|c.1000||VEDIC SANSKRIT of Rigveda is the oldest record of Indo-Aryan language.||1000 B76 9-431|
|c.1000||Early Buddhist and Jaina literature begins.||1000 wikI|
|c.1000||RIG VEDA period of Vedic era from 1500, ends. Final recension 900. Later Vedic period begins until 500. Originally transmitted orally, writing of rituals begins in Sanskrit, mostly in the Sapta Sindhu, divided into 10 Mandalas (books). 10th is later than others. 9th is all hymns dedicated to Soma. Shows patriarchal society of farmers and herdsmen, monogamous adult marriage, normal widowhood. Nothing about REINCARNATION V.||1000 B76 3-984 LEWH 54, Sdl 1-103, ht, mxfld, wikTI
|c.1000||BRAHMANAS "works of the Brahmins" , prose commentaries to 4 Vedas, begin until 650. Continues not the poetry, but the liturgical content of Rigveda . Digest of accumulated teachings illustrated by myth and legend. Primarily a digest incorporating facts, legends, explanation of Vedic rituals, and sometimes philosophy, also propose hidden meanings of sacred texts. 19 Brahmanas are extant.||1500 B76 8-923
1000 B76 17-133, WNHI 38
900 B76 II-225, Brit, KIH 26, wikBr
800 CHI 148, CMoG2 189, LEWH 54, MoAR 6-12
|c.1000||SOUTH INDIA: Neolithic Period ends. Began 2500.
Bronze Age is skipped entirely.
Λ Iron Age begins.
|c.1000||PAINTED GRAYWARE strata of west Ganges begins until 500. Illiterate but technologically advanced.||1000
|c.1000||Λ COTTON V: Wild cotton, used in India from 3000, is supplemented by cultivated cotton.||1000
|found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka||1000 wikCot|
|c.1000||Bronze BELL made in India. (Asia 2000)||1000 B76 14-61|
|c.1000||STEEL made in India by melting IRON at 1,500 degrees Centigrade and adding less than 1% carbon.||1000 mxfld|
|c.1000||ALCOHOL: Hindu Ayurveda describes benefits of alcohol and consequences of intoxication including liver disease.||1000
|c.950||HINDUISM develops from ancient Sanskrit chants with the concept of Brahman, the Supreme Being, ruling over man and many deities. Souls, through many INCARNATIONS V, eventually liberated from worldly existence to achieve union with Brahman.
Λ THEOLOGY V: Below Brahman are Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer. Brahma is too sacred for popular rites, but Vishnu and Shiva are worshiped in hundreds of guises and forms and customs. Vishnu has 10 forms (avatars) in which he descends to earth, including Rama of Ramayana legend, Krishna, hero of the Mahabharata, and the historical Buddha.
(See Phrygians 1200, Theogony 700)
|c.950||ARYANS now control north India.||950 bk|
|c.950||Gradual breakdown of Sanskrit as a spoken language begins until 750.||950 ht|
|c.950||BHARATA WAR, an 18 day war fought at Kurukshetra, between 2 groups of cousins (Kauravas and Pandavas) of kingdom of Kuru, for the throne of Hastinapura. It involves several kingdoms as allies of the rival groups. Considered important enough to take up over 1/4 of the Mahabharata.||950 wikKW
|c.900||RIG VEDA , closed 1000, begins final? recension.||900 B76 8-909|
|c.900||KURU KINGDOM in Ganges Valley from 1200 ends.||900 wikI 800 wikMb|
|c.900||VARANASI city on Ganges earliest records||900 ht|
|c.900||GANGES VALLEY: Black & Red Ware, culture from 1200, ends.||900
B76 9-345, wikI
|c.876||MATH V: ZERO first evidenced as a concept. (See China 950, Babylonia 520)||876 TTS|
|c.850||PARSVA (Parshvanatha) flourishes. Originally a noble of the Kshatriya varna, renounces world at age 30 to be a monk. Earliest Jain leader generally accepted as a historical figure.||877-777 wikPrs
ALPHABET V introduced to India by merchants.
