Han commanderies and kingdoms
25 c.Aug 5 LIU XIU claims the Han throne himself, occupies Loyang as his capital on November 27, and LIU XIU succeeds as Emperor GUANGWU until 57.  At this time 2 factions exist among his chief followers, those of Nanyang and Yingchuan.
EASTERN (Later) HAN DYNASTY begins at Loyang until 220.
22 TToH     23 B76 V-794
24 MCAW     25 B76 4-311, CHC 251, 277, CHEIA 142, HFHD99c 52, 81, LEWH, TAWH 18, TTPC, rcC, wikHD, wikHH, wikXD, wikHXW, wikWM, wikYL
25 c.Aug LIU TZU goes west to Wu Pass, to invite Gengshi's wife and children to go to Loyang.  Emperor Guangwu praises Liu Tzu for his loyalty. 25 HFHD99c 81
25 c.Sep 27 Chu Wei at Loyang is besieged by Emperor Guangwu's generals.  One of Chu Wei's generals treacherously admits Guangwu's generals, Chien Tan and Chu Yen, and their troops, into the city at dawn, but Chu Wei is alert, and by breakfast time had driven them out.  Tsen Peng, a former subordinate who had become of Guangwu's generals, persuades Chu Wei to surrender, when Emperor Guangwu swore an oath that Chu Wei would not be harmed for having murdered the Emperor's elder bro, and would be allowed to keep his rank and title. 25 HFHD99c 34
25 c.My/Jn Warlord GONGSUN SHU, king of Shu from 23, proclaims himself Emperor of CHENGJIA until 36.  Chengjia includes modern Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, and southern Shaanxi, and comprised about 7% of China's population. 25 CHC 254, wikCnj, wikGS
c.25 LI TUNG becomes Commandant of the Palace Guard. 25 HFHD99c 52
c.25 DENG YU, age 23, is made prime minister and Marquis of Zhan by Liu Xiu. 25 wikDY
c.25 Grand Minister Over the Masses, Deng Yu, now in Chang'an, sends troops to attack the Chimei at Yuyi, but is defeated, so Deng Yu leaves Chang'an and goes to Yunyang. 25 HFHD99c 9
c.25 Leader of the Chimei FAN CHUNG is made Grandee Secretary. 25 HFHD99c 9
c.25  Book of Later Han  begun, covers history c.25CE to 170. 25 wikKsg, wikKsg
6 CE to 189 6 wikKt
25 c.Oct The CHIMEI again enter Chang'an and stop at Kuei Palace.  Gengshi flees to Kaoling. 25 CHC 250, HFHD99c 9, 46
25 c.Oct A robber of Hanchung Commandery, Yen Chen, exits Hanchung by San Pass and camps at Tuling.  Feng An leads 100,000+ men to attack Yen Chen.  Deng Yu thinks that Feng An's best troops are outside the capital, and only Liu Penzi with the weak were inside the city, so Deng Yu goes in person to attack Chang'an.  But Xieh Lu comes to the rescue and defeats Deng Yu's troops, who flee. 25 CHC 250, HFHD99c 9
25 c.Oct YEN CHEN joins his troops to those of Gengshi's man Li Pao, so that they have several 10,000s, and fight a battle at Tuling.  Yen Chen and the others are severely defeated.  Li Pao surrenders to Feng An, but Yen Chen gathers his scattered troops and flees.  Li Pao secretly sends a man to tell Yen Chen to put forth all his efforts and fight, while he would work from inside. 25 HFHD99c 9
25 c.Oct FAMINE in the capital commanderies results in cannibalism. 25 HFHD99c 9
25 c.Nov 5 Chu Wei surrenders Loyang, whereon Emperor Guangwu makes it his capital. 25 CHC 251, HFHD99c 34
25 c.Nov Han capital, CHANG'AN from 24, moved east by Guangwu to LOYANG until 311. 23 B76 II-731
24 B76 4-308, MCAW 25 wikHD
25 c.Nov? After Guangwu moves to LOYANG, he sends envoys to bring his wife Yin Lihua back from Nanyang Commandery to the capital and makes her an imperial consort. 25 wikYL
25 late Former Gengshi loyalist CHU WEI is made General Pacifying the Ti, and made Marquis of Fukou. 25 HFHD99c 34
25 c.end By the end of 25, Guangwu controls the northern Great Plain, and had made inroads into the northwest. 25 CHC 251
26 Feb 6 Fan Chung and the others hold a meeting.  Liu Gong says that disorder had increased during the year that his bro Penzi had been on the throne, and his bro could do nothing.  Even if they died, it would be of no use, so they preferred to retire and become commoners, and the Chimei should seek for a more worthy person.  Fan Chung and the others refused his plea, saying that it had been their fault.  When Liu Gong insists, someone suggests that it is not his business, so he leaves. 26 HFHD99c 70
26 c.Feb 24 Teng Yeh and Yu Kuang surrender to Emperor Guangwu. 26 HFHD99c 70
26 Liu Gong, seeing the dangers of the situation for his bro emperor Liu Penzi, decides to make one attempt to either put the situation under control or disengage his bro from the mess.  At the New Year's Day imperial gathering, Liu Gong asks that Emperor Penzi be allowed to yield the throne, and Emperor Penzi jumps off the throne, takes off the imperial seal, and declares while crying: "Now there is an emperor, but everyone continues to act as robbers.  The people hate us and do not trust us.  This is because you chose the wrong Son of Heaven.  Please return my body to me.  But if you want to kill me to divert blame, then I must die." 26 wikLP
26 c.Mar By early March, the Chimei had consumed all supplies in Chang'an, and must resume their wandering.  They burn Chang'an while leaving, then return in October. 26 CHC 254
