68 Jun DEATH of Nero under unknown circumstances causes belief that he got away safely.  Several impostors claim his name.  Some profit;  Some are killed.  A legend circulates that he will RETURN AND REIGN AGAIN.  His expected return is regarded by the Jewish  Sibyline Oracles  as a momentary triumph of Satan, followed by the final victory of justice.  68 CAH 10-741-2, 11-144
Dio Chrysostom will say c.100-110, 'most men believe that Nero is still alive.' Oration 21:10
IDB 3-538
68 Praetorian co-prefect from 65, C. Nymphidius SABINUS dies.  Miffed at not being chosen 2nd to Galba, he pretends to be the illegitimate son of Caligula, tries to sieze throne, but is killed by Galba partisans in the praetorians. TAn 15:72, THs 1:5,25 68 CAH 10-729, 813, DGRBM 2-1217, fyf, wikGl, wikNr, wikNS, wikSj
68 Praetorian co-prefect 62-8, Ofonius TIGELLINUS saves his life by lavishing gifts on T. Vinius, favorite of Galba, and his widowed dau, whose life Tigellinus had once saved.  He then retires to Sinuessa. 68 wikTgl
68 Jun P. Marius CELSUS joins Galba's party. 68 DGRBM 1-663
68 Jun Patrobius, a favorite of Nero, executed by order of Galba. 68 DGRBM 3-140
68 Jun Servius Sulpicius GALBA becomes emperor until January, 1st emperor made outside of Italy, returns from Narbonensis to Rome.  M. Salvius OTHO legate of Lusitania and Spaniard M. Fabius Quintilian both accompany.  Galba tries unsuccessfully to regain money, becomes unpopular. 68 B76 IV-384, 14-341, BAA, CAH 10-813, DGRBM 2-206, 3-634, Dur 3-284, GHH, MCAW, OCD 454, wikGl
69 LEWH, acOt
68 Domus AureaNero's DOMUS AUREA "golden house", begun 65, construction stopped, over 200 acres, so extensive that fields and gardens are enclosed within it.  Destroyed 70. left: Cristiano64
right: ColdEel

68 B76 VII-264, MCAW
68 Helvidius PRISCUS, exiled by Nero 66, in Apollonia Macedonia from 66, recalled to Rome by Galba. 68 DGRBM 3-527, GHH
68 HELVIDIUS PRISCUS charges Eprius Marcellus, who had accused Thrasea Paetas.  This divides the senate into 2 parties, for the fall of Marcellus would mean the ruin of many similar offenders.  Helvidius drops charges for fear of Galba. THs 4:6
68 DGRBM 3-527
68 M. Antonius PRIMUS, exiled by Nero in 62, recalled to Rome by Galba, restored to former rank, and appointed commander of legion VII Galbiana in Pannonia. 68 DGRBM 3-524
68 Oct Legion I Adiutrix meet Galba unarmed at Milvian Bridge, and are massacred. THs 1:6 68 fyf
68 Oct Emperor GALBA enters Rome. THs 1:6     68 fyf
68 Friend of Cornelius Laco, L. Calpurnius PISO Licinianus, exiled from ?, recalled by Galba. THs 1:14
68 OCD 839
68 Emperor GALBA massacres a troop of marines outside of Rome, unwisely sends his Spanish troops to Pannonia THs 1:6
no date: OCD 454
68 Dec VITELLIUS is sent by Galba to take command of the Rhine 68 DGRBM 3-66
69 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Ser. GALBA (2nd) and T. Vinius RUFINUS don't last the year.