(See Semtic 950, Greek 950, Greek 750, Etruscan 690)
|900-800 MCAW 59|
|c.850||PARSVA (Parshvanatha) flourishes. Originally a noble of the Kshatriya varna, renounces world at age 30 to be a monk. Earliest Jain leader (the 23rd tirthankara) generally accepted as a historical figure.||877-777 wikPrs
|c.847||PARSVA (age 30) after 84 days meditation, achieves "Kevala Jnana" (perfect knowledge).||847 wikPrs, wikTJn|
|c.800||BAUDHAYANA, mathematician, flourishes.
Λ MATH: Credited with calculating the value of pi.
(See China 800, zero 520, Pythagoras 520)
GEOMETRY: Writes some Shulba Sutras (appendices to the Vedas): Srauta ritual texts containing geometry related to fire-altar construction. The only known sources of Indian mathematics from Vedic period.
"The diagonal of a square produces double the area [of the square]." "The areas [of the squares] produced separately by the lengths of the breadth of a rectangle together equal the area [of the square] produced by the diagonal." "This is observed in rectangles having sides 3 and 4, 12 and 5, 15 and 8, 7 and 24, 12 and 35, 15 and 36."
|c.800||Srauta Sutras begin in late Vedic Sanskrit until ?. 1st is probably by Baudhayana. They deal with mathematical methodology to construct altar geometries for Vedic rituals.||800 wikKV|
|c.800|| Shulba Sutras begin in late Vedic Sanskrit until 600. Part of the larger Srauta Sutras. Only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. Unique fire-altar shapes are associated with unique gifts from the Gods. e.g.
"he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon."
"a fire-altar in the form of a tortoise is to be constructed by one desiring to win the world of Brahman."
"those who wish to destroy existing and future enemies should construct a fire-altar in the form of a rhombus."
4 most significant Shulba Sutras are attributed to Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana. Pythagorean theorem is stated in verses 1-2 of Baudhayana Shulba Sutra.
|800 wikKV, wikSlb|
|c.800||GANGES VALLEY: city states develop supported by rice farming.||800 PW 15|
|c.800||ARYANS, in northwest from 1550 and Ganges valley from 1020, expand southward.||800 TAWH 16|
|c.800||YARUVEDA composed. Contains Samhita , liturgy (mantras) needed to perform Vedic sacrifices. The Brahmana and Shrautasutra add info on interpretation and details of their performance.||1000-600 wikYrv|
|c.7??||PARSVA, 23rd Tirtankara of Jainism, founder of PARSVANATHA order, proposes 4 vows: DON'T injure life, lie, steal, own property.||arbitrary: CHI 138|
|c.777||PARSVA, 23rd Tirtankara of Jainism, age 100, founder of PARSVANATHA order, dies.||777 wikTJn 772 CMoG2 219, wikHoJ 250 yrs before Mahavira dies: CHI 137|
|c.750||Priestly Sanskrit is gradually refined until 250, taking on its classical form.||750 ht|
|c.700||UPANISHADS "sittings near a teacher" begin until 500. Beginning of philosophy and mysticism, elaborations on Rigveda , religious and metaphysical prose in Sanskrit.||1450 ht 1000 B76 8-923
800 EoΦ 4-1, MCAW 63, TAWH 16, mxfld, trpsgr 750 bk 700 B76 8-910
600 B76 13-950, CHI 147, LEWH 54 400 B76 X-283
|c.700||Early Smartism emerges from syncretic Vedic brahminic tradition.||700 ht|
|c.700||Kingdoms of VAISALI and VIDEHA replaced by a confederacy of VRJJIS.||by 700 B76 2-984|
|c.700||Λ REINCARNATION V (samsara) first expressed in BRHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD as necessary for fulfillment of karma. A soul may escape from samsara only by uniting with impersonal cosmic soul, possible thru knowledge. "Just as a man when in the embrace of a beloved wife knows nothing within or without, so does this being, when embraced by the Supreme Self, know nothing within or without."
A soul normally returns to Earth and is put into human or animal form.
B76 8-911, CMoG 1-82
|Attributed to Uddalaka Aruni, who learned it from a Ksatriya chief.|
|c.700||KARMA first expressed in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad .
