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c.54 Pompeius PAULLINUS becomes governor of Lower Germany until 58. 54 wikGGI
c.54 L. Pomponius FLACCUS SECUNDUS, governor of Upper Germany from 50, ends.  L. Antistius VETUS succeeds 55-56. 54 wikGS
54 Oct 13 Empire 54CECLAUDIUS dies.   NERO succeeds until 68.
c.55 L. Antistius VETUS, governor of Upper Germany 55-6, starts to connect the Moselle to the Arar with a canal to facilitate troop passage. TAn 13:53 55 OCD 75
c.56 L. Antistius VETUS, governor of Upper Germany from 55, ends.  Curtius MANCIA succeeds until ?.  No data until 67. TAn 13: 53, 56 56 OCD 75
57 TITUS Flavius Vespasian becomes military tribune in Germany until 59. 57 wikTt
58 ASCONIUS and ADELBOLD, Roman vassals kings of Frisia from 47, end.  Anti-Roman ururper T. BOICALUS succeeds and ends.  UBBO is duke until 70.  Frisia is an allied state of Rome until 286. 58 rcLC
c.58 Pompeius PAULLINUS, governor of Lower Germany from 54, ends.  L. Duvius AVITUS succeeds until 60. TAn 13:54 58 wikGGI
58 Pompeius PAULINUS and L. Antistius VETUS command in Germany, with no war to fight, so they complete a dam, which Drusus had begun, to restrain floods of the Rhine.  And they begin a canal connecting the Mosella and Arar, which would make a water route from the Mediterranean to the North Sea 58 DGRBM 3-145, 1252
58 The Hermunduri and Catti fight a war over possession of a river that produces salt.  Catti lose.  Both sides had agreed to devote to Mars and Mercury the conquered army.  Men, horses, and all that belonged to the Catti are exterminated. TAn 13:57 58 GHH, HRRP 4.2-496, OCD 228
58 Further immigrations of barbarians into Germany. 58 GHH
c.58 Faustus Cornelius SULLA banished from Rome to Massilia until death 62. TAn 13:47     58 CAH 10-711 59 DGRBM 3-944
59 Aelius GRACILIS becomes legate of Belgica. 59 DGRBM 2-298
59 TITUS Flavius Vespasian, military tribune in Germany from 57, ends.  Soon goes with reinforcements to Britain until 63. 59 wikTt
59 The ANSIBARII Germans are displaced by the Chauci, and ask Romans to let them settle between the Rhine and Yssel, which is used by Romans to pasture their horses.  Request denied by Avitus. TAn 13:55-6 59 DGRBM 1-498, DGRG 1-138
59 The ANSIBARII ask neighboring Germanics for help, but are denied and eventually annihilated. TAn 13:55-6
59 DGRG 1-138
59 L. VETUS commander of Upper Germany, wants to join the Saone and the Mosel by a canal, for water communication between the Mediterranean and the North Sea, up the Rhone and the Saone, and down the Mosel and the Rhine.  Gracilis would not let Vetus bring his legions into his province of Belgica; and the canal is not made. 59 DGRG 1-167
c.60 L. Duvius AVITUS, governor of Lower Germany from 58, ends.  P. Sulpicius Scribonius RUFUS succeeds until 67. 60 wikGGI
62 CENSUS in Gaul taken by T. Sextius Africanus, Q. Volusius and Trebellius Maximus. TAn 13:19     61 DGRBM 3-726, OCD 220
62 DGRBM 1-57
62 Procurator Decianus Catus escapes from Britain to Gaul. TAn 14:32     62 GHH
c.62 Faustus Cornelius SULLA dies.  Husband of Antonia d66, exiled at Massilia from 58, murdered by assassins sent by Nero. TAn 14:57     62 wikNr 63 DGRBM 3-944
c.66 Batavian regiments are withdrawn from Britain to Gaul. 66 wikRob
c.66 as 66An AS struck in Lugdunum depicts Nero and the Ara Pacis. photo: GNU FDL

66 wikANA
c.67 P. Sulpicius Scribonius RUFUS, governor of Lower Germany from 60, ends.  Gn. Fonteius CAPITO succeeds until 68. 67 wikGGI
c.67 L. Verginius RUFUS becomes legate of Upper Germany until 68.  He has 4 legions. 67 OCD 1114
no date: DGRBM 3-677, wikVR
67/8 Claudius CIVILIS, ruler of the Batavii, falsely charged with treason by Fonteius Capito, and sent in chains to Rome. 67/8 DGRBM 1-758, wikRob
Wrongly called JULIUS Civilis by Tacitus and others
67/8 Bro of Claudius Civilis, Julius PAULUS, falsely charged with treason by Fonteius Capito, and executed. THs 4:13, 32
67/8 DGRBM 1-758, 3-155, wikRob
68 A. CAECINA Alienus is transferred from Baetica by Galba to be legate of Legion IV Macedonica at Moguntiacum in Upper Germany. 68 B76 II-431, wikACA
68 Mar C. Julius VINDEX, legate of Gallia Lugdunensis, angered at imperial tax policies, is 1st to revolt against Nero, says he will back any emperor who will recognize the autonomy of Gaul.  20,000 Gauls involved.  'Freedom from the tyrant'. 68 B76 X-445, 7-961, CAH 10-739, CDCC 611, DGRBM 3-677, DGRG 1-969, Dur 3-283, GHH, IDB 3-538, ISBE 3-522, LEWH, OCD 730, wikNr
68 Apr 2 C. Julius VINDEX solicits alliance with Servius Sulpicius GALBA in Spain. 68 B76 IV-384, 17-404, CAH 10-739, Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 3-538, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 454
68 Legion I Italica, at Novae from 66, sent by Nero to oppose Vindex in Gaul. 68 wikIIt
68 L. Verginius RUFUS, legate of Upper Germany, refuses request by his army to go for emperor. THs 1:6
68 DGRBM 3-677, fyf
68 GALBA and M. Salvius OTHO march slowly from Spain thru Narbonensis to RomeSpaniard M. Fabius Quintilian accompanies. 68 GHH, MCAW, OCD 454
c.68 The AEDUI join Vindex. 68 OCD 12
c.68 C. Julius VINDEX, tries to relieve Vesontio on the Dubis, opposed by legions under Verginius Rufus. 68 DGRBM 3-677
c.68 L. Verginius RUFUS, legate of Upper Germany 67-8, wants to deal with Vindex, but is forced by his army to fight. 68 OCD 1114
68 May C. Julius VINDEX, legate of Gallia Lugdunensis, defeated at Vesontio by L. Verginius RUFUS, legate of Upper Germany, who refuses to be hailed imperator. 68 DGRBM 3-677, LEWH, wikNr, wikVR
