37 Mar 16 TIBERIUS diesCAIUS CALIGULA succeeds until 41.
Mar 17?
ROME hears of Tiberius' death, errupts in joy, shouts 'Tiberius to the Tiber".  37 CAH 10-643
Mar 18
Senate declares Tiberius legally insane, refuses him divine honors, ignores his will, elects CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps. 37 B76 15-1112, BAA, accla, wikTi
Mar 28
CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, brings body of Tiberius up the Via Appia, arrives in Rome, hailed by the crowd as "our baby", "our star". 37 accla, wikCal
Mar 28
CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, has Tiberius' will nullified concerning Gemellus on grounds of insanity, but otherwise carries out Tiberius' wishes. 37 wikCal
Mar 29
CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, begins reign conventionally, proposes deification of Tiberius, which senate refuses, forbids images of himself, annuls a decree ordering sacrifices to his fortune. 37 CAH 10-496
37 Apr Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, imprisoned by Tiberius from 36, released by order of Caligula, remains in Rome until 38. Ant 18:7:2     37 B76 V-3, BBA 232, CAH 10-745, 751, ENBD 523, 984, GHH, IDB 2-537, 4-677, 591, ISBE 1-9, 42, 633, 2-696, Jud 2-415
37 Many of Tiberius relatives executed; among them is Tiberius, son of Drusus. 37 GHH
37 May 1 2nd dau of Antony & Octavia, ANTONIA Minor dies, age 73.  Wid of Drusus Claudius Nero d.9 BC, and not remarried.  Mom of Germanicus, Livilla, Claudius.  Suicides. 37 OCD 75
37 May? CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, personally carries ashes of mom Agrippina-I & bro Nero from exile to Rome, grants honors to grandmom Antonia, adopts Gemellus, grandson of Tiberius, grants amnesty to political exiles, punishes Tiberius' informers & sycophants, transfers elections from senate to people, permits return of actors exiled from 23. 37 CAH 10-655-6, accla, vrmCal
c.37 MITHRIDATES of Iberia/Colchis, client king of Armenia from 35, deposed, taken to Rome, and imprisoned by Caligula until 41. 37 bdrs, hifi, hifiGeo, rcCau, wikLAK, wikMtA 40 CAH 10-660, 750
37 Pontius PILATE is banished to Gaul.  A Christian trad says he is forced to suicide. 37 GHH, MUTC 29
37 MAROBODUUS, former chief of the Marcomanni, at Ravenna from 19, dies, age 53. 35 DGRBM 2-961 37 GHH, wikMrb
37 Friend of Sejanus, Q. Pomponius Secundus, imprisoned from 31, released by Caligula. 37 DGRBM 3-764
37 Sextus Papinius, sexually molested by his mom, suicides by falling from a high place. TAn 6:49
37 DGRBM 3-118
37 CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, abducts Livia ORESTILLA on the day of her marriage to C. Calpurnius Piso, and marries her for 2 months, then accuses her of adultery with Piso, divorces her, and banishes her and Piso until 41. 37 DGRBM 3-43, 376 40 wikCCP
37 CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, orders L. Cassius Longinus to divorce his wife from 33, Julia DRUSILLA, sis of Caligula, who will force her to remarry Nov/Dec. 37 wikJDr
37 Jun 13 Agricola born at Forum Julii. 37 GHH
37 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, in Rome from 36, out of prison from Apr 37, made king of Judea until 44.  His kingdom includes the tetrarchy of Philip; Galilee, etc. Ant 18:7:2     37 B76 V-3, BBA 232, 456, CAH 10-751, DGRG 1-4, ENBD 523, 984, GHH, IDB 2-537, 4-677, 591, ISBE 1-9, 42, 633, 2-696, 3-763, Jud 2-415, 8-390, jeHP     38 40 Jud 8-388 41 BBA 220, wikHrD
37 Jul 1 CONSULS:  Gn. Acerronius PROCULUS and C. Petronius PONTIUS NIGRINUS from Jan 1, replaced by CALIGULA and uncle CLAUDIUS, his 1st political office, which he holds 2 months. 37 B76 4-696, CAH 10-655, DGRBM 1-564, OCD 245, reCld, wikCld
37 Oct CAIUS (CALIGULA) Princeps 37-41, gets dangerously ill with "brain fever", names sis Julia Drusilla his heir.  Everyone fears civil war.  At this time several men gain power: chamberlain Helicon, tragic actor Apelles, and mostly imperial secretary Callistus. 37 BNTH 247, CAH 10-656, OCD 365, vrmCal, wikJDr
37 Nv/Dc Sis of Caligula, Julia DRUSILLA, recently divorced from L. Cassius, forced by Caligula to marry M. Aemilius LEPIDUS (lineage unknown) until her death 38. 37 wikMAL
37 late 1st son of Drusus, son of Tiberius, adopted son of Caligula, Ti. GEMELLUS murdered by order of Caligula. 37 CAH 10-656, wikCal     38 HRRP 4.1-373, vrmCal
37 Dec 15 NERO (L. Domitius Ahenobarbus) born at Antium  Son of Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus d40 & Agrippina-II, dau of Germanicus & Agrippina-I. 37 B76 12-965, CDCC 611, GHH, IDB 3-537, ISBE 3-521, OCD 729, wikAY, wikNr
37-8 CALIGULA in his 1st year squanders 2.7 billion sesterces that Tiberius had amassed. Suetonius wikCal
37-8 sestertius COIN:  A sestertius, Rome mint, 35mm, 28.85g. shows Caligula on front with his 3 sisters on back left to right: Agrippina as Securitas, Drusilla as Concordia, and Jullia Livilla as Fortuna. photo: CNG

37/8 accla,
38 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M. AQUILA JULIANUS and C. NONIUS ASPRENAS 38 DGRBM 1-388, 2-643, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
38 early Q. Sutorius MACRO dies.  Prefect of Praetorian Guard from 31, no longer useful to Caligula, he pretends to be promoting Macro to prefect of Egypt, arrests him, and orders him to suicide, along with wife Ennia.  Caligula is criticized for this.  M. Arrecinus CLEMENS and L. Arruntius STELLA succeed until 41. 38 B76 II-459, BNTH 250, accla, vrmCal, wikCal, wikPP, no date: CAH 10-656
38 early CAIUS (CALIGULA) princeps 37-41, publishes accounts of public funds, which Tiberius had kept secret, compensates fire victims, abolishes some taxes, gives prizes for public gymnastic events. 37 BNTH 247, CAH 10-656, OCD 365
38 wikCal
38 T. Flavius VESPASIAN is aedile. 38 wikVs
38 Jun 10 Dau of Germanicus & Agrippina, div of L. Cassius Longinus, incestuous sis of Caligula, Julia DRUSILLA dies of fever.  Caligula becomes frantic.  Husband from 37 M. Aemilius Lepidus becomes paramour of Agrippina-II. 38 B76 II-459, CAH 10-496, 656, GHH, HRRP 4.1-373, OCD 363, accla, vrmCal, wikAY, wikCal, wikJDr, wikMAL
