70 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (2nd) and son TITUS (1st) (in absentia)
suffetes: Cassius Rufus Petilius Cerealis, P. Valerius Asiaticus, and C. Licinius Mucianus
70 DGRBM 3-1218, 1247, FHBC 85, LEWH, OCD 224, 702, 1080, about, wikCon
70 Jan 1 Senate is convened by Urban Praetor (both consuls are absent), Julius Frontinus, and votes thanks and congratulation to the generals, armies, and foreign princes (Sohaemus, Antiochus, and Agrippa).  Tettius Julianus, who had left his legion when it went over to Vespasian, is deprived of his praetorship, which is given to Plotius Grypus.  Frontinus resigns his praetorship and Caesar Domitian succeeds him. THs 4:39
70 Jan C. Licinius MUCIANUS, main partisan of Vespasian, arrives in Rome, takes control from Antonius Primus and the troops he could no longer manage, holds it as consul until Vesp arrives.  PRIMUS leaves Rome. 69 B76 19-96, CAH 11-4     70 CAH 10, DGRBM 2-1118, LEWH, fyf, wikDt
70 Jan Vitellian general Didius SCAEVA killed when Rome is taken by Mucianus. 79 DGRBM 3-731
70 Jan C. Licinius MUCIANUS, main partisan of Vespasian, kills infant son of Vitellius and Calpurnius Galerianus, a potential rival to Vespasian, restores order. 70 CAH 11-4
70 Jan C. Licinius MUCIANUS, main partisan of Vespasian, reduces Praetorian Guard to its former size. 70 B76 19-96
70 Jan C. Licinius MUCIANUS, main partisan of Vespasian, sends able generals to deal with Batavian rebellion: ANNIUS GALLUS for Upper Germany and PETILIUS CEREALIS for Lower Germany.  Mucianus is afraid the war might be too much for them, but could not leave Rome without government.  He fears Domitian's unbridled passions, and distrusts Antonius Primus and Arrius Varus, commander of the Guards. THs 4:68 70 CAH 11-5, DGRBM 1-673, OCD 457, wikVs
70 Junius MAURICUS asks Domitian to give the senate access to imperial registers, so they can know what impeachments the informers had imposed.  Domitian says Vespasian will handle it. THs 4:40 70 DGRBM 2-978
70  Senatus consultum Pagasianum  gives the technical owner of property the same right as a beneficial owner that he had by Lex Falcidia (40 BC) against legatees. 70 SHERL 815
70 Sextilius FELIX is sent by Antonius Primus from Italy to Raetia to watch movements of Vitellian procurator Porcius Septimius.  He remains until 71. 70 DGRBM 2-145
70 FLEET of Vitellius under Lucilius Bassus at Misenum defects to Vespasian.  Vitellian Claudius Apollinaris escapes with 6 galleys. 70 DGRBM 1-230, 473
70 M. Aponius Saturninus is suspected of corresponding with Vitellians.  His troops attack him, but he is rescued by L. Vipstantius Messala. 70 DGRBM 2-1053
70 DOMITIAN, 2nd son of Vespasian, is praetor. 70 DGRBM 3-1247
70 ARRIUS VARUS, prefect of praetorians from 69, demoted by Mucianus to director of grain supply.  Mucianus appoints a relative of Vespasian, M. Arrecinus CLEMENS to succeed until 71. THs 4:68 70 DGRBM 1-788, wikPP
70 Mar? Mucianus and Domitian start from Rome with legions, VIII, XI, XIII, XXI - one of Vitellius' legions, and II, which had been newly enrolled, for Gaul/Germany.  XIV is also summoned from Britain, and I and VI from Spain. THs 4:68 70 fyf
70 Pedius BLAESUS, expelled from senate in 60, readmitted. TAn 14:18, THs 1:77 70 DGRBM 1-492
70 PLOTIUS GRIPHUS becomes praetor. THs 3:52, 4:39
70 DGRBM 3-428
c.70 Sextus Julius FRONTINUS becomes urban praetor. 70 OCD 448
70 Praetor Helvidius PRISCUS opposes sycophancy to the emperor, fearlessly attacks the emperor and whole imperial system like he thinks he can get the republic restored. 70 DGRBM 3-527, britVs
c.70 Notorious informer M. Aquillius REGULUS attacked by T. EPRIUS MARCELLUS, defended by half bro L. Vipstanus Messala.  Acquitted. 70 OCD 675, geni
70 Equite L. VESTINUS is assigned to restore the Capitol.  He consults priests, who say the ruins of the former capitoline temple be carried away to the marshes at Ostia and a new temple erected on the same site.  The gods don't want the original form of the building to be changed. THs 4:53
c.70 PLUTARCH, Greek from Chaeronea, math and philosophy student of Ammonius in Athens, sponsored by L. Mestrius Florus, visits Rome. 70 wikPl
c.70 Nero's DOMUS AUREA "golden house", construction stopped 68, destroyed to make room for the Colosseum. 71 LEWH
Jun 21
CAPITOLINE TEMPLE, burnt 69, begun again until 71.  High priest, Plautius Aelianus, dictates the proper formulae.  Helvidius Priscus, the praetor, consecrates the site by a sacrifice to Mars of a pig, a sheep and an ox, and then offering the entrails on an altar of turf, he prayed to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, as guardian deities of the empire, to prosper the enterprise.  Temple iasts until 80. THs 4:53 70 CAH 11-5
c.70 The Capitol, burnt 69, rebuilt. THs 4:53     69 GHH
70 LEWH     71 DGRBM 1-29
70 Several of Nero's laws repealed. 70 GHH
VESPASIAN sails from Greece to Corcyra to Iapyx promontory Italy. Wars 7:2:1
70 B76 19-96
VESPASIAN finally arrives in Rome. 70 B76 5-950, 19-96, BNTH 411, CAH 10, 11-5, CDCC 925, Dur 3-285, IDB 4-782, britVs, wikDt, wikVs
70 Oct C. Licinius Mucianus continues to press Vespasian to collect as many taxes as possible. 70 wikVs
70 Oct? PRAETORIAN GUARD, 16 cohorts from 69, reduced to the original 9 by Vespasian until 85. 70 CAH 11-5, wikPG
70 Oct? VESPASIAN, tries to arrange marriage between his youngest son Domitian and dau of Titus, Julia Flavia, but Domitian is adamant in his love for Domitia Longina, going so far as to persuade her husband, L. Aelius Lamia, to divorce her so that Domitian could marry her. 70 wikDt
70 Oct? Dau of Gn. Domitius Corbulo d66, DOMITIA LONGINA divorces L. Aelius Lamia Plautius Aelianus in order to marry DOMITIAN, 2nd son of Vespasian, until divorce 83. 70 OCD 289
71 wikDL
Tactius'  History  breaks off before the end of 70.