68 May C. Julius VINDEX suicides.  Aulus VITELLIUS succeeds . 68 B76 X-445, 471, CAH 10-739, MCAW, wikNr, wikVt
68 Jun NERO dies.  GALBA succeeds until 69.
68 Agri DecumatesThe AGRI DECUMATES begun 16 CE in the Black Forest on the east of the Upper Rhine, and on the north of the Upper Danube is finished, with Gauls and Germans added to the original Helvetic population.  Annexed 74. 68 DGRG 1-997
68 Legions in Spain and Gaul rebel. 69 MCAW, LEWH
c.68 L. Verginius RUFUS legate of Upper Germany from 67, accompanies Galba to ItalyHordeonius FLACCUS succeeds until 69. 68 CAH 10, DGRBM 3-677
68 Helvidius PRISCUS, exiled by Nero from ?, recalled to Rome. 68 GHH
c.68 Hordeonius FLACCUS, an old cripple of weak character and no leadership becomes governor of Upper Germany until 69. THs 1:9
68 DGRBM 2-156 69 wikGS
68 L. Tampius FLAVIANUS becomes governor of Pannonia until 69. 68 wikLTF
c.68 Nov Gn. Fonteius CAPITO dies.  Governor of Lower Germany from 67, suspected of disloyalty to Galba, murdered by officers A. Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens without waiting for instructions.  This causes troop dissent.  A. VITELLIUS GERMANICUS succeeds until 69. THs 1:7
68 CAH 10-817, DGRBM 1-602, OCD 1129, fyf, wikGGI
68 late A. VITELLIUS is appointed by Galba as governor of Lower Germany. THs 1:52 68 dirVt
68 Dec A. VITELLIUS is sent from Rome by Galba to take command of the Rhine. THs 1:52
68 DGRBM 3-66
68/9 A. CAECINA Alienus is caught embezzling by Galba, goes over to Vitellius. 68/9 wikACA
69 Jan 1 Legions in Lower Germany, sware the usual oath of allegiance to Galba, but with hesitation.  Legions I Germanica and V Alaudae at Bonna and Vetera are already mutinous enough to throw stones at Galba's statue.  Legions XV Primigenia and XVI Gallica at Vetera and at Neuss only mutter threats. THs 1:55
69 Jan 1 Legions IV Macedonica and XXII Primigenia at Moguntiacum, Upper Germany, refuse allegiance to Galba, overthrow Galba statues, ask senate for another emperor. THs 1:55     68 TTPC     69 Jan 1 CAH 10-814, DGRBM 3-1206, LEWH, dirVt, fyf, wikGl, wikVt
69 Jan 1 Legion I Germanica in Lower Germany refuses to endorse new emperor Galba.  Commander Fabius VALENS has them proclaim his commander Vitellius emperor.. 69 wikAVr
69 Jan 1 Hordeonius FLACCUS, an old cripple governor of Upper Germany from 68, lacks the power to prevent his army from defecting from Galba, ousted.  C. Dillius VOCULA succeeds until 70. THs 1:9
69 DGRBM 2-156, wikGS
69 Jan 1 At night, a standard-bearer of legion IV Macedonica comes to Colonia Agrippina, and tells Vitellius at his dinner that IV Macedonica and XXII Primigenia had broken Galba's statues and sworn allegiance to the Senate and People of Rome. THs 1:56
69 Jan 2 Fabius VALENS, commander of Legion I Germanica in Lower Germany, marches to Colonia Agrippina, enters with his cavalry, salutes Vitellius as emperor. THs 1:57
69 Jan 2 DGRBM 3-1206, fyf, dirVt
69 Jan 3 The army of Upper Germany joins Vitellius THs 1:57     69 Jan fyf
69 Jan 3 A. VITELLIUS Germanicus, age 54, legate of 4 legions on the Lower Rhine at Colonia Agrippina, is nominated emperor by officers Alienus Caecina and Fabius Valens.  He is then endorsed by the 4 legions on the Upper Rhine under Hordeonius Flaccus. 68 TTPC     69 Jan B76 II-431, IV-384, X-471, 15-1112, CAH 10-818, DGRBM 3-66, 1206, DGRG 1-969, LEWH, OCD 1129, fyf, mltBBd, wikGl, wikVt
