Han commanderies and kingdoms
57 Feb 13 Formerly Liu Xiu, GUANGWU dies at Loyang.  13th Han Emperor from 25.  Crown Prince ZHUANG (formerly Liu Yang) succeeds as Emperor MING TI 58-75.  Empress Yin Lihua becomes empress dowager, and her son Prince Da is created crown prince, even tho he has 4 older bros.  The strongest court factions are still the Nanyang and Dou, but the Ma faction again ascends. 57 B76 IV-889, 4-308, 311, CHC 258, 279, HFHD99c 48, LEWH, rcC, wikEGH, wikEZH, wikHD, wikHH, wikYL
c.57 The Qiang of Tibet led by Dianyu raid Jincheng Commandery. 57 wikQng
c.57 A chief of Nu in Wo sends the 1st known Japanese envoy to the Chinese court.  Next in 107. 57 B76 4-314, 10-59, MCAW, wikHH
c.58 Older bro of Ming, JIANG dies.  Prince of Donghai from ?.. 58 wikEMH
c.58 MING TI, emperor 58-76, endorses Buddhism.. 58 TToH
65 B76 17-1047
c.58 DENG YU dies.  Marquis of Gaomi from 37. 58 wikDY
c.58 At the suggestion of his bro Liu Cang Prince of Dongping, MING TI, orders sacrifices, until now confined to the temple of the Kung family in Chufu to be made in all public schools.  Confucius, until now a model for scholars, becomes a patron saint. 58 B76 4-1095
59 wikEMH
c.59 Son of Yin Lihua's bro Yin Jiu, Marquis of Xinyang, Yin Feng, had married Liu Xiu's dau Liu Shou, Princess Liyi.  It is not clear whether Liu Shou is also Empress Dowager Yin's dau.  Princess Liyi is arrogant and jealous.  Yin Feng, in anger, kills Liyi.  Yin Feng is executed.  Yin Jiu and his wife suicide.. 59 wikYL
c.59 Han army defeats Qiang leader Dianyu. 59 wikQng
60 Apr 8 At Empress Dowager Yin Lihua's endorsement, Emperor Ming creates Consort Ma empress.  She is Ma Yuan's dau, whom Empress Dowager Yin had favored because of her meekness and lack of jealousy..  Ming makes Prince Da crown prince. 60 CHC 280, wikEMa, wikEMH, wikYL
c.60 Emperor Ming has portraits of 28 of the generals and officials who had assisted Guangwu drawn on a palace tower (known as "Yuntai 28 Generals").. 60 wikEMH
c.62 PINGLO LODGE built in Chang'an. 62 HFHD7 34
c.62 Price stabilization program, codified 110BC, kept up until the end of Former Han, now reestablished. 62 CHC 234
c.63 TARIM BASIN, in anarchy from reign of Wang Mang, conquered by the North Xiongnu, and used as a base to invade Han's Hexi Corridor in Gansu. 63 wikHD, wikHH
c.63 HEXI corridor conquered by DOU JUNG for emperor Guangwu. 62 HFHD 195
c.63 Han court opens border markets for trade with the North Xiongnu in hopes to appease them. 63 wikHH
c.64 Widow of Guangwu, YIN LIHUA dies, age 59.  Empress Dowager from 57, 64 wikYL
c.65 Emperor MING establishes a permanent border defense force, known as the Duliao Army, in charge of protecting the north boundaries and South Xiongnu, and also to prevent the people of South Xiongnu from defecting to North Xiongnu 65 wikEMH
c.65 BUDDHISM, in China from 50 BC, First BUDDHIST missionaries from India to China are sponsored by Liu Ying. 65 CHC 258, KIH 114, wikHD, wikHH, wikLYp
c.66 Embassy from China to India to study Buddhism.
Buddhist missionaries sent to China, influence Chinese art.