suffetes: Marcius Macer (whose name is erased by Vitellius), Arrius Antonius, L. Pompeius Vopiscus, L. Salvius Otho Titianus, A. Caecina Alienus, M. Caelius Sabinus
69 DGRBM 2-884, 3-66, 688, 1262, 1283, FHBC 85, OCD 67, 187, about, fyf, wikCon, wikGl
69 Jan 1 Galba's garland falls off during the sacrifice and the sacred chickens fly away as he takes the auspices.  Baaad omen. 69 CAH 10-801
69 Jan 1 Belgian deputies swear allegiance to the senate alone, saying, 'We dont want the emperor elected in Spain". 69 HRRP 4.2-565
69 Jan 5? A letter arrives from Belgica, in which the emperor's finance agent Pompeius Propinquus, says the legions of Upper Germany had rebelled and were clamoring for a new emperor, but that they referred the final choice to the Senate and People of Rome. THs 1:12 69 fyf
69 Jan 10 During a thunderstorm, L. Calpurnius PISO FRUGI Licinianus is adopted by Galba as successor.  Ceremony happens in Praetorian Guard camp.  From the camp they proceed to the senate.  Piso has no qualifications other than noble lineage and good character.  This angers M. Salvius OTHO, who had supported Galba in Spain, and now currys favor of the praetorians. THs 1:15, 18
69 CAH 10-814, DGRBM 3-376, HRRP 4.2-565, OCD 454, 837, fyf, wikGl, wikLCPL
69 Jan Galba holds an election for his successor.  Besides Vinius and Laco, he summons consul-elect Marius Celsus, and urban prefect Ducenius Geminus. THs 1:14 69 fyf
69 Jan Gn. Julius AGRICOLA appointed by Galba to examine sacred property of temples to stop Nero's robbery system. 69 DGRBM 1-76
69 Jan Emperor GALBA makes bad decisions, executions w/o trial, little appreciation for loyalty, appoints bad advisors, refuses to pay the praetorians the customary (from 41) donnation.  'I choose men; I don't buy them.' THs 1:5, 18 68 CAH 10-813
69 Jan Cornelius LACO, known for laziness, promoted by Galba to court chamberlain and praetorian prefect until later 69. 68 68 wikNS, wikPP 70 DGRBM 2-701
69 Jan Reports of the German rebellion prompt he senate to send a commission to Germany.  It is proposed to send Cornelius Laco, prefect of the Guards, but he objects.  The senate asks Galba to nominate the commissioners.  He fumbles, nominating members, excusing them, making exchanges, yielding always to pressure from people who wanted to go or stay home. THs 1:19
69 Jan The real power in Galba's reign is with consul, T. Vinius, Cornelius Laco, and Icelus, one of Galba's freedmen, promoted to eques, and is now called Marcianus.  These 3 usually disagree.  Vinius is vile and Laco is lazy.  On the question of succession, Vinius favors M. Otho.  Laco and Icelus are undecided. THs 1:13
69 Jan Galba orders that the 2,200,000 sesterces Nero had given to favorites be recovered from each recipient, leaving each a tenth of the original gift.  But few have a tenth left.  30 equites are assigned to recover the money.  This unprecedented commission is unpopular because of the scope of its authority, and the large number of victims.  Officers are commissioned to enforce it: Antonius Taurus, Antonius Naso of the Guards, Aemilius Pacensis of the City Garrison, and Julius Fronto of the police. THs 1:20
69 Jan Gn. Julius AGRICOLA appointed by Galba to examine sacred property of temples to stop Nero's robbery system. 69 DGRBM 1-76
69 Jan OTHO is angry at Galba and jealous of Piso Licinianus.  Prompted by astologers, he currys favor with all troops, and aggitates for revolt.  Otho puts his freedman Onomastus in charge of the projected crime.  Onomastus conspires with Barbius Proculus and a subaltern named Veturius, both in the Guard. THs 1:21-25
Jan 15
Galba sends Piso Licinianus to the praetorian camp to either fix things or report back.  A rumor arises that Otho is dead.  It soon dissipates. THs 1:34
69 Jan 15 Galba sacrifices in front of the temple of Apollo.  Priest Umbricius declares the omens unfavorable, says treason is impending, and an enemy within the walls.  Otho, standing beside Galba, overhears and thinks the omen favorable to his plans.  He makes an excuse, and departs. THs 1:27 69 fyf
69 Jan 15 The praetorian conspiracy against Galba becomes known, and draws some opposition.  Galba learns of it, and is undecided on what to do.  Soldiers and citizens choose sides and fight. THs 1:31