38 Jun CAIUS (CALIGULA), princeps 37-41, demands deifcation of Drusilla as "Panthea", and a long mourning period, in which he made it a capital crime to laugh, bathe, or sup with his parents, wife or children.  Senator Livius Geminus swears he saw her rise to heaven, and is given 1,000,000 sesterces by Caligula.  Senate consecrates her as Panthea, a deity for women's oaths, gives her a priesthood and 2 images, 1 in temple of Venus Genetrix, 1 in the curia.  No woman had ever been deified by Romans. 37 CAH 10-496, 656-7, HRRP 4.1-373, OCD 363, accla
38 CAIUS (CALIGULA), princeps 37-41, is criticized for executing people without full trials. 37 wikCal
38 Jul Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 38-44, in Rome from 36, leaves Rome 1 step ahead of creditors for his tetrarchy, but Caligula orders him to first go to Alexandria to report on Flaccus. 37 BNTH 251, CAH 10-310, 661, IDB 2-591, ISBE 2-696, wikCal
38 Aug PHILO of Alexandria heads a Jewish embassy from Egypt to Rome, to appeal to Caligula against prefect Flaccus.  A Greek embassy under Isadore & Apion counters them. 39 IDB 3-796
c.38 Financial crisis begins in Rome until 39, because of Caligula's political payments for support, generosity and extravagance. 38 wikCal
38 M. VINICIUS (cos 30) becomes proconsul of Asia until 39. 38 wikJLvl
38 C. Octavius LAENAS, aqueduct curator from 34, ends. 38 DGRBM 3-10
c.38 M. Junius SILANUS dies.  Father of Junia Claudia, wife of Caligula, forced to suicide by Caligula. 38 OCD 989, vrmCal, wikMJS15
38 ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea, goaded by Herodias, goes to Rome to solicit Caligula for promotion from tetrarch to king.Herodias accompanies. Ant 18:7:2     29 MUTC 24 38 DGRBM 2-428, GHH 39 ISBE 2-696, 7
40 Jud 8-388
38 Oct A. Avilius FLACCUS, prefect of Egypt from 32, arrested by a centurion, brought to Rome. 38 BNTH 252, CAH 10-310, Jud 6-1333
38/9 Milonia CAESONIA, pregnant with Caligula's child (Julia Drusilla), marries Caligula until her death 41. 38 DGRBM 1-558
39 Jan 1 CONSULS:  CALIGULA and L. APRONIUS CAESIANUS, who lasts 6 months
suffetes: Gn. Domitius Corbulo and Sanquinius Maximus
39 CDCC 234, DGRBM 1-251, 850, 2-999, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
39 early TREASON TRIALS revived by Caligula to feed his depleted treasury. 39 accla, vrmCal
39 AUCTIONS introduced of public properties left over from shows.  At one auction, a senator falls asleep.  Caligula takes each of his nods as a bid, selling him 13 gladiators. 39 vrmCal
39 T. Flavius SABINUS becomes aedile. 39 wikVs
39 CALIGULA denounces the Senate for not supporting Tiberius, and attacks them as informers against his mom and bro.  He uses as evidence letters and documents that he had supposedly burnt.  Next day the senators praise his clemency and decree an annual celebration at which a golden statue of him is carried to the Capitol in a procession - plus other honors. 39 accla
39 CALIGULA removes 2 consuls from office without consulting the senate, and forces some senators to run in their gowns for several miles beside his chariot. 39 accla
39 Orator Gn. Domitius AFER prosecuted by Caligula, saves himself with flattery, made consul in Sep. 39 OCD 21, 180
39 T. Flavius VESPASIAN becomes praetor.  his son Titus is born this year. 39 B76 19-95, britVs
39 Servius Sulpicius GALBA becomes legate of Upper Germany until . 39 B76 IV-384
39 Rhetorician CARRINAS SECUNDUS delivers a standard speech against tyranny, and is exiled for it. 39 CAH 10-664
39 Fortunatus, freedman of Agrippa-I, is sent from Judea to Rome to accuse Antipas of alliance with the Parthians. 29 MUTC 24
39 GHH, ISBE 2-696,7
39 Herod ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea from 4BC, in Rome 38-9, is deposed by Caligula, and his tetrarchy annexed to Agrippa-I's dominions. Ant 18:7:2     39 CAH 10-744, ENBD 523, GHH, MCAW, MUTC 24, wikJRP
39 Herod ANTIPAS, in Rome from 38, banished by Caligula to Lugdunum GaulHis wife from 29 HERODIAS chooses to accompany him. Ant 18:7:2     39 B76 V-4, 17-950, DGRBM 2-428, ENBD 523, FHBC 302, GHH, GSNT, IDB 2-591, ISBE 2-696, MUTC 25
exiled to Spain Wars 2:9:6
39 Grammarian P. Papinius STATIUS founds a school at Neapolis. 39 DGRBM 3-902
39 A. Avilius FLACCUS, former prefect of Egypt 32-38, tried for actions against Jews, condemned, exiled to Andros island. 39 CAH 10-310, no date: BNTH 252, Jud 6-1333, OCD 440
39 Gn. DOMITIUS AFER, suspected of treason, prosecuted by Caligula, but escapes by flattery. 39 B76 I-119
39 C. Calvisius SABINUS governor of Pannonia from ?, recalled to Rome by Nero, who suspects him and his wife of plotting. 39 wikGCS
39 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, changes government of provinces giving co-ordinate powers to proconsuls and legates. 39 DGRG 2-455
39 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, claims to be a god. 39 MCAW     40 vrmCal
39 Biae-PuteoliCALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, builds a pontoon bridge from Baiae to Puteoli then rides his horse across it, wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great, all in defiance of a prediction by Tiberius's soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes that Caligula had "no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae".  Next day Caligula crosses the bridge in a chariot followed by Parthian hostages, among them Darius, son of the king of Parthia.  People are invited to join the great feast being held on the bridge.  Suddenly Caligula pushes them into the water, and thrust them off, with poles and oars.  Some drown. 39 accla, vrmCal, wikCal
39 CALIGULA's relations with the Senate deteriorate. 39 wikCal
c.39 L. VITELLIUS governor of Syria from 35, recalled by Caligula, saves his life by gross flattery of Caligula as a god. 37 OCD 1129
39 BNTH 253, OCD 807
no date: CAH 10-664
c.39 CLAUDIUS marries 3rd wife Valeria MESSALINA, age 14 until 48. 38 reCld     38/39 wikCld 39/40 CDCC 574, OCD 675     41 wikAY
39 Sep CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, goes to Moguntiacum, accompanied by surviving sisters, Julia LIVILLA, and AGRIPPINA-II (the Younger).  Agrippina's paramour M. Aemilius Lepidus also goes. 39 BNTH 252, CAH 10-689, accla, vrmCal, wikGCLG