69 Jan 15 GALBA dies.  OTHO succeeds until April.
69 Jan Legions IV Macedonica and XXII Primigenia are first to side with Vitellius. 69 wik4Mc
69 Jan Legions in Gaul and Raetia side with Vitellius. 69 dirVt
69 Jan Fabius VALENS is sent by Vitellius with 40,000 men to march thru Gaul, and sway it to Vitellius or devastate it, then to march toward Italy. 69 DGRBM 3-1206, LEWH
c.69 Centurion Receptus NONIUS holds out for Galba while the rest of his legion goes with Vitellius.  Chained up, and soon executed. THs 1:56,59 69 DGRBM 2-1208
c.69 Jan Pompeius PROPINQUUS, procurator of Belgica, killed by his troops under legate P. Valerius Asiaticus when they defect to Vitellius. THs 1:12, 58 69 DGRBM 3-548, 1218
69 Jan Vitellian Fabius VALENS with Legion V Alaudae and detachments of I Italica, XV Primigenia, and XVI Gallica - 40,000 men passes peaceably thru Treviri land, arrives at Dividorum (Metz) chief town of the Mediomatrici.  His men go out of control, and for no reason kill 4,000 inhabitants.  Gaul is cowed to submission. THs 1:63 69 DGRBM 3-1206, dirVt, fyf
c.69 Jan Centurion Calpurnius REPENTINUS remains loyal to Galba, and is killed for it. THs 1:56,59 69 DGRBM 3-645
69 Jan Fabius Fabullus, legate of legion V Alaudae and Cassius Longus, are chosen by army to lead a mutiny against Alienus CAECINA in favor of Vespasian - prematurely.. THs 3:14
69 DGRBM 2-132, 805
69 Legion XXI Rapax at Vindonissa from 46, is sent toward Italy. 69 wik21R
69 Jan Alienus CAECINA is sent by Vitellius with legion XXI Rapax and detachments of IV Macedonica and XXII Primigenia - 30,000 men toward Italy. 69 DGRBM 1-530, 3-1206, dirVt, fyf
69 Jan Vitellian Alienus CAECINA learns that Galba is dead, and Otho is emperor. 69 DGRBM 1-530, 3-1206,
69 Jan The HELVETII don't know Galba is dead.  They refuse to recognize Vitellius or his man Caecina, who then ravages Helvetii land.  German auxiliaries do same.  Capital Aventicum surrenders, and is spared. THs 1:67-8
69 Jan Vitellian Fabius VALENS with 40,000 men arrives at Tullum Leucorum (Toul), and learns that Galba is dead, and Otho is emperor.  A battle with his own Batavian allies is averted by punishing a few Batavi. THs 1:64 69 DGRBM 3-1206
69 Jan Vitellian Fabius VALENS proceeds thru Aedui land to Lugdunum.  Lugdunese persuade him to march on Vienne, which had sided with Vindex and Galba.  The Viennese learn of it, and buy him off. THs 1:64-5 69 DGRBM 3-1206
69 Feb Vitellian armies march on Italy: Caecina with Legion XXI Rapax and detachments of IV Macedonica and XXII Primigenia thru Helvetia and over Pennine pass.
Valens with Legion V Alaudae and detachments of I Italica, XV Primigenia, and XVI Gallica thru Gaul and over Mount Genevre.
69 Feb fyf
69 Mar A. VITELLIUS Germanicus stops at Lugdunum where his own and Otho's generals await him.  Valens and Caecina are openly commended and given places on either side of the emperor's throne.  Vitellius then sends the whole army to fetch his son, age 6.  Vitellius names him Germanicus, and declares him his eventual successor. THs 2:59 69 dirVt, fyf, wikGGI
69 Mar Vitellian Fabius VALENS proceeds thru Allobroge and Vocontii lands, being bought off. THs 1:65
69 DGRBM 3-1206
69 D. Valerius ASIATICUS becomes governor of Belgica until 70. 69 wikRGGB
69 Batavian Claudius CIVILIS, imprisoned in Rome from 68, released by Vitellius, and given command of Batavian auxiliary troops allocated in the Rhine legions. 69 wikRob
c.69 PLINY the Elder, formerly under Vespasian in Germany from ?, returns to Rome. 69 B76 14-572
69 An obscure Boii called Mariccus pretends to be prophet, and divine champion of the Gauls, gathers 8,000 men, and makes overtures to neighboring Aedui villages.  But the Aedui wisely send out a picked force, with some Vitellian troops in support, and scatter the fanatics.  Mariccus is captured, and later thrown to wild beasts.  They refuse to eat him, so the common people stupidly believed him invulnerable, until he is executed in the presence of Vitellius. THs 2:61
69 Mar Vitellian Alienus CAECINA with Legion XXI Rapax and detachments of IV Macedonica and XXII Primigenia - 30,000 men, crosses over Pennine pass into Italy before Valens. 69 DGRBM 1-530, 3-1206, fyf
69 Mar Vitellian Fabius VALENS with Legion V Alaudae and detachments of I Italica, XV Primigenia, and XVI Gallica - 40,000 men crosses from Gaul over Mount Genevre into Italy. 69 DGRBM 3-1206, fyf
69 Mar A. VITELLIUS Germanicus, governor of Lower Germany from 68, learns of events of Caecina and Valens north of the Po, leaves Hordeonius Flaccus to guard the Rhine, while he goes to be emperor.  C. Dillius VOCULA succeeds until 70.  Vitellius' march is festive and undisciplined. THs 2:57 69 dirVt, wikGGI
69 Apr VITELLIUS crosses Alps into Italy. 69 MCAW, dirVt
69 Apr 16 OTHO dies.  VITELLIUS succeeds until December.
69 Batavi chief Claudius CIVILIS receives order from Vespasian partisan Antonius Primus, commander in Pannonia to detain at the Rhine any troops coming from north.  Civilis has the Batavii rebel until 70, under pretense of fighting for Vespasian.  The Catti and Bructeri join the rebellion. 69 B76 15-1112, CAH 10-841, DGRBM 1-758, 3-1281, DGRG 1-381, HRRP 4.2-604, OCD 163, 228, GHH, CDCC 2, LEWH, fyf, wikRob
69 Treveri Julius Tutor is put in command of the west bank of the Rhine by Vitellius. 69 DGRBM 3-1194
69 In Germany, the inefficiency of the generals, disaffection of the troops, strength of the enemy, and treachery of Roman allies all combines to provoke rebellion. THs 3:46
69 Claudius Civilis routs Gallic auxiliaries and captures the Rhine flotilla in "The Island" between the Lek and Waal rivers. 69 fyf
69 The IslandHordeonius Flaccus at first ignores the Batavian rebellion.  But when messengers arrive with news that a camp had been stormed, cohorts wiped out, and not a Roman left in the Batavian "Island", Flaccus orders Lupercus Mummius, commanding legions V Alaudae and XV Primigenia (both depleted), in winter-quarters at Vetera, to march against the Batavi. THs 4:18
69 Lupercus Mummius with remnant of Legions V Alaudae and XV Primigenia advances from Vetera, supported by Ubi, Treveri, and Batavian auxiliaries, some of which desert.  Civilis drives Mummius back into Vetera. THs 4:18 69 fyf, wikRob
69 Batavian rebellion inspires rebellion of the Gallic Treveri under Julius Classicus & Julius Tutor, and the Lingones under Julius Sabinus. THs 2:14     69 GHH, LEWH     70 DGRBM 1-761, 3-1194
69 Batavian rebellion is supported by the Canninefates, Frisii, Marsaci, Cugerni, and Bructeri. 69 fyf
69 Narbonensis sides with Vitellius. THs 2:14
69 Sep Vitellian Legions V & XV at CASTRA VETERA under Lupercus Mummius and Numisius Rufus besieged by Civilis until 70.  The camp is filled with supplies and well-defended, with walls of mud, brick, and wood, towers, and a double ditch. 69 DGRBM 3-676, fyf, wikRob
69 Governor of Lower Germany, C. Dillius VOCULA with detachments of Legions IV Macedonica, XXII Primigenia, and I Germanica advances to relieve Vetera, camps at Gelduba (Krefeld) 50km south of Vetera. 69 fyf 70 fyf