70 VESPASIAN, now emperor, returns to Judea???. 70 TTPC
c.70 GATES of the TEMPLE OF JANUS, open from 66, closed until ?. 70 MCAW
70 Vespasian and Mucianus restore old taxes, establish new ones, increases tribute from provinces, rebuild Rome. 70 TTPC, wikVs
70 URINE TAX re-enacted by Vespasian and Mucianus.  Public toilet managers charge for urination. 70 wikVs
70 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA sent by Vespasian to Britain until 73. 69 CDCC 25     70 B76 I-144, DGRBM 1-76     71 OCD 28
70 Grain shipments to Rome delayed by adverse winds.  Causes bread shortage and panic. 70 TTPC
70 Legion II Adiutrix "Rescuer", is founded by Vespasian from navy marines of fleet of Ravenna.  Assigned to Lower Germany. 70 wik2Adt
70 Flavian Amphitheater, now called COLOSSEUM, begun on the site of Nero's golden palace.  Architect unknown.  Finished 80. 69 B76 III-21     70 Dur 3-210, GHH, TTT, wikTt 75 TTS, wikVs
71 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (3rd) and M. Cocceius NERVA
suffetes: Domitian, C. Valerius Festus, and Gn. Pedius Castus
71 B76 VII-264, DGRBM 2-149, 1167, 3-164, 1248, FHBC 85, about, wikCon, wikDt, wikNv
Not Nerva.  DOMITIAN, son of Vespasian CAH 11-6,
71 700 Jew POWs sent by Titus from Alexandria to Rome, and enslaved.  Some are bought and freed to form Jewish communities. Wars 7:5:3 71 71-3 MCAW
71 DOMITIAN proposes restoration of Galba's titles and statues. 71 DGRBM 2-1113
71 Curtius MONTANUS proposes that the degree against Piso be rescinded, and attacks informer M. Aquilius REGULUS in senate. TAn 16:28,29
70 OCD 303
71 DGRBM 2-1113
71 Jun TITUS returns from Alexandria to Rome, with the loot from the Jerusalem temple: menorah, showbread, purple curtains, Torah scroll.  Josephus accompanies, and remains in Italy until death 100. Wars 7:5:3     70 BI+N 225, ISBE 2-1132, MCAW     71 CAH 10-862, IDB 4-782, JZ 128, unrvTt, wikTt
71 Antonius FLAMMA banished for extotion and cruelty as governor of Cyrene. THs 4:45
71 DGRBM 2-168
71 ARCH of TITUS begun.  Finished 81. 71 TTPC     81 TToH, TTPC
71 VESPASIAN and son TITUS celebrate a triumph.  It ends with execution of terrorist leader SIMON bar Giora. 71 GHH, Jud 4-221, 16-116, LEWH, unrvTt
71 M. Arrecinus CLEMENS, prefect of praetorians from 70, ends.  VESPASIAN takes over until 79 71 wikPP
71 TITUS, now a senator, is made Prefect of Praetorian Guard until 79, a post traditionally for equites. 71 CAH 11-7, LEWH, wikPP     72 unrvTt
no date: OCD 1080
71 TITUS receives proconsular imperium and tribunician power. 71 CAH 11, LEWH
71 Emperor VESPASIAN re-imposes taxes, brings new provincial blood to the senate. 71 MCAW
71 Rhetoric teacher QUINTILLIAN, in Rome from 68, is appointed 1st state-salaried teacher until 88. 71 MCAW
71 LAVATORY built with flush toilets and extensive waterworks. 71 TTPC
71 Bro-in-law of Pliny the Elder, ???? dies.  Son Pliny the Younger, is entrusted to Elder, who being in Spain 67-72, entrusts Younger to L. Verginius Rufus. 71 DGRBM 3-414
71 Temple of Peace begun on southeast side of the Argiletum with loot from Jerusalem.  Finished 75. 71 GHH, LEWH, wikTPR
Not same as Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis) 9BC
71 Helvidius PRISCUS opposes Vespasian. 70 B76 19-96     71 GHH
72 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (4th) and TITUS (2nd)   suffete: C. Licinius Mucianus 72 FHBC 85, OCD 702, about, wikCon
72 Vespasian receives message from Caesennius, legate in Syria, that Antiochus-IV of Commagene is intriguing with Arsaces of Parthia  Vespasian empowers Paetus to act against them. 72 DGRBM 3-1248, GHH
72 ANTIOCHUS-IV, former king of Commagene 41-72 is sent in bonds from Cilicia to Rome, contrary to wishes of Vespasian, who sends him with plenty of money to SpartaHe soon returns, and lives with sons Epiphanes and Callinicus in Rome until death. Wars 7:7:3 72 wikA4C
72 Helvidius PRISCUS advises the senate to restore the republic.  Vespasian is unable to suppress him. 72 MCAW
c.72 PLINY the Elder procurator in Spain from 67, returns to Rome, adopts neph Pliny the Younger, welcomed by Vespasian. 70-73 DGRBM 3-414
73 Jan 1 CONSULS:  T. Flavius DOMITIAN (2nd) and L. VALERIUS CATULUS MESSALINUS   suffete: Sextus Julius Frontinus 73 DGRBM 2-1054, FHBC 85, OCD 360 about, wikCon, wikDt
73 Office of CENSOR, revived by Claudius 47, revived again by Vespasian when he and Titus become censors. 73 B76 19-96, CAH 11, HRRP 4.2-648, LEWH, britVs
73 Julius AGRICOLA in Britain from 70, returns to Rome until 74, granted patrician status. 73 B76 I-144, OCD 28
73 Temple built at Brescia by Vespasian. 73 B76 II-256
c.73 Son-in-law of Thrasea Paetus, Helvidius PRISCUS dies.  Leader of Stoics from 66, banished and forced to suicide by Vespasian. 72 Dur 3-210, MCAW
76 B76 19-96, britVs
73 PHILOSOPHERS & ASTROLOGERS banished from Rome by Vespasian (except Musonius Rufus), at request of advisor C. Licinius Mucianus. 71 CAH 11-9, Dur 3-210     73 DGRBM 3-1248, LEWH
73 VESPASIAN goes to the Rhine. 73 LEWH
74 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (5th) and TITUS (3rd)
sufetes: Sextus Julius Frontinus, Eprius Marcellus and Caesius Petilius Cerealis
74 DGRBM 2-181, FHBC 85, Ocd 224, 402, about, wikCon
74 Λ CENSUS taken by Vespasian and Titus - the last made in Rome. 74 DGRBM 3-1248, GHH
74 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, in Rome from 73, made governor of Aquitania until 76. 74 B76 I-144, DGRBM 1-76, MCAW, OCD 28
74 Latin rights granted by Vespasian to all Spain. 74 LEWH
75 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (6th) and TITUS (4th)
Suffete: Domitian, C. Licinius Mucianus
75 DGRBM 2-1118, FHBC 85, about, wikCon, wikDt
75 Office of Censor abolished. 75 GHH
75 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, and sis BERENICE-II go from Judea to Rome.  Agrippa becomes a praetor.  Berenice lives as mistress of Titus, causing disapproval of Romans. 75 B76 V-3, CAH 11-11, IDB 2-592, ISBE 2-697, Jud 4-601, LEWH, unrvTt, wikTt
75 JOSEPHUS publishes  Wars of the Jews  in Greek language in Rome.  Attributes burning of the temple to God purging it from the corruption of the zealots. 75 Dur 3-546, IDB 4-552, JsCW 427, 678     75-9 B76 10-278, CBCNT 53, DGRBM 2-613, IDB 2-144, ISBE 2-1132, Jud 16-947, JZ 31, 238     78 ODCC 759
75 Antonia CAENIS dies.  Wife of Vespasian from ?. 75 wikVs
75 Bronze COLOSSUS (Apollo statue) of Nero begun 65, and having his face, is erected by Vespasian.  He adds a sun-ray crown, and calls it Colossus Solis, after the Roman sun god Sol.  Remains just outside the main palace entrance at the terminus of the Via Appia until 128. 75 wikVs