40 DGRBM 1-565
39 Oct 3 DAGGERS conspiracy at Moguntiacum.
39 Oct AGRIPPINA-II (the Younger) is compelled by her bro Caligula to carry the ashes of alleged paramour M. Aemilius Lepidus from Moguntiacum to Rome.  Caligula sends 3 daggers to the temple of Temple of Mars the Avenger to celebrate the conclusion of it all. 39 DGRBM 1-81, wikAY, wikMAL
39 Oct Youngest sis of Caligula, Julia LIVILLA, wife of M. Vinicius, is banished to Pontine islands west of Italy until 41, either for involvement in Gaetulicus conspiracy, or for adultery with M. Aemilius Lepidus. 39 CAH 10-498, 659, GHH, OCD 567, accla, vrmCal, wikAY, wikJLv
39 Ofonius TIGELLINUS is accused of adultery with Agrippina-II and Julia Livilla, sisters of Caligula.  He is banished to Scyllaceum in Bruttium until 41. 39 DGRBM 3-1126, wikTgl 40 GHH
39 Oct AGRIPPINA-II (the Younger) is banished to Pontine islands west of Italy until 41. 39 DGRBM 1-81, GHH, OCD 31, wikAY
39 Oct Julia AGRIPPINA (the Younger) sis of Caligula, banished to Pontian islands west of Italy until 41. 39 B76 I-148, CAH 10-498, 659, GHH, OCD 31, accla, vrmCal, wikAY
39 late Envoys from gentiles of JAMNIA (Jabneh), come to Rome to complain to Caligula that their Jews refused to let them to set up altars for emperor worship. 39 CAH 10-752
39/40 CALIGULA winters in in Gaul and/or Germany. 39/40 vrmCal
39/40 T. Flavius VESPASIAN, age 30, is praetor. 39 or 40 wikVs
40 Jan 1 CONSULS:  CALIGULA, now at Lugdunum, sole consul (3rd)
Suffetes: L. Gellius Publicola and Sextus Nonius Qiuntilianus
40 CAH 10-659, DGRBM 3-601, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
40 Jan Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS dies of dropsy at Pyrgi.  Husband of Julia Agrippina-II from 28, dad of Nero.  In his will, Nero inherits ⅓ of his estate, but Caligula, who is also mentioned, confiscates Nero's inheritance until it is restored by Claudius.  Agrippina-II remarries 49. 40 B76 12-965, DGRBM 1-81, GHH, wikAY, wikNr
41 wikGDA
40 T. Flavius SABINUS becomes praetor, sucks up to Caligula. 40 wikVs
40 Jun CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, in Gaul from 39, returns to Italy, decides to postpone super-triumph, and have it in Alexandria. 40 CAH 10-662-3
c.40 Jun Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 38-44, sails from Judea to Italy until Oct 41, meets Caligula before he gets to Rome.  40 implied
40 Appius Junius SILANUS becomes governor of Nearer Spain until 41. 40 OCD 989
40 Petronius solicits the emperor to reverse the decree to erect Caligula's statue in the temple. 40 GHH
40 Betilienus BASSUS executed by order of Caligula. 40 DGRBM 1-472
40 Treasury exhausted by Caligula. 40 MCAW
40 A. Didius GALLUS appointed Curator Aquarum until ?. 40 DGRBM 2-227
40 Manpower shortage stops Rome's flour mills.  Caligula commandeers draft animals.  Waterwheels are rejected because they would cause unemployment. 40 TTPC
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41 orders his statue erected in the temple at Jerusalem. 40 B76 II-459, BAA 14, CDCC 475, IDB 1-14, ISBE 3-714, vrmCal
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, orders 2 temples to be built to him: 1 at public expense, 1 at his own expense on the Palatine.  Complete with priesthood and sacrifices.  They are begun in fall. 40 CAH 10-497
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, gets uncle Claudius and wife Caesonia to pay 1,000,000 sesterces each for the privilege of being his priests. 40 CAH 10-663
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, extends his palace to the Forum, turns temple of Castor & pollux into his vestibule, appears between the 2 images to receive adoration.  40 CAH 10-497
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, appears on a high platform dressed as Jupiter, to be hailed as Jupiter Latiaris.  He utters oracles and prophesies. 40 CAH 10-497
c.40 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  To Marcia, On Consolation  Consoles her on the death of her son. 40 wikSY
Aug 31
CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, in Italy from Jun, enters Rome, taxes all available income.  Agrippa-I & Antiochus of Commagene accompany. 40 CAH 10-660
40 Sep CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, tells senate he plans to move the capital to Alexandria. 40 wikCal
40 Sep CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, orders the statue of Zeus in Olympia to be brought to Rome, decapitated, and recapitated with his own image.  40 CAH 10-497
40 Sep CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, orders Petronius, governor of Syria to make a big statue of him at Sidon, and take it to Jerusalem, and set it up in the temple.  Also take 2 legions to overcome any resistance. Wars 2:10:1    39/40 JZ 85
40 BNTH 234, CAH 10-496, 662-3, Jud 2-415
40 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 38-44, in Rome, is told by Caligula of his statue plans.  FAINTS !  Takes several days to recover.  40 BNTH 254
40 Sep Embassy of Jews to Caligula at Rome.  They tell him they offer sacrifices for him twice a day.  He responds, "What good is that?  You offered sacrifices for me; it is true, but you offered none to me." 40 BNTH 253, GHH
40 Sep PHILO of Alexandria accompanies an embassy to Rome to get the statue order rescinded.  Caligula says, "You are the wretches who do not believe that I am a god, though I am recognized as such among all the rest of mankind". 39/40 DGRBM 3-310     40 CAH 10-497, Jud 13-409
40 STATUE ORDER rescinded by Caligula, thanks to some world class flattery by Herod Julius Agrippa-I now at Rome.  But it's conditioned on pagan alters being set up in all gentile cities in Judea.  He never gets the word to Petronius. 40 BAA 242, CAH 10-663, GHH, Jud 2-415, JZ 86
40 Son of Juba-II of Mauritania taken to Rome and starved to death. 40 MCAW
40 Cremutius CORDUS forced to suicide by Caligula. 40 Dur 3-301
40 PTOLEMY dies.  Client king of Mauretania from 23, summoned to Rome by Caligula, goes there, draws attention to himself by wearing purple to a theater, ordered to kill himself, suicides. 40 CAH 10-660, GHH, OCD 656, 897, wikCal
40 Rhetorician, L. Annaeus SENECA the Elder dies.  Dad of M. Anneas Novatus (later known as Junius Gallio), Annaeus Mela, father of poet Lucan, & Seneca the Younger. 39 B76 IX-54, wikSE 40 BBA 352, CDCC 808
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, gets interested in religion, appears in public dressed as various gods and demigods: Hercules, Mercury, Venus, Apollo.  Refers to himself as a god when meeting politicians, and is often called "Jupiter" in public documents. 40 wikCal
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, orders Petronius, governor of Syria to kill himself.  The order is delayed by a storm 3 months, and arrives after the news of Caligula's death. Wars 2:10:5 40 CAH 10-663
40 late CALIGULA issues a new STATUE ORDER.  The statue of Zeus, with his face, is to be built in Italy, and shipped to Judea. 40 CAH 10-496, 663, Jud 2-415
41 Jan 1 CONSULS:  CALIGULA and Gn. SENTIUS SATURNINUS 41 DGRBM 3-726, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
41 Jan L. CASSIUS LONGINUS, proconsul of Asia from 40, recalled to Rome in chains, because an oracle had warned Nero to beware of a guy named Cassius. 41 B76 II-617, OCD 212, wikLRGA
no date: DGRBM 2-803
Caius; not Lucius. wikGCL
41 Jan C. Cassius CHAEREA, tribune in Praetorian Guard, is mocked by Caligula for effeminancy.  He conspires with Cornelius Sabinus, M. Vinicius, some nobles, and 2 prefects to kill Caligula.  41 CAH 10-665, Dur 3-268, OCD 212, vrmCal