26 When the Chimei leave Chang'an and want to go west over Mt. Lung, Wei Ao sends his general, Yang Kuang, who attacks and routs the Chimei, and pursues and defeats them between Wushih and Qingyang.  Wei Ao's advisors frequently urges him to communicate with the capital. 26 HFHD99c 63
26 Guangwu's Grand Minister Over the Masses, Deng Yu, goes west to attack the Chimei, and camps at Yunyang.  When Deng Yu's Lieutenant General, Feng Yin, rebels against Deng Yu, and goes west toward Tianshu Commandery, Wei Ao attacks and routs Feng Yin at Kaoping, capturing all his baggage.  Thereon Deng Yu sends a messenger with credentials to Wei Ao, making him Supreme General of the Western Provinces with authority to govern Liang Province and Sofang Commandery. 26 HFHD99c 62-3
26 c.mid Generals Gai Yan (Kao Yen) and Su Mao are sent by emperor Guangwu to fight self proclaimed emperor from 25 Liu Yong.  But Su Mao defects and joins Liu Yong who appoints Su Mao minister of war and prince of Huaiyang. 26 wikLYX
c.26 From 26 to 36, Emperor Guangwu must war against other regional warlords who claim the title of emperor; when these warlords are defeated, China is reunified under Han. 26 wikHD
c.26 Uncle of Guo Shengtong, LIU YANG dies.  Prince of Zhending from 23, is suspected of planning a rebellion and killed.  Guangwu permits Liu Yang's son LIU DE to inherit Zhending. 26 wikGuo
c.26 GONGSUN SHU, Emperor of Chengjia 25-36, sends general Hou Dan to conquer Hanchung north of Sichuan in south Shaanxi along the Han River. 26 wikGS
c.26 After Gengshi had been defeated, WANG CHANG takes his wife and children to Loyang. 26 HFHD99c 54
c.26 Guangwu makes LIU TZU marquis of Shen, a city in Junan Commandery. 26 HFHD99c 81
c.26 Li Yu is sent with Cheng Wu out of Chentsang to overrun Guanzhong. 26 HFHD99c 69
c.26 WANG CHANG is made Commandant of Justice, a Junior Department Head, and Marquis of Shansang. 26 HFHD99c 54
c.26 LI TUNG, Commandant of the Palace Guard from 25, is made Marquis of Kushih until 42, and Grand Minister of Agriculture. 26 HFHD99c 52
c.26 LIU CHANG, son of Liu Lin - bro of Liu Xiu, is made king of Daiyuan until 35. 26 HFHD99c 50
c.26 GUANGWU wants to create an empress.  He favors his first love, Yin Lihua.  But Yin had not yet had a son, so she declines the empress position and endorses the newer wife Guo Shengtong.  Emperor Guangwu therefore makes Guo empress on July 10 and her son Prince Jiang crown prince. 26 CHC 278, wikEGH, wikEMH, wikYL
c.26 GUANGWU makes his sisters elder princesses. 26 CHC 257
c.26 GUANGWU begins defeating warlords until 30 26 wikHH
c.26 fall CHIMEI troops attack territory held by regional warlord Wei Ao, but are repelled. 26 wikRE
26 Oct The CHIMEI, having left Chang'an in March, return to Chang'an until January. 26 CHC 254
26/7 winter The CHIMEI move east.  There are more than 200,000 of them. 26/7 HFHD99c 10, wikRE
27 Jan Emperor Guangwu sends General Hou Chin, and others to camp at Xinan, and Keng Yen to camp at Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery or Changsha?. 27 HFHD99c 10
27 Jan 19 Marquisates abolished by Wang Mang are restored by emperor Guangwu.  He searches for heirs, but the search may not have been thorough, since in 37CE there will be 137 marquises of the imperial house, about 100 below the total of 5CE. 27 CHC 256, HFHD99c 48
27 Jan The CHIMEI, in Chang'an from Oct, leave and try to regain the Great Plain. 26 CHC 254
27 Jn/Fb Confronted by Emperor Guangwu's army, the CHIMEI send Liu Gong to beg permission to surrender.  When permission is given, Fan Chung sends Liu Penzi with Lieutenant Chancellor, Xu Xuan, and @30 persons, with their flesh bared.  They offer to Emperor Guangwu the imperial seal that transmits the state, Gengshi's 7-foot sword, and his jade circlet.  Next day Guangwu pardons them all.  He gives great gifts to Liu Penzi and makes him a Gentleman-of-the-Palace to the King of Zhao.  Later Liu Penzi becomes ill and goes blind, and Guangwu gives him the office of the Bureau of Equalization and Transportation at Jungyang.  Penzi enjoys the taxes taken in by this office until he dies of old age. 27 HFHD99c 48
27 Feb 1 Deng Yu, with Feng Yi, cross north over the Yellow River, and attack the Chimei in Hu Gulley (in modern Sanmenxia, Henan), and Deng Yu and Feng Yi are defeated and flee.  General Chi Tsun routs the enemy at Manchung and beheads Chang Man.  Grand Minister Over the Masses, Deng Yu, is dismissed and replaced by Feng Yi, who becomes Supreme General Making an Expedition Against the West.  Tu Mou becomes Supreme General of Agile Cavalry.  Grand Minister Over the Masses, 27 HFHD99c 48, wikRE
27 Feb Feng Yi fights the Chimei at Xiaoti and routs them severely.  Their remaining bands go south towards Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery, and Emperor Guangwu in person leads an expedition against them.  On Feb. 8 he reaches Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery. 27 HFHD99c 48
27 Feb Fu Lung, is sent to pacify Ching and Xu Commanderies. He summons Chang Pu, who surrenders. 27 HFHD99c 48