69 Hordeonius FLACCUS makes headquarters at Novaesium.
Civilis' assault on legions V & XV under Lupercus Mummius and Numisius Rufus at Vetera is repulsed.
69 fyf
69 Legion XXII Primigenia, under Vocula, is the only Germanic legion to survive rebel attacks, and which stays in its camp, defending Moguntiacum.  They remain in Moguntiacum until at least the 3rd century. 69 wik22P
69 Vocula with difficulty repulses attack on Gelduba (Krefeld) 50km south of Vetera. 69 fyf
69 Vocula is driven back to Novaesium by mutiny of Gallic auxiliaries. 69 fyf
69 Claudius Civilis takes Gelduba (Krefeld) 10km north of Novaesium, and wins skirmish outside Novaesium. 69 fyf
69 Herennius GALLUS commands legion I Germanica on the Rhine at the Ubi city of Bonna when Batavian rebellion breaks.  He is ordered by Hordeonius Flaccus to prevent some Roman deserters from joining Civilis.  Flaccus retracts his order, but Gallus is forced by his own troops to fight.  They are defeated thru fault of his Belgic auxiliaries. 69 DGRBM 2-228, wikIGrm
69 Knowing that the Romans would come to relieve the 2 legions at Vetera, Civilis abandons the siege and threatens to attack Moguntiacum. 69 wikRob
69 8 Batavian cohorts from Moguntiacum defect to Civilis, and march on Herennius Gallus with legion I Germanica at Bonna.  Batavians say they just want to march by.  Gallus hesitates, but his men induce him to send 3,000 legionaries, some hastily recruited Belgic auxiliaries, and a mob of peasants and camp-followers, hoping with their superior numbers to surround the Batavi.  They are defeated, and pushed back to Bonna. THs 4:20 69 fyf
69 The Chatti, Mattiaci, and Usipi threaten Moguntiacum.
Governor of Lower Germany, C. Dillius Vocula is joined by 3 legions.  They relieve Moguntiacum and winter there.
69 fyf
70 DGRBM 3-1281
69 M. Valerius PAULINUS becomes procuator of Narbonensis until ?. 69 DGRBM 3-146
69 Otho sends his fleet to Narbonensis, which is for Vitellius. 69 fyf
c.69 Bructeri virgin prophetess VELEDA predicts Germanic success, encourages Batavian rebels. THs 4:61, 65
69 GHH, anor, wikVl
c.69 DURAS becomes a king in Dacia until 87. 69 wikRTD
69 Mutiny at Novaesium on lower RhineVespasian partisan Hordeonius FLACCUS dies.  Gov of Upper Germany from 68, dragged out of bed and murdered by his own troops.  Gov. of Lower Germany, C. Dillius VOCULA, who opposed the mutiny, escapes the camp dressed as a slave. THs 4:36, 55
69 CAH 10-842, 844, DGRBM 3-1281, LEWH, fyf, wikRob
69 Claudius Civilis renews siege of Vitellian legions V & XV under Lupercus Mummius and Numisius Rufus at Vetera. THs 4:28
69 fyf wikRob
69 After Flaccus dies, Claudius Civilis negotiates with Classicus, who commands the Treviran cavalry.  Classicus is high born and wealthy.  Civilis and Classicus are joined by Treviran Julius Tutor and Lingonian Julius Sabinus.  They hold a conference in Colonia Agrippina to plot against the Romans.  Agitators are sent all over Gaul to stir up war. THs 4:55
69 Oct Vitellian Julius CALENUS is sent from Cremona to Gaul, to testify of Vitellian defeat. 69 DGRBM 1-563
69 Oct News of Vitellius' defeat arrives, and Claudius Civilis still continues the siege of Vetera.  It is now obvious that he is not fighting for Vespasian, but for Batavia. 69 wikRob
69 Nov Vitellian VALENS sails from Ariminum to Monaco, and is driven by storm to the Stoechades Islands southwest of it.  There Valens is overtaken by cruisers which Paulinus had sent in pursuit, and is captured.  The war now turns in favor of Vespasian. THs 3:43 69 fyf
69 Dec 1 Claudius Civilis best 8 cavalry cohorts attacks Romans in Gelduba (Krefeld).  The Romans win the battle and destroy the Batavian cavalry.  But their own losses are enormous. 69 wikRob