69 Jan 15 Centurion SEMPRONIUS DENSUS dies.  The only praetorian to denounce the praetorian mutiny.  Armed only with a dagger, Densus confronts a fully armed praetorian mob, and fights them to his death.  This gives L. Calpurnius PISO FRUGI Licinianus time to escape to the temple of Vesta. THs 1:43
69 wikLCPL
69 Jan. 15 Servius Sulpicius GALBA dies, age 72.  Emperor from 68, hacked to death by Praetorian Guards in the Forum.  His newly adopted successor L. Calpurnius PISO FRUGI Licinianus dies, age 31.  Piso is dragged from the temple of Vesta, and killed.  Murderers include Fabius Fabullus, who puts Galba's head on a spear, and parades it from the Forum to the Praetorian barrack.  Praetorians set up their man M. Salvius OTHO (former husband of Poppaea), whose claim the senate accepts, but Vitellius balks on the Rhine. THs 1:41, 42
69 B76 IV-384, VII-621, BAA, CAH 10-816, DGRBM 2-132, 206, 3-66, 376, GHH, HRRP 4.2-570, ISBE 2-697, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 454, 837, TTPC, acOt, britVs, fyf, anhiGl, wikGl, wikLCPL'  
69 Jan Helvidius PRISCUS gets permission from Otho to bury the body of Galba. 69 DGRBM 3-527
69 Jan T. VINIUS dies in front of the temple of Julius.  He shouts that Otho had not ordered his death, but is murdered by soldier Julius CARUS and ???.  His head is sold to his dau Crispina for 2500 drachmas. THs 1:42, 47
69 DGRBM 1-618, fyf, wikGl
69 Jan 120 men claim credit for killing Galba and Piso Licinianus, expecting reward.  They make a list of their names.  After Otho is deposed, Vitellius will acquire the list and order them all executed. THs 1:44 69 wikLCPL
69 Jan Cavalry troop at Patavium, knows nothing of Otho, declares for Vitellius, bringing with them the 4 strongest towns of the Transpadane district, Milan, Novara, Eporedia, and Vercelli. THs 1:70
69 Jan Ofonius TIGELLINUS dies.  Living luxuriously at Sinuessa, hears of his condemnation, tries bribery, forced by Otho to suicide, cuts his throat with a razor. THs 1:72     69 B76 IX-1004, GHH, wikTgl 70 DGRBM 3-1126
69 L. VERGINIUS RUFUS is made consul (his 2nd) by Otho until later 69. 69 DGRBM 3-678, wikVR
69 Plotius FIRMUS and Licinius PROCLUS appointed Praetorian Prefects by Otho until later 69. 69 wikPP
69 AGRIPPA-II sails from Achaia to Italy to see who the new emperor is. Wars 4:9:2     69 ISBE 2-697, Jud 2-417
69 Urban prefect Cornelius LACO dies.  He is supposedly spared by Otho, who banishes him to an island, but on arrival, is stabbed by a reservist whom Otho had previously sent for that purpose. THs 1:46 69 fyf
69 Mar Vitellian Alienus CAECINA with 30,000 men, crosses from Gaul into Italy before Valens, meets no opposition, prevents troops from looting. 69 DGRBM 3-1206, dirVt, fyf
69 Mar Othonian generals Appius Annius GALLUS and Vestricius Spurinna are sent north to counter the Vitellians. THs 2:11     69 OCD 457, DGRBM 2-223, fyf, no date: DGRBM 3-897
69 Mar Vitellian Alienus CAECINA with 30,000 men, crosses the Po, attacks Otonian garrison at Placentia, but Othonian general Appius Annius GALLUS arrives, and Caecina is repulsed with losses, recrosses the Po, retires toward Cremona.  Turullius Cerealis with a large force of marines, and Julius Briganticus with a few cavalry, come over to Caecina. THs 2:20-2 69 DGRBM 1-530
69 Mar Othonian Vestricius Spurinna, learning Caecina's route, informs Annius Gallus, commanding the advanced guard from Rome, now probably at Mantua, by letter of all that had happened.  Gallus was leading legion I Adiutrix to relieve Placentia.  Hearing that Caecina was defeated and making for Cremona, Gallus halts at Bedriacum village between Verona and Cremona. THs 2:23
69 Volcatius TULLINUS is pleb tribune. THs 4:9     69 DGRBM 3-1183
69 P. SABINUS appointed prefect of praetorians by Vitellius until later 69. THs 2:92, 3:36
69 DGRBM 3-688, wikPP
69 ARRIUS VARUS appointed prefect of praetorians by Vitellius until 70. 69 PRL 191, wikPP
69 Cadius RUFUS, booted from senate in 49, restored by Otho. TAn 12:22 THs 1:77 69 DGRBM 3-671