41 Jan 24 Crowds gather in a temporary theater at the foot of the Palatine for games and plays held for the Divine Augustus.  Claudius is present.  Caligula arrives late.  He invites D. Valerius Asiaticus to sit with him.   Before lunch time, Claudius leaves.  At 1:00 Caligula leaves by way of an unguarded passage.  He stops to talk with some actors.  Praetorian Cassius Chaerea approaches and asks for the watchword, to which Caligula gives him a mocking reply. 41 HRRP 4.1-391, accla, reCld, wikDVA'  
41 Jan 24 Emperor from 37, CALIGULA assassinated, age 29, by Praetorians Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.  Body, with 30 stab wounds, is secretly taken by friends to the horti Lamiani(?), half burnt, and covered with light turf.  Commotion ensues.  Several assassins, innocent bystanders and 2 senators are killed.  Chaerea sends tribune Lupus to kill Caligula's wife in the palace.  Germans in the praetorian guard kill indiscriminately.  News of his death is disbelieved by the populace. 41 B76 II-459, 4-696, 15-1112, BAA, BNTH 255, CAH 10-663, CDCC 159, DGRBM 1-563,4, 677, Dur 3-268, GHH, GSNT, HRRP 4.1-391, IDB 1-489, IR 60, ISBE 2-697, Jud 5-60, LEWH, MCAW, SHWC 131, TTPC, TTT, accla, reCld, vrmCal, wikAY, wikCal, wikCld     42 TToH
Jan 24
Caligula's body is taken to the Lamian Gardens, partially cremated and buried in a shallow grave. 41 accla
Jan 24
German guards learn of the assassination, rush into the palace killing indiscriminately.  3 senators are killed. 41 HRRP 4.1-391
Jan 24
Mionia CAESONIA dies.  Wife of Caligula from 38/9 stabbed to death by tribune Lupus.  Their dau Julia Drusilla, age 2, is dashed against a wall and killed. 41 CAH 10-665, DGRBM 1-558, 1075, accla, vrmCal, wikAY, wikCal
Jan 24
PRAETORIAN GUARD, 2 regiments of elite troops know that they will be sent to the provinces if there is no emperor.  They find CLAUDIUS hiding behind a curtain, rush him to their hqs, and hail him imperator. 41 B76 4-696, CAH 10-667, IR 60, accla, reCld, wikCld
Jan 25
Consul Gn. SENTIUS SATURNINUS makes a long speech in the senate against tyranny. 41 DGRBM 3-726
41 Jan 25 SENATE tries to revive the republic, but the debate degenerates to which of them would be princeps.  They send an envoy ordering Claudius to appear before them.  The envoy is repulsed by Agrippa-I, who is acting as Claudius' intermediary, all backed by the Praetorian Guard. 41 CAH 10-667, IDB 2-592, 3-856, LEWH, accla, reCld, wikCld
Josephus is the only source that gives Agrippa this prominent role. Ant 19:4:1 Wars 2:11:4
41 Jan 25 CLAUDIUS donates 15,000 sesterces each to the Praetorian Guard - a very destructive precedent.  He is escorted by Praetorians to the senate house.  Mob asks for a princeps.  Urban cohorts defect from senate to Praetorians.  Senate is weak and divided. 41 CAH 10-667
41 Jan 25 Caligula's uncle (neph of Tiberius), CLAUDIUS Caesar, age 50, accepted by senate as princeps until 54, first emperor chosen by the Praetorian Guard.  He is despised by his family as an invalid and imbecile, has a form of infantile paralysis, a limp, weak knees, shaking head, slobbery mouth, thick stuttering speech, but a scholarly historian who reads Etruscan. 41 B76 4-696, 15-1112, BAA, BBA 232, CAH 10-667, DGRBM 1-775, Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 1-640, ISBE 1-716, Jud 5-600, LEWH, MCAW, MUTC 25, TTPC, TTT, reCld, wikCld
Jan 25
Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 38-44, in Rome, is given all Palestine by Claudius.  His kingdom is now equal to that of Herod-I.  He is given authority to appoint & depose high priests. Wars 2:11:5     41 B76 17-950, BBA 116, CAH 10-745, GSNT, Jud 2-415, LEWH, MUTC 25, wikJRP
41 Jan C. Cassius CHAEREA, main assassin of Caligula, is executed by order of Claudius.  The executioner, at Chaerea's request, uses the same sword with which he killed Caligula.  Many people make offerings to his memory.  Fellow assassin Julius LUPUS is also executed. 41 DGRBM 1-677, OCD 212, wikCld
41 Feb? Q. POMPONIUS SECUNDUS succeeds Caligula as consul. 41 CAH 10-667, DGRBM 3-764
41 M. Arrecinus CLEMENS and L. Arruntius STELLA, Praetorian Prefects from 38, end.  Rufrius POLLIO and Catonius JUSTUS succeed, Justus until 43, Pollio until 44. 41 wikPP
41 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, issues edict favoring Jews of Alexandria. 41 Jud 6-489
c.41 MITHRIDATES of Iberia/Colchis, former client king of Armenia, imprisoned by Caligula 37, released by Claudius, stays in Rome until 42. 41 bdrs, hifi, hifiGeo, rcCau, wikLAK, wikMtA
41 T. Flavius VESPASIAN appointed legate of Legion-II Augusta, in Germany, thanks to influence of freedman Narcissus. 41 wikVs     43 DGRBM 2-1138
41 Amnesty to the republicans proclaimed. 41 GHH
41 Ofonius TIGELLINUS, exiled from Rome from 39, allowed to return by Claudius, but forbidden to enter the Imperial Palace. 41 wikTgl
41 C. Calpurnius PISO, banished from 37 or 40, recalled by Claudius, and made co-consul with Claudius. 41 wikCCP
41 A commission including P. Alfenus Varus, Asinius Pollio, Cornelius Gallus, created to confiscate land in Transpadane Gaul and give it to veterans. 41 OCD 45
41 TUNNEL thru rock to drain Lake Fucinus to the Liri River to make new farmland ordered by Claudius.  Director Narcissus.  Finished 52. 41 TTT     50-59 TTS
41 LIVIA Drusilla d29, finally deified by Claudius. 41 CDCC 524
She is habitually called JULIA by Josephus.
41 Julia AGRIPPINA-II and Julia LIVILLA, exiled to Pontian islands west of Italy from 39, recalled by Claudius.  Livilla is reunited with her husband, M. Vinicius. 41 B76 I-148, DGRBM 1-81, GHH, OCD 567, wikAY, wikJLvl
41 Youngest sis of Caligula and Agrippina, Julia LIVILLA, charged by Messalina of adultery with Seneca, re-banished. 41 MCAW, OCD 567, wikJLvlwikSY
41 Youngest sis of Caligula and Agrippina, Wife of M. Vinicius from 33, Julia LIVILLA dies age 43.  Ordered to be starved to death by Claudius.  Husband Vinicius lives until 46. 41 MCAW, OCD 567, wikJLvl, wikSY
41 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger), philosopher, is accused of adultery with Julia Livilla, by instigation of Messalina, sentenced to death by senate, but commuted by Claudius to banishment to Corsica until 49, begins writing tragedies. 41 B76 16-530, CAH 10, CDCC 808, DGRBM 3-778, DGRG 1-690, Dur 3-210, GHH, MCAW, OCD 976, wikSY
41 Grain shortage begins in Rome until 42. TAn 2:12:43
The court of Claudius is under the control of freedmen, Polybius, Narcissus, etc., and the emperor's wives, Messalina, etc. 41 GHH
41 DOMITIA LEPIDA the Elder, wife of C. Sallustius CRISPUS Passienus from 33, divorced so Crispus could marry Domitia's former sis-in-law, recently returned from exile, AGRIPPINA the Younger unti his death 47. 41 wikDE, wikDLE
41 Appius Junius SILANUS governor of Nearer Spain from 40, returns to Rome, marries widow DOMITIA LEPIDA the Younger, mom of Messalina until his death 42. 41 OCD 989, wikDLY
no date: DGRBM 3-821
41 ANTONIA, dau of Claudius & Aelia Paetina, marries Calpurnius Pompeius Magnus. 41 OCD 75
c.41 Oct Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 38-44, in Italy from Jun 40, sails back to Judea. 41 CAH 10-680, Jud 2-415
41/2 MESSALINA, wife of Claudius, tries to seduce dad-in-law, Appius Junius Silanus, who rebuffs her.  She accuses him of treason. 41/2 OCD 989
suffete: C. Cestius Gallus
42 CAH 10-669, DGRBM 1-505, 530, FHBC 84, OCD 224, about, wikCon
C. Sallustius CRISPUS Passienus DGRBM 1-892
42  Senatus consultum Largianum  says property of freed Latins who die belong first to him that freed him; next to their descendants not disinherited by name, as each is nearest; and then to the heirs of those that had freed them.  42 ERLG 317, SHERL 872
42 Many senators support the rebellion of the gov of Dalmatia. 42 B76 4-696