69 Dec 20 VITELIUS dies.  VESPASIAN succeeds until 79.
70 Jan Batavians Julius Classicus, and Treviran Julius Tutor conspire to create an "Imperium Galliarum". 70 CAH 10
70 Jan Lingonian Julius SABINUS joins revolt of Batavian Classicus. 70 DGRBM 3-690
70 Jan 2nd Batavian Rebellion in Gaul and Germany including Gallic tribes, Ubii, Tungri, Treviri, Lingones, headed by C. Claudius Civilis and Lingonian Julius Sabinus, who claims he is great-grandson of Julius Caesar, and declares himself Emperor of Gaul. 70 wikVs, fyf
70 Julius SABINUS with a large horde of Lingones, attacks the Sequani (still pro-Roman) around Vesontio (still pro-Roman), and is defeated.  Sabinus flees the field, takes refuge in a house, and sets fire to it, faking his own death, and hides in a cave with his wife Epponina until 79. THs 4:67
70 DGRBM 3-1248, GHH, fyf
c.70 The Remi, also loyal to Rome, summon a Gallic Council, which votes for peace, but the Treviri and Lingones hold out under Classicus, Tutor, and Valentinus. 70 fyf
c.70 Julius Classicus orders the worst among the deserters to go to Vetera and offer pardon to the besieged if they would sware allegiance to the Empire of All Gaul.  Otherwise they would be killed. THs 4:59 70
70 Jan? Legions V Alaudae & XV Primigenia have occupied Castra Vetera on lower Rhine, V from 14 CE, XV from 39.  Besieged from 69, food supplies run out and the legions eat horses and mules.  With no prospect of relief, commander Mummius Lupercus surrenders.  The legions are promised safe conduct if they leave the camp to be sacked.  V and XV march out, but after a few kilometers they are ambushed by Germanic troops and annihilated.  Commander Mummius and officers are enslaved. 70 DGRG 1-563, fyf, wik15P, wik5Al , wikIGrm, wikRob
c.70 Junius BLAESUS becomes gov of Gallia Lugdunensis.  He supports Vitellius. 70 DGRBM 1-492
70 After fall of Vetera, Claudius Civilis goes to legions I Germanica and the XX Valeria Victrix in Colonia Agrippina and camps there. 70 wikRob
70 After fall of Vetera, I Germanica and XVI Gallica surrender. 70 wikIGrm
70 UBBO, duke of Frisia under Rome from 58, ends.  HARON UBBO succeeds until ?. 70 rcLC
c.70 The Baetasii, Nervii, and Tungri join revolt. 70 fyf
70 News of Vitellius' death reaches Gaul. 70 DGRBM 1-761
70 D. Valerius ASIATICUS, governor of Belgica from 69, ends.  No data until 94. 70 wikRGGB
70 LUPERCUS MUMMIUS dies. A prisoner of Civilis, Mummius is sent among other gifts to prophetess Veleda, and is killed on the journey.  THs 4:61 70 wikRob
70 The MATTIACI Germanics and the Catti, Usipeti, and other tribes besiege legion IV Macedonica and ??? at Moguntiacum. TAn 13:54
70 DGRG 2-296, 1328
70 C. Dillius VOCULA dies. Governor of Lower Germany from 69, is deserted by his army at Novaesium, and murdered by deserter Aemilius Longinus at instigation of Batavian Julius Classicus.  His army swears allegiance to the "Empire of Gaul".  Herennius and Numisius are imprisoned, and later killed by Valentinus and Tutor. THs 4:59, 71 70 DGRBM 2-798, 3-1281, OCD 457, fyf, wikGGI, wikGS,
70 Winter camps of the legions and auxiliaries are all dismantled and burnt, except for those at Moguntiacum and Vindonissa. THs 4:61
70 After death of Vocula, Julius Classicus puts on the uniform and insignia of a Roman general, enters the camp, and gets the Romans to sware allegiance to the Empire of All Gaul.  Classicus then promotes Vocula's assassin.  Command is now divided between Trevirans Julius Tutor and Julius Classicus. THs 4:59 70
70 Mar On news of the approaching Romans, Treviran leader Julius Tutor, one of Civilis' allies, surrenders.  The "imprisoned" legions, I Germanica and XVI Gallica, capitulate.  Disgraced legion XVI and the auxiliary troops who had surrendered with it are ordered to move from Novaesium to Treverorum (Trier).  They are joined by I Germanica, who had left Bonn.  They all camp before Trier.  Remains of legions I Germanica and VII Galbiana are combined into to VII Gemina and sent to Pannonia.  XVI Gallica is reconstituted and named XVI Flavia Firma.  The rebellion is now confined to Lower Germany. THs 4:62
70 wikRob, wikIGrm, wik16FF
70 Mar? Flavian generals arrive from Rome to deal with Batavian rebellion: ANNIUS GALLUS for Upper Germany until 71/2 and PETILIUS CEREALIS for Lower Germany until 71.  They have legions VIII Augusta, XI Claudia, XIII Gemina, XXI Rapax, and newly levied II Adiutrix.  Legions I Adiutrix and VI Victrix arrive from Spain and XIV Martia Victrix from Balkans. 70 CAH 11-5, DGRBM 1-673, OCD 457, fyf, wik21R, wik11C, wikRob, wikVs
70 Legion X Gemina, in Spain from 68/9, sent to Batavia in Lower Germany. 70 wikXGm
c.70 SCORILO, a king in DACIA from 30, ends.  DURAS continues 69-87. 70 wikRTD
70 mid Sextilius Felix routs Julius Tutor and his Treviri near Bingium [Bingen]. 70 fyf
70 mid Cerealis defeats Valentinus and occupies Treverorum (Trier). 70 fyf
70 mid Germans surprise Cerealis in Treverorum, but Cerealis drives them out and storms their camp. 70 fyf
70 mid Massacre of Germans at Colonia Agrippina. 70 fyf
70 mid Cohort of Chauci and Frisii entrapped and burnt. 70 fyf
70 mid Legion XIV Martia Victrix receives submission of Nervii and Tungri. 70 fyf