65-7 MCAW
c.66 Emperor MING builds a Confucian school at the capital Loyang, for the children of high officials and marquises.  South Xiongnu nobles' children also attend. 66 wikEMH
c.66 Ambitious Prince LIU JING of Guangling wants to be emperor, and plots with people under him to rebel.  When his bro, Emperor Ming is informed, Jing confesses, and Emperor Ming initially spares him and permits him to remain Prince of Guangling but strips his political powers. 66 wikEMH
c.67 LIU JING dies.  It becomes known that Liu Jing employs shamans to perform sacrifices and invoke curses.  High officials propose that Liu Jing be executed, but this suggestion is angrily rejected by Ming-ti.  Later Prince Jing hires warlocks to curse Emperor Ming.  After Jing is discovered, Emperor Ming initially takes no action, but forces Prince Jing to suicide. 67 CHC 258, wikEMH
c.68 MING TI cancels the prize stabilization scheme, when he is convinced that government hoarding of grain only made wealthy merchants even richer. 68 wikHH
c.68 NALAMAYU, king of Arakan on west coast of Burma from 37, ends.  WADHAGUN succeeds until 90.. 68 rcSAM
c.70 YELLOW RIVER, flowing both north and south of Shandong peninsula from 4 CE, changes to just north of Shandong peninsula until 1194 (but not to its northernmost course thru Tientsin). 70 B76 8-1129, CHC 243
70 Apr 8 An edict boasts that the southern branch of the Yellow River emptying south of Shandong Peninsula is finally cut off by Han engineering. 70 CHC 243, wikHH
c.70 GRAND CANAL section on the Hutuo River begun until 78. 70 TTS, TTT
c.70 Prince LIU YING of Chu, only son of Emperor Guangwu not born of either of his empresses but of Consort Xu, hires warlocks to create golden turtles and jade cranes, and carved characters calling for unusual blessings on them - a major taboo at the time.  He is again denounced by high officials and accused of plotting against the throne. 70 CHC 258, wikEMH, wikLYp
c.70 Now disgraced, DOU XUN dies, leaving orphan many sons including Dou Xian, and dau Dou, the future empress. 70 wikDX
c.71 Mass tortures and executions continue as a result of a conspiracy engaged in by Emperor Ming's bro Liu Ying, Prince of Chu.  Empress Ma intercedes on the accused people's behalf.  As a result, Emperor Ming tapers off on his efforts to eliminate anyone who might be even remotely connected with the conspiracy. 71 wikEMa
c.71 Son of Guangwu and Consort Xu, and half-bro to Emperor Ming, LIU LING dies.  Arrives at his place of exile, and suicides. 71 CHC 258, wikEMH, wikHD, wikHH, wikLYp
c.71 SUININ TENNO, 11th Emperor of Japan from ?, ends.  KEIKO succeeds until 131. 71 JBE 2178
c.72 Emperor Ming makes his sons princes, but gives them small principalities.  Empress Ma objects because these principalities are only half as large as the ones for Emperor Guangwu's sons.  Emperor Ming responds that of course his sons could not be compared with his father's sons - a response that she would remember and use later. 72 wikEMa
c.73 Northwest ProvincesWith support of the Western Regions, the North Xiongnu occasionally raid beyond the northwest frontiers of Han.  The 4 frontier provinces in the Hexi region (in Gansu) - Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangyi, and Wuwei - became so unsafe that the gates of all major cities had to be closed even during the day. 73 CHEIA 146
c.73 Annoyed at North Xiongnu's constant incursions, Emperor Ming sends generals Geng Bing and Dou Gu on a major expedition against North XiongnuThe south Xiongnu join against the north federation. 73 CHC 268, 269, CHEIA 146, wikEMH
c.73 Han general DOU GU and his army depart north from Jiuquan towards the North XiongnuBan Chao is an assistant major. 73 CHEIA 147, wikBC, wikHXW
