New Testament books

Pre-70: Split into many parties;  School of Shamai dominant; Calendar follows Sadducean model.
Post-70: Only the legalistic party (pharisees) survive;  Sanhedrin abolished, replaced by Beth Din "house of judgment";  High priesthood abolished, replaced by Av Beth Din "father of the house of judgment";  Scribes record the oral law, and demand respect greater than that given to parents;  School of Hillel dominant.  Calendar follows Pharisaic model.
70 BBA, ENBD 179, 1143, 1151
c.70 PHINEHAS of Habta, high priest from 67, ends. 70 BAA, CBCNT 71, Jud 13-470, rcHL
70 spring TITUS with 4 legions, 60,000 men leaves Caesarea for Jerusalem. Wars 5:1:6
70 HRRP 4.2-633, jos6
70 Mar TITUS sends legion V Macedonica under Cerealis from Caesarea by way of Emmaus, Legion X Fretensis by way of Jericho, proceeds with XII Fulminata & XV Apollinaris toward Jerusalem. Wars 5:1:6
70 CAH 10-861, DGRBM 1-672
70 TITUS, with legions XII & XV Apollinaris, marche marches thru Samaria to Gophna, stays 1 night, continues to Gabaothsath village, camps at 'Hill of Saul' 5.5km north of Jerusalem.  He takes 600 cav to reconnoiter, is attacked, and nearly killed by Jews.  Jerusalem is crowded with visitors from all parts to celebrate passover. Wars 5:2:1,2 70 GHH, jos7
70 Legion V Macedonica comes by way of Emmaus, joins Titus at 'Hill of Saul' and they advance to Mt. Scopus, 1 mile from Jerusalem and camp there.  Wars 5:2:3
70 Jud 15-1168, jos7
70 Mr-Ap MIRACLES:  A star resembling a sword appears over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year.  At the 9th hour of the night, a great light shone round the altar and Temple; which lasted half an hour.  At the same festival, a heifer, as she was led by the high priest to be sacrificed, brought forth a lamb in the midst of the temple.  The east gate of the inner court of the temple, which was of brass and heavy opened of its own accord about the 6th hour of the night. Wars 6:5:3 70 jos7
70 Ap-My MIRACLES:  Before sunset, chariots and soldiers in armor are seen running among the clouds, and surrounding cities.  At the feast of Pentecost, as the priests go by night into the inner court of the temple they feel an earthquake, and hear a great noise.  After that they hear a sound as of many, saying, "Let us remove hence". Wars 6:5:3 70 jos7
70 Ap-My JOSHUA ben Hananiah goes around on the wall shouting, "Woe, woe to the city, and to the people, and to the holy house!" - as he has done since 62.  He adds, "Woe, woe to myself also".  A stone from a siege engine kills him. Wars 6:5:3
70 Apr Legion X Fretensis from Jericho, arrives east of Jerusalem, camps at Mount of Olives.  Wars 5:2:3
70 Jud 10-278-9, jos7
70 Apr JERUSALEM besieged 139 days by Titus with legions X, V, XII, and XV until Sep 7. 69 LEWH     70 BI+N 223, MCAW, wikTt, wikXF
70 Apr ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, sends troops to help Titus besiege Jerusalem. 70 DGRBM 1-194
70 Apr JERUSALEM:  Zealot John of Giscala and bandit Simon Bar Giora make peace to oppose Romans.  They sally out, attack legion X Fretensis, and rout it.  Titus chases them back.  They sally out again endangering Titus, and are repelled. Wars 5:2:4, 5 70 jos6, jos7
70 Apr JerusalemJERUSALEM:  ELEAZAR ben Simon dies.  Leader of the faction in the inner temple, opens gate to allow worshippers in.  Zealot leader John of Giscala's men enter with weapons hidden under their clothing, and wipes out Eleazar and his faction. map: G J Goldberg

Wars 5:3:1
70 CAH 10-861, jos6, jos7
70 Apr Simon bar Giora's has 10,000 men, with 50 commanders.  The separate Idumean contingent is 5,000 with 10 commanders, the highest being James b. Sosas and Simon b. Cathlas.  John of Giscala has 6000 men under 20 officers, plus 2,400 Zealots newly rejoined to him, and Simon b. Arinus.  Simon holds the Upper City and part of the Lower City; John of Giscala holds the Temple complex and the eastern Lower City. Wars 5:6:1 70 jos6
70 JOSEPHUS, advisor to Titus, joins Romans at siege of Jerusalem. 70 B76 10-278
70 Apr JERUSALEM:  Roman attack on outer wall causes Zealot leader John of Giscala and bandit leader Simon bar Giora to make peace.  John defends the temple and Fortress Antonia; Simon defends the Upper City. 70 CAH 10-861