70 The UBII, pro-Roman Germanics centered at Colonia Agrippina from 50, reluctantly join the Batavian rebellion. 70 OCD 264, 1103
c.70 Julius BURDO, fleet commander on the Rhine in Germany, is thought to have contributed to the death of Capito 68, and is threatened by his troops, but protected by Vitellius???. THs 1:58 70 DGRBM 1-517
c.70 Treveri leader Julius Tutor besieges Colonia Agrippina and forces inhabitants and all the soldiers on the Upper Rhine to sware allegiance to the Empire of All Gaul.  At Moguntiacum Julius Tutor kills the officers and expels the camp-prefect, who had refused to swear. THs 4:59 70 fyf
70 Q. Petilius CEREALIS at Moguntiacum, dismisses the Gallic recruits to their homes, saying the legions are enough for his task, and the allies could resume peaceful occupations. THs 4:71
c.70 Governor of Lower Germany, Q. Petilius CEREALIS, with 6 legions, takes advantage of discord between Gauls and Batavians to crush the rebellion piecemeal, defeats the Treveri at Rigodulum on the Moselle, takes the city. 70 OCD 224
no date: LEWH
c.70 Troops of Vitellius, at Divodurum (Metz), suddenly attack unresisting inhabitants and massacre 4,000. 70 DGRG 1-779
c.70 Julius BRIGANTICUS, with Caecina from 69?, defects to Vespasian until 71. 70 DGRBM 1-504
Europe 70CE
Europe in 70CE           map GNU FDL
70 fall The IslandClaudius Civilis defeats Cerealis near Vetera, but is routed on the next day and retires to "The Island".  Hard fighting on the Waal.  Germans capture Roman flotilla.  Claudius Civilis retires north over the RhineCerealis occupies The Island. 70 fyf
70 fall Claudius Civilis makes overtures of peace. 70 fyf
c.70 BRINNO becomes chief of the Canninefates in the Rhine delta as they attack the Romans. THs 4:15
70 DGRBM 1-504
c.70 SARMATI (Scythians) in Dacia cross Danube into Moesia until 71. Wars 7:4:3
70 Batavian War (CIVILIS rebellion) from 69 ends.  Q. Petilius CEREALIS conquers the Batavians under Civilis, Classicus, and Tutor.  Restores order. 70 B76 7-961, 15-1112, 19-96, CAH 10, CDCC 2, 367, DGRBM 1-673, 758, GHH, HRRP 4.2-604, britVs, wikRob
70 70,000 Lingones surrender to Sextus Julius Frontinus. 70 CDCC 367
70 The Remi (still pro-Roman), summon a Gallic Council, which votes for peace, but the Treviri and Lingones hold out under Classicus, Tutor, and Valentinus. 70 fyf
70 The Batavi submit again to Roman rule, but are forced to accept humiliating terms.  Batavian capital Noviomagus (Nijmegen) is destroyed and its inhabitants ordered to rebuild a few kilometers downstream, in a defenseless position.  Legion X Gemina is stationed close by. 70 wikRob
c.71 Julius BRIGANTICUS dies.  With Vespasian from 70, killed in battle against uncle Claudius Civilis. THs 2:22, 4:70, 5:21 71 DGRBM 1-504
c.71 Legion XI Claudia is stationed at Vindonissa until ?. 71 wik11C
c.71 Q. Petilius CEREALIS, governor of Lower Germany from 70, goes to Britain, as consular legate, with legion II AdiutrixA. Marius CELSUS succeeds in Lower Germany until 73. 70 EBRB 71 DGRBM 1-673, wikGGI
71 Legion X Gemina, in in Lower Germany from 70, stationed at Oppidum Batavorum, a base built by II Adiutrix near Noviomagus until 103. 71 wikXGm
71 Sextilius FELIX helps quell a rebellion of the Treviri. THs 3:5, 4:70
71 DGRBM 2-145
c.71/2 Appius Annius GALLUS, governor of Upper Germany from 70, ends.  Gn. Pinarius Cornelius CLEMENS succeeds 72-5. 71/2 wikGS
c.73 A. Marius CELSUS, governor of Lower Germany from 71, ends.  L. Acilius STRABO succeeds until 78. 73 wikGGI
73 Territory east of the Rhine and south of the Main becomes the concern of Vespasian thru 74. 73 LEWH
73 VESPASIAN comes from Rome to the Rhine. 73 LEWH
c.73 AVENTICUM, chief city of the Helveti, refounded as a Roman colony by Vespasian, populated with veterans. 73 OCD 155
c.73 CARNUNTUM, on upper Danube, wood fort is replaced by stone fort. 73 B76 II-579
74 VESPASIAN crosses the upper Rhine. 74 B76 15-1113
74 Agri DecumatesAGRI DECUMATES in the Black Forest, a triangle of land between the sources of the Rhine and Danube, finished 68, annexed by Vespasian.  He builds a road from Argentorata (Strasbourg) southeast to the Danube, and a fort where it joins the road from Vindonissa.  This fort begins the Arae Flaviae settlement. 74 B76 15-1113, LEWH, OCD 91
74 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, in Rome from 73, made governor of Aquitania until 76. 74 B76 I-144, CDCC 25, DGRBM 1-76, MCAW, OCD 28, wikAgr
c.75 Gn. Pinarius Cornelius CLEMENS, governor of Upper Germany from 71/2, ends.  No data until 79. 75 wikGS
76 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, in Aquitania from 74, returns to Rome until 77/8. 76 DGRBM 1-76
77 L. V[???]dius BASSUS, proconsul of Narbonensis from ?, ends.  C. Iulius Cornutus TERTULLUS succeeds until ?.  No data until 103. 77 wikNrb
c.78 L. Acilius STRABO, governor of Lower Germany from 73, ends.  C. Rutilius GALLICUS succeeds until later 78. 78 wikGGI
c.78 C. Rutilius GALLICUS, governor of Lower Germany, defeats the Bructeri, captures priestess Veveda. 78 OCD 940
c.78 C. Rutilius GALLICUS, governor of Lower Germany, ends.  D. Junius Novius PRISCUS succeeds until 80. 78 wikGGI