c.73 Han general Dou Gu sends Ban Chao as envoy to the Western Regions, to win over the North Xiongnu's allies there.  By unconventional strategems, Ban Chao separates the North Xiongnu from several leading states, including Loulan (Shanshan), Khotan (Yiitien), and Kashgar (Sule). 73 CHEIA 147, wikKsg
c.73 Han general DOU GU (d.88) heavily defeats the North Xiongnu under the Hu-yen King at the Battle of Yiwulu, evicting them from Turfan and chasing them as far as Lake Barkol before leaving some officers and soldiers to establish an agricultural garrison on the north silk route to the Turfan oasis at Hami, and tun-tien settlements around Hami until 77. 71 wikHD 73 CHC 269, CHEIA 147, wikHD, wikHXW
c.73 The Han have only minor success, but it shows North Xiongnu that Han is now in a position to strike back. 73 CHC 268, 269, wikEMH
c.73 Prince LIU YAN of Huaiyang is accused of hiring warlocks to curse Emperor Ming.  Several of Prince Yan's associates are executed.  Many others are executed or exiled after Chu-style interrogations are carried out.  Liu Yan is merely transferred to a smaller kingdom until 76. 73 CHC 258, wikEMH
c.74 Han generals Dou Gu and Geng Bing lead a major military expedition in Turfan against a major remaining ally of North Xiongnu, Jushi (Cheshi). 74 CHEIA 147, wikEMH
c.74 The King of Jushi submits to Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage Han forces.  Meanwhile, General Ban Chao captures King Douti of Kashgar, who is a puppet of Kucha and a firm ally of the Xiongnu.  Later in 74, the kingdoms of Karasahr and Kucha are forced to surrender to Han. 74 wikEMH, wikHXW
c.74 At Dou's suggestion, the office of Protector General of the Western Regions (Xiyu) is revived.  CHEN MU is appointed Protector General until 75.  This proves premature.  The Western Regions are no longer able or eager to return to Han. 74 CHC 269, CHEIA 147, wikEMH, wikHH
c.74 The Wusun send tribute to Han military commanders in Jushi (Cheshi, Turfan). 74 wikWsn
c.75 Protector General of the Western Regions from 74, CHEN MU is killed by allies of the Xiongnu in Karasahr and Kucha.  No Protector General until 91. 75 CHC 269, wikCM, wikHD, wikHH
CONFUSION ALERT!  Pinglin CHEN MU died in 25.
c.75 14th Han emperor from 58, MING TI, dies.  Ming's will orders that no temple be built for him, and that he only be worshipped as part of the worship of his mom Empress Dowager Yin Lihua.  His son, Crown Prince Da, age 18 succeeds as Emperor ZHANG 76-88.  Empress Ma becomes empress dowager until death 79. 75 CHC 280, CHEIA 160, rcC, wikEMa, wikEMH, wikEZH, wikHD, wikHH     76 B76 IV-882, 889, 4-311
c.76 Cattle epidemic. 76 wikHH
c.76 At suggestion of advisor Yang Zhong and prime minister Diwu Lun, Emperor Zhang orders that his father's Xiyu campaigns be abandoned. 76 wikEZH
c.76 A Han general in Xiyu, BAN CHAO, seeing the importance of maintaining Han presence in Xiyu, refuses to withdraw.  Emperor Zhang eventually relents and puts Ban in charge of operations in Xiyu. 76 wikEZH
c.76 LIU YAN, king of ???? from 73, demoted to marquis until 87. 76 CHC 258
c.76 Empress Dowager Ma selects 2 daus of Song Yang as consorts for Emperor Zhang.  They are called the Song consorts. no date wikEZH
c.77 TARU WANG, king of Paekche Korea from 28, ends.  KIRU WANG succeeds until 128. 77 rcK
c.77 When Emperor Zhang wants to further create his uncles marquises, Empress Ma refuses, and issues an edict stating that just as Emperor Ming had told her that his sons could not be compared with his father's sons - the Mas could not be compared with the Yins and the Guos (the family of Emperor Guangwu's first empress Guo Shengtong). 77 wikEMa
c.77 2 DOU sisters, orphaned from 70, taken as consorts by emperor Zhang, because they are daus of his cousin, Princess Piyang, and great-granddaus of statesman Dou Rong.  He loves the elder of them. 77 CHC 280, wikDX, wikED, wikEMa