70 May 1 JerusalemTitus and legions V, XII, XV, move camp to the northwest corner of Jerusalem, 2 stadia (1/4 mile) from the tower Psephinus.  Legion X remains on Mt. of Olives.  Titus circles the walls to select an assault point, accompanied by Nicanor and Josephus in an attempt to negotiate with the rebels.  Nicanor is wounded by a rebel arrow in the left shoulder.  Simon places previously captured Roman artillery on the walls opposite the works, but his men are inexperienced with them.  Titus positions artillery in front of his engineers for protection.  Legion X has the best artillery, able to send a one-talent (34 kg) stone 2 stadia (370m).  The Judeans put observers on the walls to warn of incoming missiles. map: G J Goldberg

Wars 5:3:5 70 jos7
70 May 10 First Roman battering-rams strike the gates of Jerusalem.  In a ground sortie, Judeans set fire to the Roman works, but Titus drives off the attackers and the fire is extinguished.  In this attack one Jewish prisoner is crucified in sight of the walls.  Idumean general John, is killed by an arrow. Wars 5:6:4,5 70 jos6, jos7
70 May 25 After 15 days of battering, Jerusalem's outer (3rd) wall, which surrounds both Jerusalem, and the suburb of Bezetha, begins to break.  The Jews abandon the wall, in favor of defending the other 2.  Romans raze a large part of the wall and the north quarter of the city.  Wars 5:7:2 70 CAH 10-861, jos7
70 May Titus moves a camp to within the 3rd Wall.  John of Giscala defends Antonia fortress and the north portico of the Temple.  Simon bar Giora occupies the wall near the Herodian tower Hippicus.  Wars 5:7:3 70 jos7
70 May JOSEPHUS, advisor to Titus, walks around the wall of Jerusalem begging people to surrender. Wars 5:9:3
70 CAH 10-862, jos7
70 May Romans complete 4 siege towers from which to assault the 1st wall.  Wars 5:11:4
70 May Titus brings the battering ram against the central tower of the north part of the 2nd Wall.  Judean deceiver Castor delays Titus with false peace negotiations, but a suspicious Josephus refuses to take part.  Castor attacks one of the negotiators.  When the battering is resumed, Castor sets fire to the tower and escapes.  Wars 5:8:1 70 jos7
May 30
Romans breach the 2nd wall of Jerusalem, enter between walls, chased out by Jews, then recover 2nd wall.  Wars 5:8:1,2 70 jos7
70 My/Jn TITUS, commander of Judea, takes a 4 day break to pay his troops. Wars 5:9:2     70 CAH 10-861, jos7
70 My/Jn 500 Jews cricified in 1 day outside walls of Jerusalem. Wars 5:11:1 70 GSNT 35
70 My/Jn TITUS, commander of Judea, begins attack on 1st wall: 2 legions against Upper City, 2 legions against fortress Antonia.  Siege towers are burnt. Wars 5:11:5 70 CAH 10-862, Jud 9-1405
70 Olive groves at Gethsemane destroyed because Romans need wood. 70 IDB 2-387
70 Jun 4 5 days after 3rd wall is breached, the Romans finally master the 2nd Wall and raze its north part. Wars 5:8:2 70 jos7
70 Jun Titus splits his forces to build 4 embankments: Legions V & XII build earthworks against Antonia Fortress so as to attack the Temple, and Legions X & XV build works in the north part of this city in order to take the Upper City.  Rebels fire on them with hundreds of artillery pieces. Wars 5:9:2, 11:4 70 jos7
70 Non-combatant Jerusalemites are inspired to desert, sell their possessions, swallow gold coins to hide them as they escape to the Romans.  Rumor spreads that all deserters are filled with gold.  Arabs and Syrians cut open all fugitives they can catch.  Deserters give the Romans pitiful reports of increasing famine in the city and attacks by insurgents performing house-to-house searches for food, beating and torturing those within.  The wealthy are robbed and murdered by troops of John and Simon. Wars 5:10:1-5 70 jos7
70 As construction of embankments proceeds the Romans capture escapees from the city, as many as 500 a day.  Prisoners are tortured, killed, and crucified before the walls to intimidate the populace.  "So great was their number, that space could not be found for the crosses nor crosses for the bodies." Wars 5:11:1 70 jos7
