kuang to Xinfeng to guard it. 25 26, HFHD99c 58
25 spring A shaman in the Chimei camp says former king Ching of Chengyang (now considered a god) is greatly incensed and wants his descendant on the imperial throne. 25 HFHD99c 81
25 Jun? Emperor Gengshi sends Chu Wei and Li Yi to hold Loyang, from which they harass Liu Xiu's troops. 25 HFHD99c 34
25 Jun? After Gengshi's army is routed by Chimei, the 6 divisions that Liu Tzu was leading scatter and rebel.  So Liu Tzu leaves Yuan and flees to Yuyang. 25 HFHD99c 81
25 Jun? After Gengshi's army is routed by Chimei, Prince of Liang and Suiyang, LIU YONG proclaims himself emperor. 25 wikLYX
c.25 After repeated urging by his followers, Liu Xiu finally claims title of emperor as Emperor GUANGWU.  He rules until 57. 25 mid CHC 251, ckRELU, wikEGH
c.25 GUO SHENGTONG, wife of Guangwu from 24, is made imperial consort. 25 wikGuo
c.25 GUO SHENGTONG, imperial consort of Guangwu, bears 1st son, LIU JIANG.  Her position does not change, because Guangwu prefers his 1st wife, Yin Lihua. 25 wikGuo
c.25 mid LIU XIU finally formally breaks with Gengshi, after his generals and Gengshi's generals fight over control of the Henei and Loyang regions. 25 wikGE, wikLln, wikYL
c.25 Jl/Ag Emperor GENGSHI sends Wang Kuang, Chen Mu, Cheng Dan, and Chao Meng to camp at Xinfeng, and sends Li Sung with an army to resistthe Chimei. 25 HFHD99c 34, 58, 81
c.25 mid When the Chimei are in Guanzhong, Wei Ao advises Emperor Gengshi to entrust the government to Liu Xiu's uncle, Liu Liang, but Gengshi refuses.  Several of Gengshi's generals conspire to kidnap him and flee back home to Nanyang.  Conspirators include Zhang Ang, Liao Chan, Hu Yin, Shentu Jian, and warlord Wei Ao.  Palace Attendant Liu Nengching knows of their plan, and tells Gengshi, who now refuses to leave the palace, pretending he is ill.  Gengshi summons the generals intending to kill them all.  Wei Ao pretends to be ill.  Zhang Ang, Liao Chan, Hu Yin, Shentu Jian, wait outside becoming suspicious, so they run out.  Only Shentu Jian remains, and Gengshi beheads him.  Zhang Ang, with Liao Chan and Hu Yin thereon let their troops plunder the Eastern and Western Markets.  At dusk they burn the palace gates and enter.  Gengshi's men are severely defeated.  Wei Ao joins with 2 guests, Wang Tsun and Chou Tsung, seizes arms, guards himself. 25 HFHD99c 34, 53, 58, 62, 78, wikLln
c.25 mid WEI AO escapes from Chang'an, and returns to Tienshu Commandery.  There Wei Ao again collects bands and holds the country, calling himself Supreme General of the Western Provinces. 25 HFHD99c 53, 62, ckWA, wikLln
c.25 Zhang Ang occupies most of Chang'an. 25 HFHD99c 53, wikLln
25 Jl/Ag As Chimei forces are at Cheng on their way to overthrow Gengshi, they decide to have their own emperor candidate.  Priests of the late Liu Zhang (Prince Jing of Chengyang whose principality many Chimei come from, and who has been worshipped as a god since his death, 177BC), consider finding a descendant and making him emperor.  They find 70 descendants of Liu Zhang, but only 3 are from the main line - bros Liu Mao and Liu Penzi, and another Liu Xiao, former Marquis of Xian.  After drawing lots, LIU PENZI is declared emperor.  He has no real power and continues to serve as a cattleman. 25 HFHD99c 9, 58, 78, 81, wikGE, wikHH, wikLP, wikRE
c.25 Without evidence, GENGSHI suspects Wang Kuang, Chen Mu, and Cheng Dan of conspiring with Zhang Ang.  Gengshi executes CHEN MU and CHENG DAN by trickery, and summons Wang Kuang.  Wang Kuang is afraid and leads his troops to Chang'an, where he joins Zhang Ang.  Li Sung and Chao Meng fight with Wang Kuang and Zhang Ang in Chang'an for a month and finally defeat Wang Kuang and Zhang Ang. 25 HFHD99c 26, 53, wikLln
CONFUSION ALERT!  Another CHEN MU is Protector General of the Western Regions and dies in 75.