A soul gets good or bad rebirth according to its works.
|700 B76 8-911, CMoG 1-82|
|Attributed to Yajnavalkya.|
|c.700||ARANYAKAS "Books Studied in the Forest", a later development of the Brahmanas, begin until 600: Explains meanings of rituals of yogis who meditated in the woods.||800 B76 17-133 700 B76 I-477|
|c.700||Animal slaughter, forbidden in India from ?, laws relaxed.||700 TTPC|
|c.684||MAGADHA Empire begins until ?.||684 wikSI|
|c.650||BRAHMANAS , prose commentaries to Vedas begun 1000, end.||700 B76 II-225, 17-133
600 KIH 26, LEWH 54, MOAR 6-12, WNHI 38
|c.642||Traveler-monk XUANZANG tries to visit Ceylon, but is told by monks (possibly at Kanchipuram) that there is trouble in the kingdom, so he turns back. This accords with the succession struggle between Aggabodhi-III Sirisanghabo, Jettha Tissa-III and Dathopa Tissa-I Hatthadpath 643-32.||642 wikLSLM|
|c.600||A general trend toward disillusionment with wealth and power begins in Asia.||600 CSHB 2|
|c.600||GANGES VALLEY: Painted Gray Ware, culture from 1200, ends.||600 B76 9-345, wikI|
|c.600||ARANYAKAS "Books Studied in the Forest", a later development of the Brahmanas, begun 700, end.||600
|c.600||16 Maha Janapadas (Great Kingdoms) emerge until 345. Some of them are semi-democratic oligarchies.||700 wikSI
600 wikI, wikMJ, wikTI
by 500 crHI, wikI
|c.600||Ajivika sect, atheistic, ascetic, deterministic naked sadhus known for fierce curses, peaks. Continues in Mysore until 14th cen.. Adversaries of Buddha and Mahavira.||700 wikSI
600 wikI, wikTI
by 500 crHI, wikI
|c.600||A horse is allowed to wander at will. The local king claims all ground covered by it.||600 MCAW 79|
|c.600||ELEPHANTS used for warfare.||600 PW 16|
|c.600||LITERARY SANSKRIT remains in constant form until today.||600 B76 17-133|
|c.600|| SUTRAS "threads" collections of aphoristic statements
Srauta Sutra: rituals for lesser sacrifices
Grhya Sutra: domestic rituals
Dharma Sutra: conduct of life.
B76 8-911, bk
|c.563||SIDHARTHA GAUTAMA born to Suddhodana, king of Sakyas, and his queen Mahamaya in Kapilavastu in Lumbini.||563 B76 II-342, 3-369, LEWH 54, PW 16, CSHB 8, WNHI 49, wikTB 560 B76 3-404|
|490BCE according to recent research||wikTB|
|c.560||Prince Vardhamana (later called MAHAVIRA) born in Besarh to Ksatriya (warrior) caste family.||trad 599 B76 11-347, wikTI
550 crHI 540 WNHI 52
|c.550||HINDUISM: Breakaway sects of ascetics arise, denying authority of Vedas and bramins, and looking to founders who claim secret knowledge.||550
|c.550||PURANA KASSAPA flourishes. Teaches "non-action" whereby the body acts independently of the soul, denies any reward or punishment for good or bad acts.||550 bk
5th or 4th cen wikPKs
|c.550||PAKUDHA KACCAYAYNA flourishes. Says there are 7 eternal elements: Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Joy, Sorrow, and Life which do not interact.||550 bk
5th or 4th cen wikPKc
|c.550||AJITA KESAKAMBALI flourishes. Teaches materialism, irrelevance of morality, nonexistence of afterlife.||550 bk
6th cen: wikAK
|c.550||SANJAYA BELATTHIPUTTA flourishes. Teaches evasion of questions and problems, and suspension of judgment.||550 bk
no date: plknSB
|c.550||Λ ALPHABET: BRAHMI SCRIPT V may have derived from Aramaic in 6th cen. It has many local variants, suggesting earlier origin.||6-500 indeur, wss, wikBS|
|c.543||VIJAYA, banished from his homeland in India, arrives in Ceylon.||543 wikAK, wikHV|
|c.543||Kingdom of Tambapanni begins in Ceylon until 505. VIJAYA is sole king. VIJAYA DYNASTY begins until 205.||543 wikAK, wikHV, wikLSLM, wikSI, wikVSL|
|c.542||SIDHARTHA GAUTAMA, minor prince of Bengal, lives easy life, marries.||542 MCAW 91|
|c.540||BIMBISARA becomes king of Magadha until 490.