70 Jun 16 On the 17th day of the building of the works, John of Giscala undermines the Antonia earthworks built by Legion V and sets fire to the supporting timbers, causing the tunnels to collapse and the whole works to burn.  2 days later Simon bar Giora's men set fire to the other works and battering engines.  Roman soldiers lack timber to rebuild, for all trees around the city had been cut down for 90 stadia (16km). Wars 5:11:4,5 70 jos7
70 Jun TITUS, commander of Judea, decides to blockade the city completely to prevent food from entering.  At the same time, he will rebuild embankments at one position only, against Antonia.  Enthusiastic troops build an earth wall (or trench) completely around the city in 3 days.  All hope of escape being cut off, the famine in the city intensifies.  Burials are neglected, bodies pile up.  Insurgents continue the trials of prominent persons, execute eminent men. Wars 5:12:2 70 jos7
70 Jun Insurgents imprison Josephus' father. Wars 5:13:1     70 jos7
70 Jul 20 The Antonia earthworks are completed in 21 days.  These are heavily guarded, as all timber had been used within 10 miles of the city.  John of Giscala tries to destroy the constructions but fails. Wars 6:1:1
70 jos7
Jul 22
Inspired by Titus, Sabinus of Syria leads an impressive attack to scale the wall, but at the summit trips and is killed. Wars 6:1:6 70 jos7
70 Jul 24 24 soldiers, without orders, lead a daring night attack and seize fortress ANTONIA, under Jews from 66.  The rebels fall back into the Temple grounds, battle fiercely and prevent further Roman advances. Wars 6:1:7
70 BI+N 223, CAH 10-758, 862, Jud 9-1405, jos7
70 Aug 5 JERUSALEM:  Daily sacrifices are suspended because of famine.  They run out of lambs.  Josephus uses this moment to reiterate Titus' offer of an honorable surrender.  John of Giscala says Jerusalem will not be taken because it is Yahweh's city. Wars 6:2:1 70 CAH 10-862, JZ 142, Qlb 51, jos7
70 Aug The legions build several embankments to approach the First Wall:  one at the northwest corner of the inner Temple, one at the north wall between 2 gates, one opposite the west portico of the outer court, and one opposite the north portico.  Wood must be carried from a great distance. Wars 6:2:7 70 jos7
70 Aug The Jews assault Legion X on the Mount of Olives, but are repulsed. Wars 6:2:8 70 jos7
70 Aug 10 The Jews burn the northwest portico that is connected to Antonia, to begin to separate the Temple from the Roman occupied fortress. Wars 5:4:4, 6:5:4-8 70 jos7
Aug 29
Romans finish building new siege towers, attack west edifice of inner temple.  Defeated by Jews.  Siege towers burnt. Wars 6:4:1
70 CAH 10-862, JZ 142
70 Aug 12 Romans burn the adjoining portico.  The Jews cut away the rest.  Antonia becomes completely disconnected from Temple.  (This causes the Temple to be "4-square", fulfilling an oracle predicting the city's fall.)  Conflicts rage around the Temple. Wars 6:5:4 70 jos7
70 Aug 15 When the Jews feign retreat, some Romans leap onto the west portico, but find it is a trap:  the portico has been filled with incendiary materials.  It is burned, killing nearly all of the soldiers.  The west portico is cut away by the Jews.  Romans destroy the north portico up to the Kidron ravine. Wars 6:3:1,2 70 jos7
70 Aug Jewish remnant escapes to Upper City. Wars 6:7:2     70 Jud 9-1405, JZ 142
70 Aug 27 2 legions complete their earthworks.  Titus orders rams put opposite the western wall of the outer Temple court.  Siege-engines and mines having little effect, Romans scale the porticoes with ladders, but suffer heavy losses. Wars 6:4:1 70 jos7
Aug 27
By order of Titus, the Temple GATES are burnt.  The metal melts and the fire enters the woodwork and spreads to the porticoes. Wars 6:4:2
70 CAH 10-862, jos7
Aug 28
Titus orders, the fire is extinguished and a road built to the gates, but fires continue.  2 important officers of Simon's desert to the Romans. Wars 6:4:2 70 jos7
70 Aug 29 Jews attack the guards in the outer court thru the east gate.  After a 3 hour battle, they are forced back to the inner court.  Titus withdraws to Antonia, resolving to storm it next day.  But the Jews again attack, and are routed back to the sanctuary.  A Roman soldier, without orders, snatches a burning stick and throws it thru a golden door on the north side of the chambers surrounding the sanctuary. Wars 6:4:2 70 jos7