27 Feb After defeating Deng Yu, The Chimei exit the Pass and turn south.  They attack Feng Yi, and rout him at Xiaoti. 27 HFHD99c 10
c.27 Feb 13 Emperor Guangwu hears of Chimei victories, and goes in person to Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery, in order to intercept them on the road with a great force.  When the Chimei see the host, they send a messenger and surrender to Guangwu. 27 HFHD99c 10, 48, wikDY
c.27 Feb 15 Chimei leaders, with their hands tied behind them, give Emperor Guangwu the imperial seals and cords of Emperor Gaozu, and an imperial edict gives them into the charge of the Colonel of the City Gates. 27 HFHD99c 10, 48
c.27 Feb 17 Emperor Guangwu returns from Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery to the capital. 27 HFHD99c 48
c.27 Feb 18 Emperor Guangwu announces that Liu Penzi had surrendered with more than 100,000 men, and orders an auspicious day be selected for a sacrifice in the Temple to former emperor Gaozu.  The sacrifice is held on Mar. 28. 27 HFHD99c 48
c.27 spring Self proclaimed emperor LIU YONG names Zhang Bu Prince of Qi and Dong Xian Prince of Haixi. 27 wikLYX
c.27 spring Han Army minister of war Wu Han attacks Su Mao and Guang Lecheng (Liang Commandery, Yu County).  Su Mao is defeated and flees to Huling. 27 wikLYX
c.27 spring The people of Suiyang oppose the Han army and welcome Liu Yong.  Gai Yan besieges Liu Yong in Suiyang.  Liu Yong, Su Mao, and Zhou Jian escape the city with food. 26 HFHD99c 47 27 wikLYX
27 Liu Yong flees to Yu (Liang Commandery).  But the people of Yu rebel against Liu Yong and kill his mother and wife.  So Liu Yong flees to Qiao (Pei Commandery).  Su Mao, Jiaoqiang and Zhou Jian come to rescue Liu Yong, and are routed west of Pei by Gai Yan.  Jiaoqiang and Zhou Jian follow Liu Yong to retreat to Huling in Shanyang Commandery. 26/7 wikLYX     27 HFHD99c 48
c.27 spring Self proclaimed emperor LIU YONG dies.  Liu Yong's general Qing Wu kills Liu Yong and reports the death to Emperor Guangwu, who rewards Qing Wu with a noble title. 26 HFHD99c 47 27 wikLYX
27 Li Yu is defeated severely by Feng Yi at Chentsang, and flees to Hanchung. 27 HFHD99c 69
27 GUANGWU begins trying to find relatives of Han marquises and restore abolished marquisates. 27 wikHH
c.27 Mar 13 The CHIMEI suddenly meet Guangwu's great army, they send Liu Gong to beg for permission to surrender.  Fan Chung leads Liu Penzi, Xu Xuan, and more than 30 others, to surrender on March 15. 27 CHC 254, HFHD99c 10, wikHH, wikLP, wikXD
27 Mar LIU PENZI renounces title to throne of Han. 27 wikLP
27 Mar 28 A sacrifice in the Temple to former emperor Gaozu is made, at which time Emperor Guangwu receives the imperial seal that transmits the state, i.e., the Great Seal. 27 HFHD99c 48
27 Mar GUANGWU resettles the Chimei at Loyang. 27 HFHD99c 10, wikHH, wikXD
27 Wei Ao goes to the capital, where Emperor Guangwu honors him with special rites. 27 HFHD99c 63
27 LU WEI from Chentsang collects several tens of thousands of men, communicates with Gongsun Shu and pillages the capital commanderies.  Wei Ao sends troops to help Guangwu's Supreme General, Feng Yi, attack Lu Wei, making him flee.  Wei Ao reports the facts to Guangwu and Guangwu replies in a personally written letter.  From this time, rites used in dealing with Wei Ao are more elaborate.  When Gongsun Shu sends Wei Ao the seal and cord of a high minister and king, Wei Ao beheads the messenger, sends out his troops, and routs Gongsun Shu's troops.  Emperor Guangwu now orders Wei Ao to attack Shu, Gongsun Shu's, state, but Wei Ao excuses himself.  Then Guangwu knows that Wei Ao is trying to "carry water on both shoulders," so he lessens the protocol used for him, treating him merely as a subject. 27 HFHD99c 63
27 mid FAN CHUNG and FENG AN die.  They plot to rebel, and are executed. 27 HFHD99c 10, wikHH, wikXD
by 27 Guangwu's officers Deng Yu and Feng Yi had forced the Chimei to surrender and execute their leaders for treason. by 27 wikHD
c.28 ONGJO WANG, king of Baekje Korea from 18 BC, ends.  TARU WANG succeeds until 77. 28 rcK
c.28 Philosopher Huan Tan dies 28 wikHD
c.28 Consort Yin Lihua bears her first-son, Liu Yang (not to be confused with Empress Guo's uncle).  He is her 1st of 5 by Guangwu. 28 wikYL, wikEMH
c.28 Emperor GUANGWU summons HOU PA to meet him at Shouchun and makes him Chief Master of Writing.. 28 HFHD99c 4
c.29 GUANGWU allies with warlord Dou Rong of the distant Hexi Corridor. 29 wikHH
c.29 Liu Yu's Tanhai Commandery is captured.  Liu Yong's son and heir LIU YU dies.  Yu is defeated by Eastern Han forces and killed by his own soldiers led by Gao Hu.  Peng Chong is murdered by his own slaves, leading to a collapse of the Prince of Liang's regime.  Zhang Bu, Prince of Qi, seeing the futility of resistance, surrenders and is created a marquis. 29 wikEGH, wikLYX
c.29 Lai Xi is again sent, and urges Wei Ao to send his son to wait on the Emperor.  When Wei Ao hears that Liu Yong and Peng Chong had both been killed, Wei Ao sends his oldest son Xun with Lai Xi to the imperial court.  But Wei Ao's generals, Wang Yuan and Wang Chieh, constantly tell him that the final success of Guangwu is not certain, so he should not unreservedly serve Guangwu, and Wei Ao agrees.  Altho Wei Ao had sent his son to Guangwu as a hostage, yet Wei Ao firmly guards the narrow passes into his territory. 29 HFHD99c 63