75 A stage to the theater of Marcellus is dedicated by Vespasian. 75 wikVs
75 Temple of PeaceTemple of Peace, begun 71, finished.  Destroyed 192.

Not same as Altar of Peace (Ara Pacis) 9 BC
model: Autokrator

75 GHH, LEWH, wikVs
75 Loot from the Jerusalem temple: menorah, showbread, purple curtains, Torah scroll, are put in the Temple of Peace. 75 GHH, LEWH
76 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (7th) and TITUS (5th)   Suffete: Domitian 76 FHBC 85, about, wikCon, wikDt
76 Sis of Agrippa-II, BERENICE-II, consort of Titus, behaves arrogantly in Rome, holds her own judicial court. 76 CAH 11-11
76 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, in Aquitania from 74, returns to Rome until 77/8. 76 DGRBM 1-76
76 C. Licinius MUCIANUS dies. 75-7 DGRBM 1-76, OCD 702, wikDt
77 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (8th) and TITUS (6th)   Suffete: Domitian 77 DGRBM 3-1248, FHBC 85, about, wikCon, wikDt
77 Plague at Rome recorded by Eusebius. 77 DGRBM 3-1248, GHH
77 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA elected consul ????. 77 CDCC 25, DGRBM 1-76, GHH, OCD 28
77 VIA FLAMINIA, finished 27 BC, is tunneled thru Intercisa (Furlo) Pass. 36BC MCAW 261     77CE DGRG 2-1299, wikVF
77 C. Cornelius TACITUS marries a dau of Julius Agricola. 77 B76 17-983, DGRBM 1-76, GHH, OCD 1034     78 DGRBM 3-968
c.77 PLINY the Elder publishes 1st 10 books of  Historia Naturalis  (Natural History) begun 55,   His only extant work.  A conglomerate of observation, hearsay, and philosophical comment on astronomy, geography, and zoology, all from secondary sources, giving equal credence to legend and magic.  He laments the discovery of iron, because it makes war more terrible.  The remainder of the 37 books will be published by Pliny the Younger in ?. 77 B76 14-572, CDCC 467, DGRBM 3-415, Dur 3-308, IDB 2-144, MCAW, OCD 845, wikNHP
c.77/8 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, in Rome from 76, sent to be governor of Britain until 84. 77 B76 I-144, CDCC 146, 367, Dur 3-452, LEWH 122, TTPC, wikFr, wikGJA     77/8 CAH 11, MCAW     78 B76 3-195, 19-96, CDCC 25, DGRBM 1-76, 2-181, 3-1248, GHH, MCAW, OCD 181, 448, wikGRB
78 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. Ceionius COMMODUS and D. Novius PRISCUS 78 DGRBM 1-817, 3-528, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
c.78 FRONTINUS, governor of Britain from 74, returns to Rome.  Begins reorganizing the water supply. 77/8 MCAW
78 Rebuilding of the Capitol. 78 GHH
78 Sis of Agrippa-II, BERENICE-II, consort of Titus from 75, sent away by order of Vespasian, because of popular indignation.  Returns to Judea. 78 Jud 4-602,
78±1 LINUS, bishop of Rome from 66, ends.  ANACLETUS succeeds until 92. 76 DDS 152, 361, IDB 3-136
76 or 79 B76 I-334, GHH     77 Dur 3-552     78 ODP 6     79 wikPA
79 Jan 1 CONSULS:  VESPASIAN (9th) and TITUS (7th)   suffete: Domitian 79FHBC 85, LEWH, about, wikCon, wikDt
79 Julius SABINUS dies.  He had claimed to be Caesar, and been hiding in Gaul with wife Epponina since 70, caught, and both brought with their 2 kids to Rome.  Vespasian executes them, but spares the kids. THs 4:67
79 DGRBM 3-1248, GHH
79 A. CAECINA Alienus and Eprius MARCELLUS die.  They conspire to kill Vespasian, and are discovered.  Titus invites Caecina to dinner and orders him stabbed to death before he had left the room.  Marcellus is tried, prosecuted by Titus, condemned, and suicides. 78 B76 19-97, CAH 11, britVs     78/9 wikVs
79 B76 II-431, DGRBM 1-531, 3-1248, GHH, OCD 187, 402, 1080, wikACA, wikTt
79 TITUS repairs an aqueduct. 79 DGRBM 3-1160
79 VESPASIAN, in bad health, visits his home in Reate, gets severe diarrhea. 79 DGRBM 3-1248, Dur 3-288, wikVs
79 Jun 23/4 Princeps of Rome from Dec 69, T. Flavius VESPASIAN dies of illness, age 69, in Reate.  Oldest son, age 38, TITUS succeeds until 81.  Titus assures Domitian that full partnership would soon be his, but neither tribunician power nor imperium of any kind is given him during Titus' reign.  Titus rules with moderation; punishes informers; and relieves the poor. 79 B76 15-1112, 19-97, BAA, CAH 11-12, CDCC 892, 925, DGRBM 3-1159, 1248, DGRG 1-721, Dur 3-288, GHH, HRRP 4.2-670, IDB 4-782, IR 65, ISBE 2-698, Jud 15-1168, 16-116, LEWH, MCAW, SHWC 131, TToH, TTPC, britVs, unrvDt, wikDt, wikTt, wikVs
79 Jun TITUS Flavius Vespasian, princeps 79-81, halt trials based on treason charges.  No senators are executed during his reign. 79 wikTt
79 After Vespasian dies, dau of Agrippa-I, BERENICE-II, wife of Polemo-II, returns from Judea to Rome, expecting to resume relationship with Titus.  He sends her away. 79 Jud 4-602, wikTt
79 Aug 24 VESUVIUS erupts. Earthquake accompanies; Herculanaium, Pompeii, and Stabiae covered in up to 10 feet of lava in 6 hours.  TAn 15:22     79 B76 IX-509, 14-789, BBA, CDCC 419, 445, 705, DGRG 1-1053,4, 2-1284, Dur 3-457, GHH, HRRP 4.2-681, IR 138, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, unrvTt, wikDt, wikTt
79 Aug 24 Son of Antonius Felix & Drusilla, AGRIPPA dies.  His wife, DRUSILLA dies.  Dau of Agrippa-I, and their son Agrippa, all killed at Pompeii. 79 BBA, BNTH 344, IR 138
79 Aug 24 C. Plinius Secundus, PLINY the Elder dies, age 55.  He commands a Roman fleet at Misenum, lands at Stabiae to rescue friends and family, and to observe the eruption.  A wind forbids him to leave port, and he suffocates. 79 AΨΨ 396, B76 14-572, CAH 11-21, CDCC 690, DGRBM 3-414, DGRG 2-362, Dur 3-210, MCAW, OCD 845, SHWC 148, TTPC, TTS, wikPtE
79 Aug 24 PAINTING STYLES evidenced at Pompeii
  1. incrustation: (200-100) walls colored to resemble inlaid marble slabs (crustae)
  2. architectural: (100-0) walls painted to resemble a building, facade, colonade
  3. ornate: (0-50) uses architectural forms only as ornament; subordinates landscapes to figures
  4. intricate: (50-79) fantastic structures & shapes without gravity, and in disarray
Dur 3-353
79 Aug TITUS takes personal control of relief efforts at Pompeii and Herculaneum. 79 CDCC 892
79 Aug Bronze CABLE evidenced in Pompeii. 79 TTT
79 Aug PompeiiPOMPEII settlement phases:
  • red: 1st (Samnite) town
  • blue: 1st expansion, 4th cen.