79 Jun 23/4 VESPASIAN dies.   TITUS succeeds until 81.
79 Julius SABINUS, who has been hiding with wife Epponina since 70, caught, and both sent with their 2 kids to Rome. THs 4:67
79 DGRBM 3-1248
79/80 Q. Cornelius RUFUS becomes governor of Upper Germany until 82/3. 79/80 wikGS
80 ARGENTORATA (Strasbourg) becomes home to legion-VIII Augusta. 80 OCD 105
c.80 D. Junius Novius PRISCUS, governor of Lower Germany from 78, ends.  Sextus Julius FRONTINUS succeeds until 83. 75 EBRB 80 wikGGI
80 Germany Provinces of Upper and Lower Germany established. map: pub dom

80 Qlb 52
80 ANTHRAX sweeps the empire, killing thousands of people and animals, clear to the Chinese border. 80 TTPC
81 DACIA conquered by Trajan 81 DGRG 1-880
81 Sep 13 TITUS dies.   DOMITIAN succeeds until 96.
82 Legion-I Minervia established by Domitian to fight the Catti.  Stationed at Bonna in Lower Germany.  Emblem is image of goddess Minerva. 82 wikIMn, wikDt
c.82/3 Q. Cornelius RUFUS, governor of Upper Germany from 79/80, ends.  No data until 87/8. 82/3 wikGS
c.83 Sextus Julius FRONTINUS, governor of Lower Germany from 80, ends.  No data until 87. 83 wikGGI
83 DOMITIAN comes from Rome to Gaul on pretext of holding a census. 82 unrvDt     83 CAH 11-162, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, wikDt
83 DOMITIAN, with legion I Adiutrix and XIV Gemina, suddenly crosses the Rhine at Moguntiacum against the Germanic Catti. 83 CAH 11-162, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, wikIAdt wikDt     84 HRRP 4.2-703
83 Germanic Catti defeated by Domitian, driven out of the Taurus Mountains, but continue to resist until 89. 83 B76 II-782, CAH 11, OCD 360     84 DGRBM 1-1062, HRRP 4.2-703
83 DOMITIAN withdraws from Germany, has Legion-I Minervia begin LIMES, forts connected by roads on west and south bank of the Rhine. 83 LEWH, MCAW
83 DOMITIAN returns to Rome. 83 unrvDt
84 Roman army is withdrawn from North Britain to help in Germany. 84 GHH
84 The LUGII make war on the Quadi, who seek help from Romans. 84 DGRG 2-230
c.85 DACIANS under Decebalus, hassled by Sarmatians, cross south over Danube into Moesia until mid 85. 84 CDCC 253     84/5 wikDt
85 B76 III-339, 15-1113, CAH 11-168, IDB 1-863, LEWH, OCD 315, unrvDt, wikCF     85/6 CDCC 260     86 Dur 3-289, MCAW, wikMs
85 League of Decerbal, chief of the Getae. 85 GHH
85/6 L. Funisulanus VETTONIANUS becomes governor of Pannonia until ?. 85/6 wikLFV
86 Domitian is defeated by Germans under Decerbal, and compelled to pay tribute. 86 GHH
c.86 Cornelius FUSCUS with 5 legions including IV Flavia Felix in Moesia invades Dacia, and is ambushed, defeated, and killed at the 1st Battle of Tapae, a fort guarding Sarmizegetusa, the main political center of Dacia.  Legion-V is annihilated, and never restored. 86 OCD 309, wik4FF, wikCF, wikDt 86/7 OCD 360
c.87 A. Bucius LAPPIUS MAXIMUS becomes governor of Lower Germany until 89. 87 wikGGI
87 Romans bridge Danube again. 87 MCAW
87 DACIANS under Decebalus, in Moesia from 86, forced back over the Danube by Domitian into their own land.  Dacians are pushed by Sarmatians back again. 87 MCAW
87 DACIANS under Decebalus again pushed by Sarmatians south over the Danube. 87 MCAW, wikMs
87 Romans under Tettius Julianus in Moesia invade Dacia again. 87 wikDt
87 DURAS, a king in Dacia from 69, ends.  DECEBALUS takes over. 87 wikRTD
87 Legion II Adiutrix, in Britain from 71, recalled by Domitian to help fight Dacians. 87 wik2Adt
87/8 Legions in Britain mostly recalled by Domitian to help fight Dacians. 86/7 unrvDt 87/8 wikDt
c.87/8 L. Antonius SATURNINUS becomes governor of Upper Germany until 88/9. 87/8 wikGS
88 Dacians at war with Romans 88 GHH
88 late Governor of Upper Germany, L. Antonius SATURNINUS revolts, persuades legions XIV Martia Victrix & XXI Rapax to declare him imperator at Moguntiacum. 88 B76 15-1113, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 360
89 Jan 1 B76 5-950, 15-1113, CDCC 281, wik21R , wikDt, wikNv     91 DGRBM 3-723
88 late DACIANS under Decebalus defeated by Tettius Julianus at 2nd Battle of Tapae Dacia.  IV Flavia Felix participates. 88 CDCC 260, OCD 309, 360, unrvDt, wikDt     89 wik4FF
89 The Catti ally with L. Antonius Saturninus. 89 B76 II-782
c.89 Governor of Lower Germany, A. Bucius LAPPIUS MAXIMUS, with Legion I Minervia, helped by procurator of Rhaetia, T. Flavius Norbanus, opposes Saturninus 89 wikDt, wikIMn , wikNv
c.89 From Spain, Trajan is summoned, while Domitian himself comes from Italy with the Praetorian Guard.  Trajan remains in Gaul & Germany until 99. 89 wikDt, wikTr
c.89 A thaw prevents the Catti from crossing the Rhine and coming to Saturninus' aid. 89 wikDt
89 Romans push the Empire's frontier to rivers Lahn and Main 89 unrvDt
89 The MARCOMANNI, friendly with Romans from 6 CE, rebel. 89 ooctA
c.89 A. Bucius LAPPIUS MAXIMUS, governor of Lower Germany from 87, ends.  No data until 91. 89 wikGGI
89 mid DOMITIAN moves back to the Danube to counter the Quadi and Marcomanni. 89 unrvDt
c.89 DOMITIAN defeated in Dacia by the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia.  An isolated incident. 88/9 B76 VI-605     89 GHH, LEWH, OCD 360, unrvDt     90 DGRG 2-272