42 Appius Junius SILANUS dies.  Husband of Domitia Lepida from 41, accused of treason by Messalina and Narcisus, who say they saw in DREAMS that he tried to murder Claudius.  Executed.  Domitia lives until 55. 42 OCD 989, no date: DGRBM 3-821
42 Conspiracy of Annius Vinicianus and Camillus Scribonianus is exposed.  Claudius and Messallina get slaves to inform on their masters; nobles tortured, persecuted, imprisoned, sometimes executed for their money. 42 DGRBM 2-1053, GHH
42 Caecina PAETUS condemned for participating in conspiracy of Camillus Scribonianus.  Wife ARRIA, a Stoic, stabs herself, hands him the dagger, and says it doesn't hurt. 42 DGRBM 1-350, 530, OCD 122
42 L. Salvius OTHO sent to Illyricum. 42 DGRBM 3-65
42 Iberian MITHRIDATES, former king of Armenia 35-37, in Rome from 37, free from 41, reinstated by Claudius to recover Armenia from Parthians.  Sails to Syria. TAn 11:8 39 rcCau 42 hifiGeo, wikMtA
42 PORTUS, artificial harbor, built on the north bank of the north mouth of the Tiber. 42 PW 17 pre-46 wikPrt
42  Lex Roscia  "Italy" is extended to the Alps. 42 HRE 75
43 Jan 1 CONSULS:  CLAUDIUS (3rd) and L. VITELLIUS (2nd) 43 CAH 10-669, FHBC 84, OCD 1129, about, wikCon
43 An equite from Narbonensis participating in a lawsuit is found to be wearing a Driud talisman serpent egg.  He is executed for it. 43 HRRP 4.1-420
43 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, decides to invade Britain, the hotbed of Druidism, puts Aulus Plautius in command of 4 legions, and sends him to Gaul. 43 B76 4-696, HRRP 4.1-420 wikAPl, wikCld
43 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, leaves L. Vitellius in charge of Rome, heads for Britain, to be there for the final victory.  D. Valerius Asiaticus accompanies.. 43 CAH 10-676, GHH, MCAW, OCD 1129, TTPC, wikCld, wikDVA
43 Food riots and tumults in Rome. 43 GHH
Map: Pomponius Mela
Map by Pomponius Mela 43CE reconstructed by Konrad Miller 1898           Photo {{PD-US}}
43 POMPONIUS MELA writes  De Situ Orbis  on geography.  Divides world into torrid and temperate zones. 43 MCAW
43 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, in Britain from earler 43 returns to Rome, has a triumph for Plautius' conquests. 43 DGRBM 3-406, GHH, MCAW, reCld     44 GHH
43 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, abolishes many holidays and sacrifices for public convenience. 43 CAH 10-498
43 Catonius JUSTUS, Praetorian Prefect from 41, ends.  Colleague Rufrius POLLIO continues 41-44.  Rufrius CRISPINUS succeeds until 51. 43 wikPP
43/4 ARA PIETATIS AUGUSTAE "Altar of Piety of Augustus" supposedly dedicated.  A bogus altar imagined in 1937, and debunked in 1985. 43/4 CDCC 63, aai
44 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. Sallustius CRISPUS Passienus (2nd) and T. STATILIUS TAURUS   suffete: Pomponius Secundus 44 DGRBM 3-984, FHBC 84, OCD 675, 854, about, wikCon
44 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, celebrates triumph for Britain, sends invitations all over the empire, climbs steps of capitol on his knees. 44 CAH 10-499, 676, DGRBM 2-1107, GHH, reCld
44 Brass coins of Caligula's reign are called in and melted down.  Some of it is cast into statues of Mnester, a mime actor. 44 DGRBM 2-1107
44 Aerarium populi Romani (treasury) under 2 praefecti aerarii from 23 BC, transferred back to the quaestors, by Claudius, but he has them nominated by the emperor for 3 years.  This lasts until 56. 44 wikArr
44  Lex Coloniae Genetivae Juliae  (aka Ursonensis), originated by Julius Caesar as a charter of colony Urso in Spain, approved by Roman Assembly. 44 EDRL 549
no date: wikLU
44 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, learns of death of Agrippa-I.  Only son, Agrippa-II, age 17, (now in Rome) is too young to be trusted.  Claudius appoints Cuspius Fadus procurator of Judea, and tells him to confiscate high priest vestments, and put them in fortress Antonia, orders Vibius Marsus, governor of Syria, to take army to Jerusalem and cover him. 44 BBA 456, JZ 101
44 Jewish embassy arrives in Rome, begs Claudius to recind the order to confiscate vestments.  Claudius agrees, and sends messages to Cuspius Fadus and Vibius Marsus, both in Judea. Ant 20:1:2
44 Rufrius POLLIO, Praetorian Prefect from 41, ends.  Colleague Rufrius Crispinus continues 43-51.  L. Lusius GETA succeeds until 51. 44 wikPP
GETA succeeds 48. DGRBM 2-266
44 Equite Praetorian Prefect Rufrius CRISPINUS marries POPPAEA SABINA the Younger, age 14. 44 wikPS
44 Dau of Drusus & Livilla, JULIA dies.  Wife of Gn. Nero 20-31, Blandus 33, murdered by treachery of Messalina. TAn 13:32
c.44 COTYS, ½ bro of Mithridates, client king of Bosporus 38-45, arrives in Rome to obfuscate Claudius about Mithridates' misbehavior.  Instead, he tells the truth, and is appointed king of Bosporus. 44 CAH 10-753
c.44 CAPONS created by castrating roosters to make them grow larger. 44 TTPC
c.44 VOMITORIUMS gain popularity in Rome.  Romans at banquets have their throats tickled by feathers so they can vomit and eat more.  Romans eat mainly bread, olives, wine, and fish, but little red meat. 44 TTPC
44/5 MITHRIDATES, former client king of Bosporus 38-44/5 taken prisoner to Rome.  He tells Claudius, 'No man brought me here.  I came of my own will.  If you doubt it, let me return, and see if you can find me.'  He is freed, to keep Cotys in line. 49 HRRP 4.1-430
no date: OCD 176
45 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M. VINICIUS (2nd) and T. STATILIUS TAURUS CORVINUS   Suffete: Pompeius Silvanus 45 DGRBM 3-826, 985, 1262, FHBC 84, OCD 567, about, wikCon
45  Senatus consultum  decrees that freed persons may bequeath property to kids and grandkids. 45 SHERL 871
46 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Decimus VALERIUS ASIATICUS (1st Gaul consul) and M. Junius SILANUS 46 DGRBM 3-821, 1218, FHBC 84, OCD 989, about, wikCon, wikDVA, wikMJS46
46 Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus and Asinius Gallus the Younger (grandson of Asinius Pollio), conspire against Emperor Claudius with several of Claudius' own freedmen.  Gallus is exiled, but rather than exiled Corvinus may have been executed. 46 wikCld, wikTSTC
46 D. Valerius Asiaticus is executed without public trial for unknown reasons. 46 wikCld
46 M. VINICIUS, cos 45, former husband of Livilla 33-41, executed by order of Messalina. 46 DGRBM 3-1262
46 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54, removes senators who lack sufficient money to fit the image. 46 DGRBM 2-229
c.46 PLINY the Elder goes to Germany until 52. 46 DGRBM 3-414
46 Surdinius GALLUS prepares to move to Carthage.  Claudius restrains him by making him a senator. 46 DGRBM 2-229
46 3 commissioners sent by Arpinum to collect rents in Cisalpine Gaul.  They include Q. Fufidius. 46 DGRBM 2-187
46 Legionaires permitted by Claudius to MARRY, a first. 46 CAH 10-670
46  Senatus consultum Vellaeanum  concerning intercedere.  Women are prohibited from incurring liability for the benefit of others. 46 ERLG 383, wikLRL     41-65 OCD3 1379
46 M. Licinius CRASSUS FRUGI dies.  (cos 27) His wife SCRIBONIA, and son Gn. Pompeius Magnus all executed on orders of Messalina. 46 OCD 837 47 wikMLCF
46 Etruscan A. Persius FLACCUS, age 12, comes to Rome, where he s taught by Remmius Palaemon and the rhetor Verginius Flavus. 46 GHH
46 Polybius, paramour of Messallina, put to death by her intrigues 46 GHH
47 Jan 1 CONSULS:  CLAUDIUS (4th) and L. VITELLIUS (3rd)   Both are also censors. 47 CAH 10-669, FHBC 84, OCD 1129, about, wikCon
47 Office of CENSOR, vavant from death of Augustus, revived by Claudius, who becomes censor. (See 73) 47 B76 4-697, 15-1112, LEWH, reCld