70 Aug 29 TEMPLE catches fire and is destroyed.  Sources disagree on whether Titus ordered it, or tried to save it, as Josephus says.  Sacred objects are grabbed out of the fire. Wars 6:5:4-8     70 BBA 131, BBP 111, CAH 10-758, CDCC 474, GHH, GSNT 162, HRRP 4.2-637, ISBE 2-923, Jud 9-1405, 15-1168, MCAW, MUTC 35, 39, Qlb 51, wikTt, jos7
70 Aug 29 Romans burn all buildings in the Temple complex, destroying the treasure chambers of the wealthy.  The populace, especially poor women and children, are persuaded by a false prophet to go to the Temple court to receive deliverance from Yahweh.  About 6,000 climb onto the porticoes, which are burned by the Romans.  All die. Wars 6:5:2 70 jos7
70 Aug 30 Fortress ANTONIA (the citadel) is burnt. 70 IDB 1-154
Aug 30
TEMPLE, under Jews from 516BC, taken by Romans, who erect their standards at the east gate in the temple court, make sacrifices to them, and hail Titus imperator. Wars 6:6:1 70 JZ 143, jos7
70 After being robbed of her food daily, Mary dau of Eleazar, kills her infant son, cooks him, eats half, and offers the other half to the next band of thieves who invade her home.  They recoil in shock, accuse her of wickedness, and go tell their leaders.  Thus is her name preserved. Wars 6:3:5 70 GHH, jos7
70 Sep? So much gold has been taken from the Temple that the price of gold thruout Syria is halved.  The priests are executed by Titus. Wars 6:6:1 70 jos7
70 Sep? The Jews ask for council with Titus.  Titus offers to spare them if they surrender.  The Jews reply they cannot accept his offer, having sworn never to do so.  They ask to be freed into the desert.  Titus ends the talks, orders troops to burn and sack the city. Wars 6:5:2-3 70 jos7
70 Sep The Jews gather their plunder and flee to the Upper City. Wars 6:7:1-2 70 jos7
70 Sep Rebel leaders hide in underground passages.  The entire Lower City is burned to the pool of Siloam. Wars 6:7:2 70 jos7
70 Sep 7 Titus orders new earthworks built to attack the Upper City.  4 legions work on the west side of the city opposite the royal palace.  Syrian auxiliaries build embankments east of the Upper City. Wars 6:8:1
70 jos7
70 Sep 7 JERUSALEM, besieged from April, falls to Titus. Wars 6:8:1     70 CBCNT 53, LEWH, TTPC, wikTt
70 Sep 7 JOHN of Giscala, Zealot leader in Jerusalem, captured by Romans, imprisoned. 70 CAH 10-832
70 Sep 7 SIMON bar Giora, last remaining military leader in Jerusalem, hides with several friends in an underground passage, but can't escape.  Dresses up in a white robe and purple mantle, appears in temple ruins, scares Romans.  But they recover.  Simon surrenders to General Terentius Rufus.  This alerts the Romans to the passages, which are then searched.  2,000 bodies are found.  John of Giscala gives up from starvation.  John is sentenced to life in prison, while Simon is to be executed at the triumph in Rome. Wars 6:9:4-10:1, 7:2:1-2
70 Jud 4-221, jos7
70 Sep 8 TITUS is hailed imperator. 70 DGRBM 3-1160
70 Sep Chiefs of the Idumeans send emissaries to surrender to Titus.  but Simon discovers the plot and executes the conspirators.  Masses desert to the Romans, most of whom are spared by Titus.  Over 40,000 are released, but the rebels, including women and children, are sold as slaves.  Due to excess supply, they are priced low. Wars 6:8:2 70 jos7
70 Sep Priest Jesus b. Thebuthi delivers some Temple treasures to Titus in exchange for protection.  Included are 2 candelabra, solid gold and massive tables, bowls, and platters, the veils, high-priests garments including the jewels, and many other items.  Temple treasurer Phineas provides more, including priestly clothing and incense. Wars 6:8:3 70 jos7
70 Sep 25 Earthworks against the Upper City are completed after 18 days.  The Jews panic, fleeing or surrendering without a fight despite their superior position in the Herodian towers.  Many hide in the ravine below Siloam and in underground passages. Wars 6:8:4-5 70 jos7
70 Sep 26 The Upper City is stormed and taken.  Everyone in Jerusalem is imprisoned; any that are armed are killed, as are the old and feeble.  Fronto is appointed to determine the fate of the rest.  Those under age 17 are sold, the strong are sent to work camps, others to the games.
TORAH now becomes the center of Judaism.  Additions of the oral laws of Moses are added to the Torah.