  • green: 2nd expansion
  • yellow: Roman expansion, from 89BCE
map: Marcus Cyron

Pompei surgical
SURGICAL TOOLS found at Pompei           Photo {{PD-US}} Giorgio Sommer
79 Aug PLINY the Younger writes a letter describing the erruption. 79 MCAW, TTS
79 CLOTHING PRESS with right & left handed screws represented by drawings at Pompeii. 79 B76 11-232
79 GLASS WINDOWS scarce, but present at Pompeii.  Sheets as large as 21" x 28". 79 SHT 2-416, 3-227
79 A library of papyrus scrolls on Epicurean philosophy buried at Pompeii. 79 ISBE 3-652
79 PLANE used at Pompeii and Roman Britain, but is lost at fall of Rome until 13th cent. 79 SHT 2-393
79 TITUS Flavius Vespasian, princeps 79-81, visits Pompeii after the eruption and again in spring 80. 79 wikTt
80 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Imp. TITUS (8th) and bro DOMITIAN (3rd).  But Titus grants Domitian no proconsular imperium or tribune power.   suffete: T. Vinicius Julianus 80 CAH 11-19, DGRBM 3-1262, FHBC 85, OCD 360, about, wikCon
c.80 TITUS Flavius Vespasian, forbids a person to be tried under different laws for the same offense. no date: wikTt
80 spring TITUS Flavius Vespasian, princeps 79-81, visits Pompeii again.  While there, fire begins in Rome 80 wikTt
80 spring FIRE at Rome lasts 3 days; the Capitol is again destroyed, also Vespasian's temple, Agrippa's Pantheon, Temple of Jupiter, the Diribitorium, Pompey's theater, and Augustus' library.  Titus personally compensates for losses.  Results in extensive rebuilding. 79 Dur 3-289 80 DGRBM 3-1160, GHH, ISBE 4-232, LEWH, OCD 203, wikDt, wikTt
80 PANTHEON, on Campus Martius from 25 BC, burnt. 80 ISBE 4-233, wikTt
80 CAPITOLINE TEMPLE, rebuilt 70-71, burnt again.  Rebuilt 82. 80 CDCC 161
80 THEATER of L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS on Campus Martius, dedicated 13BC, damaged in fire. 80 iath
80 Flavian Amphitheater (now called COLOSSEUM), begun 70 by Vespasian, finished and dedicated by Titus.  160 ft high, oval 617 ft x 513 ft.  50,000 marble seats plus 37,000 other seats.  Has basements and sub-basements.  Its opening begins 3 months of celebrations, including fights between wild animals (elephants, cranes), mock naval battles.  500 animals and many gladiators are killed.  Wooden balls are dropped into the audience, inscribed with various prizes (clothing, gold or even slaves), which could be redeemed for the designated item.  Biggest theater in the world until 1914. 80 DGRBM 3-1160, Dur 3-361, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, wikTt
82 B76 III-21
exterior    FeaturedPics.
interior: LemonCrumpet
80 Porticus OctaviaePORTICUS OCTAVIAE built c.20 BC by Augustus, burnt and restored.  reconst. {{PD-US}}

80 wikPO
CONFUSION ALERT!  This is not Porticus Octavia with no E on the end.
80 PUBLIC BATHS of M. Agrippa from 19, damaged by fire. 80 wikBA
80 Public BATHS of Titus built hastily, possibly converting an existing or partly built bathing complex of the Domus Aurea.  Dedicated.  They are not large, but contain impressive paintings. 80 DGRBM 3-1160, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, wikTt     81 wikBT
c.80 ANTHRAX plague sweeps the empire, killing thousands of people and animals, clear to the Chinese border. 79 BBA, Dur 3-311
80 DGRBM 3-1160, Dur 3-289, TTPC, wikTt
80 Several public works built; the Capitol, Thermae aqueducts, roads 80 GHH
c.80 MARTIAL (M. Valerius Martialis) writes  De Spectaculis  (On Spectacles).  About the dedication of the Colosseum. 80 B76 VII-542, CDCC 558, OCD 652, TTPC
c.80 False teeth used in Rome, according to an epigram of Martial. 80 MCAW
c.80 APOLLINARIS, disciple of Peter, 1st bishop of Ravenna, dies. no date: DDS 67
c.80 ASPREN, disciple of Peter, 1st bishop of Naples, dies. no date: DDS 74
81 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. Flavius SILVA (or Silvanus) NONIUS BASSUS and ASINIUS POLLIO Verrucosus   suffetes: L. Vettius Paulus and L. Venuleius Apronianus 81 DGRBM 3-439, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
81 C. Cornelius TACITUS becomes quaestor. 81 B76 17-983
c.81 PLINY the Younger is a judge in the centumviral court (decemvir litibus iudicandis). 81 wikPlnY
81 APOLLONIUS of Tyana interviewed by Titus.  . 81 gtbAT
81 Roman treasury is depleted by generosity of Titus. 81 MCAW
81 PALACE of Domitian begun by architect Rabirius on the Palatine until 92. 81 wikPD
81 L. Julius URSUS and Cornelius FUSCUS become Praetorian Prefects; Ursus until 83, Fuscus until 87 81 wikPP
81 Arch of Titus ARCH of TITUS, begun 71 on east end of Forum, finished. photo: Anthony M

80 Jud 15-1167 81 B76 X-133, Dur 3-210, TToH, TTPC, wikAT     82 IR
81 Sep TITUS Flavius Vespasian, princeps 79-81, leaves for Sabine territories but falls ill at the first posting station. 81 wikTt
81 Sep 13 TITUS Flavius Vespasian dies of fever, age 40.  Princeps from Aug 79.  His younger bro Flavius DOMITIAN succeeds on same day until 96, under suspicion of murder.  He has Titus deified. 81 B76 5-950, 15-1113, BAA, CAH 11-21, CDCC 281, 892, DGRBM 1-1061, 3-1159, 1161, Dur 3-289, GHH, HRRP 4.2-679, Jud 6-164, 15-1168, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 360, SHWC 131, TToH, TTPC, unrvTt, wikDt, wikTt
81 Domitian's beginning is puritannical and competent.  He enforces Julian moral laws, stops castrations, stops speculation, issues good coins, cancels tax arrears over 5 years old. 81 MCAW
81 By moving the center of government to the imperial court, Domitian openly renders the Senate's powers obsolete.  In his view, the Empire is a divine monarchy.  He intervenes in all branches of administration with edicts governing everyday life and law.  Taxation and public morals are rigidly enforced.  The imperial bureaucracy never ran more efficiently than under Domitian. wikDt
81 Domitian:  Astrology buff, loner, austere, legalistic, cruel, grim, ironic, calculating, rude to his guests, bent on total autocracy. 81 CAH 11-23
81 DENARIUS silver content, 81% during Vitellius reign, raised to 92% under Domitian. 81 TTPC
c.81 DOMITIAN PERSECUTION of CHRISTIANS begins, because they refuse to sacrifice before his image.  Ends at his death in 96. 81 ENBD 227, FBM 19, WHCC 30
95 ENBD 942
82 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (4th) and cousin T. Flavius SABINUS 82 CAH 11-23, DGRBM 3-690, FHBC 85, OCD 942, 960, about, wikCon
82 The Capitol is again restored. 82 GHH
82 CAPITOLINE TEMPLE, burnt 80, rebuilt more grandiose. 82 CDCC 161
82 Silius Italicus, the historical poet, flourishes. 82 GHH
82 Freedman Tiberius CLAUDIUS, serving emperors from Tiberius on, banished until 89 by Domitian. 82 OCD 247
82 Another fire in Rome. 82 Dur 3-289, MCAW
83 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (5th) and Q. Petilius RUFUS (2nd) 83 DGRBM 3-676, FHBC 85, OCD 247, about, wikCon
83 aureus 83Aureus struck in 83 depicting Domitian and wife Domitia Longina titled Augusta. photo: Domitian
83 DOMITIA LONGINA, wife of Domitian from 70, divorced on advice of Ursus on charge of adultery with actor Paris until 85. 83 CAH 11-25, DGRBM 1-1060, wikDL