47 CENSOR Claudius reorganizes the senate to fill it based on merit. 47 CAH 10-691
47 CLAUDIUS, emperor 41-54,
1. Restricts usury.  No interest payable on a fathers death.
2. Aqueduct from Simbrua river to Rome
3. invents 3 new letters for alphabet (discontinued after his death).
TAn 11:13
47 Roman RELIGION boosted by Claudius. 47 IDB 1-640
47 Parthian embassy asks Claudius to send another king to replace Gotarzes.  Claudius sends MEHERDATES, son of Vonones to Syria. TAn 12:10
47 CAH 10-755
47 Valeria MESSALINA plots a sexual conspiracy against D. Valerius Asiaticus so she can confiscate his gardens. 47 wikDVA
47 D. Valerius ASIATICUS is accused by Senator P. Suillius Rufus of adultery with Poppaea Sabina the Elder, mom of Poppaea Sabina.  Condemned to death by Claudius.  Asiaticus suicides, survived by his wife & son. 47 wikDVA
47 3rd wife of Claudius, Valeria MESSALINA wants handsom boytoy C. SILIUS, makes him divorce his wife Junia Silana. 47 DGRBM 2-1054, 3-818
47 PRAETORIAN GUARD, 9 cohorts from ?, increased to 12 until 69. 47 wikPG
47 Claudius carries a senatus consultum allowing payment of up to 10,000 sesterces to judicial advocates. 47 CAH 10-977
47  Lex Claudia    Passed on proposal of Emperor Claudius, prohibits loans to filii familias on pain of a fine. 47 EDRL 549, ERLG
47 Aulus PLAUTIUS governor of Britain from 43, returns to Rome, has an ovation (the last recorded one). 47 EBRB 59, DGRBM 3-406, MCAW
c.47 C. Sallustius CRISPUS Passienus dies.  2nd husband of Julia Agrippina-II from 41, is persuaded to name her his heir, and is killed by poison.  Agrippina is accused but survives, remarries 49. 47 wikAY, wikGSCP
49 B76 I-148
47 LUDI SAECULARES celebrated by Claudius.  3 days of games and sacrifice celebrating 800 years from founding of Rome.  Messalina attends with her son Britannicus.  Agrippina-II attends with son Lucius (Nero).  Agrippina and Lucius get more applause than Messalina and Britannicus. 47 B76 IX-19, 4-697, CAH 10-837, GHH, LEWH, wikAY
48 Jan 1 CONSULS:  A. VITELLIUS Germanicus (for the 1st 6 months) and L. Vipstanus PUBLICOLA Messala 48 B76 X-471, DGRBM 3-1273, FHBC 84, OCD 1129, about, wikCon, wikVt
48 early CALLIC CHIEFS allowed to be senators by Claudius. 48 CAH 10-677, HRRP 4.1-435, IR, LEWH
48 early Claudius goes from Rome to Ostia. TAn 11:26
48 Λ CENSUS V held by Claudius.  5,984,072 citizens in Italy, excluding slaves, women & kids.  A man in Bononia claims to be 150 years old. TAn 11:25
47 IDB 4-104
48 IDB 1-600, wikCld
6,384,000 citizens, with 25,419,066 thruout the empire. GHH
48 While Claudius is at Ostia, his 3rd wife, Valeria MESSALINA has a party in the palace in which she marries C. SILIUS (consul elect). 48 B76 4-697, DGRBM 1-558, 2-1054, 3-824, GHH, MCAW, OCD 675, reCld, wikCld
48 A favorite of Claudius, CALPURNIA is persuaded by Narcissus to go to Ostia and tell Claudius about Messalina.  She is backed by Cleopatra.  Narcissus confirms it.  Callistus abstains.  TAn 11:30
48 DGRBM 3-824, no date: DGRBM 1-582
48 NARCISSUS convinces Claudius that Messalina and C. Silius would not have dared marry unless they planned to kill Claudius.  She is charged with conspiracy. 48 B76 4-697, DGRBM 1-558, 2-1054, MCAW, OCD 675
48 3rd wife of Claudius from 39, Valeria MESSALINA dies. Mom of Octavia d.62, Britannicus d.55, executed by a tribune in presence of mom Domitia Lepida the Younger by order of freedman secretary Narcissus.  Claudius is informed while banqueting, and finishes eating.  He tells the Praetorian Guard that if he ever marries again, they should kill him.  C. SILIUS is also executed. TAn 11:38     48 B76 4-697, 12-965, CAH 10, CDCC 208, 574, DGRBM 1-81, 2-1054, Dur 3-272, GHH, HRRP 4.1-448, LEWH, MCAW, reCld, wikAY, wikDLY, wikMsl
48 Jul Consul A. VITELLIUS Germanicus is replaced by bro L. VITELLIUS 48 DGRBM 3-1273
c.48 AGRIPPINA-II becomes misterss of Greek freedman, M. Antonius Pallas.  48 wikAY
48 Dau of Claudius and Messalina, OCTAVIA is betrothed to L. Junius Silanus.  Agrippina wants Octavia married to her own son Domitius (later Nero), so she sabotages it. 41 DGRBM 3-821 48 DGRBM 3-5, wikAY
c.48 Praetor L. Junius SILANUS, recently betrothed to Octavia, expelled from the senate by censor Vitellius on grounds of incest with sis Julia Calvina.  He is then forced by Claudius to resign as praetor, and dissolve betrothal to Octavia.  Sis Junia Calvina is banished until after Agrippina-II dies. TAn 12:8
48 DGRBM 3-821, wikAY
49 DGRBM 2-936, 3-5, OCD 989
48 Trogus SAUFEIUS is executed because he knew about marriage of Messalina to Silius, and kept quiet. 48 DGRBM 3-729
48 Freedman secretary NARCISSUS is made quaestor, and now ranks above Pallas and Callistus.  TAn 11:38
48 Marriage candidates for Claudius:
Lollia Paulina, dau of M. Lollius, favored by Callistus
Julia Agrippina-II, dau of Germanicus, favored by freedman Pallas
Aelia Paetina, of the Tuberones, favored by freedman Narcissus.