c.29 New uprisings are put down. 29 CHC 254
c.29 To cope with Wei Ao, Guangwu allies with Dou Jung, a warlord in Gansu corridor.  Fighting continues until 34.. 29 CHC 254, 276
c.29 The lower Han River valley is pacified. 29 CHC 254
c.29 HOU PA becomes Grand Master over the Masses, following Fu Chan and is enfeoffed as a Kuan-nei Marquis.. 29 HFHD99c 4
c.29 Emperor GUANGWU, preoccupied with civil wars in China, grants king Kang of Yarkand an official title. 29 wikHH
c.29 Wei Ao and Dou Rong submit to Guangwu, and as they are assisting Eastern Han forces north of Chengjia, Gongsun Shu is further discouraged from trying to expand his empire. 29 wikEGH
c.29 LI TUNG, Marquis of Kushih 26-42, is made General of the Van. 29 HFHD99c 52
c.30 Korean state of Goguryo, raiding Han's Korean commanderies from 18, suppressed. 30 wikHD, wikHH
by 30 Territory east of Guanzhong has all been pacified.  Guangwu sets about conquering the west.  In person he comes to Chang'an, and sends Keng Yen and 6 other generals to attack Shu by way of the road across Mt. Lung.  First, Guangwu sends Lai Xi with a sealed message informing Wei Ao of his intentions, but Wei Ao is suspicious, and orders Wang Yuan to hold the slopes of Mt. Lung and make a barricade.  Wei Ao plots to kill Lai Xi, but Lai Xi escapes and returns.  The generals are defeated by Wei Ao.  Then Wei Ao has Wang Yuan and Xing Xun invade the capital commanderies, but Feng Yi and Chi Tsun attack and rout them.  Wei Ao then begs Emperor Guangwu's pardon.  Guangwu again sends Lai Xi to Wei Ao with a letter, to persuade Wei Ao to yield.  But when Wei Ao sees that Guangwu saw thru his pretenses, Wei Ao defects to Gongsun Shu in Shu. by 30 HFHD99c 63
c.30 GUANGWU, defeating warlords from 26, finishes.  All of eastern China is under him. 30 wikEGH, wikHH
c.30 Seeing that Eastern Han is gradually unifying the empire, WEI AO inexplicably begins considering independence.  He tries to persuade Dou Rong to ally with him to resist Eastern Han.  Dou Rong refuses. 30 wikEGH
c.30 When Eastern Han consideres conquering Chengjia, Wei Ao, apprehensive of the implications of Chengjia's fall, tries to persuade Emperor Guangwu not to conquer it, and later Wei Ao refuses to lead his forces south against Chengjia. 30 wikEGH
c.30 Emperor Guangwu, prefers peaceful resolution, repeatedly writes humbly to both Wei Ao and Gongsun Shu, trying to get them to submit to him, promising them titles and honors.  Wei Ao continues to nominally submit but act independently, while Gongsun Shu refuses outright, but continues to be indecisive and takes no action, while Eastern Han's rule is being confirmed thruout the land. 30 wikEGH
c.30 LI TUNG, Marquis of Kushih 26-42, routs Wang Pa, and attacks bandits in Hanchung Commandery. 30 HFHD99c 52
c.30 400+ counties are abolished by Guangwu. 30 CHC 270
c.30 LI TUNG, Marquis of Kushih 26-42, General of the Van from 29, asks to resign on account of illness, but his request is refused. 30 HFHD99c 52
c.30 Tu Lin's bro, TU CHENG dies.  Wei Ao permits Tu Lin to take the corpse home.  After Tu Lin had left, Wei Ao repents, and sends Yang Xien to assassinate Tu Lin on the road.  The assassin, however, decides not to kill such a righteous man, and Tu Lin escapes. 30 HFHD99c 21
30 mid Realizing that neither Wei Ao nor Gongsun Shu would voluntarily submit, Emperor Guangwu campaigns against Wei Ao, assisted by Wei's friend Ma Yuan, who had served as Wei Ao's liaison officer to Guangwu and had tried in vain to persuade Wei Ao not to take the course of independence.  In response, Wei Ao formally submits to Gongsun Shu and accepts from him the title, Prince of Shuoning.  Wei Ao also tries to persuade Dou Rong to join him.  Dou refuses, and attacks Wei Ao in coordination with Emperor Guangwu's forces.  After initial successes, Wei Ao's small independent regime collapses under overwhelming force and is reduced severely. 30 wikEGH
30 fall LI TUNG, Marquis of Kushih 26-42, General of the Van from 29, is made Grand Minister of Works until 32.  For successive years he asks to resign, and each time the Emperor favored him, ordering him to keep his office in spite of illness. 30 HFHD99c 52
c.31 Gongsun Shu makes Wei Ao King Pacifying the North and sends troops to aid him. 31 HFHD99c 63
c.31 Guangwu allows peasants to pay a military substitution tax to avoid conscription into the army for a year of training and year of service.  Instead he builds a volunteer force which lasts thruout Eastern Han 31 wikHH
31 fall Wei Ao with 30,000 infantry invades Anding Commandery to Yinpan.  Feng Yi leads various generals to resist him.  Wei Ao orders a detached general to descend Mt. Lung and attack Chi Tsun at Chien.  Both expeditions are unsuccessful, so they return. 31 HFHD99c 64