83 Praetorian Prefect from 81, L. Julius URSUS ends.  L. Laberius MAXIMUS succeeds until 84. 83 wikPP
83 DOMITIAN goes to Gaul on pretext of holding a census. 82 unrvDt     83 CAH 11-162, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, wikDt
83 DOMITIAN, in Gaul/Germany 83, returns to Rome, has triumph. 83 unrvDt
84 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (6th) and C. Oppius Junius SABINUS 84 DGRBM 2-688, FHBC 85 about, wikCon
84 DOMITIAN made consul for 10 years and censor for life.  He openly subordinates the senate and majistrates to himself. 84 LEWH
84 Cousin of Domitian, T. Flavius SABINUS executed by Domitian, who then takes his wife FLAVIA JULIA as mistress until death 91.  She is Domitian's neice. 84 B76 5-950, OCD 567, 942
84 Praetorian Prefect from 83, L. Laberius MAXIMUS ends.  Casperius AELIANUS succeeds until 84. 84 wikPP
c.84 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, governor of Britain from 77/8, recalled by Domitian. 83 CDCC 146     84 B76 I-144, CDCC 25, DGRBM 1-76, Dur 3-210, 452, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 360, TTPC, wikGRB     84/5 CAH 11-25       85 GHH, OCD 181, wikGJA
84 DOMITIAN increases army pay by ⅓. 84 B76 5-950, LEWH
84 DOMITIAN revives excessive use of the law of treason, and resumes pay for informers. 84 LEWH
84 Triumph of DOMITIAN, now called Germanicus. 84 GHH
84 PLUTARCH lectures in Rome. 84 GHH     89 Dur 3-452
84/5 C. Oppius SABINUS becomes legate of Moesia until death 85, implied
85 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (7th) and T. AURELIUS FULVIUS 85 FHBC 85, about, wikCon
85±5 Roman CHURCH divided into 25 parishes by bishop Anacletus, each under a presbyter. no date: ODP 7, wikPA
c.85 Greek sophist, DIO CHRYSOSTOM, banished from Italy and Bithynia for advising one of the Emperor's conspiring relatives.  Goes to Greece. 85 B76 III-556 82 wikDCr
c.85 CENSORSHIP of Domitian expires after 18 months.  He wants to keep it because it gives him total control of senate membership, so he is elected censor potestas for life. 84/5 OCD 360
85 B76 5-950, 15-1113, CAH 11-24, unrvDt, wikDt
c.85 M. Ulpius TRAJANUS becomes praetor. 85 HRRP 4.2-743, unrvTr
c.85 DOMITIA LONGINA, divorcee of Domitian from 83, taken back to live in the palace along with his mistress Julia. 85 CAH 11-25, DGRBM 1-1060
c.85 PRAETORIAN GUARD, 9 cohorts from 70, increased to 10 by Domitian until ?. 81-96 wikPG
c.85 Praetorian prefect 81-87, Cornelius FUSCUS sent with 5 legions by Domitian to Moesia to expell the Dacians. 85 CAH 11-170, OCD 309 wikCF
86/7 OCD 360
86 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (8th) and Ser. Cornelius DOLABELLA Sulpicianus (Petronianus?) 86 DGRBM 3-215, FHBC 85, OCD 359, about, wikCon
86±2 EPICTETUS, Greek Stoic slave of Epaphroditus, a secretary of Nero, freed, becomes philosophy teacher in Rome until 90. pre-89 GB 12-101
86 Domitian is addressed by poets and courtiers as MASTER and GOD. 86 CAH 11-25 85-9 IDB 1-863
86 LUDI CAPITOLINI (Capitoline Games), begun 387, revived by Domitian.  A quadrennial contest of athletic displays, chariot racing, oratory, music, and acting. 86 GHH, MCAW, unrvDt, wikCG, wikDt
c.86 Domitian Stadium STADIUM of Domitian, begun in 80 north of Campus Martius in brick and concrete, 160m x 48m, clad in marble and dedicated - Rome's first permanent venue for competitive athletics.  It may have been used as a private riding school.  Seats 15-20,000. photo: Rjdeadly

86 wikDt 92 wikSD
c.86 MARTIAL (M. Valerius Martialis) begins publishing  12 Books of Epigrams  until 101. 86 CDCC 559, IDB 4-107
86 Grammarian P. Papinius STATIUS dies. 86 DGRBM 3-902
86/7 DOMITIAN goes in person to Illyria to save Romans from Dacians. 86 DGRBM 1-945 87 MCAW
no date: LEWH
87 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (9th) and L. Volusius SATURNINUS 87 DGRBM 3-726, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
87 Praetorian Prefect from 81, Cornelius FUSCUS ends.  Colleague Casperius Aelianus continues 84-94. 87 wikPP
c.87 CORNELIA, chief of the vestals, and 3 other vestals charged with unchastity, executed by burying alive. 83 OCD 360, zxcCV 87 wikDt     92 GHH, OCD 360
88 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (10th) and L. Minicius RUFUS 88 DGRBM 3-676, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
c.88 War with the Dacians. 88 GHH
c.88 Mime, PARIS is killed on suspicion of intrigue with Domitia. 88 DGRBM 2-688
88 C. Cornelius TACITUS becomes praetor. 88 B76 17-987, DGRBM 3-968, HRRP 4.2-699, OCD 1034
88 LUDI SAECULARES celebrated (6 years ahead of the Augustan cycle) by Domitian.  Praetor Tacitus helps one of the quindecemviri. 88 B76 IX-19, CAH 10-837, DGRBM 3-968, GHH
88 Rhetoric teacher QUINTILLIAN, 1st state-salaried teacher from 71, retires. 88 B76 14-341
88/9 PLINY the Younger is a Quaestor attached to Emperor's staff (quaestor imperatoris). 88/9 wikPlnY
89 Jan 1 CONSULS:  T. AURELIUS FULVUS and M. Asinius ATRATINUS 89 FHBC 85, about, wikCon
89 People suspected of implication in Saturninus' revolt in Germany are hunted down.  Informers are encouraged by payment. 89 MCAW
c.89 Domitian and his Praetorian Guard go from Rome to Gaul. 89 wikDt, wikTr
89 DOMITIAN is granted a triumph over the Dacians - anyway. 89 MCAW 91 GHH
89 DOMITIAN says he and his family are all gods. 89 MCAW
89 Freedman Ti. CLAUDIUS, banished from 82, recalled by Domitian because of intercession by Claudius Etruscus. 89 OCD 247
90 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (11th) and M. Cocceius NERVA (2nd) 90 B76 VII-264, DGRBM 2-1167, FHBC 85, OCD 730, about, wikCon
c.90 Sextus Julius FRONTINUS writes 2 books on the water supply of Rome, sumarizing advances on aqueducts from ancient times. 90 MCAW, TTT     97 TTS
no date: B76 1-1037
c.90 PLUTARCH of Chaeronea lectures on philosophy in Rome. 90 MCAW
c.90 Poet C. Valerius FLACCUS dies.  Author of  Argonautica  about legendary Jason, and his ship Argo. 90 B76 X-338
c.90 CORPUS PAULINUM (Pauline Epistles) begin to be collected and copied. 90 BAA 11
90 Spaniard M. Fabius QUINTILIAN, is made tutor to Domitian's 4 grand-nephews. 90 wikQnt
c.90 PHILOSOPHERS and ASTROLOGERS banished from Italy by Domitian. 89 CAH 11-17, IDB 1-863, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 360
90 GB 12-101, GHH 93 wikEpc
90 EPICTETUS, Greek Stoic philosophy teacher in Rome from 86, expelled, from Italy, goes to Nicopolis Epirus. 89 IDB 3-549 90 GB 12-101 93 wikEpc
c.90 HADRIAN, age 14, visits Spain, his ancestral home. 90 B76 8-539
c.90 SPICES become more plentiful because Arab monopoly is broken by Roman ships big enough to sail safely from Egyptian ports on Red Sea to India.  But spices are popular and expensive, therefore drain the economy. 90 TTPC
91 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M. Ulpius TRAJANUS and M' ACILIUS GLABRIO 91 B76 8-539, DGRBM 2-272, 3-1166, FHBC 85, HRRP 4.2-743, OCD 231, 467, about, unrvTr, wikCon, wikTr
91 PLINY the Younger is pleb tribune. 91 wikPlnY
91 Niece of Domitian and mistress from 84, Flavia JULIA dies.  Deified. 91 OCD 567
c.91 P. Acilius HADRIANUS, age 15, in Spain from 90, is is recalled to Rome by Trajan. 91 DGRBM 2-319, Dur 3-414