69 Tiber overflows and takes out the Sulpician bridge, floods not only the low-lying parts of the city, but districts that seemed safe from inundation.  Many people are swept away in the streets.  Causes famine. THs 1:86
69 Mar 1 Consulship of OTHO and his bro TITIANUS from ?, ends. THs 1:77
69 Mar Vitellian Fabius VALENS with 40,000 men crosses from Gaul into Italy, camps at Ticinum (Pavia). THs 2:27
69 DGRBM 3-1206
69 Mar Vitellian legions under Alienus CAECINA and Fabius VALENS meet north of the Po at Cremona. 69 CAH 10, DGRBM 1-530, 3-1206, LEWH, dirVt
69 Mar NOVARIA, city in Cisalpine Gaul, declares for Vitellius. 69 DGRG 2-448
69 Mar 14 OTHO gives the government of the country to the senate, gives to restored exiles the rest of the property confiscated by Nero, leaves bro Salvius Titianus to manage Rome with urban prefect Flavius Sabinus, bro of Vespasian, and marches north with Suetonius Paulinus, Marius Celsus, Licinius? Proculus, the praetorians, the city cohorts, and 2,000 gladiators for the Po.  Otho orders his Illyrian Legions to concentrate at Aquileia. THs 1:90 69 DGRBM 3-67, 146, HRRP 4.2-579, fyf, wikBBd
69 Mar OTHO orders his fleet to Narbonensis to oppose Valens.  He attaches the cohorts of the City Garrison and a large force of Guards.  Commanders are Antonius Novellus and Suedius Clemens, both senior centurions, and to Aemilius Pacensis. THs 1:87
69 DGRBM 3-67, HRRP 4.2-580, fyf
69 Mar Othonian Vestricius Spurinna, on approach of Caecina, withdraws to Placentia then repulses Caecina from Placentia. 69 fyf     no date: DGRBM 3-897
69 Mar Otho's main army joins Gallus at Bedriacum. 69 fyf
69 Mar Othonian senators move to Mutina. 69 DGRG 2-378
69 Mr/ Ap SPOOKY OMENS:  In the Capitoline Square, the figure of Victory let the reins of her chariot slip from her hands.  A ghost of superhuman size suddenly burst out of the chapel of Juno.  A statue of Julius Caesar on the island in the Tiber turns round from west to face east.  An ox speaks in Etruria.  Animals given birth to strange monsters. Many such stories occur in peacetime, but now we hear of them in time of panic. THs 1:86
69 Othonian M. Marcius MACER, with a fleet of gladiators, sails up the Po, drives Vitellians from south bank.  Vitellians flee to Cremona. THs 2:23
69 DGRBM 2-884
69 M. Valerius PAULINUS becomes procuator of Narbonensis until ?. 69 DGRBM 3-146
69 Otho summons his bro Titianus, whom he had left in charge of Rome, and gives him chief command. THs 2:23
69 Apr While Otho decides what to do, general Appius Annius Gallus advises avoiding battle.  Otho Disagrees. 69 DGRBM 2-223, 3-1206
69 Apr 6 Vitellian A. CAECINA Alienus attempts an ambush at Locus Castorum (between Cremona and Bedriacum).  It is betrayed to Otho's generals.  Vitellians Suetonius Paulinus with infantry and Celsus with cav.  They defeat Caecina, who retreats to Cremona.  THs 2:23, 24-6 69 DGRBM 1-530, fyf, wikACAwikBBd
69 Apr 6 Valens joins Caecina at Cremona. 69 fyf
69 Apr Othonian fleet commander Marcius MACER on the Po, is fired by Otho. 69 DGRBM 2-884
69 Apr 14 While Otho remains at Brescia, the 2 armies meet on Via Postumia, nearer Cremona than Bedriacum.  Othonian troops are tired after a long march. 69 wikBBd
69 Apr 15? Vitellians VALENS and CAECINA defeat Othonian general Appius Annius Gallus at 1st V battle of Bedriacum east of Cremona.  Otho's legion I Adiutrix, recently raised at Ravenna, clashes with Vitellius' XXI Rapax.  Adiutrix captures the eagle of XXI, though its commanding officer, Orfidius Benignus, is killed as XXI tries to recover it.  Elsewhere on the battlefield, Otho's legion XIII is defeated by Vitellius' V Alaudae, and I Adiutrix is taken in the flank by Batavian auxiliaries.   Othonian troops flee back to their camp in Bedriacum.  Vitellian troops ravage the land. 69 DGRBM 1-530, 2-223, GHH, HRRP 4.2-580, LEWH, TTPC, acOt, dirVt, fyf, wikBBd
69 Apr 16? Othonian troops surrender to Vitellians and sware allegiance to Vitellius. 69 wikBBd
69 Apr News of Bedriacum is brought to Brescia.  Many of Otho's troops urge him to fight on, pointing out that more troops are on the way. 69 wikBBd
69 Apr? Marius MATURUS, Othonian procurator of maritime Alps, defects to Vitellius. 69 DGRBM 2-974