77 Jun 2 Trials and executions of Liu Yong associates are stopped by emperor. 77 CHC 258
c.77 2 LIANG sisters enter the harem of emperor Zhang until 83. 77 CHC 281
c.77 A descendant of Cao Shen, TSAO SHEN, is made marquis of Pingyang, a city of Hedong Commandery. 77 HFHD 163
c.77 A descendant of Xiao He, XIAO XIUNG, is made marquis of Tao. 77 HFHD 200
c.77 Han garrison at Hami from 73 is withdrawn until 91. 75 wikHD     77 CHC 269, wikHH, wikHXW
78 Apr 2 Elder of the DOU sisters is made consort by emperor Zhang. 78 CHC 280
c.78 The elder Consort Song bears a son named LIU QING. 78 CHC 280, wikED, wikEZH
c.78 GRAND CANAL section on the Hutuo River running thru the Taihang Mountains, begun 70, ceased by emperor ZHANG because it is causing too much hardship for the people 78 wikHH
c.78 Emperor 76-88, ZHANG TI makes Consort DOU empress until his death 88. 78 wikDX, wikED, wikEMa
c.79 Over Empress Dowager Ma's objection, Emperor Zhang makes his Ma uncles marquises. 79 wikEMa, wikEZH, wikHH
79 May 23 Son of the elder Consort Song, and 3rd son of Zhang ti, LIU QING is created crown prince, because Empress Dou is sonless.  The Consorts Song are favored by Empress Dowager Ma until Ma's death in 79. 79 CHC 280, wikED, wikEZH
79 Empress Dowager MA personally selects 2 sisters of the Song clan for the harem of Zhang Ti.  Both become honorable ladies. 79 CHC 280
c.79 ZHANG TI, Han emperor 76-88, orders discussion and interpretation of classic texts: classic of POETRY, classic of HISTORY, classic of CHANGES, classic of SPRING & AUTUMN.  Also orders discussion of validity of discrepancies.  See 80. 79 B76 4-314
c.79 Prince ZHAO is born to Emperor Zhang Ti and his concubine Consort Liang.  Because Emperor Zhang's favorite, Empress Dou, has no sons, she adopts Prince Zhao as her own.  Dou plots, along with her mom Princess Piyang and her bros, to have her adopted son made crown prince. 79 wikED, wikEHe, wikEZH
Aug 16
Ming's widow, and emperor Zhang Ti's favorite, Empress Dowager from 75, MA dies, age 39.  Consort Jia is Zhang's birth mom, but is still not honored as such. 79 CHC 281, wikED, wikEMa, wikEZH, wikHH
c.79 After Ma dies, Empress Dou has her bros collect dossiers on faults of the Song clan while bribing the servants and eunuchs of Consorts Song to gather their own faults. 79 wikEZH
c.80 TARHAE ISAGUM, king of Silla Korea from 24, ends.  PASA ISAGUM succeeds until 112. 80 rcK
c.80 General BAN CHAO asks for help from the Wusun against city-state Quchi (Kucha) in the Tarim Basin.  The Wusun comply, and are rewarded with silks, and resumed diplomatic exchanges. 80 wikWsn
c.80 BAN CHAO crushes fresh rebellions in Kashgar 80 wikBC
c.80 Wang Chung writes  Discourses Weighed in the Balance   Mentions a chain pump for raising water. 80 TTT 83 TTS
c.80 CHAIN PUMP to raise water described by Wang Chung. 80 TTT
c.80 COMPASS made of a magnetic iron spoon that can spin on a polished bronze surface, described by Wang Chung and/or Louen Heng. 80 TTT 83 TTS
c.80 ANTHRAX and drought in China. 80 TTPC
c.80 30,000 Xiongnu with 40,000 horses and 100,000 cattle move west. 80 TTPC
c.82 Han empress DOU changes succession rules. 82 LEWH 146
c.82 Jun Elder Consort Song (aka Empress Jingyin) gets sick.  Empress Dou accuses Consort Song of witchcraft.  Emperor Zhang is enraged and expels Crown Prince Qing from the palace.  He has the Consorts Song arrested and interrogated by eunuch Cai Lun.  The Consorts Song suicide by poison. 82 wikCS, wikED, wikEHe, wikEZH, wikHH
c.82 Jun Crown Prince LIU QING is deposed and created Prince of Qinghe.  In August, Zhang Ti's 4th son, Prince ZHAO succeeds.  Prince Zhao is friendly to his bro, and they often spend time together. 82 CHC 281, wikED, wikEHe, wikEZH, wikHH