25 Aug? At dawn, GENGSHI puts his wife and children in a chariot and flees on a single horse from Kaoling east to Chao Meng at Xinfeng.  He is followed by several loyal followers including Liu Zhi Prince of Dingtao and Liu Gong Marquis of Shi (who is Liu Penzi's older bro). 25 HFHD99c 26, 53, 58, wikGE, wikLln, wikLP
c.25 The Chimei reach Kaoling. 25 HFHD99c 26, 53, 58, wikLln
25 Li Sung helps Chao Meng drive Gengshi's rebel generals out of Kaoling.  Li Sung is then sent against the Chimei, and is defeated, 2,000+ are killed.  Li Sung is captured by them.  His bro keeps the city gates.  When the Chimei arrive at Kaoling, they threaten to kill Li Sung unless the gates are opened, and thus they are admitted. 25 HFHD99c 58, 74
c.25 WANG KUANG(1) dies.  He meets the Chimei at Kaoling, and surrenders.  Wang Kuang is delivered to Guangwu's Master of Writing, Tsung Kuang.  When they all go east and reach Anyi, Wang Kuang flees on the road, and Tsung Kuang executes him. 25 HFHD99c 26, 53, 58, wikLln
CONFUSION ALERT!  There were 3 Wang Kuangs:  1. the Lulin leader   2. the soothsayer (d. 23)   3. the Xin general
c.25 The Chimei advance from Kaoling, against Chang'an. 25 HFHD99c 58
c.25 The CHIMEI defeat Gengshi's forces, enter Chang'an. 25 HFHD99c 9, wikHH, wikLln, wikRE
c.25 Generals still loyal to Gengshi eventually evict Zhang Ang from the capital Chang'an, but the situation is desperate.  Zhang Ang and his allies surrender to the Chimei. 25 wikLln
c.25 Bandit leader CHIN FENG of Lichiu in Nan Commandery calls himself King Li of Chu. 25 HFHD99c 31
c.25 GENGSHI, Liu Zhi and Liu Gong are captured by one of Gengshi's own generals Yan Ben, who, plans to hold them as bargaining chips. 25 wikGE, wikLP
c.25 Emperor from 23, GENGSHI ends.  After being held by Yan Ben for a few months, realizes that his situation is futile and asks Liu Gong to negotiate surrender terms.  Gengshi follows Xieh Lu, with his flesh bared, to Changlo Palace, and delivers the imperial seals and cords to Liu Penzi.  The Chimei thereupon sentence Gengshi and hold him, intending to kill him.  Xieh Lu and Liu Gong plead for him, but to no avail.  When Emperor Gengshi is being led out, Liu Gong goes after him, saying that he wants to die first.  He draws his sword intending to cut his own throat.  Then the leader of the Chimei, Fan Chung and others save him, pardon Gengshi and entitle him Marquis of Fearing their MajestyEmperor Penzi's general Liu Xiu arrives at Yan Ben's camp.  Liu Gong continues to plead, and finally they make Gengshi King of Changsha.  He has to stay in Liu Xiu's headquarters, with Liu Gong protecting him.  Liu Xiu escorts Gengshi back to Chang'an. 25 CHC 250, HFHD99c 59, rcC, wikHD, wikGE, wikHH, wikLln, wikRE
c.25 The CHIMEI govern so poorly that the people yearn for the return of Gengshi.  Zhang Ang and his allies, persuade Liu Xiu to strangle Gengshi. 25 wikGE
c.25 Former emperor GENGSHI, LIU XUAN dies, strangled by order of Liu Xiu. 25 HFHD99c 59, wikGE, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikRE, wikXD
25 c.Jl/Ag When Guangwu advances to Loyang, Gengshi's King of Pienchiu, Tien Li, surrenders. 25 HFHD99c 46
25 c.Jl/Ag When news of Chang'an's fall arrives in Loyang, the city surrenders to Liu Xiu, who enters and makes it his headquarters. 25 ckRELU, wikGE

East Asia 25-57