Wars 6:8:4-5     70 BBA 131, CDCC 474, GHH, CAH 10-758, GSNT 162, HRRP 4.2-637, ISBE 2-923, Jud 9-1405, 15-1168, MCAW, MUTC 35, 39, Qlb 51, wikTt, jos7
70 Number of prisoners taken in the entire war: 97,000.  Died during siege: 1,100,000.  This large number during the siege is because Jews from many countries had been in the city for Passover when the siege began. Wars 6:9:3 70 jos7
70 Disciple of Hillel, JOHANAN ben Zakkai gets permission from Vespasian (Titus?) to open a school at Jamnia, becomes president of a new non-political Sanhedrin. 70 BAA 123, no date: CAH 10-861, 865, Jud 10-152
70 SIMEON ben Gamaliel dies.  Nasi from 50, anti-zealot, murdered by either zealots or RomansJOHANAN ben Zakkai succeeds until 80. 70 Jud 15-801, rcHL
80 prgE     no date: Jud 14-1655, Msna 1:507
70 SADDUCEES disappear from history. 70 B76 VIII-758, MUTC 39
c.70 King of Nabateans from 40, MALIKU-III ends.  RABBIL-III succeeds until 105. 70 CAH 10-734, IDB 3-492, ISBE 3-468, MRDK 359     71 ISBE 3-229
70 Sep 27 JERUSALEM:  Upper City taken by Romans temple.  Jews are easily slaughtered.  Some flee to underground caverns.  There is enough blood to quench some fires. Wars 6:8:4
70 CAH 10, LEWH, JZ 142
70 TITUS orders the whole city and Temple to be razed to the ground, leaving only 3 towers: Phasael, Hippicus, Mariamne, and a small part of a retaining wall on the west.  Agrippa-II helps.  Legion X is left to garrison Jerusalem. Wars 7:1:1
70 B76 17-951, BAA, GHH, ISBE 2-923, MCAW, TToH, jos7
70?? M. Antonius JULIANUS, 8th procurator of Judea from 66, ends.  Sex. Vettulenus CERIALIS becomes legate until 71. 70? rcHL, wikJRP
70 After the war, TITUS, gives part of Judea to Herod AGRIPPA-II, but retains most as imperial domain.  A legion is stationed at Jerusalem under a senatorial legate, who is superior to the procurator. 70 IDB 2-592, LEWH, TTPC
70 TITUS leaves legion X Fretensis at Jerusalem, sends legion XII Fulminata, which had been defeated under Cestius to Armenia, takes legions V Macedonica and XV Apollinaris to Caesarea. Wars 7:1:3 70 jos7
70 Captives sent to Rome include SIMON bar Giora, JOHN of Giscala, and Ishmael ben Elisha - a child later ransomed. 70 Jud 9-84
70 Jewish War with Rome from 66, ends. 70 BAA 11, LEWH
70 After the war, a band of SICARII (Zealots) escape to Egypt. 70 BNTH 99, Jud 16-949
70 JOSEPHUS tells Emperor Vespasian that the Jewish rebellion was due to scripture, which says that at that time someone from Judea would rule the world, and that it refers to Vespasian, who was first proclaimed emperor in Judea. Wars 6:5:4
70 JZ 57
c.70 JUDEA (except Galilee & Perea) remains a separate province under an equite procurator, now subordinate to an imperial legate of senatorial rank, commanding legion X Fretensis at Caesarea.  Galilee & Perea are returned to Agrippa-II. Wars 7:6:6 70 CAH 10-863
71 Jud 4-317
70 Many Jews migrate to Cyprus after fall of Jerusalem. 70 wikRC
c.70 The 2 drachma tax paid by Jews to support the temple is diverted to the FISCUS JUDAICUS (poll tax), under a senatorial legate superior to the procurator, all under the imperial treasury. Wars 7:6:6
70 LEWH, TTPC 73 CAH 11-15
70 Judean cities that resist the new deal are sacked, partly destroyed, inhabitants enslaved. Wars 7:6:6
70 High priesthood and sanhedrin abolished by Titus. 70 LEWH, MUTC 68, TTPC
70 TITUS goes from Caesarea to Caesarea Philippi, holds victory games in which many captives are killed. Wars 7:2:1 70 Jud 4-162
70 TITUS goes from Caesarea Philippi to Berytus. Wars 7:3:1
70 TITUS goes from Berytus to Antioch. Wars 7:5:2