69 Apr Aulus VITELLIUS crosses from Gaul into Italy, leaves army split into 2 divisions under Valens and Caecina. 69 MCAW
69 Apr Cornelius DOLABELLA banished for no reason beyond kinship to Galba to the colony of Aquinum. THs 1:88
69 fyf
Apr 17
Emperor M. Salvius OTHO suicides age 36, falling on a dagger at Brescia.  Most of his troops are truly distraught. THs 2:49-51     69 B76 VII-621, 15-1112, 19-96, BAA, CAH 10-824, DGRBM 3-67, GHH, LEWH, TTPC, acOt, britVs, fyf
Apr 16
A. VITELLIUS is immediately recognized by senate as emperor for a reign of 8 months and 5 days until December. 69 BAA, Dur 3-210, GHH, LEWH, TToH, fyf, wikVs, wikVt
69 Apr 19 Senate recognizes Vitellius emperor. 69 Apr 19 fyf
69 Apr At Otho's funeral the rage and grief of the soldiers brake into mutiny again. This time there is no one to control them.  They ask Verginius Rufus with threats to either accept the principate, or to head a deputation to Caecina and Valens.  Verginius slips out by the back door of his house as they break in at the front.  Now they all hate Verginius.  He retreats to an estate at Alsium on the coast of Etruria, studies, composes poems, and has a literary salon. THs 2:51
69 Apr DGRBM 3-678, wikVR
69 Apr Flavius SABINUS, Othonian commander of a troop of gladiators, surrenders his men to the Vitellians. THs 2:51
69 Apr? Senators at Mutina learn of Otho's defeat.  The soldiers think its a false rumor, and distrust the senators, who hold a meeting.  Licinius Caecina attacks orator Eprius Marcellus.  Senators move the meeting to Bononia, hoping for more news.   When the soldiers are convinced of Otho's defeat, they all declare for Vitellius. THs 2:52
69 Apr No panic at Rome.  The festival of Ceres, Apr. 12-19, is celebrated by the usual crowds.  Urban Prefect, Flavius Sabinus (Vespasian's bro), makes all troops in Rome swear allegiance to Vitellius. THs 2:55
69 Apr Vitellius' soldiers, now including those of Caecina and Valens, scattered thru Italy, plunder and rape indiscrimitely.  Even civilians put on uniforms and seize the opportunity to murder their enemies. THs 2:56
69 May 24 Vitellius visits battle-field of Bedriacum.  Valens and Caecina are present, and show Vitellius over the battle-field. THs 2:12, 70 69 fyf
69 Legion III Gallica defects from Vitellius to Vespasian.  VII Claudius follows. 69 wik7Cl
69 The 3 Alpine provinces form a single province, under a procurator. THs 2:12
69 DGRG 967
69 Jun A. VITELLIUS puts CAECINA in charge of north Italy at Cremona, and proceeds south with a huge retinue. 69 DGRG 1-702, Dur 3-285, fyf
69 Jun Bros Caelius and Flavius Sabinus [Not to be confused with Vespasian's bro] are consuls for June and July. THs 1:77
69 Jul 1 A. VITELLIUS enters Rome, declares himself consul for life. 69 B76 X-471, dirVt
69 Jul 1 P. Marius CELSUS is allowed to be consul by Vitellius. TAn 15:25, THs 1:14, 31, 77 69 DGRBM 1-663
69 Jul Vitellius continues Otho's policy of honoring Nero, and sacrificing to his spirit.  He has Nero's songs performed in public.  Nero remains popular among the lower classes. 69 dirVt, wikVt
69 Jul Vitellius learns that the armies of the eastern provinces had proclaimed a rival emperor: their commander, T. Flavius Vespasianus.  He orders Caecina to prevent Flavian armies from entering Italy by land. 69 wikVt
Jul mid
Vitellius learns that the legions of Egypt had sworn allegiance to T. Flavius Vespasianus. 69 wikVt
69 HELVIDIUS PRISCUS is nominated praetor for 70, opposes Vitellius in the senate. 69 DGRBM 3-527
69 Exiled to Aquincum earlier, DOLABELLA murdered by an assassin sent by Vitellius.  Widow PETRONIA was formerly wife of Vitellius.  Her son Petronianus is also executed. THs 2:63-4
69 DGRBM 3-215
69 PATAVIUM occupied without resistance by Vespasian generals Primus and Varus. THs 3:6
69 DGRG 2-556
69 AGRIPPA-II sees that Vitellius is emperor, quietly sails for Judea. THs 2:81
69 Troops of Otho's defeated legions still vex Vitellius.  They are scattered all over Italy, mingling with the victors and talking treason.  Legion XIV even refuses to acknowledge their defeat at Bedriacum.  I Adiutrix is transferred to Spain until 70. THs 2:66 69 wikIAdt