Begins SISUNAGA Dynasty until 343.
|544 HCIP 2-38, bk 543 B76 II-21, 9-349, CHI 312, LEWH 54
540 WNHI 49 537 HCAI 35
|c.540||Kshatriya prince MAHAVIRA, age 30, husband & father, abandons hedonistic life to become a wandering ascetic, possibly of the Parsvanatha order. Wears one garment over a year, then naked, total poverty, no possessions, lets insects bite him, avoids deliberately killing anything, bears ridicule and abuse, meditates, fasts.||569 B76 11-347
age 30 WNHI 52
510 MCAW 103
|c.533||CYRUS-II, king of Anshan 580-30, Media 550-30, crosses Hindu-Kush Mts., receives tribute from Indus Valley cities.||538 wikTI
533 MCAW 92
|c.533||SIDHARTHA GAUTAMA goes outside the palace 1st time and sees "Four Sights": an old man, an ill man, a dead man, and a holy man. He is shocked by the 1st 3. He did not know what age, disease, and death were. But he is inspired by the holy man to give up his wealth. He leaves his house and lives with 3 ascetics, then wanders for 6 years the forest of Kosala and south thru the kingdom of Magadha.||534 CHI 278, 312, wikTB
age 30 WNHI 49
530 MCAW 97
528 B76 3-371
|c.532||MAHAVIRA renounces the world.||532 bk|
|c.528||SIDHARTHA GAUTAMA sits under a Bo tree in Benares, attains "Enlightenment", has vision of what he will teach, now the BUDDHA, he goes to a deer park in Sarnath (near Varanasi), and preaches 1st sermon on 4 noble truths. His teaching is originally intended as a supplement to the existing Vedic dharma.||537 crHI, wikI
528 B76 3-371, CHI 278, 312, TTPC, bk, wikTB
527 WNHI 50
524 MCAW 97 521 TToH
|c.527||MAHAVIRA, 24th and last tirthankara of Janism, dies.||527 wikHoJ|
|c.520||MAKKHALI GOSALA, founder of the Ajivika movement, flourishes. Known only thru writings of his rivals: the Buddhists and Jains, which say he is an early disciple of Mahavira, who disagreed with him on reanimation. Fatalist.||520 bk
no date: wikMG
|c.520||Much of northwestern India comes under Persia until 326.||520 wikI|
|c.518||DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486 campaigns in India until 514.||518 CAH 4|
|c.518||PUNJAB & SIND in Gandhara area of upper Indus River annexed by Darius-I, under Persia until 326. Land east of Indus River divided into 20 satrapies.||520 wikI 519 B76 9-348, LEWH 53 518 B76 15-287, CHI 641, WNHI 55|
|c.515||Greek SCYLAX of Caria, navigator under Darius-I, sent on voyage down Red Sea, explores shores of the Indian Ocean and Indus River system, establishes sea route to India.||517 CHI 641, HCIP 2-41
515 MCAw 101, lvG
500 CDCC 337
|c.515||NAKSH-I-RUSTAM INSCRIPTION 12 km northwest of Persepolis mentions north Punjab as part of Darius' domain.||515 HCIP 2-41|
|c.508||ANANDA becomes personal attendant of Gautama Buddha.||508 bk|
|c.507||Sudharma Swami, 5th Ganadhar (group leader) of Mahavira, dies.||507 wikTJain|
|c.505||VIJAYA, raja of Ceylon from 543, ends.||505 wikAK, wikHV|
|c.505||Sinhalese Kingdom of Tambapanni in Ceylon under Vijaya from 543 ends. Chief Minister UPATISSA begins Kingdom of UPATISSA NUWARA until 377. UPATISSA rules until 504.||505 wikHV, wikLSLM, wikSI, wikUUN, wikVSL|
|c.504||UPATISSA, regent of Upatissa Nuwara in Ceylon from 505, ends. PANDUVASDEVA (neph of Vijaya) succeeds until 474.||504 wikHV, wikLSLM, wikPUN, wikUUN|