71 Sex. Vettulenus CERIALIS, legate of Judea from 70, ends.  Sex. Lucilius BASSUS succeeds until 72.  He commands legion X Fretensis, and is ordered to subdue the forts remaining under Jews: Herodium, Machaerus, and Masada. Wars 7:6:1
71 Jud 4-317, wikJRP, wikSLB, wikXF
c.71 HERODIUM attacked by legion X Fretensis, surrenders without a fight. Wars 7:6:1 71 Jud 4-317 72 IDB 2-595
71 MACHAERUS, fortified town under Jewish nationalists from 66, attacked by legion X Fretensis under Lucilius Bassus.  Romans capture sicarii leader, Eleazar, and threaten to crucify him unless they surrender.  Machaerus surrenders.  Bassus keeps promise.  Some sicarii escape to forest, but are all killed by Romans. Wars 7:6:1
71 ENBD 764, Jud 4-317
71 TITUS goes from Antioch back thru Palestine to Alexandria.  Josephus accompanies. Wars 7:5:3
70 ISBE 2-1132
c.71 L. LABERIUS Maximus becomes procurator of Judea until . 71 jePr     73 DGRBM 2-696
71 The city and temple of Jerusalem are leveled to the ground; Wars 7:8:7
72 LYDDA becomes a rabbinical center until ?. post-70 ENBD 760
72 FLAVIA NEAPOLIS (Nablus) founded west of ruins of Shechem by Titus. 72 by Vespasian B76 VII-159, BAA 166, BBA 165, Jud 12-744
72 ±2  MISHNA  begins at Jamnia.  Johanan ben Zakkai collects all available sayings of Jewish scholars into 3 tractates:  Yoma, Tamid, Middot   First major written collection of Jewish oral tradition.  First major work of rabbinic literature.  Mostly in Hebrew with some Aramaic.  Arranged by topic, not chronology.  Rabbis quoted are called Tannaim. post-70 IDB 3-93, wikMs'  
72 Sextus Lucilius BASSUS dies.  Legate of Judea from 71, prepares campaign against Masada, but dies.  L. Flavius SILVA succeeds until 81. Wars 7:8:1
72 Jud 4-317, wikJRP, wikSLB
72 MASADA fortress, under Zealots from 66, besieged by L. Flavius Silva until 73.  He uses legion X Fretensis, auxiliary troops, and thousands of Jewish prisoners. 72 B76 VI-665, wikXF
73 Ap/My MASADA fortress, under Zealots from 66, besieged by Romans under Titus from 72, falls to Flavius Silva.  960 Zealots, under Eleazar ben Jair from 66, suicide.  A few hide, and survive to tell their story. 73 B76 VI-665, 17-951, BI+N 225, BNTH 100, 116, CAH 10-758, 863, CBCNT 53, ENBD 1354, IDB 1-261, 3-293, ISBE 3-275, Jud 11-1079, 16-949, MCAW, MUTC 42     73/4 ISBE 4-1178
73 SICARII (sometimes a derogatory term for Zealots), active from 6 CE, cease to exist. 73 Jud 14-1491
c.73 Flavius SILVA, procurator of Judea 72- , leaves a garrison at Masada, returns to Caesarea. Wars 7:10:1
74 Pseudepigraphical  3rd Book of Baruch  written in Hebrew by a Jew, and later revised in Greek by a Christian.  The Ctn part has Baruch visiting 5 levels of heaven.  Baruch was Jeremiah's secretary.  Verses drawn from books of Jeremiah, Daniel, 2nd Isaiah, and Job, are addressed to Jews deported to Babylon. post-70 IDB 1-362
74 AΨA 575 1-100 B76 2-936
70-100 CBCNT 58
75 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, and sis BERENICE-II, go to Rome. 75 B76 V-3, BAA 434, BBA 457, CAH 11-11, IDB 2-592, ISBE 2-697, LEWH
75 DecapolisDECAPOLIS cities listed by Pliny:  Scythopolis, Hippo, Gadara, Pella, Philadelphia, Gerasa, Dion, Canatha, Damascus, Raphana. map: Nichalp

75 IDB 1-811
75 JOSEPHUS publishes  Wars of the Jews  in RomeAttributes burning of the temple to God purging it from the corruption of the zealots. 75 JsCW 427, 678     75-9 B76 10-278, JZ 31, 238     78 ODCC 759
78±2 AKIBA ben Joseph begins studies at Lydda. 75-80 Jud 2-488
78 Sis of Agrippa-II, BERENICE-II, in Rome as consort of Titus from 75, sent away by order of Vespasian.  Returns to Judea until 79. 78 Jud 4-602