c.91 Gnostic opponent of John the Evangelist, CERINTHUS denies that the Supreme God made the physical world, and denies virgin birth and divinity of Jesus.  Says the Christ descended on Jesus at baptism and guided him, but left him at the crucifixion.  Epiphanius says Cerinthus founded a school in Asia province.  All that is known of him comes from writing of his theological opponents. 91 GHH
no date: wikCrn
91/2 ANACLETUS, bishop of Rome from 78, ends.  CLEMENT-I succeeds until 98. 88 Dur 3-552, gnwd, TToH, wikPC1 88 or 91 B76 I-334     88-92 B76 II-984     91 DDS 151, GHH, ODP 7 92 wikPA
92 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (12th) and Q. Volusius SATURNINUS   suffetes: Q. Junius Arulenus Rusticus, L. Venuleius Apronianus, and C. Junius Silanus 92 DGRBM 3-726, 822, 1239, FHBC 85, OCD 128, about, wikCon
92 Economic edict of Domitian increases wheat production and diminishes wine production - bans new vineyards in Rome, orders uprooting of half of the vineyards in Roman provinces. 92 IDB 1-864, nomer
Palace Domitian
PALACE of Domitian separated into parts           Drawing Cassius Ahenobarbus
92 DOMUS AUGUSTANA (Flavian Palace, Domus Flavia, Palace of Domitian), begun by architect Rabirius on the Palatine 81, finished.  Central section (Domus Augustana) has at least 4 main parts: the 2nd Peristyle to the northeast, the central 3rd Peristyle, the courtyard complex and the exedra on the southwest.  Built on two levels, the upper north one consisting of the 2 peristyles to the north on the same level and closely linked to the Domus Flavia, therefore probably having public functions.  The south section is built later.   (renamed 96) 92 CDCC 638, wikFP, wikPD
c.92 DOMITIAN returns from Rome to the Rhine for 8 months until 93. 92 unrvDt
93 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Gn. POMPEIUS COLLEGA and Cornelius PRISCUS   suffetes: M. Lollius Paulinus and T. Avidius Quietus 93 DGRBM 2-798, 3-526, FHBC 85, OCD 156, about, wikCon
93 APOLLONIUS of Tyana tried in Rome.  . 93 gtbAT
93 Sarmatian War begins. 93 DGRBM 2-965, GHH
c.93 PLINY the Younger becomes praetor. 93 CDCC 691, HRRP 4.2-700, wikPlnY
c.93 DOMITIAN, in Gaul/Germany since 92, returns to Rome. 93 CAH 11-30
93 Baebius MASSA, former proconsul of Baetica, charged with corruption by Baeticans, prosecuted, convicted, but is pardoned by Domitian.  Becomes a favored informant. 93 CAH 11-39, DGRBM 2-970
93 Reign of terror begins until 96: persecution of Jews, Christians, and philosophers. 93 B76 5-950, Dur 3-210     95 GHH
Aug 23
Gn. Julius AGRICOLA dies, age 55, on his family estates in Gallia Narbonensis. 93 B76 I-143, CAH 11-30, DGRBM 1-76, 2-970, GHH, OCD 28, MCAW, unrvDt, wikAgr
93 JOSEPHUS publishes  Antiquities of the Jews  to regain their good will by boosting Jewish achievements to the Romans.  Uses 1Esdras instead of Ezra - Nehemiah. 93 B76 10-278, BAA 24, 147, DGRBM 2-613, Dur 3-546, GHH, JsCW 678     93/4 CBCNT 53, IDB 2-987, ISBE 2-1132, Jud 10-262, 16-948, JZ 30     94 ODCC 759
93 late Son of H.P. d72, Helvidius PRISCUS executed.  Senator suspected of treason. 93 CAH 11-30, LEWH, brit
93 late Herennius SENECIO executed.  Suspected of treason. 93 CAH 11-30, LEWH
93 late Arulenus RUSTICUS dies.  Writes a panegyric on Thrasea Paetus and Helvidius Priscus.  Executed. 93 CAH 11-30, LEWH, OCD 128
94 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. Nonius TORQUATUS ASPRENAS and T. Sextius MAGIUS LATERANUS   suffete: L. Sergius Paulus 94 DGRBM 2-724, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
94 Praetorian Prefect from 84, alone from 87, Casperius AELIANUS ends.  T. Flavius NORBANUS and T. Petronius SECUNDUS succeed; Noranus until 96, Secundus until 97. 94 wikPP
c.94 PLINY the Younger becomes prefect of military treasury until 96. 94 CDCC 691, wikPlnY
94 EPICTETUS, freed slave, Phrygian Stoic, flourishes. 94 GHH
95 Jan 1 CONSULS:  DOMITIAN (13th) and T. FLAVIUS CLEMENS 95 DGRBM 1-788, FHBC 85, OCD 249, about, wikCon, wikDt
95 Conspiracy of P. Juventius Celsus, the jurist and Nerva.  Celsus successfully delays prosecution by flattery, and promises to reveal other conspirators until Domitian dies. 95 GHH
no date: DGRBM 1-662
c.95 MALARIA appears in farmlands outside Rome, removing Campanian produce from markets.  Farmers move into Rome, taking malaria with them, lowering live-birth rate in Rome, while rates elsewhere rise.  Malaria continues 500 years. 95 TTPC
c.95 250,000,000 galons of WATER per day flows to Rome by at least 10 aqueducts.  This makes 50 galons per person even after the baths use half of it. 95 TTPC
95 May Lappius Maximus receives 2nd consulship. 95 wikDt
c.95 AKIBA ben Joseph and other sages sail from Judea to Puteoli, then go to Rome 95 B76 1-404
c.95 Iron PLOWS with wheels help Italian farmers.  95 TTPC
95 M' Acilius GLABRIO dies.  Cos 91, convicted of following "Jewish practices" Christianity?, executed.  Wid Priscilla survives to 98. 95 BNTH 414, CAH 11, OCD 231, 467
c.95 PHILOSOPHERS banished from all Italy. 95 CAH 11, MCAW, OCD 360
c.95 Road connecting Appian Way at Sinuessa to Puteoli built by Domitian. 95 DGRG 2-679
95 JOSEPHUS publishes  Vita  "Life", his autobiography.  Says Agrippa-II is dead at this time. 93/4 Jud 10-262
post-96 DGRBM 2-613
100 IDB 2-144
c.95 JOSEPHUS writes  Against Apion .  A defense of Judaism as an ancient religion and philosophy against criticism by literati Apion. 95 ENBD 188, ISBE 2-1132
95  Letters of Paul  are published. 95 IDB 2-795
c.95 Spanish teacher, rhetorician, M. Fabius QUINTILIAN publishes  Institutes of Oratory .  12 volumes. 95 IDB 4-107, wikQnt
95 late Consul T. Flavius CLEMENS, cousin of Domitian, is accused of godlessness, and executed, for treason and following "Jewish practices" (Christianity?).  Clemens' wife FLAVIA DOMITILLA (neice of Domitian) is banished to Pandateria island for the same crime. 95 B76 5-950, BNTH 413, CAH 11, GHH, IDB 1-863, ISBE 1-204, Jud 6-164, 1338, LEWH, OCD 231, 249, 360, WHCC 30
95/6 ODP 8    96 DDS 230
96 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. ANTISTIUS VETUS and T.(c.?) MANLIUS VALENS 96 DGRBM 3-1207, 1252, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
96 DOMITIAN orders execution of his freedman secretary Epaphroditus for not preventing Nero from suicide.  Other freedmen in royal household plot against Domitian, whose wife Domitia Longina is in on it. 96 DGRBM 1-1061, MCAW, TTPC
96 EPAPHRODITUS dies.  Freedman from ?, secretary of emperors from ?, former owner of Epictetus, executed by Domitian. 95 wikEpf
96 DGRBM 1-1061, MCAW, TTPC
96 Praetorian Prefect from 94, T. Flavius NORBANUS ends.  Colleague T. Petronius SECUNDUS continues 94-97.  Casperius AELIANUS appointed by Nerva until 98. 96 wikPP
c.96 PLINY the Younger, prefect of military treasury from 94, ends. 96 CDCC 691, wikPlnY
96 DOMITIA LONGINA, wife of Domitian, feels insecure, joins 2 praetorian prefects & senators in plot to kill Domitian. 96 IDB 1-863, OCD 360
96 STEPHANUS, former steward of Flavia Domitilla (exiled 95), offers services to senatorial conspirators. 96 BNTH 413