31 fall Emperor Guangwu now sends Lai Xi with a message to summon Wang Tsun to his court, and Wang Tsun comes with his family and adherents to Loyang, where he is installed as a Grand Palace Grandee and is enfeoffed as Marquis Who Turns to Righteousness. 31 HFHD99c 64
c.31 Water powered BELLOWS invented by Tu Shih for use in cast iron. 31 TTS
c.31 HORIZONTAL Λ WATERWHEEL described by Nanyang Commandery Administrator Tu Shih.  Belts and pulleys drive a bellows, which works an iron furnace for casting farm tools. 30 TTT
c.32 Guangwu nearly defeats Gansu warlord Wei Ao. 32 wikHH
32 Gongsun Shu sends Li Yu with 10,000 troops to rescue Wei Ao, but when Wei Ao's generals go over to Guangwu, Li Yu flees to Shangkuei, where he is besieged by Guangwu's generals, but they finally leave. 32 HFHD99c 69
32 fall LI TUNG, Marquis of Kushih 26-42, Grand Minister of Works from 30, is allowed to resign, and attend court with the rank of Specially Advanced.  He lives until 42. 32 HFHD99c 52
c.32 GONGSUN SHU, emperor of Chengjia 25-36, sends generals Li Yu and Tien Yen to help Wei Ao attack Loyang.  Loyang holds out for successive months.  Guangwu leads his generals by several routes to climb up Mt. Lung, and sent Wang Tsun, with credentials, to supervise Commander-in-chief, Wu Han, who stays camped at Chang'an.  Wang Tsun knows that Wei Ao would inevitably be annihilated.  He had been a good friend of Niu Han, and knew that Niu had thoughts of turning to the Han dynasty, so he sends Niu Han a letter saying that with Wei Ao, Niu Han had taken an oath of allegience to Han, sealed by blood, and he had risked his life more than ten times, that Guangwu would inevitably be victorious, and he urged Niu Han to surrender.  When Niu Han received the letter, he pondered for more than 10 days, and finally goes to Loyang, where he is installed as a Grand Palace Grandee.  Thereon 13 of Wei Ao's Generals, with 16 prefectures, and bands of more than 100,000 men, all surrender.  Wang Yuan goes to Shu to seek aid, and Wei Ao with his wife and children flees to Xicheng along with Yang Kuang.  Tien Yu and Li Yu takes refuge in Shangkuei. . 32 HFHD99c 64
c.32 Guangwu offers Wei Ao amnesty, but Wei Ao will not surrender.  So his hostage son Wei Xun is executed.  Wu Han and Chien Peng besiege Xicheng, and Keng Yen and Gai Yan besieges Li Yu in Shangkuei, while Emperor Guangwu returns east.  After some months, Yang Kuang dies, and Wei Ao is in dire straits.  His Supreme General Wang Chieh has a separate command at Jungchiu.  Wang Chieh mounts the city walls and calls to the Han troops that he is holding the city for King Wei Ao, and that all are willing to die for Wei Ao.  Wang Chieh cuts his own throat to prove it.. 32 CHC 238, HFHD99c 64
c.32 After several months, Wang Yuan, Xing Xun, and Chou Tsung lead 5,000+ troops from Shu to the rescue.  When the troops arrive [at Xicheng?], they make a great noise and say that a million men had arrived.  The Han army is frightened, could not form in battle line.  Wang Yuan and the others break thru the besiegers and enter the city.  They lead Wei Ao back to Qi. 32 CHC 238, HFHD99c 64
33 spring WEI AO dies.  Ill and starving, he goes outside the city, eats some beans, and dies.  Wang Yuan and Chou Tsung set up Wei Ao's youngest son, Wei Shun as King of Tienshu until 34. 33 ckWA, HFHD99c 65, wikEGH
c.33 Guangwu seizes Gansu warlord Wei Ao's domain. 33 wikHH
c.33 GONGSUN SHU, Emperor of Chengjia 25-36, sends generals Tian Rong and Yan Cen down the Three Gorges of the Yangtze to conquer Nan Commandery in modern Hubei but did not advance far. 33 wikGS
c.33 Lady Deng and Yin Xin are killed by robbers. 33 wikYL
c.34 Shuoning's capital Luomen, in Tienshu, falls, and king Wei Shun surrenders to Han. 34 wikEGH
c.34 The Xianlian Qiang and several other tribes, raid Chinese positions in Jincheng and Longxi commanderies and are defeated by Han armies.  A few months later, Lai Xi is killed on campaign against Gongsun Shu, but his assistant, Ma Yuan, Grand Administrator of Longxi commandery, continues operations against the Qiang. 34 wikMY
c.34 Lai Xi, Keng Yen, Gai Yan and others attack and rout the defenders at Lomen, so Chou Tsung, Xing Xun, Kou Yu, Chao Kuei and others lead Wei Shun to surrender to Guangwu.  The Wei clan is divided and moved east of the capital. 34 HFHD99c 65
c.34 The northwest is pacified at last. 34 CHC 254
34 /5? Guangwu sends generals Wu Han, Cen Peng, Lai She, and Gai Yan on a 2-pronged attack on Chengjia: Wu Han and Cen Peng lead an army and a navy up the Yangtze from modern Hubei, while Lai and Gai Yan lead an army south from modern Shaanxi.  Instead of fighting the Eastern Han expedition on the battlefield, Gongsun Shu tried to repel them by assassinating their generals - and he is initially successful, killing Cen Peng and Lai She and temporarily causing Eastern Han forces to halt.  However, Eastern Han forces regroup, and in 36 they have Gongsun Shu surrounded in his capital Chengdu (modern Chengdu, Sichuan).  However, initial attempts to siege Chengdu is unsuccessful, and Wu Han, then in command of the expeditionary force, considered withdrawing.  Persuaded by his lieutenant Zhang Kan that Gongsun Shu is desperate, however, Wu Han tricks Gongsun Shu into believing that Eastern Han forces are collapsing from fatigue, drawing him out of the city and engaging in battle. 34/5 wikEGH 35 CHC 255, wikGS