c.89 DOMITIAN is forced to make humiliating peace with Decebalus.  Free access of Roman troops thru the Dacian region, in exchange for granting Decebalus 8 million sesterces annually.  Dacian wars from 85, end.  Dacia remains a peaceful client kingdom, but Decebalus uses the money to fortify his defenses. 87 DGRBM 1-1062 89 B76 III-339, 2-615, CDCC 260, HRRP 4.2-713, LEWH, unrvDt, wikDt, wikMs
90 DGRG 2-272
c.89 DECEBALUS, king of Dacians, is forced to cooperate with Domitian against the Germanic Marcomani and Quadi, and the Sarmatians. 89 B76 2-615, IDB 1-863
89 Governor of Upper Germany from 87/8, L. Antonius SATURNINUS dies.  Rebelling from 88, defeated and killed by L. Appius NORBANUS, legate of Lower Germany.  C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus PRISCUS succeeds 89/90-91/92. 88 LEWH, MCAW
88/9 wikGS     89 B76 15-1113, CAH 11-26, 172, IDB 1-863, OCD 955     91 DGRBM 1-1062, GHH
89 DOMITIAN leads army to attack Saturninus, learns enroute that he had already been defeated, continues to Moguntiacum to make inquiry. 89 CAH 11-26
89 Legion XXI Rapax, with Saturninus from 88, is sent to Pannonia. 89 wik21R
c.89 Legions X Gemina, I Minervia, VI Victrix, and XXII Primigenia, receive the title, "faithful and loyal to Domitian", for fighting Saturninus. no date: wikXGm
90 Quartering of more than 1 legion in 1 camp is forbidden by Domitian, to prevent any single commander from getting too much power.  Legions become permanently fixed in separate camps, and less mobile. 88 LEWH
c.91 M. Ulpius TRAJANUS becomes governor of Lower Germany until 97. 91 wikGGI
c.91/2 C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus PRISCUS, governor of Upper Germany from 88/9, ends.  No gov until 93. 91/2 wikGS
92 SARMATAE invade Roman territory. 92 OCD 360
c.92 DOMITIAN returns from Rome to the Rhine, again campaigns north of the Danube for 8 months. 92 MCAW, unrvDt
c.92 DOMITIAN defeats the Marcomanni, Suevi, Quadi, and Sarmatian Iazyges, but not decisively. 92 CAH 11-30, LEWH
92 Gallic WINE, now competing with Italian wine, quelched by Domitian, who orders Gallic vineyards uprooted. 92 nomer
c.93 Sextus Lucianus PROCULUS becomes governor of Upper Germany until 96. 93 wikGS
93 Sarmatian War begins. 93 DGRBM 2-965, GHH
c.93 DOMITIAN, in Gaul/Germany since 92, returns from Germany to Rome. 93 CAH 11-30
94 Q. Glitius Atilius AGRICOLA becomes governor of Belgica until 97. 94 wikRGGB
c.95 Iron PLOWS with wheels help farmers.  95 TTPC
c.96 Sextus Lucianus PROCULUS, governor of Upper Germany from 93, ends.  M. Ulpius TRAJANUS succeeds until 97. 96 wikGS
96 Sep 18 Empire 96CEDOMITIAN dies.  NERVA succeeds until 98.
97 Q. Glitius Atilius AGRICOLA, governor of Belgica from 94, ends.  Q. Sosius SENACIO succeeds until 99. 97 wikRGGB
97 Order restored in Gaul by Trajan.  Peace and stability resumes until c.170. 97 B76 7-961
97 P. Acilius HADRIANUS hurries from Greece to Lower Germany to be 1st to congratulate Trajan on being adopted by Nerva, and getting full imperial and tribunician power, essentially making him co-emperor. 97 DGRBM 2-319
Sources conflict as to whether Trajan went to Rome to be adopted.
c.97 M. Ulpius TRAJANUS, governor of Lower Germany from 91, Upper from 96, at Colonia Agrippina, recalled to Rome by emperor NervaT. Vestrucius Spurinna offically succeeds in Lower, but ends.  L. Licinius SURA offically succeeds in Lower until 98.  L. Julius Ursus SERVIANUS succeeds and ends in Upper 97/8.  No data in Upper until 110/11. 97 B76 8-539, TTPC, wikGGI
97 late TRAJAN apparently returns from Rome to Gaul, but no source says so.
98 Jan 26 NERVA dies.  TRAJAN succeeds until 117.
98 Jan HADRIAN, campaigning on the Rhine, learns that Nerva is dead, and Trajan is emperor, hurries to inform Trajan, attacked by a rival (his bro-in-law Julius Servianus), gets his horse killed, runs on foot, but still arrives first with the news. 98 B76 8-539, DGRBM 2-319, MCAW
98 TRAJAN, based at Colonia Agrippina, and now campaigning on the Rhine, becomes emperor until 117He continues in Gaul/Germany until 99, first going north to Lower Germany where he confirms the loyalty of legions there. 97 unrvTr
98 DGRG 1-646, GHH, MCAW
c.98 L. Licinius SURA, Nerva's, governor of Lower Germany from 91, ends.  L. Neratius PRISCUS succeeds until 99.   No data until 91. 98 wikGGI
98 SILVER and GOLD are not mined in Germany (even though it is present).  The Germans value it no more than earthenware. TGr 5 98 SHT 11
c.98 German BEER is unknown to Romans.  Tacitus calls it a liquor made from barley or wheat to resemble wine. TGr 22
98 SHT 140
98 The BRUCTERI, Germans around Munster, are badly defeated by the Chamavi and Angrivarii, and displaced by them.  TGr 33
98 OCD 182
99 TRAJAN, in Gaul & Germany from 97, decides its time to go to Rome, crosses to Italy. 99 CGRBM 2-965, unrvTr, wikTr     100 MCAW
99 Q. Sosius SENACIO, governor of Belgica from 97, ends.  No data until 137. 99 wikRGGB
c.99 L. Neratius PRISCUS, governor of Lower Germany from 98, ends.  No data until 101. 99 wikGGI
100 Legion XXX Ulpia Victrix is levied by Trajan for service in the Dacian Wars. 100 wik30
c.100 The Cherusci league is broken up. 100 DGRG 1-137