c.82 After Prince Zhao is made crown prince, his birth mom's clan, the Liangs, secretly celebrate.  When the Dou clan hears of this, they want to destroy the Liangs.  Empress Dou gives false reports about Prince Zhao's birth mom, Consort Liang, and her sis, also an imperial consort, and the Liangs lose Emperor Zhang's favor. 82 wikED, wikEZH
c.83 PUNU, chanyu from 46, of North Xiongnu from 48, ends. 83 CHC 265
c.83 The Dous further submit false anonymous accusations against the Consorts Liang's father Liang Song, causing him to die in prison.  The 2 consorts Liang die, possibly suicide. 83 CHC 281, wikED, wikEHe, wikEZH
c.83 Emperor Zhang, having seen that his Ma cousins are not following the law, stops favoring his Ma uncles, and eventually sends them back to their marches.  Empress Dou's bros Dou Xian and Dou Du effectively take over in the power structure - the first time in Han history that the empress' clan, rather than the empress dowager's clan, was the most powerful consort clan.  This trend continues for the rest of Eastern Han Dynasty and proves to be a source of corruption. 83 wikED, wikEZH
c.83 Angered by Dou Xian's arrogance, Emperor Zhang threatens to kill him.  Empress Dou wears clothes of concubines and apologizes on Dou Xian's behalf, causing Emperor Zhang to spare him. 83 wikED
c.84 2 university students, Kong Xi and Cui Yin are accused of improperly criticizing Emperor Zhang's ancestor Emperor Wu.  Emperor Zhang accepts the letter that Kong Xi submitts in his own defense and makes him an official in his administration. 84 wikEZH
c.84 General BAN CHAO again gets military help of the Kushan Empire in repelling the Kangju who were trying to support the rebellion of the king of Kashgar. 84 CHEIA 160
c.84 General BAN CHAO sends an "envoy with a lot of colorful silk" to the king of the Yuezhi so that the Kangju king, with whom the Yuezhi were allied by marriage, could be persuaded to withdraw his troops, which were supporting Chung, a rebel king of Sule (Kashgar).  The Yuezhi also help Han to attack Jushi (in Turfan). 84 wikBC
c.84 Fu An and Chia Kuei improve the ARMILLARY SPHERE by adding an ecliptic ring. 84 TTS, wikAS
c.85 BAN CHAO gets military help of the Kushan Empire in his attack on Turfan, in the east Tarim Basin. 85 wikBC
c.85 Emperor 76-88, ZHANG TI grants a 3-year poll tax exemption for any woman who gives birth, and exempts their husbands for a year. 85 wikHH
c.85 According to the Hou Han-Shu, in 85: When it became known that the North Xiongnu had declined in power as a result of desertions, the South Xiongnu attack them in the front, the Tingling in the rear, the Xienpi on their left side, and the states of the Western Regions on their right side.  The North chanyu is not able to hold his position any longer and therefore flees to far-away places. 85 CHEIA 148, LEWH 146
c.85 CALENDAR:  Emperor Zhang reintroduces an amended Sifen calendar, replacing Emperor Wu's Taichu calendar of 104BC, which had become inaccurate over 2 centuries (the Taichu measured the tropical year at 365.25 days like the Julian Calendar, while the Julian measured the tropical year at 365, 1539 days and the lunar month at 29, 81 days). 85 wikHH
c.86 The Yuezhi offer as tribute precious stones, antelopes and lions.  They also use the occasion to ask for a Han princess.  But Ban Chao stops their envoy and sends him back.  From that moment the Yuezhi resent the Han. 86 CHEIA 160
c.86 First Qiang rebellion begins (in Tibet?). 86 wikEZH
c.87 North ProvincesThe Sien Pi Mongols are a rising power in Inner Asia.  In 87 they alone defeat the North Xiongnu.  They kill the North chanyu (Yu-liu) in battle and flay his body.  This is the largest single North Xiongnu surrender, in which some 58 tribes, consisting of 200,000 civilians and 8,000 soldiers, seek Han protection in 4 Han frontier provinces:  Shuofang, Wuyuan, Yunzhong, and Beidi. 87 CHEIA 148, LEWH 146