c.35 LIU CHANG, son of Liu Lin - bro of Liu Xiu, king of Daiyuan from 26, is moved to be king of Qi. 35 HFHD99c 50
c.35 Guangwu's commanding general CEN PENG is killed by an assassin sent by Gongsun Shu. 35 wikHH
c.35 Han General Wu Han (d.44CE) resumes late Cen Peng's campaign along the Yangzi and Min rivers. 35 wikHH
c.35 The Xianlian Qiang tribe are again defeated, first at Lintao in Longxi. 35 wikMY
c.35 The Xianlian Qiang tribe are defeated along the Xining river in Jincheng commandery.  In the 2 separate campaigns, Ma Yuan captures 10,000+ horses, cattle and sheep, plus much grain.  Ma Yuan is wounded in the leg during one of the final engagements, and does not completely destroy the enemy, but drives them away from the valley lands of Jincheng.  Ma Yuan is rewarded with Imperial commendation and several thousand of the animals he had captured. 35 wikMY
c.36 New fortifications built in order to block the traditional invasion route into Shansi 36 CHC 265
c.36 Dou Jung, having recognized Guangwu in 29, arrives triumphantly in Loyang.  He heads a large regional faction, whose home area overlaps that of Ma Yuan's followers. 36 CHC 277
c.36 Marquis of Shansang from 26, WANG CHANG dies. 36 HFHD99c 54
c.36 Lu Fang, after initially submitting to Guangwu and made Prince of Dai (as Emperor Guangwu maintained the fiction that Lu Fang was actually from imperial lineage), Lu Fang eventually rebels again, but fails. 36 wikEGH
36 Dec Han forces under generals Wu Han and Zang Gong reach Chengdu with only a week's supplies left.  They are close to accepting failure and withdrawing, when Gongsun Shu personally leads an attack on Han forces on 24 December. 36 CHC 255, wikGS
36 Dec Chengdu surrenders in winter.  Guangwu's general Wu Han then kills more than 10,000 people. 36 wikEGH
36 Dec After Chengjia's fall, Dou Rong gives the lands under his control to Emperor Guangwu, and is made prime controller. 36 wikEGH
36 Dec Han General Wu Han destroys Gongsun's forces by December. 35 wikHH
Dec 24
GONGSUN SHU dies. Emperor of Chengjia from 25, killed in battle at Chengdu. 36 CHC 255, ckWA, wikCnj, wikGS
36 Dec 25 Chengjia surrenders to Eastern Han forces.  After entering Chengdu, Wu Han orders massacre of Gongsun Shu's wife, children, and other relatives, as well as Yan Cen and his family.. 36 CHC 255, wikCnj, wikGS
36 Dec After Gongsun Shu is killed, Li Yu surrenders to Emperor Guangwu, and Guangwu gives Li Yu a position because of his ability.  It is not certain that the Li Yu who was Wang Mang's Grand Governor is the same as the general of Gongsun Shu, but likely, since the geographical areas and periods of their operation are closely contiguous. 36 HFHD99c 69
36 Dec 25 GUANGWU TI, Han emperor 25-57, defeats rivals, reunites China. 36 B76 4-311, CHC 255, wikEGH
c.37 LIU TZU, Marquis of Shen 26-52, gets his estate increased, and it is settled that he should be Marquis of Ancheng. 37 HFHD99c 81
c.37 DENG YU is made Marquis of Gaomi until 58, with a large march - 4 counties.  He remains a trusted advisor thruout Guangwu's reign. 37 wikDY
c.37 Grand Master over the Masses from 29, HOU PA dies.. 37 HFHD99c 4
c.37 After the conquest of the empire is largely complete, GUANGWU readjusts marches in accordance with the marquises' accomplishments.. 37 wikEGH
37 Apr 1 GUANGWU abolishes all kingdoms and demotes their holders to marquises, with only 3 exceptions: kingdoms of his paternal uncle Liu Liang, and his 2 nephews Liu Chang and Liu Xing, sons of late Liu Posheng.. 37 CHC 257
37 Apr 1 Kings Liu Liang, Liu Chang and Liu Xing are demoted to dukes.. 37 CHC 257
c.37 Guangwu wants to preserve the relationships between him and his generals and to protect their title and position, so he resolves to give the generals large marches but not give them official positions in government.  Guangwu rewards them with great wealth and often listens to their advice, but rarely puts them in positions of authority.. 37 wikEGH
c.37 GAOMI, a kingdom in Shandong from 73, dissolved. 37 HFHD8 31
c.37 GUANGPING, a dukedom from 9, again made part of Julu Commandery. 37 HFHD 110
c.37 RALAMAYU, king of Arakan on west coast of Burma from 15, ends.  NALAMAYU succeeds until 68.. 37 rcSAM
c.38 Guangwu's official LIANG TONG submits a petition to restore the criminal laws of late Western Han Dynasty, which were far more severe.  After discussion with other officials, Emperor Guangwu tables Liang's suggestion.  But he orders that servants in the inner palace must be eunuchs. 38 wikEGH
c.38 Nanyang Commandery Administrator DU SHI dies. 38 wikHD
39 May 13 GUANGWU creates all of his sons, other than Crown Prince Jiang, dukes.
Prince LIU YANG is created duke of Donghai until 41.  His 3 eldest daus are made princesses.  Liu Yang quickly proves his intelligence, and often makes quick judgments that turn out correct.