79 Jun 23/4 VESPASIAN dies.   TITUS succeeds until 81.
79 Dau of Agrippa-I, BERENICE-II, wife of Polemo-II, returns to Rome, expecting to resume relationship with Titus.  Disappointed. 79 Jud 4-602
c.80 At the temple site, Rabbi Joshua says, "Woe to us that this has been destroyed, the place where atonement was made for the sins of Israel".  Johanan ben Zakkai replies, "No, my son.  Do you not know that we have a means of making atonement that is like to it?  And what is it?  Deeds of love, as it is said in Hosea 6:6:..." no date: Jud 10-153
c.80 Disciple of Hillel, JOHANAN ben Zakkai dies.  Tanna of Jabneh/Jamnia and Nasi from 70.  GAMALIEL-II ben Simeon succeeds until 100. 80 Jud 7-296, 10-154, Msna 1-509
no date: Jud 10-153
c.80 ELEAZAR ben Arach, disciple of Johanan b. Zakkai, Tanna, on death of Johanan, takes wife's advice and goes to Emmaus instead of staying in Jabneh/Jamnia, expecting colleagues to follow him.  Forgets his learning. 70 Jud 6-586, no date: Msna 1-508
c.80 EBOINITES "poor men" of Palestine settle in Transjordan and Syria.
Ebionite DOCTRINE:  Jesus was a human son of Joe & Mary.  Holy Spirit came to him at baptism.  Matthew  is the only gospel.  Mosaic Law applies to Ctns too.  Obedience is necessary for salvation.
no date: B76 III-768, OCDD 438
80 BETH DIN "house of judgment", meeting in Jabneh/Jamnia from 70, moved to Usah (location unknown) until 116. 80 ENBD 1143
c.80  Sibylline Oracles Book 4  written by a Jew or Christian Jew.  Generally considered the oldest parts of the oracles, it is now believed completely Jewish.  Vesuvius eruption is punishment for massacre of Jews during the war with Rome. 80 AΨΨ 373, B76 2-936
81 EMESA becomes a Roman province. 81 HRE 113
c.81 L. Flavius SILVA, legate of Judea from 72, ends.  M. SALVIDENUS succeeds until 85. 80 jePr
81 wikJRP
81 Sep 13 TITUS dies.   DOMITIAN succeeds until 96.
85 HAURAN (formerly Auranitis) comes under Nabateans until 106. 85 IDB 2-537, ISBE 2-633
85 M. SALVIDENUS, legate of Judea from 81, ends.  Gn. POMPEIUS LONGINUS succeeds until 86. 85 wikJRP
86 Gn. POMPEIUS LONGINUS, legate of Judea from 85, ends.  86 wikJRP
90  Birkat ha-Minim  "Blessing on the heretics", attributed to Shmuel ha-Katan at Jamnia.  A benediction inserted in the "18 Benedictions" as the 19th blessing in the silent prayer to be said thrice daily, the Amidah.
"For the apostates let there be no hope.  Let the arrogant government be speedily uprooted in our days.  Let the nozerim and the minim be destroyed in a moment.  Let them be blotted out of the Book of Life and not be inscribed together with the righteous.  Blessed are you, O Lord, who humbles the arrogant."  The main minim at this time are Christians.
90 BBA , BNTH 385, no date: Jud 7-298, 14-816, wikBhM, wikCJ
c.90  PSEUDEPIGRAPHA  banned as a literary form at Jamnia, because the destruction of Jerusalem makes them look ridiculous, and the Christians had expropriated many of them to support their own agenda. 90 IDB 3-962
90 ±10  Didache  written in Greek by a Christian.  Aka The Lord's Teaching Thru the 12 Apostles to the Nations.  Instructs how to treat itinerant Christian prophets.  Touts 2 ways doctrine.  Draws extensively on Matthew. 1-100 wikDd 80-100 ISBE 2-531
c.92 CHALCIS Syria, under tetrarch Aristobulus from 57, becomes a Roman province under Syria. 92 CAH 11-40, HRE 113, wikHrD, wikKC     93 IDB 2-773, ISBE 2-940
c.93 Sextus Hermentidius CAMPANUS becomes legate of Judea, and ends.  93 wikJRP
c.95 AKIBA (Akiva) ben Joseph is a prominent scholar at Lydda.  He and other sages go to Rome 95 B76 1-404
c.95 Alleged SYNOD at JAMNIA (Jabneh) conducted under JOHANAN ben Zakkai, finalizes most of the canon of the Hebrew Bible.  Henceforth no text differs in any major way.  Debate continues over  Ecclesiastes,  Song of Songs,  Proverbs,  Esther   90 BBP 141, ENBD 191, IDB 1-161, 510, 3-962 post-90 ISBE 1-893     100 B76 V-486, CBCNT 53, IDB 2-780, Jud 4-825, 9-1177
There is no evidence that a major council ever happened.  Many meetings were held at Jamnia. ODCC 726
The theory of a council of Jamnia that finalized the canon was first proposed by Heinrich Graetz in 1871. wikCJ
96  2nd Esdras  (aka 4 Ezra) ch 11:1-12:39 written in Hebrew.  The eagle vision:  Eagle = Rome.  The eagle has 3 heads interpreted as Vespasian, Titus, Domitian and 12 wings interpreted as whatever.  The eagle is defeated by a lion, interpreted as the Messiah. 96 IDB 2-142     69-97 AΨΨ 609     81-96 AΨΨ 552     90-100 B76 2-936 95-100 Jud 6-1108