96 Sep 18 Princeps from 81, 2nd son of Vespasian, Flavius DOMITIAN dies, age 44.  Stabbed to death by freedman Stephanus, with complicity of chamberlain Parthenius.  There is no retaliation by praetorians.  Rome rejoices, and condemns his memory, but the army venerates Domitian. 96 B76 5-950, 15-1113, BAA, CAH 11-33, CDCC 281, DGRBM 1-1061,2, 3-129, Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 1-863, Jud 6-164, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 730, SHWC 131, TToH, TTPC, unrvDt, wikDt, wikNv
96 Sep 19 Empire 96CE65 year old senatorial appointee, M. Cocceius NERVA persuaded by chamberlain Parthenius to claim therone, NERVA proclaimed princeps by senate until 98.  He is childless, so can't establish a dynasty.  He has been a jurist and minor poet, known as eloquent, peaceful, and just.  So he lacks military support. 96 B76 VII-264, 15-1113, BAA, CAH 11-33, 188, DGRBM 2-1167, 3-129, Dur 3-210, GHH, HRRP 4.2-731, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 730, SHWC 131, TToH, TTPC, unrvDt, wikDt, wikNv, wikTr
96 Sep Reign of terror from 93 ends. 96 B76 5-950
96 Sep Work of Marcellinus AMMIANUS starts here. 96 DGRBM 1-143
Emperor NERVA restores tranquility, halts trials based on treason, releases those imprisoned for treason, recalls exiles, restores their property when possible, reforms taxation and land tenure, relieves the poor, publicly swares to never execute a senator - and keeps it.  Most superfluous religious sacrifices, games and horse races are abolished. 96 GHH, MCAW, TTPC, wikNv
96 Custom now requires a new emperor to give gifts and money to the people and army.  A congiarium of 75 denarii per head is given to citizens, while the Praetorians get possibly as much as 5,000 denarii per man.  Economic reforms follow to alleviate the tax burden from poor Romans.  The poorest collectively get land allotments worth up to 60,000,000 sesterces.  New income comes from Domitian's former possessions, including auctioning of ships, estates, and furniture.  Much money comes from Domitian's silver and gold statues.  Nerva forbids that similar images be made to him. 96 wikNv
96 Chamberlain Parthenius dies.  He and other conspirators against Domitian are killed by soldiers.  Nerva lacks the courage to protect them. 96 DGRBM 3-129
96 Publicius CERTUS attacked in senate by Pliny and Ummidius Quadratus for his action in condemnation of Helvidius Priscus. 96 DGRBM 3-632,3
96 All statues of Domitian destroyed by order of senate.  His name is removed from all public inscriptions.  His laws are anulled, his informers prosecuted. 96 LEWH, MCAW, OCD 730
96 Oct? DOMUS AUGUSTANA (Flavian Palace, Domus Flavia) on the Palatine hill, completed 92, renamed House of the People) 96 wikNv
96 Consul T.(c.?) MANLIUS VALENS dies, age 18. 96 DGRBM 3-1207
96 Nerva's forum opens. 96 MCAW
96  Lex Cocceia    prohibits castration. 96 GHH, EDRL 549
c.96  1st Epistle of Clement  written to Corinthian Ctns in response their deposition of certain elders (terms bishop and presbyter are used interchangeably).  Clement tells congregation to repent, restore the elders, and obey their superiors.  Quotes 1st Corinthians to support his authority.  Martyrdom of Peter & Paul attested (ch5).  Cites the O.T. @100 times.  Quotes material similar to synoptics w/o calling it scripture.  "Wisdom of Solomon" is quoted in it as scripture. 
The so called 2nd Epistle of Clement is a 2nd cen homily falsely attributed to Clement.
93-7 WHCC 32, 41
95 BAA 8, BNTH 419, CAH 11-289, 12-530, ENBD 945, IDB 1-164, Qlb 47, 49 95/6 CBCNT 58, ENBD 942, FHBC 304, IDB 1-649 96 B76 13-956, 14-156, BBP 102, ISBE 3-706, OCD 250, ODCC 300, ODP 8, gnwd, wikFEC, wikPC1     97 ANF 2
no date: IDB 1-512
by 96 There is a copy of 1 Corinthians and other N.T. writings in church archives of Rome, by 96 BBP 167
96 Ecclesiastical Supremacy of Rome in 1 Clement:
59. "But if any disobey the words spoken by him thru us, let them know that they will involve themselves in transgression and no small danger."
63. "For you will have joy and gladness if obedient to what we have written thru the Holy Spirit to you..."
96 DIPA 2
96 APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION supported in 1 Clement:
Says bishops are successors to the Apostles.
95 B76 II-43
96 Clement, who knew that Paul wanted to go to Spain, says, he had "come to the exreme limit of the west". 95 IDB 4-430, Qlb 47
96 Poet, P. Papinius STATIUS dies in Neapolis. 96 CDCC 842, MCAW
97 Jan 1 CONSULS:  M. Cocceius NERVA (3rd) and L. Verginius RUFUS (3rd)   suffetes: Cornelius Tacitus, Arius Antoninus 97 B76 VII-264, 17-983, CAH 10-869, 11-192, DGRBM 2-1167, 3-678, 969, FHBC 85, OCD 76, 1034, 1114, about, wikCon
97 early Conspiracy led by senator C. Calpurnius Piso Crassus Frugi Licinianus fails, but again Nerva refuses to execute the conspirators.  Senate disapproves. 97 wikNv
97 Domitian assassin STEPHANUS and accomplices killed by Praetorian Guard. 97 B76 VIII-174, OCD 730
97  Lex Agraria  redistributes land. 97 CAH 11
97 Sextus Julius FRONTINUS appointed curator aquarum by Nerva to overhaul the Roman water system.  "With such an array of indispensable structures carrying so many waters, compare ... the idle pyramids, or the useless but famous works of the Greeks." 97 B76 1-1036-7, CAH 11-193, CDCC 367, OCD 448
97 Praetorian Prefect from 94, T. Petronius SECUNDUS dismissed by Nerva.  Colleague Casperius AELIANUS continues 96-98. 96 wikNv 97 wikPP
97 Consul L. Verginius RUFUS-III dies age 83, after breaking a leg, and is replaced by suffete C. Cornelius Tacitus, who does his eulogy. 97 DGRBM 3-678, 969, MCAW, wikVR
97 Emperor NERVA considers adopting M. Cornelius Nigrinus Curiatius Maternus, governor of Syria.  He is covertly opposed by supporters of popular army commander M. Ulpius Trajanus. 97 wikNv
97 mid Emperor NERVA consults the army before deciding to adopt soldier M. Ulpius TRAJANUS as son and successor.  This creates a precedent. 97 CAH 11-178, 197, CDCC 902, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 730, TTPC, unrvTr, wikNv
97 mid M. Ulpius TRAJANUS, in Upper Germany fighting Suevi, is adopted by Nerva, and given full imperial and tribunician power, essentially making him co-emperor. 97 DGRBM 3-1166, HRRP 4.2-742, TTPC, unrvTr, wikTr
97 P. Acilius HADRIANUS, former ward of Trajan, now in Lower Moesia, is chosen to go to Gaul and tell Trajan of his adoption. 97 B76 8-539, DGRBM 2-319, wikTr
Sources conflict as to whether Trajan went to Rome to be adopted.
97 Oct Praetorian Guard, led by Casperius Aelianus, miffed that they have been excluded from emperor-appointing, rebels, besieges the Imperial Palace and takes Nerva hostage.  He is forced to agree to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death and give a speech thanking the rebellious Praetorians.  T. Petronius Secundus and Parthenius are sought out and killed. 97 MCAW, wikDt, wikNv
c.97 M. Ulpius TRAJANUS, governor of Lower Germany from 91, Upper from 96, recalled to Rome by Nerva. 97 B76 8-539, TTPC, wikGGI
97 late TRAJAN apparently returns from Rome to Gaul, but no source says so.