69 Batavian Claudius CIVILIS, imprisoned in Rome from 68, released by Vitellius, and given command of Batavian auxiliary troops allocated in the Rhine legions. 69 wikRob
69 Centurion Julius PRISCUS is appointed Praetorian Prefect by Vitellius on recommendation of Fabius Valens. 69 DGRBM 3-527, wikPP
69 DENARIUS silver content is 81% during Vitellius' reign. 69 TTPC
69 Spaniard M. Fabius QUINTILIAN, in Rome from 68, opens a public rhetoric school. 69 wikQnt
69 Vitellius forbids centurions to sell furloughs and duty exemptions, and expanded administrative offices beyond the pool of freedmen, allowing equites positions in civil service. 69 wikVt
69 Vespasian partisan Antonius PRIMUS, commander of legion VII with Arrius Varus in Pannonia leads 5 Danubian legions against Vitellius, enters north Italy. 69 B76 19-96, LEWH, TTPC, fyf
69 Marius MATURUS, Vitellian procurator of maritime Alps, surrounded by Vespasian troops, defects. 69 DGRBM 2-974
69 PRAETORIAN GUARD, 12 cohorts from 47, increased to 16 until 70. 69 wikPG
69 Vitellian Praetorian Prefects Julius PRISCUS and Arrius VARUS lead 14 praetorian cohorts and all available cavalry to occupy Appenine passes.  Priscus and Varus then desert and return to Rome. 69 DGRBM 3-527
69 Vitellian general Valens is sick.  So Vitellius must rely on Caecina, who is now plotting against him with the fleet commander at Ravenna. 69 OCD 1129
69 Emperor VITELLIUS takes 4 legions and auxiliaries to hold the line at the Po. 69 OCD 1129
69 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, now in Liguria, sides with Vespasian. 69 DGRBM 1-76
69 Augusta TAURINORUM burnt by troops of Vitellius. THs 2:66     69 DGRG 1-339, OCD 149
69 Petilius CEREALIS escapes from Rome, joins Vespasian's army under Antonius Primus, and is made a general. 69 DGRBM 1-673
69 Vibius CRISPUS is accused but acquitted.  Annius FAUSTUS, who informed on him, is condemned by the senate. THs 2:10 69 DGRBM 2-142
69 ROME besieged by Antonius Primus and Danubian legions, siezed by Flavius SABINUS, bro of Vespasian, burnt in the confusion. 69 LEWH
c.69 PUTEOLI declares enthusiastically for Vespasian. 69 DGRG 2-680
c.69 PLINY the Elder, formerly under Vespasian in Germany from ?, returns to Rome. 69 B76 14-572
69 Aug Arrius Antoninus and Marius Celsus are consuls for Aug-Sep. THs 1:77
69 Sep 1 Vitellian CONSULS:  A. CAECINA ALIENUS and Fabius VALENS take office.  They dislike each other, but agree to grab whatever they can, while Vitellius debauches himself. 69 Sep DGRBM 1-530, 3-1206
69 Sep Antonius PRIMUS surprises a Vitellian detachment at Forum Alieni. 69 fyf
69 Sep Pannonian legions arrive at Patavium. 69 fyf
69 Sep Primus fortifies Verona.  Moesian legions arrive. 69 fyf
69 Sep CAECINA holds Cremona with Legions I Italica, XXI Rapax, and cavalry. 69 fyf
69 Sep CAECINA camps with the rest of his force near Hostilia on the Tartaro. 69 fyf
c.69 Vitellian VALENS sails for Gaul, but is captured by ships sent by Suetonius Paulinus at islands off Massilia. 69 DGRBM 3-1207, wikVt
69 Oct 1 ASTROLOGERS exiled from Italy by Vitellius.  Astrologers respond with an anonymous decree of their own: "Decreed by all astrologers in blessing on our State Vitellius will be no more on the appointed date."  Vitellius then executes any astrologers he finds. THs 2:62 69 wikVt 70 GHH
69 Oct Sextus Lucilius BASSUS, prefect of the fleet at Ravenna, defects from Vitellius to Vespasian. THs 3:12
69 fyf, wikSLB
69 Oct Vitellian fleet at Misenum defects to Vespasian.  Apinius TIRO makes himself commander. 69 DGRBM 3-1152
69 Oct Vitellian VALENS is in Tuscany when he learns of victory of Primus at Bedriacum, and capture of Cremona.  He is ordered by Vitellius to sail to Gaul, and rouse troops.  He dawdles northward with 3 praetorian cohorts. 69 DGRBM 3-1207, wikVt
69 Oct Vitellian, CAECINA ALIENUS now at Hostilia, is discovered plotting against Vitellius.  Caecina's troops mutiny, arrest and chain him.  They choose Fabius Fabullus, commanding legion V, and camp-prefect, Cassius Longus, to lead them, and retire to Cremona to join legions, I Italia and XXI Rapax, which Caecina had sent ahead with some of the cavalry to occupy Cremona.
Antonius Primus hears of this and starts from Verona to intercept them.