TAn 12:1
48 Gallic nobles in Rome petition for admission to the senate.  Many senators oppose, but Claudius approves.  Gauls are legally allowed to become senators.  The Aedui are first, because they are the only Gallic people that have the title of fraternity with the Romans. 48 DGRBM 1-776, DGRG 1-968, HRRP 4.1-418, 435, IR 60, LEWH
48 New Patricians are created by Claudius to fill vacancies left by executions. 48 HRRP 4.1-435
48 Vectius VALENS, a paramour of Messallina, executed. 48 DGRBM 3-1205
48 Plautius LATERANUS, a paramour of Messallina, condemned to death by Claudius, but pardoned because of services of uncle A. Plautius.  He is still booted from the senate and exiled until 56. 48 DGRBM 2-724, wikAP
48 Titius PROCULUS is executed by Claudius because he knew of the adultery of Messalina and Silius, but said nothing. TAn 11:35 48 DGRBM 3-541
48 Senate, persuaded by L. Vitellius, allows Claudius an incestuous marriage with his bros dau Agrippina-II. TAn 12:5
48 B76 4-697
Suffete: Hosidius Geta and L. Memmius Pollio
49 DGRBM 2-228, 1027, 3-1240, FHBC 84, OCD 837, about, wikCon
49 Jan 1 CLAUDIUS, age 57, marries 4th wife, his niece, AGRIPPINA-II, age 32, dau of Germanicus & Agrippina-I, wid of Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus d.40, & Passienus Crispus d.47.  Mom of Nero. TAn 11:8     48 B76 4-697, CAH 10-672, CDCC 29, Dur 3-273, LEWH, MCAW, reCld     49 B76 I-148, DGRBM 1-776, GHH, IDB 3-537, OCD 31, 989, wikAY, wikNr
49 Jan 1 L. Junius SILANUS dies.  Formerly betrothed to Octavia 48, X-senator accused of incest, suicides. TAn 12:8
49 DGRBM 2-936, 3-5, OCD 989, wikAY
49 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger), philosopher, rhetorician, banished to Corsica from 41, pardoned thru intercession of empress, Agrippina-II, returns to Rome.  His bro Gallio returns with him.  Seneca becomes tutor of Nero until 62, and praetor for 50. TAn 12:8     49 B76 IV-394, BBA , CAH 10-672, CDCC 808, DGRBM 3-778, Dur 3-273, GHH, MCAW, wikSY     50 wikAY
c.49 AGRIPPINA-II, wife of Claudius 49-54, induces consul-elect Memmius Polio to speak in senate asking Claudius to betroth his dau Octavia to her son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus (later Nero).  Claudius approves betrothal, but marriage is delayed until 53. TAn 12:9
49 DGRBM 3-5, HRRP 4.1-448     50 wikAY
49 Gn. DOMITIUS AFER becomes superintendant of water supply until death 59. 49 B76 I-119
49 Servius Sulpicius GALBA rejects advances of Agrippina-II, and drops out of sight until 60. 49 anhiGl
49 Cadius RUFUS, former gov of Bithynia, charged by Bithynians with extortion, condemned, booted from senate until 69. TAn 12:22
49 DGRBM 3-671
49 POMERIUM (legal and religious boundary of Rome denoted by marker stones, as opposed to walls), expanded 8BC, expanded again by Claudius. 49 B76 4-697
49 C. Julius CALLISTUS, freedman councillor of Claudius and Caius before him from ?, drops out of history. TAn 12:2
no date: OCD 197
c.49 JEWS, expelled from Rome 19, expelled again by edict of Claudius, because of riots at instigation of one CHRESTUS.  Aquilla and Priscilla sail to Corinth. Suetonius:  Life of Claudius 25:4
Ax 18:2,     49 B76 2-948, 10-145, BBA 58, BNTH 164, 298, CAH 10-600, CBCNT 119, ENBD 51, FHBC 319, ISBE 1-42, 965, 3-709, TTPC     49/50 GSNT 328, IDB 1-176, 605     50 ENBD 945
50-2 Qlb 56     52 Dur 3-554
by 49 If Aquilla and Priscilla are Christians, there is a church at Rome by 49. B76 13-1093
50 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. ANTISTIUS VETUS (2nd) and M. SUILLIUS Nerullinus 50 DGRBM 2-1169, 3-1252, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
c.50 Praetors: L. Anneas GALLIO and L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger). 50 B76 16-530
c.50 ROME is the biggest city in the world: population 1,000,000. 50 PW 17
c.50 Praetor L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger), tutor to Nero, marries Pompeia PAULINA, befriends Sextus Afranius Burrus. 50 B76 16-530
c.50 Agrippina-II and freedman Pallas become dominant over Nascissus as well as Claudius. 50 DGRBM 3-100
50 Feb Claudius persuaded by counsellor Pallas and wife Agrippina-II to put aside his son Britannicus, and adopt her son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, age 13, supposedly as a guardian for Britannicus.  He takes the name NERO. TAn 12:25     50 CAH 10-673, DGRBM 1-81, 2-1162, GHH, HRRP 4.1-448, IDB 3-537, LEWH, reCld, wikAY, wikNr
no date: MCAW
c.50 AGRIPPINA-II, wife of Claudius 49-54, is given the title Augusta (1st woman to hold this title since Livia), and privilege of using the carpentum. 50 CAH 10-700, reCld, wikAY
by 50 All classes of Roman women and even men spend days hearing, singing, or composing MUSIC. by 50 Dur 3-379
c.50 2 FLOATING TEMPLES built in Lake Nemi by Caligula or Claudius.  Employ a bilge pump with a crank handle. 37-59 TTT
c.50 Roman fabulist PHAEDRUS dies.  1st writer to Latinize whole books of Greek fables. 50 B76 VII-923
c.50 A. VITELLIUS marries 2nd wife Galeria Fundana. 50 wikVt
c.50 SOAP, used by Gauls from ?, adopted by Romans. 50 TToH
51 Jan 1 CONSULS:  CLAUDIUS and Ser. Cornelius SALVIDIENUS ORFITUS   suffete: T. Flavius Vespasian (His son Domitian is born in 51.) 51 CAH 10-669, DGRBM 3-43, FHBC 84, OCD 1115, about, britVs, reCld, wikCon, wikDt, wikVs
51 CARATACUS, king of the Silures in Britain, with his wife & dau, are brought to Rome, presented to Claudius.  They are paraded in a triumph, but allowed to live in exile.  Caratacus comments, "You have such magnificent palaces, and you envy us our cabins!". 51 CAH 10, GHH, DGRBM 1-609, HRRP 4.1-423, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 204, 209, fyf
51 Son of Agrippina-II, NERO is given toga virilis prematurely, designated consul at age 20, given proconsular authority beyond limits of Rome, entitled Princeps Iuventutis "Prince of the Youth". TAn 12:41
51 CAH 10-673, DGRBM 1-505, GHH, reCld, wikNr
51 SOSIBIUS dies.  Tutor of Britannicus, outraged by Claudius' adoption of Nero, confronts Agrippina-II, and is executed. 51 wikAY
51 Centurions and tribunes thought to pity Britannicus are tactfully removed. TAn 12:41
51 Praetorian Prefects Rufius CRISPINUS from 43 & L. GETA from 44 are thought to cherish the memory of Messalina, and favor her son Britannicus, and are therefore replaced with Sextus AFRANIUS BURRUS until 62, on recommendation of Agrippina-II. TAn 11:31, 33, 12:42
51 B76 II-392, CAH 10-673, OCD 185, 976, wikAY, wikPP, wikPS     52 DGRBM 1-517, 892, 2-266