98 Jan 1 CONSULS:  NERVA (4th) and TRAJAN (2nd)
suffetes: Sextus Julius Frontinus, L. Licinius Sura, and C. Sosius Senecio
98 CAH 11-198, CDCC 367, 902, DGRBM 2-1167, 3-783, FHBC 85, OCD 448, wikCon, wikNv
T. Flavius LIBO instead of Trajan about
98 Jan 1 NERVA has a stroke, then gets a fever. 98 wikNv
98 Jan 25-27 Princeps from 96, M. Cocceius NERVA dies, age 95, of fever.  Adopted son, M. Ulpius TRAJAN succeeds without incident until 117, (now campaigning on the Rhine).  He continues there until 99. 98 B76 VII-264, B76 15-1113, BAA, CAH 11-198, HRRP 4.2-733, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 730, TTPC
98 Jan 25 or 27 DGRBM 2-1168, 3-1166, Dur 3-408, GHH, Jud 15-1312, SHWC 131, TToH, wikNv, wikTr
98 Jan NERVA deified by senate. 98 GHH, wikNv
98 Praetorian Prefect from 96, Casperius AELIANUS ends.  Sextus Attius SUBURANUS succeeds until 101. 98 wikPP
98 PRISCILLA, wid of M' Acilius Glabrio 95, martyred. 98 DDS 480
Mar 21
Solar eclipse (falsely recorded to be on the day of Nerva's death). 98 DGRBM 2-1168
98 The profession of BUFFOON in the Roman theater abolished by Trajan. 98 GHH
98 ASTRONOMY:  MENELAUS of Alexandria, in Rome, makes dated astronomical observations that will be used by Ptolemy's Almagest. 98 DGRBM 2-1039, OCD 671
c.98 PLINY the Younger becomes prefect of public treasury until 100. 98 CDCC 691, wikPlnY
98 MONEY:  Denarius, 92% silver from time of Domitian, raised to 93% under Trajan until 127. 98 TTPC
98 Greek sophist, DIO CHRYSOSTOM, becomes known in Rome. 98 MCAW
98 P. Cornelius TACITUS publishes  Germany  based on previous books now lost.  Reliable ethnography of Germans, whom he believes to be a threat to the empire. 98 B76 8-34, 40, 17-983, CAH 11-76, MCAW, OCD 1034
98 P. Cornelius TACITUS publishes  Life of Agricola  98 B76 I-143, 17-983, GB 15, MCAW, OCD 1034
98 Christian assemblies prohibited. 98 GHH
98±3 Bishop of Rome from 91, CLEMENT-I, dies.  EVARISTUS succeeds until 109. 96 GHH     97 TToH     97-101 DDS 213, B76 II-984     98 Dur 3-552     99 DDS 151, wikPC1
100 ODP 8 101 ODP 7
99 Jan 1 CONSULS:  A. Cornelius PALMA FRONTINUS and Q. SOSIUS SENECIO 99 DGRBM 3-101, 783, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
99 TRAJAN, in Gaul & Germany from 89, decides its time to go to Rome, crosses to Italy. 99 CGRBM 2-965, unrvTrwikTr
99 TRAJAN enters Rome on foot greeted by massive crowds, gives plebs a direct gift of money.  He re-affirms the vow by Nerva that no senator would be harmed, and the Augustan sham of being a first citizen among peers. 99 DGRBM 2-965, LEWH, unrvTr, wikTr
100 MCAW
99 Judicia Majestatis, instituted by Augustus by lex Julia de majestate (date unknown), abolished.  Restoration of the Roman Constitution. 99 GHH
99 Plutarch, Trajan's preceptor, flourishes. 99 GHH
99 PLINY and TACITUS are appointed to conduct prosecution of Marius Priscus for misconduct in Africa 97-98. 99 DGRBM 3-969
99 Public schools and libraries: care of the poor; State bounty for children. 99 GHH
99 The Ulpian Library begun by Trajan in his forum.  Finished 114. 99 GHH
no date: wikUL
100 Jan 1 Several men are CONSULS:  TRAJAN (3rd) and Sex. Julius FRONTINUS (3rd)   suffetes: C. Julius Cornuntus Tertullus, L. Aelianus Roscius, Ti. Claudius Sacerdos, and Pliny the Younger 100 CDCC 367, DGRBM 3-422, 663, 692, 1167, FHBC 85, OCD 292, 448, about, wikCon
100 TRAJAN spends the year in Rome honoring Nerva, ultimately with deification, and building a sense of governing authority within the senate.  His rule is low key, and his court minimal.  He lets provincial governors make their own decisions, and defer to the emperor only on matters of extreme importance.  He reduces the power of the praetorians and reforms the court system. 100 unrvTr
100 2 new legions, II Traiana and XXX Ulpia, created by Trajan. 100 unrvTr
100 P. Aelius HADRIANUS marries Vibia SABINA, until 136/7.  She is dau of L. Vibius Sabinus & Matilda, niece of Trajan. 100 B76 8-539, Dur 3-414, OCD 941
c.100 PLINY the Younger, prefect of public treasury from 98, ends.  Becomes suffect consul. 100 CDCC 691, wikPlnY
c.100 PLINY the Younger delivers oration  Panegyricus Traiani  in the Senate. 100 wikPlnY
100 Marius PRISCUS, former proconsul of Africa 97-8, prosecuted for extortion by Cornelius Tacitus and Pliny the Younger; convicted, exiled. 99 GB 15-v     100 B76 VIII-45, 17-983, GHH, OCD 1034
c.100 Sextus Julius FRONTINUS publishes  De Aquis Urbae Romae  describing aqueducts and their history. 100 SHT 2-405, no date: OCD 448
c.100 Roman army peaks at 300,000 troops. 100 PW 17
c.100 JOSEPHUS dies in Rome, age 56. 93 GHH     post-93 B76 10-278
100 B76 10-310, CDCC 474, ISBE 2-1132 post-100 IDB 2-987, Jud 10-251
c.100 MARTIAL (M. Valerius Martialis) publishes  10th book . 100 DGRBM 3-524
c.100 MARTIAL (M. Valerius Martialis), with financial help from Pliny the Younger, retires to his native Spain. 96 DGRBM 2-926
100 DGRBM 2-964, GHH, MCAW
c.100 PLINY the Younger writes  Panegyrics  for Trajan. 100 CAH 11, DGRBM 3-422, MCAW
100 PLINY the Younger begins writing 9 books of selected private letters until 109, beginning with events around death of Domitian. 100 B76 VIII-45
100 P. Acilius HADRIANUS marries SABINA. 100 DGRBM 3-686
100 3 Schools of Gnostics, viz., of Syria, Asia, and EgyptSaturninus, the Syrian Gnostic, flourishes. 100 GHH
100 APOLLONIUS of Tyana Cappadocia dies in Crete.
100 P. Cornelius TACITUS publishes  Histories  in 14 books.  4½ survive. 100 BBP 170     100-110 wikHT
100 MILITARY MEDICINE peaks:  Every legion has 24 surgeons.  First-aid and field-ambulance services are well organized.  Hospitals are maintained near every important encampment. 100 ahcRM
c.100 Spanish teacher, rhetorician, M. Fabius QUINTILIAN, in Italy from 68, retired from 88, dies in Rome. post-96 B76 14-341 100 wikQnt
by 100 CHRISTIANITY: Strongly represented in Anatolia mostly, also Syria, Macedonia, Greece, and Rome - which has the largest congregation.  Moderately in Egypt. by 100 WHCC 37, 60
100 Christians in Rome adopt Syrian / Etruscan burial custom of CATACOMB burial, probably for spacial economy. 100 Dur 3-601
100 Sep 1 PLINY the Younger becomes suffect consul. 100 CDCC 691