THs 3:14 69 OCD 187, 1129, fyf
69 Oct Vitellian army is defeated by Antonius PRIMUS at Cremona, which is stormed.  Vitellian Julius Calenus is sent to Gaul, to testify of their defeat. 69 DGRBM 1-563, , wikMAP'  
69 Oct The 5 legions from Hostilia reach Cremona.  United Vitellian army makes a night sally from Cremona and is defeated. 69 fyf
69 Oct Vitellian stronghold CREMONA, under Rome from 218, sacked and burnt by Antonius PRIMUS with 40,000 troops, inhabitants raped and abused. THs 2:70, 3:34     69 B76 II-431, 19-96, DGRBM 3-1275, Dur 3-285, LEWH, TTPC, fyf, wikMAP
69 Oct Antonius Primus, ashamed of destroying Cremona, declares that no Cremona citizen is to be a prisoner of war.  Soldiers who now own Cremonans, dont want to lose money; so they kill some Cremonans, knowing that relatives will buy the rest back. THs 3:34 69 Oct fyf
69 Oct 25-6 Antonius PRIMUS marches from Verona 33 miles to Bedriacum and camps there. THs 3:15     69 Oct 26 DGRBM 3-1275, fyf
69 Oct 27 Antonius PRIMUS leaves his legions behind to fortify the camp, sends his auxiliary infantry into Cremona territory to plunder their compatriots under pretext of collecting supplies. THs 3:15 69 Oct 27 fyf
Oct 27
Emperor VITELLIUS defeated by Antonius PRIMUS at Λ 2nd battle of Bedriacum. 69 BAA, DGRBM 3-1275, GHH, LEWH, TTPC, dirVt, fyf, wikMAP, wikVt
69 Oct Legs. I Italica & XXI Rapax sally from Cremona and are repelled by Antonius Primus. 69 fyf
Oct 31
Consul Caecina is replaced by Roscius Regulus, who enters and abdicates his office on the same day. THs 3:37
69 DGRBM 3-645
69 Nov 1 C. Quinctius ATTICUS and Caecilius SIMPLEX become suffect consuls. THs 2:60, 3:68
69 DGRBM 1-416, 3-837
69 Nov Claudius FAVENTINUS, Vitellian fleet commandder at Misenum, forges letters from Vespasian promising reward for treachery, induces his fleet to defect to Vespasian.  Vitellius sends Claudius Julianus with a cohort of the city garrison and the force of gladiators already serving under him. The 2 parties camped close to one another.  Soon Julianus came over to Vespasian.  They then join forces and occupy Tarracina, . THs 3:57 69 DGRBM 2-137, GHH, MCAW, fyf
69 Nov Vitellius with 14 praetorian cohorts, a new legion and cavalry, yields to the demands of the army and joins the camp at Mevania, where they hold the Apennines. THs 3:55 69 fyf
69 Nov More SPOOKY OMENS:  During a speech of Vitellius at a sacrifice, a cloud of birds scatters the audience and nearly knocks Vitellius off his pulpit.  A bull brakes from the altar, scatters the utensils for the ceremony, and escapes so far away that it has to be killed instead of sacrificed. THs 3:56
69 Nov Vitellius learns of the fleet mutiny at Misenum, returns to Rome with 7 cohorts and part of the cavalry.  Remaining cohorts are withdrawn from Mevania to Narnia. THs 3:56 69 fyf
69 Nov Vitellius with 6 cohorts and cavalry besieges Tarracina. 69 fyf
69 Nov Vitellius leaves part of his force at Narnia with prefects of the Guard, Priscus and Varus, and sends his bro Lucius with 6 regiments of Guards and 500 cav to cope with the threatened outbreak in Campania. THs 3:58
69 Nv/Dc Vitellian army surrenders w/o a fight at Narnia. 69 GHH, MCAW, dirVt, fyf
69 Nov Former Vitellian M. Aponius Saturninus joins Antonius Primus in north Italy. 69 wikMAS
69 Nov Valens, having reached Ariminum, embarks from the Bay of Pisa, is either becalmed or blown off course to the harbor of Monaco THs 3:42 69 fyf
69 Nov M. Antonius PRIMUS marches from Cremona south by Via Aemilia, taking Parma, Mutina, Bononia, Ariminum, advances to Fanum Fortunae. 69 OCD 108, fyf, wikMAP
69 Dec 1 Rome stormed.  Vitellius leaves the Palace by a back way and is carried in a litter to his wife's house on the Aventine.  Then he changes his mind, and goes back to the now deserted palace and hides. THs 3:84 69 fyf
69 Dec M. Antonius PRIMUS crosses Apenines, camps at Carsulae, where he is joined by Q. Petilius Cerialis, who had escaped from Rome. 69 DGRBM 3-1275, fyf, wikMAP
c.69 Dec Vitellian Fabius VALENS dies.  Prisoner from Nov, is executed in prison at Urbinum.  His head is shown to Vitellian troops at Narnia to quash the rumor that he escaped to Gaul. THs 3:62 69 DGRBM 3-1207, fyf, wikVt
69 Dec Arrius VARUS wins a cavalry skirmish at Interamna. 69 fyf