87 LIU YAN, marquis from 76, promoted to king until death 89. 87 CHC 258
c.87 General BAN CHAO defeats Sochu (Yarkand), causing the Yuezhi to become more cautious. 87 CHEIA 161
c.87 General BAN CHAO crushes fresh rebellions in Kashgar. 87 wikBC
87 PACORUS-II, king of Parthia 81-108, sends envoys to China to discuss the growing kingdom of the Kushans on their mutual borders.  They bring exotic animals such as ostriches and lions.  He sends another such embassy in 89. 87 B76 9-845, wikHH
88 Apr 9 Son of Ming Ti, ZHANG TI dies, age 32.  15th Han emperor from 76.  Widow DOU, empress from 76, rules as dowager until death 97.  Son, age 9, HO TI succeeds until 105. 88 B76 IV-882, 889, 4-311, CHC 280, LEWH, rcC, wikED, wikEHe, wikEZH, wikHD, wikHH
c.88 A memorial from the South Chanyu to the Han court shows that the South Xiongnu, who had been in the Ordos region since c.50CE, remain within Han territory as semi-independent tributaries, and are dependent on Han for their livelihood. 88 wikHXW
c.88 BAN CHAO crushes fresh rebellions in Yarkand, and makes the Wusun of the Ili his allies 88 wikBC
c.88 The Yuezhi in Gansu are attacked by the Qiang of Tibet.  They ask for Han protection and do not get it. 88 CHEIA 161
c.88 Bro of Empress Dowager Dou, general DOU GU dies. 88 wikHD, wikHH
c.88 Liu Chang, Marquis of Duxiang, is favored by Empress Dowager Dou for his intelligence.  Her bro Dou Xian gets jealous, has Liu Chang assassinated, and blaims Liu's bro Liu Gang, Marquis of Li.  Several judges investigate, and Dou Xian's involvement is discovered.  Empress Dowager Dou is enraged, and arrests Dou Xian, who then offers to lead an army against the North Xiongnu to atone for his crimes. 88 wikED
89 Son of former Empress Guo Shengtong, LIU YAN dies. King from 87. 89 CHC 258
89 mid Han expedition under Dou Xian, 40,000 troops, assembles at Zhuoye Mountain. 89 wikDX, wikHXW
89 Jun DOU XIAN leads Han expedition against the North Xiongnu, advances from Jilu, Manyi, and Guyang in 3 columns including South Xiongnu allies. 89 wikBAM, wikDX, wikEHe, wikHH, wikHXW
89 North chanyu of XIONGNU defeated at Ikh Bayan by Han general DOU XIAN, Xiongnu retreat west into the Altai Mountains.  13,000 Xiongnu killed, and 200,000 surrender from 81 tribes. 89 LEWH 146, wikBAM, wikDX, wikED, wikEHe, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW
89 Han general Dou Xian sends Colonel Yan Pan with 2,000 light cavalry towards the North Xiongnu at Hami, capturing Yiwu and receiving the surrender of Jushi. 89 wikDX, wikHXW
c.89 North XIONGNU confederacy from ?? ends. 89 CHC 269, wikBAM, wikHXW
c.89 A group of Yuezhi is made into the Itsung Hu or "voluntary barbarian followers" by Teng Xiin, Protector-Colonel of the Qiang, but after the Chinese succeed under Ban Chao, the relationship between Han and the Yuezhi deteriorates fast. 89 CHEIA 161
89 Han general Dou Xian brings the main body of his troops north to the Khangai Mountains - North Xiongnu heartland.  Here he carves the cliff Inscriptions of Yanran, composed by his client, historian Ban Gu. 89 wikBAM, wikHXW
c.89 Han general DOU XIAN returns to China. 89 CHC 282, wikHXW
c.89 Major Liang Feng is sent to capture the North Chanyu, which he does, but is forced to leave the chanyu behind, because Dou Xian had already broken camp and returned to China. 89 wikDX
89 Oct 29 Han general DOU XIAN is appointed general-in-chief. 89 CHC 282
90 early As north and south Xiongnu embassies are still being exchanged, Han general Dou Xian attacks, captures his rival's seal and treasure and his wives and daus. 90 wikBAM