96 Sep 18 Empire 96CEDOMITIAN dies.  NERVA succeeds until 98.
98 Jan 25-7 NERVA dies.   TRAJAN succeeds until 117.
c.99 Ti. Claudius ATTICUS HERODES becomes legate of Judea, until 102.  99 wikJRP
c.100 Son of Agrippa-I & Cypros, AGRIPPA-II dies childless.  Tetrarch of Batanea, Gaulanitis, Argob, Abilene Trachonitis, Acra from 53 92 Jud 2-417, wikHrD     93 B76 V-3, CAH 11-138, IDB 2-773, ISBE 2-940 100 BBA , ENBD 523, FHBC 378, 398, IDB 1-9, 61, 2-592, ISBE 2-697,8, MUTC 27, wikHrD
c.100 GAMALIEL-II ben Simeon, Nasi from 80, deposed until 106 for insulting Joshua ben Hananiah.  ELEAZAR ben Azariah succeeds until 131 no date: Jud 7-296, Msna 1-509
c.100 TIBERIAS, under Jews from 55 CE, no longer. 100 IDB 4-640
c.100 Rabbi ISHMAEL ben Elisha, disciple of R' Joshua ben Hananiah and R' Nehunya ben HaKanah, flourishes.  Tried to promote peace and goodwill among all. 100 B76 7-65, wikRI
c.100 NICOMACHUS of Gerasa flourishes.  Neo-Pythagorean mathematician.  Wrote  Introductio Arithmeticae , a handbook on understanding mathematical elements of Pythagorean and Platonic philosophy. 100 BHM 179
c.100 RUFUS of Samaria flourishes.  Earliest known Jewish physician and medical writer. 100 Jud 14-385
c.100  Book of JUBILEES  (107BC) final form written in Hebrew. 100 B76 V-621
c.100  2nd Esdras  (aka 4 Ezra) ch 3-10, the Salathiel Apocalypse (chronologically first) written in Aramaic by a pharisaic Jew in Palestine.  A series of 7 visions of Salathiel-Ezra, who supposedly lived c.550BC, attempting to justify Yahweh for allowing the temple to be destroyed.  "Babylon" is used as a code word for Rome. 100 AΨΨ 552, B76 III-958, ENBD 189, IDB 2-142, ISBE 2-144, Jud 4-827
c.100  2nd Esdras  (aka 4 Ezra) ch 14, the Ezra Legend, written.  Ezra dictates 94 books: 24 compose the O.T. and the rest are esoteric. 70-120 B76 2-937, AΨΨ 552
c.100  Apocalypse of Baruch  written in Hebrew by a pharisaic Jew in Palestine.  Stresses keeping the Law.  Historical situation is fall of Jerusalem.  Messianic kingdom is to be accomplished by resurrection of the dead. 80-100 ISBE 1-160
100 IDB 3-450
100 ±20 ELIEZER ben Hyrcanus, Tannah at Lydda, "With the advent of the Messiah, presumption shall wax great; produce shall soar in price; the vine shall yield its fruit, but the wine shall be costly, and the heathens shall be converted to heresy; and there shall be no rebuke." Sotah 9:15 100±20
100 ±20  Apocalypse of Abraham  written in Hebrew or Aramaic by a Jew.  Abe's history and trip to heaven, in which he sees all history from Adam to 70CE.  Satan = Azazel. 100±20 IDB 1-21
100 ±20  Chronicles of Jeremiah  written by a Jew, but last chapter is Christianized.  Otherwise unknown legends surrounding the Babylonian Exile. 100±20 B76 2-935
100 ±20  Testament of Hezekiah  written in Greek by a Christian as an addition to the Martyrdom of Isaiah.  Beliar = Nero = Antichrist.  Messianic kingdom is to be accomplished by resurrection of the dead. 80-120 IDB 2-745
c.100 The consonantal text of the Torah is fixed by the Masoretes.  Variations of the text are allowed to fade out, except the Samaritan Pentateuch, which is preserved outside of Jewish authority. 100 BBP 142