69 Dec M. Antonius PRIMUS takes Interamna, and is joined by many officers of Vitellius. 69 DGRBM 3-1275
69 Dec Vitellians at Narnia surrender. 69 fyf
69 Dec Bro of the emperor, LUCIUS Vitellius dies.  He marches his force of Guards from Tarracina to Rome, when he surrenders to the Flavians, and is taken to Rome and executed. THs 4:2 no date: DGRBM 3-1273
69 Dec Lucilius BASSUS is sent with light cavalry to quell the disquiet in Campania, which was caused more by the mutual jealousy of the townships than by opposition to the emperor. THs 4:3
69 Dec M. Antonius PRIMUS marches to Ocriculum Umbria, sends Cerialis with 1,000 cav forward to Rome. 69 fyf
69 Dec Emperor A. VITELLIUS makes agreement with M. Antonius PRIMUS to abdicate. 69 wikVt
69 Dec 17 Emperor A. VITELLIUS hears news that his legion and the Guards at Narnia had surrendered to the Flavians.  He puts on mourning and leaves the palace, surrounded by his sorrowful household.  Turning to consul, Caecilius Simplex, Vitellius unstrapped his sword and offered to surrender it.  The consul refuses.  The people and praetorians refuse to accept his abdication.  Vitellius returns to the palace. THs 3:67-8 69 B76 X-471, DGRBM 3-1275, fyf, wikVt
69 Dec 17-23 Flavian army after leaving Narnia, spend the Saturnalia [Dec 17-23] quietly at Ocriculum Umbria.  The object of this disastrous delay is to wait for Mucianus. THs 3:78
69 Dec 18 Bro of Vespasian, Flavius Sabinus is besieged in Rome. 69 fyf, wikVt
69 Dec 20 M. Antonius PRIMUS forces his way into Rome.  Vitellius' supporters (mostly civilians) resist, resulting in 50,000 deaths.  Large parts of Rome are destroyed, including the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus. 69 B76 19-96, britVs, fyf, unrvDt, wikMAP, wikVt
69 Dec 20 Arrius VARUS arrives in Rome. 69 wikAVr
69 Dec M. Antonius PRIMUS forces the senate to recognize Vespasian as emperor, but its not official until later. 69 BAA, TTPC
69 Dec DOMITIAN, 2nd son of Vespasian, besieged on Capitoline hill in Rome, escapes disguised as a follower of Isis.  Gets to ally Cornelius Primus. 69 CAH 11-22, OCD 360, wikDt
69 Capitoline temple, renovated in 9, destroyed by fire.  Rebuilt 70. 69 CDCC 161, OCD 203
69 The Capitol destroyed by fire. 69 GHH, LEWH
69 Dec 20 Bro of Vespasian, T. Flavius SABINUS dies.  He negotiates for abdication of Vitellius, is attacked by German auxiliaries captured, executed, and beheaded. THs 3:74
69 DGRBM 3-1275, OCD 942, fyf, wikDt     69 Dec 20 wikTFS
69 Dec 20 Cerealis is defeated outside Rome. 69 fyf
69 Dec 21 Emperor from April, A. VITELLIUS dies, age 56, dragged out of a door-keeper's lodge, driven to the Gemonian stairs, and killed by Vespasian's Danubian troops, beheaded and his head paraded around Rome, his body hacked to pieces and thrown into the Tiber.  His bro and son are also killed. 69 B76 X-471, 19-96, BAA, DGRBM 3-527, Dur 3-210, 285, GHH, HRRP 4.2-603, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, dirVt
Dec 20 LEWH, britVs, unrvDt, wikDt, wikVs
Dec 22 wikVt
69 Dec 21/2 T. Flavius VESPASIAN proclaimed princeps by senate until 79.  First commoner to do so.  Tribunes ratify it.  Prosperity begins.  The senate not only gives Vespasian the imperial title, with a specific enumeration of powers, but releases him from all laws from which Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius had been released. 69 B76 15-1112, 19-96, BNTH 411, CAH 11-9, Dur 3-210, GHH, HRRP 4.2-641, Jud 16-116, TTPC, britVs, wikDt, wikTt, wikVs
69 Dec 21/2 Senate decides to send a deputation to address Vespasian.  Helvidius Priscus thinks the members of the deputation should be nominated by magistrates acting under oath; Eprius Marcellus (knowing he wouldn't be chosen) demands the precedent of selection by lot be followed.  After hot debate, they decide for precedent. THs 4:6-8
c.69 Senate purged by Vespasian. 69 GHH
69 Praetorian discipline re-established. 69 GHH
69 late L. Tampius FLAVIANUS governor of Pannonia from 68, ends.  M. Annius AFRINUS succeeds until 73. 69 wikLTF, wikMAA
69 -70  Lex de Imperio Vespasiani   An epigraphic text on a bronze tablet, now partially lost, containing part of a law that grants some or all powers of the emperor to Vespasian. 69-70 EDRL 551, OCD 602

Italy 70-100