90 Han general in chief DOU XIAN leaves the capital until 92 again to oversee mopping-up operations against the north Xiongnu. 89 CHC 282
c.90 Han punitive campaign begins until 91. 90 wikHXW
c.90 Han general Dou Xian camps in Wuwei, sends cononel Yan Pan with 2,000 light cavalry to strike down the final Xiongnu defenses in the Western Regions, capturing Yiwu and receiving surrender of Jushi. 90 wikHXW
c.90 70,000 Kushan troops sent by Vima Kadphises from Punjab India under Yuezhi viceroy XIEH, to Wakhan against Ban Chao.  Ban uses scorched earth tactics against Kushans, forcing them to request food supplies from Kucha.  When Kushan messengers are intercepted by Ban Chao, the Kushans are forced to withdraw. 90 CHEIA 161, LEWH 141, 146, TAWH 70, wikBC, wikHH
c.90 XIEH, viceroy of Yuezhi, begins sending annual tribute to Han. 90 LEWH 141, 146
c.90 Han China peaks in prestige. 90 B76 4-311
90 Kushan ruler VIMA KADPHISES requests a Chinese princess in marriage, and is rejected. 87 or 90 HCIP 2-142 90 wikHH, wikKsn
c.90 GRAIN WINNOWING MACHINE using a rotating fan separates grain from chaff. 90 TTT 90-99 TTS
c.90 WADHAGUN, king of Arakan on west coast of Burma from 68, ends.  WITHURADZA succeeds until 111.. 90 rcSAM
90 Oct Han general Dou Xian sends Liang Feng and Ban Gu to help the north chanyu prepare for his planned travel as he wants to submit to the Han court in person the following month. 90 wikDX, wikHXW
90 Nov? Dou Xian sends general Geng Kui and Shizi of the South Xiongnu with 8,000 light cavalry to attack the North Chanyu, camped at Heyuan. 90 wikDX, wikHXW
90/1 Once Han forces arrive at Zhuoye Mountains, they leave their heavy equipment behind to launch a swift pincer movement towards Heyuan.  Geng Kui attacks from the east via the Hangai Mountains and Ganwei River, Shizi attacks from the west via the Western LakeThe North Chanyu counter attacks, but is forced to flee.  He leaves his family and seal behind.  8,000 Xiongnu are killed and several thousands captured. 90 wikDX, wikHXW
91 Han general Geng Kui and Major Ren Shang with 800 light cavalry advance further via the Juyan Gol (Juyansai) into the Altai Mountains, where the north chanyu had camped.  At the 2nd Battle of Altai Mountains, they massacre 5,000 Xiongnu men and pursue the north chanyu until he escapes and is ever heard of again. 91 wikHXW
c.91 The north chanyu is again defeated by Dou Xian at Chin-wei Mountain and flees west to the Hi valley.  The North Xiongnu empire in Outer Mongolia and the Western Regions is destroyed as a political entity. 91 CHEIA 147, wikBAM, wikED, wikEHe
c.91 BAN CHAO finally pacifies the Western Regions. 91 wikBC
c.91 Office of Protector General of the Western Regions, vacant from 75, is reinstated until 107.  BAN CHAO is appointed until 101, and stationed at Kucha.  He maintains absolute control over the Western Regions. 91 wikBC, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW
92 CHC 269
c.91 Han garrison at Hami, withdrawn from 77, re-established. 91 wikHH
c.91 Last remnants of North XIONGNU flee into the Ili River valley (in Kazakhstan).  Then the nomadic Xianbei occupy the area from the borders of the Buyeo Kingdom in Manchuria to the Ili River of the Wusun. 91 TAWH 18, 81, wikDX, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW
c.91 Han punitive campaign from 90 ends. 91 wikHXW
c.92 Some of the Dous' relatives (but not the Dous themselves) had consider murdering emperor Ho.  Emperor Ho, fearful of being murdered, plans along with Zheng and Liu Qing to destroy the Dous' power. 92 wikEHe
92 Jun 11 Han general in chief DOU XIAN returns to Chang'an. 92 CHC 282
Aug 14
Han general in chief DOU XIAN is stripped of rank as regent and accused of having planned to murder the emperor. 92 CHC 282