39 CHC 257, wikEMH, wikLYp
c.39 Sisters TRUNG TRAC and TRUNG NGHI and aristocrats march on Lien Lao, forcing the Han commander to flee.  Within a year, they and their allies occupy 65 northern citadels. 39 B76 X-152
c.40 The Trung sisters of Vietnam rebel in the Red River Delta of Jiaozhi Commandery against Han until 43.  Trung Trac claims the title of queen, and rules over an independent kingdom for several years. 40 CHC 271, wikEGH, wikHD, wikHH
c.40 WUSHU (5 shu) COINS, abandoned from ??, reinstated by Emperor Guangwu. 40 wikHD, wikHH
c.41 XIAN, successor of king Kang of Yarkand, made a Protector General by Guangwu. 41 wikHH
c.41 Son of Guangwu, LIU YANG, duke of Donghai from 39, is made prince 41 wikLYp
c.41 General MA YUAN is sent by Guangwu against the Trung sisters. 41 wikEGH
41 Dec 1 GUO SHENGTONG, 2nd wife of Guangwu from 24, empress from 26, complains too much, and is divorced and deposed.  Guangwu makes his original wife YIN LIHUA empress.  Guo Shentong is made Princess Dowager of Zhongshan, and her son Liu Fu Prince of Zhongshan until 44.  Her son Guo Jiang remains crown prince until 43.  Her bro Guo Kuang is made an important official and rewarded with wealth. 41 CHC 278, wikEGH, wikGuo, wikEMH, wikHH, wikYL
41 Dec 1 All imperial dukes are made princes.  Duke Liu Yang is made Prince of Donghai until 43.  Guangwu promotes his sons to kings. 41 CHC 257, wikEGH
c.42 Han general MA YUAN begins campaign against the Trung Sisters rebellion in Vietnam until 43. 42 CHC 271, wikHD, wikHH
c.42 Lu Fang flees to the Xiongnu.  The empire is entirely under Guangwu's rule 42 wikEGH
c.42 Son of Guangwu, LIU YANG, prince from 41, gets Chu as hereditary fiefdom, with capital at Pengcheng. 42 wikLYp
42 LI TUNG dies.  Marquis of Kushih from 26, attendant at court with the rank of Specially Advanced from 30.  He is given the posthumous name Kung (Respectful).  Son YIN succeeds as Marquis of Kushih. 42 HFHD99c 52
c.42 Uprising in Tonkin quelled by general MA YUAN, who then shows care for the people. 42 B76 10-550
43 early Ma Yuan leads the Han army thru difficult terrain toward the Red River Delta, where they arrive in early 43.  The rebellion is brought under control by April or May. 43 CHC 271, wikMY
c.43 The TRUNG Sisters rebellion in Vietnam from 40 is suppressed by Han general MA YUAN.  Sisters TRUNG TRAC and TRUNG NGHI suicide by drowning at confluence of Day and Red rivers. [by Vietnamese records] 43 B76 X-152, wikEGH, wikHD,
Chinese records say they are beheaded. 43 CHC 271
c.43 TONKIN and ANAM conquered by Ma Yuan, under China until 939. 43 LEWH
Jun 21
GUANGWU elevates duchies of his nephews and that of his late uncle to kingdoms. 43 CHC 257
c.43 GUO JIANG, crown prince from 41, insists on resigning and is made King of Donghai.  Tu Lin is made a tutor to the King and goes south with him.  Some of the other tutors depart, but Tu Lin performs his duties. 43 HFHD99c 22, wikEGH, wikEMH, wikYL
c.43 1st son of empress Yin Lihua, LIU YANG becomes crown prince.  Guangwu changes Liu Yang's name to Zhuang, perhaps because Yang is such a commonly used character that the law of naming taboo would cause the people trouble.  This causes more problems, and many members of the Zhuang clan are forced to change their names. 43 HFHD99c 22, wikEGH, wikEMH, wikYL
c.44 TAEMUSIN WANG ends.  King of Goguryo Korea from 18 CEMINGJUNG WANG succeeds until 48. 44 rcK
c.44 Han General WU HAN dies. 44 wikHH
44 LIU FU Prince of Zhongshan from 41, is moved to Pei.  Mom, and former empress, Guo Shengtong go with him. 44 wikGuo
c.44 TU LIN becomes Privy Treasurer. 44 HFHD99c 22
c.45 18 Western Region states - including Jushi [Turfan], Shanshan (around Lobnor), and Yanqi (Karashahr) - send hostages and valuables to the Later Han court asking for military protection from Shach'a's oppression.  They tell Emperor Guangwu that if China could not protect them from annexation by Yarkand their only alternative was to turn to the Xiongnu.  Being powerless to deal with the situation, Emperor Guangwu lets these states go to the Xiongnu's side. 45 CHEIA 146
c.46 LUANTI YU (Huduershi) dies.  Chanyu of North Xiongnu from 18.  His son PUNU succeeds until 83, breaking Huhanye's orders that only a Xiongnu ruler's bro is a valid successor.  Bi, the Rizhu King of the Right and Huduershi's nephew, is outraged. 46 CHC 265, CHEIA 136. 143, HFHD99c 15, wikHH, wikHXW
c.46 Xiongnu have a succession dispute, pitting current chanyu, Punu against his cousin Bi, son of a former chanyu. 46 wikEGH
c.46 A delegation from 16 states of the Western Regions petition Emperor Guangwu to reestablish the Western Han post of governor of Xiyu.  Emperor Guangwu declines, stating that his empire is so lacking in strength at the time that he cannot expend efforts to protect Xiyu kingdoms. 45 CHC 268     46 wikEGH
c.46 The Xiyu kingdoms, deserted by Han, submit to the Xiongnu. 46 wikEGH
c.47 TU LIN is again made Superintendant of the Imperial Household.  Soon he is made Grand Minister of Works.  At this time, many say that he should become chancellor 47 HFHD99c 22