c.51 AGRIPPINA-II, wife of Claudius 49-54, is given a carpentum (a ceremonial carriage reserved for priests and sacred images).  She begins riding to the Capitol in it. TAn 12:42 51 wikAY
c.51 L. VITELLIUS, partisan of Agrippina, accused of aspiring to throne by senator Junius LUPUS and others, who are then banished. TAn 12:42
51 DGRBM 2-840
52 DGRBM 3-1273
51 Jew & Samaritan delegates sent from Tyre by Quadratus to Rome.  Jews include Ananias ben Nebedus hp 47-59, Ananus commander of the temple, Jonathan ben Annas hp 36-7, Agrippa-2 king of Chalcis.  Claudius can't unscramble their accusations, messages Quadratus to make inquiries. 51 CAH 10-853 52 BAA 409, IDB 1-124, ISBE 1-121
51 Oc/Nv T. Flavius VESPASIAN, suffete from Jan 1, is consul for the last 2 months of 51. 51 DGRBM 3-1246, wikVs
52 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Faustus Cornelius SULLA FELIX and L. SALVIUS OTHO Titianus     suffetes: Q. M. Barea Soranus and C. Licinius Mucianus 52 DGRBM 1-463, 2-1118, 3-65, 944, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
52 Furius SCRIBONIANUS charged with consulting astrologers concerning death of Claudius.  Banished. TAn 12:52
52 CAH 10-694
52 T. Flavius VESPASIAN, consul for last 2 months of 51, disliked by Agrippina-II, retires from public life until 63. 51 wikVs
52 Λ ASTROLOGERS (mathematici) expelled from Italy by senate, on request of Claudius, though Claudius bleieved in their stuff. 52 CAH 10-500, 673, fyf
52 T. Statilius TAURUS CORVINUS condemned by senate for plot against Claudius.  46 wikCld     52 CAH 10-671-2
52 Agrippina-II gets Claudius to propose a law authored by Pallas about punishing women who ball their slaves.  He obediently mentions Pallas as the author, so that Pallas will gain favor of senate. 52 DGRBM 3-101
52  Senatus consultum Claudianum  by Pallas, regulates unions between free women citizens and male slaves. 52 jstr, wikLRL
c.52 Antonius FELIX, imperial investigator in the Jew vs. Samaritan controversy, comes to Rome, tells Claudius that Ventidius Cumanus is main culprit. TAn 12:54
c.52 JONATHAN ben Annas, former hp 36-7 at Rome, impressed with investigator Antonius Felix, asks Claudius to make him the next procurator. 52 BNTH 343
c.52 ANANIAS ben Nedebeus, high priest 47-59 at Rome from 51, returns to Judea. 52 ISBE 1-121, Jud 2-923
Aqua Claudia photo: Chris 73
52 route of Aq ClAQUA CLAUDIA, begun 38 by Caligula, 69km aqueduct, mostly underground, finished.  Brings 2.3 cubic metres of water per second from from 3 springs at the upper Anio to Rome, mostly duplicating the route of Aqua Marcia 140 BC. map: Cassius Ahenobarbus

50 DGRG 2-851 52 TTT, wikAqCl 53 GHH
52 Anio NovusANIO NOVUS, also begun 38 by Caligula, 87km aqueduct built of tuff and brick finished.  Split into 2 channels above Tivoli and combined again near Gericomo.  From its filtering tank near the 7th milestone of Via Latina it is carried on arches superposed on the Aqua Claudia. left: Lalupa
map: Cassius Ahenobarbus

52 TTT, wikAAN
c.52 PLINY the Elder, in Germany from 46, and L. Pomponius Secundus, governor of Upper Germany 50-54, return to Rome.  Pliny studies law. 52 DGRBM 3-414
52 TUNNEL thru rock to drain Lake Fucinus to the Liri River to make new farmland begun by architect Narcissus 41, Finished.  But doesn't work because of an incorrect grade.  Repair begins until 53. 50 TTS 52 TTT
53 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Decimus Junius SILANUS TORQUATUS and Q. HATERIUS ANTONINUS 53 DGRBM 2-361, 3-821, FHBC 84, OCD 989, about, wikCon
53 Furius Camillus SCRIBONIANUS and mom JUNIA ask astrologers when Claudius will die.  They are exiled. TAn 12:52, THs 2:75 53 DGRBM 1-592
53 Jun 9 L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, NERO, betrothed from 49, marries OCTAVIA, dau of Claudius and Messalina: Nero age 16, Octavia age 11.  Lasts until 62. TAn 12:58     53 CAH 10-673, DGRBM 1-81, 3-5, Dur 3-273, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, reCld
53 Jun 9 Bro of Lucius d.49, ?. Junius SILANUS dies.  Proconsul of Asia, poisoned by equite CELER at instigation of Agrippina-II, lest he try to avenge murder his bro Lucius. TAn 13:1, 33 53 DGRBM 1-81, GHH, wikAY     54 ISBE 1-43 55 DGRBM 1-659
53 Jun 9 L. Domitius Ahenobarbus NERO, age 16, makes 1st appearance before senate, harangues them in Greek soliciting favors for Ilium (Troy), Apamea, and Rhodes.  Then in Latin he solicits money to relieve Bononia.  He gets 10,000,000 sesterces aid for fire damage, freedom for Rhodes (taken 44), Troy exempt from all public burdens, Apamea (damaged by quake) 5 years w/o tribute. TAn 12:58 52 HRRP 4.1-449
53 CAH 10-673
c.53 Dau of M. Lollius, LOLLIA Paulina dies.  Rival of Agrippina-II, accused of treason, condemned to death, suicides. 53 DGRBM 1-81, no date: wikAY
53 TUNNEL thru rock to drain Lake Fucinus to the Liri River to make new farmland botched by architect Narcissus 52, Finished again, but now works too well.  When opened, it floods their banquet tables.  Narcissus is imprisoned, and soon dies. 53 TTT
53 Claudius gets senate to grant jurisdiction to imperial procurators in financial cases.  Procurators may judge financial disputes between Rome and client subjects (formerly decided by governors).  Reason: efficiency of fund collection.  This increases importance of imperial over senatorial officers. 53 CAH 10-698, LEWH
53 Statilius TAURUS dies. Charged with extortion as proconsul of Africa by former legate Tarquiyius Priscus, suicides. TAn 12:59 53 CAH 10-500
54 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M' ACILIUS AVIOLA and M. ASINIUS MARCELLUS 54 DGRBM 1-434, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
54 Dau of Antonia, LEPIDA dies.  Cousin of Agrippina-II, and sis of Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, envied by Agrippina, charged with witchcraft, stoned to death. TAn 12:65
53 DGRBM 1-81
54 L. VITELLIUS dies.  3x consul, and father of Aulus. 54 fyf
54 COMET appears. 54 OCD 197
54 fall NARCISSUS, freedman secretary of Claudius, main power behind throne, leaves Rome to take a cure at Sinuessa. 54 CAH 10-595
54 Oct 13 Son of Drusus & Antonia, CLAUDIUS dies, age 63, at Sinuessa, of poison mushrooms prepared by professional poisoner Locasta, and served by physician Stertinus Xenophon, or food taster Halotus, with help of niece/wife Agrippina-II. TAn 13:2     54 B76 4-697, 12-965, 15-1112, BAA, BBA , CAH 10-696, CDCC 29, 208, DGRBM 1-81, 775, 2-1162, Dur 3-274, GHH, HRRP 4.1-450, IDB 1-640, IR 61, ISBE 1-716, Jud 5-600, LEWH, MCAW, SHWC 131, TToH, TTPC, reCld, wikAY, wikCld, wikNr

Italy 54-69