c.92 With aid of eunuch Zheng Zhong and his bro Liu Qing Prince of Qinghe, Emperor HO suddenly orders the imperial guards to close the gates of the capital Loyang, arrest Dou Xian's associates and execute them.  An imperial messenger is sent to seize Dou Xian's seal as commander of the armed forces.  All of empress dowager Dou's bros are sent back to their marches but under close guard.  The emperor wants to execute them but not publicly, so once they return to their marches, Emperor Ho orders all of them, except the more humble Dou Gu, to suicide. 92 wikDX, wikED, wikEHe, wikHH
c.92 Eunuchs entrench themselves for the first time in the issue of the emperors' succession 92 wikEHe, wikHH
c.92 Empress Dowager DOU, the real power in China from 88, losses her power, but remains honored until death 97. 92 wikDX, wikED
c.92 Han general in chief DOU XIAN suicides, along with his 3 bros. 92 CHC 282, wikHD, wikED, wikHH
c.92 Dau of Yin Gang, YIN becomes imperial consort until 96.  She is beautiful but short and clumsy. 92 wikEY
c.92 Son of Pan Biao, PAN KU dies.  Successor and immitator of Sima Qian. 92 B76 2-1008, wikHD
c.92 DENG XUN dies.  He is the official in charge of Qiang (Tibetan) affairsNIE SHANG succeeds, and inadvertently offends Qiang chief Mitang. 92 wikEHe
c.92 Qiang chief MITANG rebels. 92 wikEHe
c.92/3 NIE SHANG, the official in charge of Qiang (Tibetan) affairs, is fired.  GUAN YOU succeeds. 92/3 wikEHe
93 The new north chanyu is killed. 93 wikBAM
c.93 Tensions begin increasing among the south Xiungnu, and between them and the Chinese. 93 CHC 268
c.93 GUAN YOU, the official in charge of Qiang affairs, defeats Qiang chief Mitang by alienating other tribes from Mitang's own, but Mitang is not captured and remains a threat. 93 wikEHe
c.94 Severe drought in China. 94 wikHH
c.94 BAN CHAO begins campaign in central Asia. 94 B76 4-315
c.94 King of Burma sends Elephants and rhinoceroses as gifts to the Han court.  Again in 97 94 wikHH
c.95 Magic SquaresMAGIC SQUARES, discovered 190, developed by Chinese.  A square array of numbers, usually positive integers, in which the sums of the numbers in each row, each column, and both main diagonals are the same.  a 3rd order square has 9 numbers. 90-99 TTS
c.96 Consort from 92, YIN is made empress until 102.  She is beautiful but short and clumsy. 96 CHC 283, wikEHe, wikEY
c.96 Granddau of Teng Yu, TENG SUI, age 15, enters Ho Ti's harem. 96 CHC 283
c.97 BAN CHAO sends envoy, Gan Ying, on a mission to Daquin (Rome), but it only reaches an unnamed coast, probably the Black Sea, possibly the Persian Gulf. 97 B76 4-314, LEWH 146, wikBC, wikEHe, wikHD, wikHH
97 Oct 18 Widow of Emperor Zhang, DOU dies, age 34.  Dowager empress from 88.  Emperor HO TI continues 88-105.  Only now is it revealed to Emperor Ho that he was born of Consort Liang. 97 CHC 282, LEWH, wikED, wikEHe, wikHD, wikHH
c.97 YIN GANG, father of empress Yin, is made marquis of Wufang. 97 wikEY
c.97 Emperor ZHANG seeks bros of Consort Liang and honors them with powerful posts.  The Liang clan begins to become one of the most powerful in the Eastern Han aristocracy. 97 wikEHe, wikHH
c.98 Qiang (Tibetan) chief MITANG, rebelling from 92, surrenders. 98 wikEHe
c.100 WANG CHUNG dies.  Confucian philosopher/poet of the Old Text school. 100 B76 4-315, 1101
c.100  Chinese DICTIONARY  compiled by Xu Shen.  Over 9,000 characters with explanations of meanings and variant forms. 100 B76 4-314, LEWH 147
100 Qiang (Tibetan) chief MITANG, is ordered by Han officials to move a long distance, supposedly because his people are living on poor soil and the new location provides better opportunities.  Mitang doesn't buy it. 100 wikEHe
100 Qiang (Tibetan) chief MITANG rebels again. 100 wikEHe
c.100 SEED DRILL with multiple tubes invented. 100 TTT
c.100 METALURGY begins in southeast Asian islands. 100 PW 17