c.48 MINGJUNG WANG ends.  King of Goguryo Korea from 44.  MOBONG WANG succeeds until 53. 48 rcK
c.48 XIONGNU EMPIRE of the Steppe from 209, dissolves.  North tribes remain in Mongolia until overcome by Xien Pei.  8 southern tribes settle in Ordos region under Han overlords. 48 B76 9-597, CHEIA 136, 143, oxus'  
c.48 BI, the Rizhu King of the Right and Huduershi's nephew, is declared a rival Chanyu by 8 southern Xiongnu tribes.  North chanyu Punu also submits, in response, and the divided Xiongnu stop attacking Han. 48 CHEIA 136, wikEGH, wikHXW
c.48 People of Wulin Commandery rebel against Han. 48 CHC 279
no date: wikEGH
c.48 MA YUAN is sent by Guangwu on an expedition against the indigenous people of Wulin Commandery. no date: wikEGH
c.49 922 Wuhuan chieftains of Manchuria submit to Han.  Many Wuhuan tribes come under tributary system of Han. 49 wikHXW
c.49 Wuhuan tribes are now admitted to the northwest and the mountainous commanderies north of the Great Plain. 49 CHC 269
c.49 While Ma Yuan is on the expedition, his political enemies falsely accuse Ma.  Emperor Guangwu, believes these accusations, and investigates Ma Yuan. 49 wikEGH, wikEMa
Jan 25
BI, rival chanyu from 48, adopts his grandfather's designation and proclaimes himself 2nd Huhanye chanyu. 48 CHC 266
c.49 Han general MA YUAN dies of illness on campaign in Wulin Commandery. 49 CHC 272, wikEGH, wikEMa, wikHD, wikMY
c.49 With Ma Yuan dead and unable to defend himself, Emperor Guangwu strips Ma of his marquis title and denounces him posthumously. 49 CHC 279, wikEGH
c.49 Scholar TU LIN dies.  Emperor Guangwu attends the mourning for him and attends his burial. 49 HFHD99c 22
c.49 The Qiang tribes retake the Qinghai region from Han. 49 wikQn
c.50 Xiongnu chanyu Bi turns to Han for aid. 50 wikHH
50 spring 2 Han envoys meet south chanyu BI, and in a public ceremony tell him to prostrate himself.  Chanyu Bi hesitates, then complies.  He is then presented with an imperial seal of pure gold and various gifts. 50 CHC 266
c.50 Xiongnu leader Bi, a rival claimant to the throne against his cousin Punu, submits to Han as a tributary vassal.  Bi sends a princely son as hostage to Han and prostrates to the Han envoy as he receives the imperial edict from them.  Bi has 30-40,000 troops.  This creates 2 rival Xiongnu states: South Xiongnu led by Bi, an ally of Han, and North Xiongnu led by Punu, an enemy of Han. 50 CHEIA 143, wikHD, wikHXW
c.50 Many Xiongnu tribes are taken into the Han empire and scattered within the frontier provinces in Inner Mongolia, Kansu, and Shansi.Han. 50 CHEIA 143
c.50 IRON and SALT industries of China, state monopolies from 41, revert to private ownership. 50 wikHD?? 88 CHC 609
c.51 A tribe of the Ai-lao, who may have been a Thai-speaking people, surrender with their king at the Yunnan border. 51 CHC 272
c.51 Youngest dau of general Ma Yuan, LADY MA, becomes a consort of Liu Yang.  She is 12, and he is 23. 51 wikEMH
c.51 Aware of the gravity of their situation, the North Xiongnu repeatedly seek reconciliation with Han.  In 51 they send envoys with tribute to the Chinese frontier province of Wuwei (in Gansu) to negotiate peace.  After discussion in a court conference, Emperor Guangwu rejects their proposal for fear of alienating the South Xiongnu. 51 CHEIA 144
c.51 Crown Prince Zhuang suggests that Emperor Guangwu refuse the request of Chanyu Punu for a Han princess, reasoning that North Xiongnu had only made the proposal to alienate South Xiongnu from Han.  Emperor Guangwu agrees. 51 wikEMH
c.51 Title of Grand Marshal, existing from 119, reverts to Grand Commandant.. 51 wikHD
Jul 22
Former Empress GUO SHENGTONG dies, age 46.  Her son Liu Yan, Prince of Zhongshan, is treated well by empress Yin Lihua. . 52 CHC 278, wikGuo, wikYL
c.52 North Xiongnu envoys bring to the Han court tribute of great value, including horses and furs, and many representatives from states in the Western Regions.  They ask for new Chinese musical instruments, because the ones given to Huhanye a century ago had worn out. 52 CHEIA 144
c.52 LIU TZU dies.  Marquis of Shen from 26. 52 HFHD99c 81
c.53 MOBONG WANG, king of Goguryo Korea from 48, ends.  TAEJO TAEWANG succeeds until 146. 53 B76 V-869, 10-507, rcK
c.54 Son of Ban Chih, BAN BIAO dies.. 54 HFHD 159, wikHD
c.56 Prince DA is born to Crown Prince Liu Zhuang and Consort Jia.  At Crown Prince Zhang's instruction, his sonless favotite, Consort Ma adopts Prince Da as her own son.. 56 wikEZH
c.56 GUANGWU, emperor 9-57, visits top of Mt. Tai to commune with divine powers. 56 B76 4-315
57 Feb 13 Formerly Liu Xiu, GUANGWU dies at Loyang.  13th Han Emperor from 25.  Crown Prince (formerly Liu Yang) ZHUANG succeeds as Emperor MING TI 58-75.  Empress Yin Lihua becomes empress dowager, and Prince Da, as her son, is created crown prince, even tho he has 4 older bros.  The strongest court factions are still the Nanyang and Dou, but the Ma faction again ascends. 57 B76 IV-889, 4-308, 311, CHC 258, 279, CHEIA 142, HFHD99c 48, LEWH, rcC, wikEGH, wikEZH, wikHD, wikHH, wikYL

East Asia  57-100